WorldWideScience

Sample records for kampuchea cambodia taiwan

  1. The Nature of the Genocide in Cambodia (Kampuchea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Gives an historical overview of Cambodia during the Pol Pot regime. Describes the genocide that attempted to eradicate Buddhist monks, Vietnamese, Chinese, and Muslim Chams between 1975 and 1979. Argues the regime should still be held accountable and that the case should be tried in the World Court. (NL)

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The potential for uranium deposits appears to be poor in Cambodia. It is largely alluvium. Uranium may occur in discordant deposits in metamorphics and intrusives in the Cardamon and Elephant Hills in the south, and in placers of U/TH minerals in the delta or banks of the Mekong River. The potential is in category 1 (less than 1000 tonnes U ). (author)

  3. Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The population of Cambodia stood at 6.25 million in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Life expectancy is presently 42 years for men and 44.9 years for women. The government is currently disputed between resistance groups and Vietnamese-installed authorities in Phnom Penh. No single authority controls the entire country. The urban population increased sharply during the 1970-75 war, but after seizing power the Khmer Rouge forced most urban residents to return to rural areas as peasants. Massive numbers of people were executed for political reasons or died of starvation and disease during the Khmer Rouge period and after the dislocations caused by the Vietnamese invasion: an estimated 1.5-3 million people are estimated to have died out of a 1975 population of 7.3 million. The resistance forces have grown in size and effectiveness since 1985 and now challenge Vietnam's position in Cambodia. The Cambodian economy, badly damaged by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime, has only slowly begun to recover. Per capita gross national product (GNP) is estimated at less than US$100. The food situation remains precarious, with shortages of rice, meat, vegetables, sugar, flour, and dairy products. Extensive damage to the country's irrigation system, on which rice production depends, has only begun to be repaired. Basic services such as electricity and water are erratic. Although literacy and primary education campaigns have achieved success, health conditions remain poor.

  4. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  5. The Question of Land in Cambodia: Perceptions, Access, and Use since De-collectivization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Y. Guillou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cambodia is one of the countries in the world which experienced the most radical disruption of its land tenure. Almost its entire present adult population has been forced at one time or another to leave its lands and houses, whether because of the American bombings (1969-1973 which were particularly murderous in the south-eastern part of the country (the bombs’ holes are still visible from an airplane; or on a far greater scale, during the Democratic Kampuchea regime, called th...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” means all work or service— (1) Exacted from any person under the age of 18 under the menace of any..., Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea...] (3) The Government will evaluate offers in accordance with the policies and procedures of FAR part 25...

  7. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia

  8. Cambodia pits data against poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    to provide medicines and vaccines against the most common diseases — malaria and dengue, for instance, are widespread ... says, given that the cost of $50 000 to survey more .... used to prepare maps and monitor Cambodia's progress.

  9. Burden of stroke in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-08-01

    In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.

  12. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  13. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  14. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheaktra, Ngoun; Putchhat, Hor; Sin, Lina; Sen, Bun; Kumar, Varun; Langla, Sayan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Day, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia. PMID:18258125

  16. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  17. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia ... crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. ... Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia.

  18. The Third Indochina Conflict: Cambodia’s Total War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    movement which sought to unify the efforts of the independence movements in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam against the French.5 The Cambodian left-wing...of Cambodia, 2007). 32 Martin, Cambodia: A Shattered Society. 33 Nayan Chanda, Brother Enemy, 43. Nayan Chanda wrote that Mao Tse -tung understood...

  19. Swimming in uncharted waters. Reports from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is 2006 and my home is Phnom Penh. I’m on a placement for a volunteer organization that aims at the sharing of skills and knowledge for a local salary. My years in Cambodia have their highs and lows but hours of careless happiness are hard to come by. There is commiseration and compassion,

  20. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  1. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  2. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia's research community is still rebuilding from decades of turmoil that included civil war and a period of ethnic and intellectual cleansing under the Khmer Rouge. Its development research community remains dispersed and unconnected, though there are pockets of strong capacity. IDRC was one of the first ...

  3. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.

  4. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Mahmut Yaşar; Pagnarith, Yos; Akao, Kazumi; Sophearin, Dim; Sorn, Sokchea

    2017-01-01

    Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives. PMID:28804708

  5. Cambodia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ... Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, ... Sujet: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER ...

  6. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inclusive Development and Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in the Greater Mekong ... and think tanks in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and China's Yunnan province. ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Gender.

  7. Decomposition of childhood malnutrition in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite

    2015-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Diarrheal Diseases and Climate Change in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan J; Imai, Chisato; Buettner, Petra G; Gager, Paul; Chan, Vibol S; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven N; Kol, Hero; Raingsey, Piseth P; Lyne, K

    2016-10-01

    The DRIP-SWICCH (Developing Research and Innovative Policies Specific to the Water-related Impacts of Climate Change on Health) project aimed to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water. This article follows a review of climate change and water-related diseases in Cambodia and presents the results of a time series analysis of monthly weather and diarrheal disease data for 11 provinces. In addition, correlations of diarrheal disease incidence with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and water and sanitation indicators are described, with results suggesting education and literacy may be most protective against disease. The potential impact of climate change on the burden of diarrheal disease in Cambodia is considered, along with the implications of these findings for health systems adaptation.

  9. Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    Women’s economic empowerment is essential for more inclusive growth in Cambodia. This study takes stock of major gender issues in the Cambodian economy seen through the lens of women’s participation, benefit, and agency—the three prerequisites for a fairer distribution of growth benefits. It examines labor market trends and obstacles to women’s economic empowerment—particularly in agriculture, business development, and wage employment. Labor migration and vulnerability to shocks are highlight...

  10. Low Circulation of Zika Virus, Cambodia, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; Leang, Rithea; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sowath; Mounier, Ugo; Ou, Teyputita; In, Saraden; Peng, Borin; Ken, Sreymom; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Horwood, Paul F; Dussart, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We describe a retrospective study on circulation of Zika virus in Cambodia during 2007-2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our findings suggest that Zika virus in Cambodia belongs to the Asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health.

  11. Health Care Costs Attributable to Tobacco in Cambodia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is strong evidence from other countries that smoking increases the TB infection rate and reduces tuberculosis survival rates. Cambodia has high TB and smoking rates, so the cost of tobacco use will also include the cost of excess tuberculosis-related deaths. Cambodia's health information systems are weak and ...

  12. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  13. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  14. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  15. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  16. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Tanakulmas, Jatuporn; Butthep, Punnee; Winichagoon, Pranee; Main, Barbara; Yiannakis, Miriam; George, Joby; Devenish, Robyn; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2016-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of the thalassemia problem in a country is important for implementing a national prevention and control program. In order to acquire accurate thalassemia prevalence data, the gene frequency of α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) in different regions of a country should be determined. The molecular basis of thalassemia in Cambodia was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in a community-based cross-sectional survey of 1631 unrelated individuals from three regions, Battambang, Preah Vihear and Phnom Penh. Thalassemia mutations were detected in 62.7% of the three studied population of Cambodia. Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) was the most common β-globin gene mutation with a frequency ranging from 0.139 to 0.331, while the most frequent α-globin gene mutation was the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion (0.098-0.255). The other frequencies were 0.001-0.003 for β-thal, 0.008-0.011 for α-thal-1 (- -(SEA)), 0.003-0.008 for α-thal-2 [-α(4.2) (leftward deletion)], 0.021-0.044 for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and 0.009-0.036 for Hb Paksé (HBA2: c.429A > T). A regional specific thalassemia gene frequency was observed. Preah Vihear had the highest prevalence of Hb E (55.9%), α-thal-2 (24.0%) and nondeletional α-thal (15.1%), whereas Phnom Penh had the lowest frequency of thalassemia genes. Interestingly, in Preah Vihear, the frequency of Hb Paksé was extremely high (0.036), almost equivalent to that of Hb CS (0.044). Our results indicate the importance of micromapping and epidemiology studies of thalassemia, which will assist in establishing the national prevention and control program in Cambodia.

  18. An Impact Evaluation of Feed the Future Cambodia HARVEST project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Helping Address Rural Vulnerabilities and Ecosystem Stability (Cambodia-HARVEST) was a five-year program (2011-2016) supported under the Global Hunger and Food...

  19. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  20. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  1. Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  2. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore ... ECONOMIC RESEARCH, SOCIAL RESEARCH, Social Policy, LABOUR LEGISLATION, LABOUR ECONOMICS, COMPETITION, COMPETITIVENESS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INCOME DISTRIBUTION.

  3. Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. While there have been a number of ... Country(s). Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ...

  4. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, Inger

    2015-01-01

    After catastrophic events in which people?s survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975?1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to el...

  5. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  6. Livelihood strategies and dynamics in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Pouliot, Mariéve; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the major challenges in rural livelihood analysis to quantitatively examine the dynamics of household livelihood strategies. It investigates the interactions between livelihood assets, activities, and outcomes, and captures the dynamics of long-term changes......, for latent class cluster analysis and regression estimation. In this paper, livelihood strategies are quantified based on allocation of available resources, which overcomes the limitations of income-based analysis. Our study identifies five household livelihood strategies pursued in the study areas...... and their underlying factors. The study aims to identify the classification of rural livelihood strategies, their transitions and factors influencing these processes and changes. We employ the dynamic livelihood strategy framework, and use panel data for 2008 and 2012 covering 464 households in 15 villages in Cambodia...

  7. Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Vantha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melioidosis is a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and considered endemic in South-East Asia but remains poorly documented in Cambodia. We report the first series of hospitalized pulmonary melioidosis cases identified in Cambodia describing clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods We characterized cases of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI that were identified through surveillance in two provincial hospitals. Severity was defined by systolic blood pressure, cardiac frequency, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. B. pseudomallei was detected in sputum or blood cultures and confirmed by API20NE gallery. We followed up these cases between 6 months and 2 years after hospital discharge to assess the cost-of-illness and long-term outcome. Results During April 2007 - January 2010, 39 ALRI cases had melioidosis, of which three aged ≤2 years; the median age was 46 years and 56.4% were males. A close contact with soil and water was identified in 30 patients (76.9%. Pneumonia was the main radiological feature (82.3%. Eleven patients were severe cases. Twenty-four (61.5% patients died including 13 who died within 61 days after discharge. Of the deceased, 23 did not receive any antibiotics effective against B. pseudomallei. Effective drugs that were available did not include ceftazidime. Mean total illness-related costs was of US$65 (range $25-$5000. Almost two-thirds (61.5% incurred debt and 28.2% sold land or other belongings to pay illness-related costs. Conclusions The observed high fatality rate is likely explained by the lack or limited access to efficient antibiotics and under-recognition of the disease among clinicians, which led to inappropriate therapy.

  8. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Aerial Protection of Mekong River Convoys in Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, William A

    1971-01-01

    ...) shortages in the Khmer Republic (Cambodia) which had resulted from successful enemy attacks on commercial shipping vessels sailing the Mekong River inside Cambodia These attacks, combined with the closure of land Route 4 from the port city...

  9. The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

    2014-05-01

    Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  11. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  12. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  13. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  14. Cambodia: From Dependency to Sovereignty - Emerging National Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mcnamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the millennium leading up to its days of glory and regional leadership under the iconic Angkor empire, and even in the centuries of dependence since, Cambodia has often benefited significantly from the influence of its patrons, starting with traders from India who sailed up the Mekong at the beginning of a magnificent water transport system including an inland sea. Most recently such benefits have been from global and multilateral sources. Equally, due to its pivotal strategic location at the centre of the South-East corner of Asia, Cambodia has also suffered, at times enormously, from the competing influences of a plethora of well-intentioned but radically different influences: religious, cultural, linguistic, imperial, political, ideological and educational. This article will review the educational system of Cambodia and the issues that come with achieving political and now psychological freedom from dependence on foreign dominance and tutelage.

  15. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  17. All projects related to cambodia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-18

    In most societies, sex work is highly stigmatized and sex workers are subject to blame, disapproval and discrimination. Start Date: January 18, 2010. End Date: June 30, 2012. Topic: PROSTITUTION, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Region: India, Cambodia, Far ...

  18. Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia (CIFSRF) ... for their families' consumption in the same ponds as large fish, which can be sold for income. ... The project also studies opportunities to scale up the model for broader use ... Assessing improvements in nutrition outcomes following agricultural ...

  19. CASE STUDY: Cambodia pits data against poverty | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... This plan is getting support from the Department of Water and Meteorology.” “We also found how many villages were far from the main road and so .... CBMS has grown rapidly in Cambodia, both in terms of enabling lower ...

  20. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Programme de recherche sur ...

  1. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  2. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  3. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  4. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  5. Funding mobilization strategies of nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khieng, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to map strategies for resource mobilization of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in different sectors in heavily aid-dependent Cambodia and analyse the past and future trends of each of the evolving strategies. The data used is the product of a national survey

  6. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding SME policy environment in ASEAN. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Sustainable forest governance in the Asia-Pacific region : has REDD+ adequately addressed drivers of deforestation and forest degradation? Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Cambodia's preparedness for ASEAN economic community 2015 ...

  7. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Household food insecurity in Cambodia is high. The diet ... at 40% and anemia among women of reproductive age is over 50%. ... Over 70% of households ... Monthly monitoring has shown that the household ... agriculture and food production but earn 30% ... Figure 2: Percentage of women who have their own money and ...

  8. All projects related to cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enabling Sex Workers to Document Violence (India and Cambodia) ... Topic: PROSTITUTION, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, ... 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, ... of the H5N1 subtype is a major disease of poultry that affects humans at a low rate.

  9. Cambodia: From Killing Fields to Field of Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Richard Nixon assuring 6 evening television audiences that we were not really bombing Cambodia, the history of the country goes back over 4000 years. Early...through a gate topped by a huge ‘ Pepsi ’ sign, is the building where 14-year-old Mat Srey Mom, locally known as ‘Suzy,’ got her first economics lesson

  10. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  11. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Hull; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces with human populations in these two countries. They were tested for the presence of coronavirus by consensus reverse transcription-PCR assay. A total of 93 samples (4.7%) from 17 genera of bats tested positive. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of potentially 37 and 56 coronavirus belonging to alpha-coronavirus (αCoV) and beta-CoV (βCoV), respectively. The βCoVs group is known to include some coronaviruses highly pathogenic to human, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. All coronavirus sequences generated from frugivorous bats (family Pteropodidae) (n=55) clustered with other bat βCoVs of lineage D, whereas one coronavirus from Pipistrellus coromandra fell in the lineage C of βCoVs which also includes the MERS-CoV. αCoVs were all detected in various genera of insectivorous bats and clustered with diverse bat αCoV sequences previously published. A closely related strain of PEDV, responsible for severe diarrhea in pigs (PEDV-CoV), was detected in 2 Myotis bats. We highlighted the presence and the high diversity of coronaviruses circulating in bats from Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three new bat genera and species were newly identified as host of coronaviruses, namely Macroglossus sp., Megaerops niphanae and Myotis horsfieldii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Childlessness patterns in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston Dl

    1988-06-01

    Taiwan is a newly developed and industrialized area, and along with Korea, Brazil, Argentina, and a few other countries, belongs in a special class of recently industrialized areas. Taiwan has been undergoing large-scale modernization since the 1950s when the Nationalist government 1st began to implement land reform programs and today is 1 of the showcase of newly developed areas of the world. Demographic transition theory shows that fertility is negatively associated with modernization. During the past 3 decades, fertility in Taiwan has followed this pattern in a dramatic manner. Studies of childlessness conducted in Western countries have shown also that as the modernizing influences continue, fertility declines, and childlessness increases as it becomes more and more voluntary. Subregions with the highest levels of modernization and the lowest fertility rates should therefore be characterized by the highest levels of childlessness, particularly among younger women, and vice versa. Given the levels of socioeconomic and demographic development in Taiwan and its subregions circa 1980, as well as its variability among the hsiens and major cities, the author would expect to find higher levels of childlessness in the more developed localities, and lower levels in the less developed subregions. This hypothesis is tested with data from the 1980 Census of Population and Housing: General Report, Taiwan--Fukien Area (Republic of China, 1982) and the 1980 Taiwan--Fukien Demographic Fact Book (Republic of China, 1980).

  13. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  14. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-04-05

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population.

  15. Emergence of pediatric melioidosis in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnarith, Yos; Kumar, Varun; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Sin, Lina; Day, Nicholas P; Peacock, Sharon J

    2010-06-01

    We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.

  16. Influence of Climate Factors on Rice Yields in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dek Vimean Pheakdey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and precipitation have been known as the key determinant factors to affect rice production in climate change. In this study, the relationship between climate variables and rice yields during 1993–2012 in Cambodia was analyzed and evaluated. The Ordinary Least Squares analysis was applied to examine the relationship of three climate variables (TCV including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall against seasonal rice yields. By this period, a remarkable increasing trend of annual temperature was observed whilst rainfall was not significantly changed. The TCV explains approximately 63% and 56% of the variability of rice yields in wet and dry seasons, respectively. It is found that in Cambodia, non-climate factors such as fertilizers, water, cultivars, and soil fertility cause 40% variation to rice yields, whereas the remaining 60% can be influenced by climate variability. The levels of temperature difference (LTD between maximum and minimum temperatures of the wet season (WS and dry season (DS were 7.0 and 8.6 oC, respectively. The lower value of LTD may cause the reduction of rice in WS (2.2 tons/ha as compared to that of DS (3.0 tons/ha. Rice yield has increased 50.5% and 33.8% in DS and WS, respectively, may due to the improvement of rice cultivation practices in Cambodia such as the better use of fertilizers, pest and weed control, and irrigation, and more effective rice cultivated protocol, as the increased trend of temperature may detrimentally affect rice yield. The breeding of heat and drought tolerance rice varieties and development of irrigation system are effective to reduce the negative influence from climate change to rice production in Cambodia.

  17. Working Conditions and Factory Survival: Evidence from Better Factories Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    A large and growing literature has identified several conditions, including exporting, that contribute to plant survival. A prevailing sentiment suggests that anti-sweatshop activity against plants in developing countries adds the risk of making survival more difficult by imposing external constraints that may interfere with optimizing behavior. Using a relatively new plant-level panel dataset from Cambodia, this paper applies survival analysis to estimate the relationship between changes in ...

  18. Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weigong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.

  19. Typhoid fever among hospitalized febrile children in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study.

  20. Indicators for sustainable tourism: The case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhep Tinat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most research on tourism in Cambodia so far has focused on growth. There is very limited research on indicators for sustainability. A failure to create indicators for sustainable tourism may lead to short-term growth but the country will suffer in the long run. Sustainability really matters in tourism especially in a new destination like Cambodia. Cambodia has no clear indicators determining tourism sustainability. Cambodia’s tourism is remarkably flourishing, but behind this growth some challenges exist: Cultural and environmental impacts, economic leakage, sex tourism, drug trafficking and disease transmission. These concern tourism sustainability. This research intends to fill a significant gap regarding challenges hampering sustainable tourism, particularly creating indicators, by studying the activities of Cambodia’s tourism. The aim is to contribute to developing more comprehensive policies and measures that address problems by drawing on the activities and perspectives of the country’s tourism stakeholders: These include public and private actors, NGOs, local people and tourists.

  1. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grunfeld

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as there is a shortage of teachers in the country. Thus, understanding how ODL can achieve learning and other objectives has important implications for both formal education and NFE. If it can be found to be effective, ODL has the potential of reaching a large number of people at comparatively lower average costs. This paper reports on a project where the same content was taught to farmers in Cambodia via traditional face-to-face and via ODL and compares outcomes between the different training methods. Exploring the extent to which farmers had adopted new farm practices taught in the course, our results indicate that the outcomes did not vary considerably between those trained using the different approaches.

  2. The commercialization of traditional medicine in modern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  3. Examination of core competencies of agricultural development professionals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvedi, Murari; Ghimire, Ramjee; Channa, Ty

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived level of importance, perceived level of competency in extension core competencies, and whether and how perceptions of competency vary by respondents' demographics; ascertained gaps in competency, if any; and identified ways for agricultural development professionals in Cambodia to acquire core competencies. Data were collected using a group-administered survey among 39 agricultural development professionals participating in a national workshop in December 2015. The survey consisted of 48 competencies representing eight core competencies, and each competency had level of importance and level of competency parts. The findings show that extension workers in Cambodia deemed all competencies highly or very highly important to their extension work; however, their perceived level of competency in those competencies appeared not to meet the expectations. The level of competency in all but communication skills and diversity significantly differed by gender but not by age and experience. Respondents indicated all four methods-preservice, in-service, basic induction training, and participation in seminars, workshops, and webinars-equally appropriate to acquire core competencies. The findings imply that the agricultural development authority in Cambodia should review, update, or design extension education curricula incorporating the competencies highlighted in this study and train its extension cadres on those competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  5. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2010-09-15

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  6. Cogeneration in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E. [International Cogeneration Alliance (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The short article discusses pollution abatement and the potential role of cogeneration in Taiwan. A diagram shows the contributions of various energy sources (coal, oil etc.) from 1979-1999 and the growth of cogeneration between 1979 and 1999. The lack of natural gas or diesel does not help the cause of cogeneration in Taiwan, nor does the structure of the local electricity market. Nevertheless, if the proposed new LNG facilities are built in the North, then the opportunities for cogeneration will be very good.

  7. Becoming and Being Academic Women in Cambodia: Cultural and Other Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Nget, Sokhany; Am, Kunthy; Peou, Leakhna; You, Songly

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the…

  8. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7491] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia...

  9. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  10. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  11. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8245] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I...

  12. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  13. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  14. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  15. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  16. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmony Hong

    Full Text Available Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities.Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014. Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital, mother's age at birth (<20, 20-35, 35+, birth interval (long, short and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+. Socio-economic variables included: mother

  17. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother's age at birth (birth interval (long, short) and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+). Socio-economic variables included: mother education level (none, primary

  18. Imaging in the Khmer’s Land: Cambodia Country Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha\tG. Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1. With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1. The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located in the southern part of the country. Other major cities include Battambang and Siem Reap, both of which have populations over 150,000. There are officially 24 provinces and one municipality (Phnom Penh. However, many consider Phnom Penh to be its own province. As a result, some research puts the number of Cambodian provinces at 25. The climate is tropical with two seasons: monsoon season (May to November and dry season (December to April. Temperatures range from approximately 70 to 95°F. Cambodia’s economy largely depends on the garment industry, tourism, construction, real estate and agriculture. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953 and was first ruled by a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk. After a five-year struggle starting in 1970, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh in 1975. Pol Pot, the leader of the Khmer Rouge, oversaw a brutal regime that, through executions and forced labor, was responsible for the deaths of at least 1.5 million Cambodians. The Vietnamese drove out the Khmer Rouge in 1979. After years of Vietnamese occupation, the 1991 Paris Peace Accords established a ceasefire and a democratic framework for the country. By 1993 elections established a new coalition government; yet, political instability and violence persisted throughout the 1990s. Cambodia most recently held elections in 2013, as a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy.The devastation caused by the Khmer Rouge has had long

  19. Eocene Acritarchs of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Long Shaw

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa (Multiplicisphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Trichosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Tylosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., and Cymatiosphaera taiwaniana C. L. Shaw sp. nov. of the fossil acritarchs obtained from Eocene sediments from offshore of the Keelung area in northern Taiwan are reported. They belong to two subgroups, four genera.

  20. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Iodized salt in Cambodia: trends from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-05-29

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement.

  2. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  3. Leptospira and rodents in Cambodia : environmental determinants of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, S.; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, K.; Chaval, Y.; Buchy, P.; Guillard, B.; Morand, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were ...

  4. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  5. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.

  6. Diabetes and associated disorders in Cambodia: two epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hilary; Keuky, Lim; Seng, Serey; Khun, Touch; Roglic, Gojka; Pinget, Michel

    2005-11-05

    The Asia-Pacific region is thought to be severely affected by diabetes. However, reliable, standardised data on prevalence and characteristics of glucose intolerance in Asian populations remain sparse. We describe the results of two field surveys undertaken in Cambodia in 2004. 2246 randomly selected adults aged 25 years and older were examined in two communities, one rural (Siemreap) and one semi-urban (Kampong Cham). The diagnosis of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was based on 2-h blood glucose estimation using criteria recommended by the latest report of a WHO Expert Group. Blood pressure, anthropometry, habitual diet, and other relevant characteristics were also recorded. Prevalence of diabetes was 5% in Siemreap and 11% in Kampong Cham. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10% in Siemreap and 15% in Kampong Cham. About two-thirds of all cases of diabetes were undiagnosed before the survey. Prevalence of hypertension was 12% at Siemreap and 25% at Kampong Cham. People in Kampong Cham had higher estimates of central obesity than those in Siemreap. Diabetes and hypertension are not uncommon in Cambodia. A quarter of all adults in the chosen suburban community had some degree of glucose intolerance. Since Cambodian society is relatively poor, and lifestyle is fairly traditional by international standards, these findings are unexpected.

  7. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Sustainable Construction Industry in Cambodia: Awareness, Drivers and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainability is of utmost importance, anecdotal evidence suggests that the concept is not adequately implemented in many developing countries. This paper investigates industry stakeholders’ awareness of the current state of, factors driving, and barriers hindering the adoption of sustainable construction (SC in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate their level of awareness, knowledge and understanding of SC, as well as to rate the level of importance of 31 drivers and 10 barriers identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to the relative importance index method. The results suggest that the industry-wide adoption of SC practices is poor, which is believed to be due to a lack of awareness and knowledge, and reluctance to adopt new sustainable technologies. Furthermore, more efforts must be put into the selection of more durable materials for the extension of buildings’ lives and to minimize material consumption, as well as to develop energy-efficient buildings with minimal environmental impact and a healthy indoor environment, so that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The outcomes of this study have enriched knowledge about the current state of, drivers of, and barriers to sustainable construction in a typical developing economy. Although the outcomes of this study were a short scoping exercise, it has formed a significant base for future SC work within Cambodia.

  9. Cost and disease burden of Dengue in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauté Julien

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million, a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct and productive costs, and DALYs. Health seeking behaviors were taken into account in cost estimates. Specific age group incidence estimates were used in DALYs calculation. Results The mean cost per dengue case varied from US$36 - $75 over 2006-2008 respectively, resulting in an overall annual cost from US$3,327,284 in 2008 to US$14,429,513 during a large epidemic in 2007. Patients sustain the highest share of costs by paying an average of 78% of total costs and 63% of direct medical costs. DALY rates per 100,000 individuals ranged from 24.3 to 100.6 in 2007-2008 with 80% on average due to premature mortality. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed the high societal and individual family burden of dengue. Total costs represented between 0.03 and 0.17% of Gross Domestic Product. Health seeking behavior has a major impact on costs. The more accurate estimate used in this study will better allow decision makers to account for dengue costs particularly among the poor when balancing the benefits of introducing a potentially effective dengue vaccine.

  10. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections at a Provincial Reference Hospital, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18.3%) patients had TB. Of 197 smear-positive patients, 171 (86.8%) had TB confirmed (167 by culture and 4 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay only) and 11 (5.6%) had NTM isolates. HIV infection and past TB were independently associated with having NTM isolates. Improved detection of NTM isolates in Cambodia might require more systematic use of mycobacterial culture and the use of Xpert MTB/RIF to confirm smear-positive TB cases, especially in patients with HIV infection or a history of TB.

  12. Taiwan Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    Taiwan space programs consist of FORMOSAT-1, -2, and -3, sounding rockets, and international cooperation. FORMOSAT-1, a low-earth-orbit (LEO) scientific experimental satellite, was launched on January 26, 1999. It circulates with an altitude of 600 km and 35 degree inclination around the Earth every 97 minutes, transmitting collected data to Taiwan's receiving stations approximately six times a day. The major mission of FORMOSAT-1 includes three scientific experiments for measuring the effects of ionospheric plasma and electrodynamics, taking the ocean color image and conducting Ka-band communication experiment. The FORMOSAT- 1 mission was ended by June 15, 2004. FORMOSAT-2, launched on May 21, 2004 onto the Sun-synchronous orbit located at 891 km above ground. The main mission of FORMOSAT-2 is to conduct remote sensing imaging over Taiwan and on terrestrial and oceanic regions of the entire earth. The images captured by FORMOSAT-2 during daytime can be used for land distribution, natural resources research, environmental protection, disaster prevention and rescue work etc. When the satellite travels to the eclipsed zone, it observes natural phenomena of lighting in the upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is an international collaboration project between Taiwan and the US to develop advanced technology for the real-time monitoring of the global climate. This project is also named Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate, or FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC for short. Six micro-satellites were launched on 15 April 2007 and eventually placed into six different orbits at 700 800 kilometer above the earth ground. These satellites orbit around the earth to form a LEO constellation that receives signals transmitted by the 24 US GPS satellites. The satellite observation covers the entire global atmosphere and ionosphere, providing over 2,500 global sounding data per day. These data distribute uniformly over the earth's atmosphere. The global climate information

  13. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines.

  15. Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, SE; Allison, EH; Gill, JA; Reynolds, JD

    2010-01-01

    Commercial trade is a major driver of over-exploitation of wild species, but the pattern of demand and how it responds to changes in supply is poorly understood. Here we explore the markets for snakes from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia to evaluate future exploitation scenarios, identify entry points for conservation and, more generally, to illustrate the value of multi-scale analysis of markets to traded wildlife conservation. In Cambodia, the largest driver of snake exploitation is the domestic...

  16. NEW AND RARE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE IN THE FLORA OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.

  17. ‘Orphanage Tourism’ in Cambodia: When Residential Care Centres Become Tourist Attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Tess Guiney

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia’s recent history of instability has garnered it international notoriety as a place of genocide, corruption and insecurity. Currently, this perception of Cambodia has resulted in an influx of tourists seeking to volunteer at and visit orphanages throughout the country hoping to combat the perceived poverty and suffering. With only 21 state-run orphanages in Cambodia the remaining 248 (although it is potentially even more) rely significantly on over-seas donations with many advertising...

  18. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  19. Space programs in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang; Chang, Guey-Shin; Ting, Nan-Hong

    2013-10-01

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, &3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload "Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)". ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  20. Space programs in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang; Chang, Guey-Shin; Ting, Nan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research

  1. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4 who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  2. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  3. Epilepsy: some controversies, some knowledge and some experience from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Chamroeun; Hok, Tola; Ros, Sina; Chan, Samleng; Bhalla, Devender

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy-related health outcomes remain unacceptably low in much of the developing world. According to us, it is because of the failure since long to see, and address, epilepsy beyond its preset conventional image. The objective of this paper was to highlight the presence, and influence, of these conventional practices and also to demonstrate what happened when a bold unconventional approach to address epilepsy was taken in Cambodia. Data are taken from existing published literature on epilepsy as well as our field experience during several population-based surveys conducted in Cambodia. We complimented this with our knowledge gained over this long period. It is demonstrated that epilepsy is far more important in Asia that it is currently considered to be, and also vis-à-vis other geographic regions. Pregnancy and birth-related factors carry far higher odds for epilepsy than several "highly vocal" infections. A refocus in epilepsy is required to help move from its traditional negative image to an image where epilepsy is considered a "positive-looking" disorder that is full of "opportunities;" such as availability of safe effective inexpensive treatment, etc. Stigma is a two-side entity (i.e., it is present, and it is influential), and diligence should be therefore practiced before using the stigma label. Nevertheless, psychosocial aspects shouldn't be limited to stigma or Jacoby stigma scale alone. Quality of life is a subjective phenomenon, and patients should determine directly what affects them. It is highly desirable that if we want to find newer answers to old problems in epilepsy, we need to shed our conventional approach and preset conclusions. We should choose to move toward "opportunities" visibly present in epilepsy. Our Cambodian experience demonstrates more intimately that opportunities do get identified when preset conclusions are questioned, and an approach that goes beyond expected and by default is taken.

  4. Pediatric bloodstream infections in Cambodia, 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Moore, Catrin E; Pocock, Joanna M; An, Khun Peng; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; Sona, Soeng; Poda, Sar; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Parry, Christopher M

    2013-07-01

    Pediatric bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological data from resource-limited settings in southeast Asia, such as Cambodia, are sparse but have important implications for treatment and public health strategies. We retrospectively investigated BSI in children at a pediatric hospital and its satellite clinic in Siem Reap, Cambodia, from January 1, 2007, to July 31, 2011. The range of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were analyzed in conjunction with demographic, clinical and outcome data. Of 7682 blood cultures with results (99.9% of cultures taken), 606 (7.9%) episodes of BSI were identified in 588 children. The incidence of BSI increased from 14 to 50/1000 admissions (P < 0.001); this was associated with an increased sampling rate. Most BSI were community acquired (89.1%). Common pathogens included Salmonella Typhi (22.8% of all isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (12.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%) and Escherichia coli (6.3%). 21.5% of BSI were caused by a diverse group of uncommon organisms, the majority of which were environmental Gram-negative species. No Listeria monocytogenes or Group B streptococcal BSI were identified. Antimicrobial resistance, particularly among the Enterobacteriaceae, was common. Overall mortality was substantial (19.0%), higher in neonates (36.9%) and independently associated with meningitis/meningoencephalitis and K. pneumoniae infection. BSI is a common problem in Cambodian children attending hospital and associated with significant mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis, the contribution of atypical organisms and the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease before the introduction of vaccine.

  5. The Boletes of Taiwan (XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Three boletes are recorded as new to Taiwan. They are Boletinus asiaticus Singer, Boletus balloui Peck and Fuscoboletinus glandulosus (Peck Pomerleau & Smith, respectively. The specimens are described and illustrated.

  6. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents... Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as... the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I hereby determine that the...

  7. Hydropower and local community : A case study of the Kamchay dam, a China-funded hydropower project in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pheakdey, Heng

    2017-01-01

    To solve its chronic power shortage, the Government of Cambodia has placed the development of hydropower as one of the national priorities. With a total of US$2.4bn in investment, China is the most prominent player in hydropower development in Cambodia. The increase of hydropower projects and

  8. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-03-21

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months in China. Treatment was highly successful in the three study countries, with a low proportion of death and default. As the majority of defaulting occurs at the beginning of treatment, all countries should critically review their current policy of treatment support in this period.

  9. Perceived stigma by children on antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Tat, Sovann; Reinharz, Daniel; Vibol, Ung

    2014-12-10

    HIV-related stigma diminishes the quality of life of affected patients. Little is known about perceived and enacted stigma of HIV-infected children in resources-limited settings. We documented the prevalence of perceived stigma and associated factors associated among children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a referral hospital in Cambodia. After informed consent, a standardized pre-tested 47-item questionnaire was confidentially administered to consecutive children (7 to 15 years) or their guardians if the child was 18 months to 6 years, during their routine ART visits. The questionnaire explored the sociodemographics of the child and the parents, HIV history, adherence to ART, tolerance of ART and perceived stigma. Associations between perceived stigma and the children's characteristics were measured by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of 183 children, 101 (55.2%) had lost at least one and 45 (24.6%) both parents; 166 (90.7%) went to school. Of 183 children (female: 84, 45.9%, median age 7.0 years, interquartile range: 2.0-9.6), 79 (43.2%) experienced perceived stigma, including rejection by others (26.8%), no invitations to social activities (18.6%) and exclusion from games (14.2%). A total of 43 (23.5%) children were fearful of their disease and 61 (53.9%) of 113 older than 6 years reported knowledge of their HIV status. Of 136 children over five years and eligible for education, 7 (3.8%) could not go to school due to perceived stigma. Incomplete adherence to ART was reported for 17 (9.2%) children. In multivariate analysis, school attendance (odds ratio [OR]: 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-7.9) and income of less than one dollar per person per day (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5) were associated with perceived stigma. Conversely, receipt of social support (OR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) was associated with lower risk of perceived stigma. Perceived stigma in pediatric ART patients remains a significant issue in Cambodia. Psychological support and

  10. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  11. Low specificity of 2 tetanus rapid tests in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, M; Yvonnet, B; Lesage, G; Tep, B

    2015-01-01

    Rapid testing for tetanus on serum or blood allows for an immediate evaluation of individual protection against tetanus in developed countries, using a "single step" immunochromatographic technique using tetanus toxoid. The specificity of these tests, compared to the reference method for tetanus, mouse serum neutralization testing, has however never been assessed in these countries, due to the difficulty to perform serum neutralization titration in mice, because of animal testing bioethical regulations. A collection of sera from adult volunteers in Cambodia, living in rural environment, was tested for tetanus antibodies by ELISA in France, and by mouse serum neutralization in Vietnam. This allowed estimating the sensitivity and specificity of 2 rapid tetanus tests, available on the market: TQS™ and Tetanotop™. The sensitivity of these tests was adequate, compared to mice serum neutralization test, for a test threshold of 0.01 IU/mL, (100% for TQS™, 91% for Tetanotop™), but their specificity was very low (1% for TQS™ and 13% for Tetanotop™). The results prove that these rapid tests for the assessment of individual protection against tetanus should not be used in the adult rural Cambodian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine

    2006-08-11

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of uses of these plants for the treatment of malaria and/or fever. In this study, we report the antiplasmodial potential activity of eight plant species from Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.

  13. Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-11-06

    Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally.

  14. Financial sustainability planning for immunization services in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-07-01

    The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.

  15. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  16. Assessment of Trachoma in Cambodia: Trachoma Is Not a Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ngy; Seiha, Do; Thorn, Pok; Willis, Rebecca; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Dejene, Michael; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul; Solomon, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0.2%. Among the 24,502 adults aged 15+ years examined, trichiasis was found in 59 people. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalences of trichiasis in all ages in the EUs studied ranged from 0% to 0.14%; five EUs had a prevalence of trichiasis ≥0.1%. There appears to be no need nor justification at this time for implementing public health measures to control trachoma in Cambodia.

  17. Medical Leaders in Taiwan During Japanese Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tung Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan established the medical system in Taiwan during its 50 years of occupation, which evolved into the present National Taiwan University Hospital system. This paper summarizes the biographies of 97 Japanese leaders in various medical disciplines during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. These leaders were among the elite of Japan, with superior intellectual, social and economic status, who helped to establish the important attributes of medical professionals in Taiwan, such as a good academic background, heritage, and research skills.

  18. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  19. Enterovirus 71 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterovirus 71 (EV71 outbreak in Taiwan in 1998 proved fatal in many children. A seroepidemiological study performed prior to the 1998 outbreak showed pre-epidemic (1997 EV71 seroprevalence rates to be about 60–70% in adults and children older than 6 years of age. A retrospective case review carried out from 1980–81 identified 16 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with central nervous system involvement, two of whom died soon after hospitalization. There were 405 severe cases and 78 deaths reported in the 1998 epidemic, and dozens of fatal EV71 cases were still reported from 2000 to 2002. A stage-based management strategy was developed to reduce fatality, but most survivors of brainstem encephalitis with cardio pulmonary failure have neurologic sequelae and impaired cognition. Continuous clinical and laboratory surveillance of EV71 disease is required to enable earlier implementation of control and prevention measures. Development of EV71-specific antiviral therapy, a novel class of imidazolidinones, and development of a vaccine are ongoing.

  20. Taiwan Universities: Where to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic expansion of Taiwan universities/colleges from about 100 to 160 from the late 1980s has encountered problems due to social and global changes. What should Taiwan universities move toward and how? This research relies on secondary data to explore the issues Taiwan universities currently face—a low birth rate and global competition. The decreasing number of incoming students will result in a lower registration rate and less tuition revenue, which will make some universities struggle to survive. Hence, government policies, proposed by the Ministry of Education, have been implemented to assist Taiwan universities to adjust to external changes. The Innovative Transformation Policy, adopted in 2015, consists of strategies for university–industry cooperation, university mergers, university closures, and a re-shaping of the university paradigm. This policy has begun to be implemented and its initial outcome will be continually evaluated. In accordance with the Innovative Transformation Policy, this study encourages Taiwan universities to improve governance, set prominent unique characteristics of development, and enhance global competitiveness.

  1. Nuclear safeguards implementations in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, R-H.; Chang, C-K.; Lin, C-R.; Gone, J-K.; Chen, W-L.; Yao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Now with six Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) units in operation, two Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units under construction, and other peaceful applications of nuclear and radiation technology expanding in great pace, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has been focused on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste administration, environmental monitoring and R and D for technology development and other civilian nuclear applications. Despite Taiwan's departure from the United Nations and therefore its family member International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1971, Taiwan remains its commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). To date, Taiwan is still part of the international nuclear safeguards system and accepts IAEA's inspections in accordance with its regulations on nuclear safeguards. In 1998, Taiwan further agreed, through exchange of letters between the AEC and IAEA, to implementation of the measures provided for in the model Protocol Additional to its safeguards agreement. In this paper, we will introduce Taiwan's nuclear safeguards history and describe some highlights of safeguards implementation in recent years, such as complementary accesses, transparency visits, remote monitoring inspections, unannounced inspections, facility attachment termination for the decommissioned facilities, and annual safeguards implementation meeting with IAEA

  2. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  3. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  4. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  5. The Umbrella Sedge in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The umbrella sedge Cyperus involucratus was misidentified as C. alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis in Taiwan. The investigation of the status of the umbrella sedge is prompted by the recent discovery of C. alternifolius which was naturalized to eastern Taiwan. Cyperus alternifolius, though similar to C. involucratus in appearance, differs on the fine structure of achene surface, bract margin, etc. In this article, we report the newly naturalized plant, compare the differences of characteristics between the species, and provide the photos of habitat and fine structure for taxonomic identification.

  6. Dynamic of H5N1 virus in Cambodia and emergence of a novel endemic sub-clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorn, San; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Rith, Sareth; Tung, Nguyen; Viari, Alain; Gavotte, Laurent; Holl, Davun; Seng, Heng; Asgari, Nima; Richner, Beat; Laurent, Denis; Chea, Nora; Duong, Veasna; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Kitsutani, Paul; Zhou, Paul; Bing, Sun; Deubel, Vincent; Donis, Ruben; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In Cambodia, the first detection of HPAI H5N1 virus in birds occurred in January 2004 and since then there have been 33 outbreaks in poultry while 21 human cases were reported. The origin and dynamics of these epizootics in Cambodia remain unclear. In this work we used a range of bioinformatics methods to analyze the Cambodian virus sequences together with those from neighboring countries. Six HA lineages belonging to clades 1 and 1.1 were identified since 2004. Lineage 1 shares an ancestor with viruses from Thailand and disappeared after 2005, to be replaced by lineage 2 originating from Vietnam and then by lineage 3. The highly adapted lineage 4 was seen only in Cambodia. Lineage 5 is circulating both in Vietnam and Cambodia since 2008 and was probably introduced in Cambodia through unregistered transboundary poultry trade. Lineage 6 is endemic to Cambodia since 2010 and could be classified as a new clade according to WHO/OIE/FAO criteria for H5N1 virus nomenclature. We propose to name it clade 1.1A. There is a direct filiation of lineages 2 to 6 with a temporal evolution and geographic differentiation for lineages 4 and 6. By the end of 2011, two lineages, i.e. lineages 5 and 6, with different transmission paths cocirculate in Cambodia. The presence of lineage 6 only in Cambodia suggests the existence of a transmission specific to this country whereas the presence of lineage 5 in both Cambodia and Vietnam indicates a distinct way of circulation of infected poultry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  8. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil fortification in Cambodia: where do we stand to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.

  9. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  10. Double inequity? The social dimensions of deforestation and forest protection in local communities in Northern Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Chea, Lily

    2013-01-01

    governance, contested tenure arrangements, high agricultural dependency, and power discrepancies, this paper analyzes and critically discusses this ‘double inequity’ of deforestation and forest protection in Cambodia, and recommendations on how to ensure more equitable distribution of costs and benefits...

  11. The right to appeal a judgment of the Extraordinary Chambers in the courts of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, L.; Sluiter, G.

    2009-01-01

    In early 2007, we submitted a report to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia commenting on several aspects of its then-draft Internal Rules, including whether the ECCC’s envisaged appeal system adhered to international standards. The Internal Rules were adopted in June 2007, and then

  12. Farmers’ Perspectives on Risk and Adaptation Strategies in the Mekong, Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, Kesa; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In Cambodia the frequency and impacts of natural disasters has been increasing. The impacts of droughts and floods are most severe within the agricultural sector which accounts for around 29% of Cambodia’s GDP and 59% of the work force. In this paper we assess the farmers’ perspectives on risk

  13. The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia, more than 400 million US dollar lost annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriansky, Jack; Champa, Ngy; Pak, Kimchoeun; Whitney, Sophie; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is among the 28 worst countries globally with the highest rates of childhood malnutrition. The aim of the assessment was to apply published evidence associating malnutrition and a variety of functional consequences to project economic implications of this high rate of childhood malnutrition. Such information is vital to advocate for appropriate programs and action plan to reduce malnutrition (from severe stunting to micronutrient deficiencies). This exercise used a "consequence model" to apply these "coefficients of loss" established in the global scientific literature to Cambodia health, demographic and economic data to develop a national estimation of the economic losses link to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analysed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at more than $400 million annually -2.5% of GDP. Micronutrient deficiencies suggest deficits in the quality of the diet - representing a national burden of more than $200 million annually while breastfeeding behaviours account for 6% of the burden. 57% of the losses emerge from indicators measured in children, while 43% of losses are from indicators independent of childhood measurements - indicators of maternal behaviour along with maternal and adult nutrition. Given the low cost of interventions and the high baseline losses, investment in nutrition programs in Cambodia is likely to offer high returns and attractive benefit cost ratios. Since nearly half the losses are determined prior to the birth of the child, this has implications for targeting and timing of programs.

  14. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  15. Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Darren C.

    2010-01-01

    The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

  16. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  17. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  18. Conservation agriculture improves yield and reduces weeding activity in sandy soils of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage in many less-developed countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources and sustainability. With limited available data, long-term conventional tillage system (CT) and conservation agriculture system (CA) can affect changes in soil pr...

  19. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  20. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  1. Completeness and consistency in recording information in the tuberculosis case register, Cambodia, China and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Wei, C; Sokun, C; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2010-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) case registers in Cambodia, two provinces in China and in Viet Nam. To determine completeness and consistency of information for quarterly reports on case finding and treatment outcome. A representative sample of TB case registers was selected in Cambodia, in two provinces in China and in Viet Nam. Quarterly reports were reproduced from double-entered, validated data to determine completeness and consistency. The dataset comprised 37,635 patient records in 2 calendar years. Only 0.2%, 3.6% and 1.1% of cases, respectively, in Cambodia, the two China provinces, and Viet Nam did not allow classification for the quarterly report on case finding. If the treatment outcome was reported as cured, it was correct in 99.9%, 85.7%, and 98.5% of the respective three jurisdictions: errors were mostly due to misclassification of completion as cure. Under-reporting of failures was more frequent than over-reporting in Cambodia and Viet Nam, while in the two provinces in China 84% of reported failures did not actually meet the bacteriological criterion. This evaluation demonstrates that recording essential information is exemplary in all three countries. It will be essential to carefully supervise the ability of staff to correctly define TB treatment outcome results in all three countries.

  2. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  3. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  4. The Ethics of Survival: Teaching the Traditional Arts to Disadvantaged Children in Post-Conflict Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…

  5. ‘Orphanage Tourism’ in Cambodia: When Residential Care Centres Become Tourist Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Guiney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia’s recent history of instability has garnered it international notoriety as a place of genocide, corruption and insecurity. Currently, this perception of Cambodia has resulted in an influx of tourists seeking to volunteer at and visit orphanages throughout the country hoping to combat the perceived poverty and suffering. With only 21 state-run orphanages in Cambodia the remaining 248 (although it is potentially even more rely significantly on over-seas donations with many advertising and heavily encouraging ‘orphanage tourism’. Although touted as an altruistic, beneficial experience, awareness of the darker side of ‘orphanage tourism’ has recently grown and the negative impacts that such practices can have on a vulnerable section of society have become evident. Orphan numbers in Cambodia are at their lowest point in decades, whilst orphanage numbers have undergone a 76 per cent increase in the last five years, coinciding with a 76 per cent increase in tourist numbers. This research investigates the forms that ‘orphanage tourism’ takes in Cambodia and the impacts of this popular phenomenon on those who are purported to benefit: orphanages and orphans.

  6. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  7. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  8. The Importance of Understanding Culture When Improving Education: Learning from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Following Education for All, initiatives like child-friendly schools initiative, are rolled out in many countries, including Cambodia. The child-friendly schools initiative is addressing general and local needs of children in schools, like a safe environment, well-trained teachers and the provision of teaching and materials. But there is also a…

  9. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess u...

  10. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  11. Lyssavirus in Japanese Pipistrelle, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Chia; Hsu, Chao-Lung; Lee, Ming-Shiuh; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wu, Chieh-Hao; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Ting, Lu-Jen; Tsai, Kwok-Rong; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Tu, Wen-Jane; Hsu, Wei-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.

  12. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  13. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  14. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution

  15. Rabies Vaccine and Rabies Immunoglobulin in Cambodia: Use and Obstacles to Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; In, Sotheary; Ong, Sivuth; Peng, Yiksing; Heng, Nayyim; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Authorities have pledged to eliminate canine rabies by 2020 in Cambodia, a country with a very high rabies burden. Logistic and financial access to timely and adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is essential for preventing rabies in humans. We undertook a survey of the few identified sites where PEP rabies vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) are available in Cambodia. We examined the Rabies Prevention Center at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (rpc@ipc) database and rpc@ipc order forms for 2012 to assess vaccine and RIG use. We conducted a rapid internet survey of centers that provide rabies vaccine and RIG in Cambodia, other than rpc@ipc. The cost of a full course of intramuscular or intradermal PEP in Cambodia, with and without RIG, was also estimated. Rabies vaccination is free of charge in one foundation hospital and is accessible for a fee at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), some institutions, and some Cambodian private clinics. In 2012, 27,500 rabies vaccine doses (0.5 mL) and 591 equine RIG doses were used to provide intradermal PEP to 20,610 persons at rpc@ipc following animal bites. Outside of rpc@ipc, an estimated total of 53,400 vaccine doses and 200 RIG doses were used in Cambodia in 2012. The wholesale cost of full rabies PEP was estimated at 50% to 100% of a Cambodian farmer's monthly wage. Local populations and travelers cannot be sure to locally access adequate and timely PEP due to high costs and low access to RIG. Travelers to high-endemic areas such as Cambodia are strongly encouraged to undergo pre-exposure vaccination or seek expert advice, as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. State-subsidized, pre-positioned stocks of human vaccine and RIG in bite management centers would extend the rabies prevention centers network. Support from Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for staff training, cold chain, and quality control would contribute to reducing the risk of rabies deaths in Cambodia. © 2015 International Society of

  16. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  17. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay; Lauritsen, Jens M; Rieder, Hans L

    2011-05-23

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007) were obtained for comparison. A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively.The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Characteristics of patients greatly differed between countries and between patient categories. In Cambodia

  18. Health system strengthening in Cambodia-a case study of health policy response to social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.

  19. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built

  20. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  1. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  2. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of Taiwan...

  3. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in se...

  4. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  6. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  7. Childhood Atopic Dermatitis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD appears to have increased dramatically over the past decades. It is generally believed that such rapid increase in prevalence cannot be explained fully by genetic factors. Environmental factors might play a role in such an increment. Children with AD are most likely to suffer considerable school absences, family stress, and health care expenditures. Because the onset of AD occurs relatively early in life, identification of early life risk factors and early management for AD to prevent the development of atopic march are of critical importance. However, there is still no consensus on coordinated prevention and management for AD in Taiwan. In this review, we discuss the specific risk factors of AD and important results of recent articles on AD from Taiwan. The management and prevention strategies of AD for Asian skin are also discussed.

  8. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  9. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of clinical malaria in Cambodia 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Bunkea, Tol; Ngor, Pengby; Canavati de la Torre, Sara E; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Chuor, Char Meng

    2014-09-30

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time. An analysis of spatial and temporal data on clinical malaria in Cambodia collected by the National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM) and the Department of Planning and Health Information, Ministry of Health Cambodia from 2004 to 2013 is presented. There has been a marked decrease of 81% in annual cases due to P. falciparum since 2009 coinciding with a rapid scale-up in village malaria workers (VMWs) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Concurrently, the number of cases with Plasmodium vivax has greatly increased. It is estimated that there were around 112,000 total cases in 2012, 2.8 times greater than the WHO estimate for that year, and 68,000 in 2013 (an annual parasite incidence (API) of 4.6/1000). With the scale-up of VMWs, numbers of patients presenting to government facilities did not fall and it appears likely that those who saw VMWs had previously accessed healthcare in the private sector. Malaria mortality has decreased, particularly in areas with VMWs. There has been a marked decrease in cases in parts of western Cambodia, especially in Pailin and Battambang Provinces. In the northeast, the fall in malaria burden has been more modest, this area having the highest API in 2013. The clinical burden of falciparum malaria in most areas of Cambodia has greatly decreased from 2009 to 2013, associated with roll-out of ITNs and VMWs. Numbers of cases with P. vivax have increased. Possible

  10. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  11. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  12. Gas fuels Taiwan's expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    The volume of liquid natural gas (LNG) imported into Taiwan is expected to double over the next ten years as the use of natural gas for power generation increases significantly. The Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) expects to import 4.5 million tonnes of LNG in 2000 compared with 4 million tonnes in 1999. CPC is building an undersea, offshore pipeline from the Yung An LNG terminal in the south of Taiwan up the western coastline to the north. The pipeline will supply gas to power stations in the north and city gas companies in Taipei. Combined cycle power plant units at Tungshiao power station are converting to gas and a new power plant at Changsheng will burn LNG. More LNG power plants are planned. LNG is imported from Indonesia and Malaysia to supplement Taiwan's dwindling reserves of natural gas. As well as expanding the existing terminal at Yung An, the CPC is considering the need for a second import terminal. This would probably be financed and operated by the private sector

  13. Community and school-based health education for dengue control in rural Cambodia: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-12-05

    Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

  14. Community and school-based health education for dengue control in rural Cambodia: a process evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokrin Khun

    Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

  15. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    Climate change imposes some special risks on Least Developed Countries, and the chapter presents a methodological framework, which can be used to assess the impacts of key assumptions related to damage costs, risks and equity implications on current and future generations. The methodological...... framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...... damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...

  16. Cross-sectional studies of tuberculosis prevalence in Cambodia between 2002 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tan Eang; Okada, Kosuke; Yamada, Norio; Peou, Satha; Ota, Masaki; Saint, Saly; Kouet, Pichenda; Chea, Manith; Keo, Sokonth; Pheng, Sok Heng; Tieng, Sivanna; Khun, Kim Eam; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ito, Kunihiko; Onozaki, Ikushi

    2014-08-01

    To measure trends in the pulmonary tuberculosis burden between 2002 and 2011 and to assess the impact of the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strategy in Cambodia. Cambodia's first population-based nationwide tuberculosis survey, based on multistage cluster sampling, was conducted in 2002. The second tuberculosis survey, encompassing 62 clusters, followed in 2011. Participants aged 15 years or older were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and/or for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum smear and culture were conducted on those whose screening results were positive. Of the 40,423 eligible subjects, 37,417 (92.6%) participated in the survey; 103 smear-positive cases and 211 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. The weighted prevalences of smear-positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically-positive tuberculosis were 271 (95% confidence interval, CI: 212-348) and 831 (95% CI: 707-977) per 100,000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in men than women and increased with age. A 38% decline in smear-positive tuberculosis (P = 0.0085) was observed with respect to the 2002 survey, after participants were matched by demographic and geographical characteristics. The prevalence of symptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by 56% (P = 0.001), whereas the prevalence of asymptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by only 7% (P = 0.7249). The tuberculosis burden in Cambodia has declined significantly, most probably because of the decentralization of DOTS to health centres. To further reduce the tuberculosis burden in Cambodia, tuberculosis control should be strengthened and should focus on identifying cases without symptoms and in the middle-aged and elderly population.

  17. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  19. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g −1 , 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g −1 and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g −1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg −1 bw d −1 , respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  20. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Amy; Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ?18 years, identi...

  1. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=-1.99). The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus, this program should be scaled up and

  2. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Fukushi; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Eang, Mao Tan; Saint, Saly; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF) targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF). We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia. In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups. The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5-594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6-813.4], p = 0.104). The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5-25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4-70.8], pCambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs incurred particularly before treatment. Social protection schemes that can replace lost income are critically needed to compensate for the most devastating costs in TB. An occurrence of selling household property can be a useful proxy for catastrophic cost in Cambodia.

  5. A qualitative and quantitative design of low-carbon development in Cambodia: Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hak, Mao; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Gomi, Kei

    2017-01-01

    The formulation of a policy for a low-carbon development plan is one of the most important steps to help Cambodia achieve sustainable development objectives, promote a greener development path, and contribute to the global effort to reducing CO 2 emissions. This study is designed to propose some low-carbon energy strategies and quantitatively to assess CO 2 emissions and reductions. The Extended Snapshot (ExSS) tool is used to quantify socioeconomic assumptions and to estimate CO 2 emissions and reduction potentials. The results show that CO 2 emissions are projected to increase to about 23,277 (by about 5.5 times) and 91,325 ktCO 2 /year (by about 21.6 times) in 2030BaU and 2050BaU, respectively, from 4,221 ktCO 2 /year in 2010. This study proposes five strategies for low-carbon development plan towards 2050 which are expected to reduce CO 2 emissions by about 12,826 (about 55%) and 52,153 ktCO 2 /year (about 57%) in 2030CM and 2050CM, respectively. The present results should help researchers and experts gain a better understanding of CO 2 emissions and reduction potentials by applying a number of low-carbon measures in Cambodia. While the results should be counted as a preliminary study because of limited available country information, they are expected to provide useful insights for the government in formulating a concrete climate change mitigation policy for the country. - Highlights: • Low-carbon development is a win-win approach for socioeconomic development. • Cambodia has significant opportunities to reduce CO 2 emissions in the energy sector. • Five low-carbon energy strategies can limit CO 2 emissions by around 50% in Cambodia. • Green transport strategy contributes the highest CO 2 emissions reduction.

  6. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  8. Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem

    There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This ......). This project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....

  9. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Wang, Hong-sheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, No.132 Waihuandong Road, University Town, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Xue-Mei [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Sthiannopkao, Suthipong [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan (China); Kim, Kyoung-Woong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham [United Nations University-International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wong, Ming-Hung, E-mail: minghwong@ied.edu.hk [Consortium on Health, Environment, Education and Research (CHEER), and Department of Science and Environmental Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g{sup −1}, 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g{sup −1} and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g{sup −1} wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}, respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  10. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  11. Climate protection laws in Taiwan; Klimaschutzrecht in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes [Fu Jen Catholic Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). School of Law

    2014-07-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  12. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Hou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19th century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan. Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally.

  13. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the United... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for under subheading 3905.30.00 of...

  14. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  15. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines.

  16. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. First archaeointensity results from the historical period of Cambodia, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, J. T.; Cai, S.; Tauxe, L.; Hendrickson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding variations of the geomagnetic field has applications regarding the behavior of the Earth's outer core, dating of archeological artifacts, and the phenomenon that shields life from solar radiation. However, archaeointensity studies of the Holocene have been mostly limited to localities in Europe and the Middle East; archaeomagnetic surveys from Southeast Asia are almost non-existent. This investigation aims to establish a secular variation curve of geomagnetic field intensity for Cambodia. We sampled ancient iron smelting mounds from the Khmer Empire, located in present day Cambodia, and are analyzing them for paleointensity. The specimens are thought to be from the historical period, likely between 1000-1500 CE. Our samples, which include furnace fragments, iron slag, and ceramic tuyères, contain magnetic minerals that record the paleointensity of Earth's magnetic field at the time it was fired. Using the IZZI paleointensity method (Yu et al., 2004), which gradually replaces the sample's natural remanent magnetization with a thermal remanent magnetization obtained in a known lab field, we can determine the geomagnetic intensities preserved in these specimens. Based on our preliminary experiments, the tuyères, and perhaps also the fresh slag, will in all likelihood yield the most ideal results. Following additional measurements from these best-fit samples, we will determine the paleointensities of Cambodia for the time period from which the artifacts originated. This will commence the establishment of regional geomagnetic reference curves in Southeast Asia and also improve the global model.

  18. Experiences From Developing and Upgrading a Web-Based Surveillance System for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Clementine; Lopes, Sérgio; Mellor, Steve; Aryal, Siddhi; Sovannaroth, Siv; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2017-06-14

    Strengthening the surveillance component is key toward achieving country-wide malaria elimination in Cambodia. A Web-based upgraded malaria information system (MIS) was deemed to essentially act as the central component for surveillance strengthening. New functionality (eg, data visualization) and operational (eg, data quality) attributes of the system received particular attention. However, building from the lessons learned in previous systems' developments, other aspects unique to Cambodia were considered to be equally important; for instance, feasibility issues, particularly at the field level (eg, user acceptability at various health levels), and sustainability needs (eg, long-term system flexibility). The Cambodian process of identifying the essential changes and critical attributes for this new information system can provide a model for other countries at various stages of the disease control and elimination continuum. Sharing these experiences not only facilitates the establishment of "best practices" but also accelerates global and regional malaria elimination efforts. In this article, Cambodia's experience in developing and upgrading its MIS to remain responsive to country-specific needs demonstrates the necessity for considering functionality, operationalization, feasibility, and sustainability of an information system in the context of malaria elimination. ©Clementine Fu, Sérgio Lopes, Steve Mellor, Siddhi Aryal, Siv Sovannaroth, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.06.2017.

  19. The design and installation of Solar Home Systems in rural Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Alice Watts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study contends that solar home systems (SHS are an appropriate solution to provide affordable, reliable and clean electricity in rural Cambodia. SHS provide decentralised electricity suitable for the electricity needs of rural households and with the decreasing cost of solar energy technologies, SHS are becoming an increasingly competitive source of energy. This study details the design and installation of two SHS in a rural community in Cambodia. The SHS have replaced the use of kerosene lamps and supplemented car battery usage, which has generated a cost saving of USD$2.50-3.20 per month. The SHS have increased the hours of quality lighting making it possible for users to improve educational outcomes by studying at night and participating in private education classes as well as potentially extending their working hours that provides an opportunity to increase their income. Community involvement in the installation of SHS and participation in an education program has ensured transfer of knowledge about system operation and maintenance at a local level that has ensured economic, social and environmental were benefits. This study builds a case in support of solar energy at the household level in rural Cambodia and makes recommendations for the deployment of SHS in rural communities throughout the developing world.

  20. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  1. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  3. Estimating the size of the homeless adolescent population across seven cities in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Methods Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. Results After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08, the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13–17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.

  4. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL 0.5 equals to 3.0 μg d −1 kg −1 body wt. ). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. -- Highlights: • We investigated total daily intake of As in Prey Veng province of Cambodia. • Residents in Prey Veng study area are at risk of As in groundwater. • As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies. -- Calculation of total daily intake indicated that Prey Veng residents are at risk of As in groundwater while As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies

  5. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Partnering to develop a continuing professional development program in a low-resource setting: Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Heather G; Meng, Ngy; Parsons, Tanya; Schlenther, Gerhard; Murray, Neil; Hart, Richard

    2017-08-01

    To design and implement a continuing professional development (CPD) program for Cambodian ophthalmologists. Partnering (twinning) between the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists (RANZCO) and the Cambodian Ophthalmological Society (COS). Practicing ophthalmologists in Cambodia. A conjoint committee comprising 4 ophthalmologists from RANZCO and 3 ophthalmologists from COS was established, supported by a RANZCO administrative team experienced in CPD administration. CPD requirements and recording were adapted from the RANZCO CPD framework. Cambodian ophthalmologists were surveyed during program implementation and after handover to COS. At the end of the 3-year program at handover to COS, a CPD program and online recording system was established. All 47 (100%) practicing ophthalmologists in Cambodia were registered for CPD, and 21/47 (45%) were actively participating in the COS CPD program online recording. Surveys of attitudes toward CPD demonstrated no significant change. Partnering was moderately effective in establishing a CPD program for Cambodian ophthalmologists. Uptake of CPD may have been limited by lack of a requirement for CPD for continuing medical licensure in Cambodia. Follow-up will be necessary to demonstrate CPD program longevity. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Takumi; Vichit, Ork; Vutthikol, Yong; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Samnang, Chham; Toda, Kohei; Grabovac, Varja; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine the genotypes of circulating Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, in Cambodia by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. DNA extracts from nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from 82 pertussis patients in 2008-2016 were analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). B. pertussis virulence-associated allelic genes (ptxA, prn, and fim3) and the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP were also investigated by DNA sequence-based typing. Forty-four DNA extracts (54%) yielded a complete MLVA profile, and these were sorted into 8 MLVA types (MT18, MT26, MT27, MT29, MT43, MT72, MT95, and MT200). MT27 and MT29, which are common in developed countries, were the predominant strain types (total 73%). The predominant profile of virulence-associated allelic genes was the combination of ptxP3/ptxA1/prn2/fim3A (48%). MT27 strains were detected during the entire study period, whereas MT29 strains were only found in 2014-2016. The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV) has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  10. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  11. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Ca....... Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.......There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province......, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most...

  12. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department... on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date: March 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER... from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...

  13. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt

  14. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  15. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  16. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Sampson, Mickey L.; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  17. Mental health in primary health care in a rural district of Cambodia: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Sofia; Sebastian, Miguel San; Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar

    2018-01-01

    While mental and substance use disorders are common worldwide, the treatment gap is enormous in low and middle income countries. Primary health care is considered to be the most important way for people to get mental health care. Cambodia is a country with a long history of war and has poor mental health and limited resources for care. The aim of this study was to conduct a situational analysis of the mental health services in the rural district of Lvea Em, Kandal Province, Cambodia. A cross-sectional situational analysis was done to understand the mental health situation in Lvea Em District comparing it with the national one. The Programme for improving mental health care (PRIME) tool was used to collect systematic information about mental health care from 14 key informants in Cambodia. In addition, a separate questionnaire based on the PRIME tool was developed for the district health care centres (12 respondents). Ethical approval was obtained from the National Ethics Committee for Health Research in Cambodia. Mental health care is limited both in Lvea Em District and the country. Though national documents containing guidelines for mental health care exist, the resources available and health care infrastructure are below what is recommended. There is no budget allocated for mental health in the district; there are no mental health specialists and the mental health training of health care workers is insufficient. Based on the limited knowledge from the respondents in the district, mental health disorders do exist but no documentation of these patients is available. Respondents discussed how community aspects such as culture, history and religion were related to mental health. Though there have been improvements in understanding mental health, discrimination and abuse against people with mental health disorders seems still to be present. There are very limited mental health care services with hardly any budget allocated to them in Lvea Em District and Cambodia

  18. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke Khilji, Sara U; Rudge, James W; Drake, Tom; Chavez, Irwin; Borin, Khieu; Touch, Sok; Coker, Richard

    2013-10-04

    Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. There is

  19. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  20. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  1. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  2. Present state of backend in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As Taiwan is poor in its energy source as well as Japan is, nuclear power generation is one of important energy sources. Management and disposal (backend) of radioactive wastes accompanied with application to nuclear generation is a large problem for Taiwan which had 36,000 square kilometer of national area (about twice area of Shikoku in Japan) than that for Japan. In Taiwan, as the radioactive waste management policy (RWMP) was established in 1977 to arrange a basic indication of the backend policy, final disposal sites for both low and high level radioactive wastes (spent fuel) are not specified yet. For management of low level radioactive waste, the Taiwan Electric Power Corp. (TPC) reported the most promising area for the final disposal site to Taiwan Committee of Atomic Energy on February, 1998. And, for the high level radioactive waste, TPC intends to specify the final disposal site in 2016, to be under selection of site on aiming at beginning of its operation on 2032. And, on the backend policy in Taiwan its reprocessing option has not been abandoned yet, to remain feasibility of option in disposal of the low level radioactive waste on abroad. Here was introduced on present condition of the backend in Taiwan. (G.K.)

  3. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Marine Educational and Research Cruise in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the Taiwan mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including Taiwan, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from Taiwan, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan), 1 from the National Central University (Taiwan), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to Taiwan. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore Taiwan to put into their hands of the actions of Taiwan mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.

  5. Lattice Study for the Taiwan Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Chen Chien Te; Luo, Gwo-Huei; Tsai, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Huey

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility study for the new 3.0~3.3 GeV Taiwan synchrotron light source, dubbed Taiwan Photon Source, was initiated in July, 2004. The goal is to construct a high performance light source with extremely bright X-ray in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV light source in Taiwan. The ring circumference is 518.4 m and a 24-cell DBA lattice structure is chosen. The natural emittance with distributed dispersion is less than 2 nm-rad. A large booster ring of 499.2 m sharing the storage ring tunnel will be adopted.

  6. WinFood data from Kenya and Cambodia: Constraints on field procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owino, Victor; Omollo, Selina; Konyole, Silvenus; Skau, Jutta; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: The broad aim of the Winfoods Project was to alleviate childhood malnutrition via utilisation of traditional foods (by incorporating edible termites and spiders in complementary food (CF) formulations in Kenya and Cambodia, respectively). The efficacy of the developed CF on stunting, lean mass accrual, lipid profile, haemoglobin, iron and zinc status and gross motor development was assessed in a 9-month intervention comparing the CF with CSB+ (Kenya) and CSB++ (Cambodia). We aim to highlight methodological difficulties associated with the assessment of lean mass (LM) and blood nutritional indictors (BNI). Methodology: In a randomized controlled design, infants received Winfoods for 9 months from 6-15 months of age. LM accrual and BNI (lipid profile, iron and zinc status) were measured cross-sectionally at 9 and 15 months of age, respectively. To determine LM infants were dosed with 3g deuterium oxide [D2O] (0.5g/Kg body weight) in Kenya or 7g nested D2O both at 6 and 15 months of age in Cambodia. Saliva was collected from each infant before the oral administration of the dose (baseline sample) and then at [1-hour and 3-hours in Kenya or 2-hour and 3-hours –Cambodia] after administration. D2O enrichment in saliva was determined by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry locally in Kenya. For Cambodia, samples were exported to Bangalore, India for lean mass analysis. To determine blood indicators, 3ml blood was drawn by venipuncture. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue machine. Whole blood portion was used for determination of lipid profile in Canada. Serum was used for Fe, Zn status assay in Germany. Results: In Kenya, the food ration was depleted way before the subsequent visit due to food insecurity. Intervention was associated with family planning by a section of the community. High rate of loss to follow up was attributed to relocation for family reunion and household conflicts. Cambodian ethics review committee (ERC) had

  7. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's eco- environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Analysis of research results brings several important findings. (1) Taiwan's economic ..... above that this study is an innovative expansion and combination of material flow calculation and ..... using thermodynamic approach. Resour. Conserv.

  8. Status of radioactive waste management in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Taiwan started to generate nuclear power in 1977. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy generated radwaste. The major radwaste generators are nuclear power plants of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). The other generators are the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), industry, medicine, agriculture, and education. Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subsidiary of Atomic Energy Council (AEC), is the regulatory body of radwaste in Taiwan. Radwaste management projects in Taiwan include: (1) construction of a Volume Reduction Center (VRC); (2) construction of a low-level radwaste transport ship; (3) construction of low-level waste final disposal facility; (4) construction of a spent fuel interim storage facility; (5) construction of spent fuel disposal facility. In the near future, final disposal of low-level waste is the most important work of both Taipower and RWA. Both organizations will put much more effort into this work

  9. China-Taiwan: What Kind of Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynnyczok, Martha-Jean H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper will review the nature of recent economic development in China, the potential impact of that development on the political unity of China, Taiwan's contribution to the mainland's economy...

  10. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    Based on repeat observations made during 2001-2003 along two transects in the Taiwan Strait this study aims at understanding factors controlling primary productivity with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, the major bio...

  12. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  13. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Myocarditis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Hsiao

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric myocarditis presents primarily with gastrointestinal symptoms in Taiwan. Careful check of heart rhythm may provide a useful objective marker of myocarditis. The predictors of a poor prognosis were gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, and hypotension.

  14. Research Report: Female Councilor Forums as a capacity building in the decentralization process of Cambodia. A personal view of an unforgettable stay in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgen, Maraile

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Royal Government of Cambodia introduced the decentralization reform in Cambodia, with the enactment of the Law on Elections of Commune/Sangkat Councils and the Law on Administration and Management of Communes/Sangkats. Decentralization means that certain rights, responsibilities and resources are transferred from the central level of government to the democratically elected Communes/Sangkats. Decentralization aims to promote democracy and to improve the living conditions of the population. Citizens have the opportunity to influence decisions on local matters and have the right to elect the members of the Commune/Sangkat Council. In February 2002 the first commune council elections were held in all 1,621 com-munes with 11,261 councilors elected. Depending on the size of the commune, between five and eleven members are working on the council. Although the 1993 constitution guarantees equality between men and women and the government is mainstreaming gender across all major policy initiatives, only 8.5% (983 of these elected councilors are female. This shows that women are still under-represented in Cambodian politics. However, tasks for Cambodian commune councilors are to interact in local com-munes affairs and to be agents of the central government. In terms of local commune affairs, female as well as male councilors have the duties to support the development of the Commune/Sangkat and the well-being of its residents. The councils are close to the citizens and therefore in a good position to find out about their needs and interests in order to develop programs that improve the living standards of their people. The work and conditions on the council can be really challenging and councilors daily have to face new problems. Therefore some ca-pacity buildings for councilors are already implemented.

  15. Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cambodia: Results from two screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Naranjo, Diana; Khun, Touch; Seng, Serey; Horn, Ien S; Suttiratana, Sakinah C; Keuky, Lim

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing attention to diabetes throughout Asia, data from Southeast Asia are limited. This article reports rates of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in Cambodia. Two studies were conducted across different regions of Cambodia: (i) a 2012 screening study across urban, semi-urban, and rural areas that used point-of-care capillary glucose for determination of diabetes (n = 13 997); and (ii) a 2005 epidemiological study with random selection from two main urban areas that used oral glucose tolerance tests for determination of diabetes (n = 1863). Blood pressure and anthropometrics were also measured. In the screening study, rates of diabetes were significantly higher in urban than rural sites, with intermediate rates in semi-urban areas. There was a significant dose-response effect for urbanicity on overweight, obesity, and waist:hip ratio, with higher rates for urban versus semi-urban and for semi-urban versus rural locales. Rural sites had the lowest rates of hypertension, followed by urban and semi-urban sites. Among people who screened positive for diabetes, there was a dose-response effect for urbanicity on undiagnosed diabetes; rates of previously undiagnosed diabetes were lowest in urban (51%), followed by semi-urban (55%) and rural (67%) locales. Rural participants reported the highest rates of smoking and alcohol use. In the urban epidemiological study, prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were approximately 10%, indicating a prevalence of total glucose intolerance of approximately 20%. In Cambodia, diabetes rates are high among urban residents and undiagnosed diabetes is highest among rural residents. A country-wide public health response is urgently needed; as development continues, rates of diabetes are expected to rise. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Industrial pollution load assessment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia using an industrial pollution projection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Vibol; Spoann, Vin; Schmidt, Johannes

    2018-02-15

    Approximately 56% out of the total 1302 Cambodian firms are operated in the Capital city of Cambodia. The necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System, a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city. Factory data between 1994 and 2014 obtained from the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft of Cambodia were used in our study. Due to the high number of employees, the total environmental load generated in Phnom Penh city was estimated to be 476,981Mg in 2014. Phnom Penh city generated 189,109Mg of VOC, 165,411Mg of toxic chemicals to air, 38,523Mg of toxic chemicals to land, and 28,968Mg of SO 2 in 2014. The results of the estimation show that the Textiles and Apparel sector was the highest generators of toxic chemicals into land and air, and toxic metals into land, air and water, while the Basic Metal sector was the greatest contributor of toxic chemicals to water. The Textiles and Apparel sector alone emitted 436,016Mg of total pollution load. The results indicate that the Dangkao and Meanchey districts were the greatest emitters of all pollutants in Phnom Penh. The results suggest that reduction in industrial pollution could be achieved by focusing on the most polluting sectors and areas. Adopting waste minimization strategies, which include cleaner production processes, will not only reduce the cost of controlling pollution, it will also make manufacturing more efficient thereby increasing profits while reducing pollution load in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014–2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  18. The association between household poverty rates and tuberculosis case notification rates in Cambodia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yang Eang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poverty is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB; it increases the risk of infection and active disease but limits diagnostic opportunities. The role of poverty in the stagnant case detection in Cambodia is unclear. This study aims to assess the relationship between district household poverty rates and sputum-positive TB case notification rates (CNRs in Cambodia in 2010. Methods: Poisson regression models were used to calculate the relative risk of new sputum-positive TB CNR for Operational Districts (ODs with different poverty rates using data from the National Centre for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control and the National Committee for SubNational Democratic Development. Models were adjusted for other major covariates and a geographical information system was used to examine the spatial distribution of these covariates in the country. Results: The univariate model showed a positive association between household poverty rates and sputum-positive TB CNRs. However, in multivariate models, after adjusting for major covariates, household poverty rates showed a significantly negative association with sputum-positive TB CNRs (relative risk [RR] = 0.95 per 5% increase in poverty rate. The negative association was stronger among males than females (RR = 0.93 versus 0.96 per 5% increase in poverty rate. Similar spatial patterns were observed between household poverty rates and other covariates, particularly OD population density. Conclusion: Household poverty rate is associated with a decrease in sputum-positive TB CNR in Cambodia, particularly in men. The potential of combining surveillance data and socioeconomic variables should be explored further to provide more insights for TB control programme planning.

  19. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  20. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  1. Beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Cambodia: The four-year itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Caron

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, published data on antimicrobial resistance in this country are scarce. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge over a 4-year period (2012–2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion on agar technique and the results were read automatically using an OSIRIS system. The Etest was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for some resistance phenotypes. The strain most commonly identified was Escherichia coli (63.9%. The proportion of ESBL-E increased gradually over the study period, from 23.8% to 38.4%. ESBL was detected in 42.7% of the E. coli strains and 33.7% of all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly from 28.9% in 2012 to 48.2% in 2015, while the increase for K. pneumoniae remained non-significant. Multidrug resistance was high in this Cambodian series, with some strains displaying resistance to all antibiotics available in the country. There is currently no established system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia. Collecting samples from clinical settings throughout the country is critical to assess the impact of antimicrobial drug use in patients in Cambodia and in the Mekong Region.

  2. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thona; Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry; Furey, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  3. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thona Lim

    Full Text Available Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1 insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2 the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently

  4. Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozano, Kim; Simkhada, Padam; Thann, Khem; Khatri, Rose

    2018-01-06

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives. Qualitative methodology was used to capture the experiences of CHWs in Kratie and Mondulkiri provinces. Two participatory focus groups with CHWs in Mondulkiri and ten semi-structured interviews in Kratie were conducted. Results from both studies were used to identify common themes. Participants were CHWs, male and female, from rural Khmer and Muslim communities and linked with seven different district health centres. Findings identify that CHWs regularly deliver health promotion to communities. However, systemic, personal and community engagement challenges hinder their ability to function effectively. These include minimal leadership and support from local government, irregular training which focuses on verticalised health programmes, inadequate resources, a lack of professional identity and challenges to achieving behaviour change of community members. In addition, the CHW programme is delivered in a fragmented way that is largely influenced by external aid objectives. When consulted, however, CHWs demonstrate their ability to develop realistic practical solutions to challenges and barriers. The fragmented delivery of the CHW programme in Cambodia means that government ownership is minimal. This, coupled with the lack of defined core training programme or adequate resources, prevents CHWs from reaching their potential. CHWs have positive and realistic ideas on how to improve their role and, subsequently

  5. The prevalence and associated factors for prehypertension and hypertension in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; LoGerfo, James P; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and was the leading modifiable associated factor for global disease burden in 2010. Analysis of modifiable associated factors will be important to those concerned with mitigating the adverse effects of hypertension. We studied factors associated with hypertension in adults aged 25–64 years of age in Cambodia in order to help develop strategies for planned new initiatives for prevention and control of hypertension. Methods Using data from a nationwide survey in Cambodia assessing the prevalence of associated factors for non-communicable disease in 2010 (WHO STEPs survey), 5017 participants between the ages of 25 and 64 years were included in a secondary analysis of the prevalence and predictors of hypertension. Results The prevalence of prehypertension in this sample was approximately double that of overall hypertension (27.9% vs 15.3%). Male sex, increasing age and known cardiovascular associated factors, including higher Body Mass Index (BMI), dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glycaemia, and abdominal obesity were all associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension. In multivariate models, increasing age was the strongest associated factor for hypertension (OR 8.79, 95% CI (5.43 to 14.2)), whereas, higher BMI was the primary associated factor associated with prehypertension (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.21 to 4.82). Conclusions Modifiable cardiovascular-associated factors are strongly correlated with prehypertension and hypertension in Cambodia, and may be a focus of public health and primary care strategies to mitigate subsequent ischaemic heart disease and stroke. A national strategy aimed at increased screening and adherence to medical therapy is a necessary first step to reduce burden of disease and related morbidities. PMID:27326148

  6. Market-based biogas sector development in least developed countries —The case of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buysman, Eric; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In many of the least developed countries the energy security conundrum is how to provide affordable, safe and clean energy to a low income rural population. Household level generation of biogas from animal waste for both cooking and lighting, while producing high quality organic fertiliser, is increasingly proposed as a viable part of the solution for farming households. Since the early 1990s international development organisations – often in cooperation with the national government – have attempted to introduce biogas technologies in many least developed countries, but most initiatives failed. In this landscape of failed biogas development programmes the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) Cambodia started in 2006, with the aim to establish a permanent market oriented and self-financed biogas sector. The results show the development of a sustainable domestic biodigester sector, a rapid diffusion of biodigesters among poor rural households, but still ambivalences on financial independency from external funding and carbon finance. The conclusion is that a pure market model for biogas development in the rural area of the least developed countries will not easily work. Governmental regulation and coordination will remain needed, and carbon finance will not easily fully replace ODA and governmental financial support. - Highlights: • The National Biodigester Programme has successfully introduced domestic biogas in Cambodia. • The development of a market based biogas sector is crucial in ensuring a healthy and continuous development after donor funding. • Domestic biogas is of crucial importance to meet rural Cambodia’s energy challenges and to boost the rural economy by providing employment opportunities. • Domestic biogas helps Cambodia to reduce deforestation and to shift to climate-smart agriculture. • Financing of a market-based biogas model remain problematic in the near future

  7. Beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Cambodia: The four-year itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Chheang, Rattanak; Puthea, Nop; Soda, Meng; Boyer, Sébastien; Tarantola, Arnaud; Kerléguer, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, published data on antimicrobial resistance in this country are scarce. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge over a 4-year period (2012-2015). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion on agar technique and the results were read automatically using an OSIRIS system. The Etest was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for some resistance phenotypes. The strain most commonly identified was Escherichia coli (63.9%). The proportion of ESBL-E increased gradually over the study period, from 23.8% to 38.4%. ESBL was detected in 42.7% of the E. coli strains and 33.7% of all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly from 28.9% in 2012 to 48.2% in 2015, while the increase for K. pneumoniae remained non-significant. Multidrug resistance was high in this Cambodian series, with some strains displaying resistance to all antibiotics available in the country. There is currently no established system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia. Collecting samples from clinical settings throughout the country is critical to assess the impact of antimicrobial drug use in patients in Cambodia and in the Mekong Region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  10. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Pham Thanh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years. The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged <15 years were observed over the study period. A population-based risk factor analysis found that access to water within households and increasing distance from Tonle Sap Lake were protective. Spatial mapping and WGS provided additional resolution for these findings, and confirmed that proximity to the lake was associated with discrete spatiotemporal disease clusters. We confirmed the dominance of MDR H58 S. Typhi in this population, and found substantial evidence of diversification (at least seven sublineages within this single lineage. We conclude that there is a substantial burden of pediatric typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines.

  11. Revision of Sciaphila (Triuridaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Hsieh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sciaphila (Triuridaceae is revised based on comparative morphological and palynological studies in Taiwan. Four species are recognized, i. E. Sciaphila arfakiana Becc., S. Maculata Miers, S. ramosa Fukuy. & T. Suzuki, and S. secundiflora Thwaites ex Benth. Sciaphila arfakiana and S. maculata are new record to Flora of Taiwan and S. secundiflora distributed in Kueishan Island is a new distribution. SEM micrographs of pollen grains, a key to species, species descriptions, and taxonomic notes are provided.

  12. [Deployment of a dermatologist in Cambodia and Somalia: Personal experience of a medical officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, R

    2015-05-01

    Throughout history, physicians of the armed forces have gained experience in tropical medicine during deployment in tropical countries. During deployments in Cambodia and Somalia, dermatologists treated participants of the UN missions and also local people to win their confidence. The experience acquired during these missions is reported. The dermatologist was mainly confronted with the diagnosis and treatment of infectious skin diseases, including genitourinary diseases. Therapy of parasitic infections rarely imported to Europe was a challenge. Training and experience in Tropical Medicine are essential for medical officers deployed on missions as well as for physicians advising travellers.

  13. Exploring the influence of context and policy on health district productivity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim; So, Sovannarith; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia has been reconstructing its economy and health sector since the end of conflict in the 1990s. There have been gains in life expectancy and increased health expenditure, but Cambodia still lags behind neighbours One factor which may contribute is the efficiency of public health services. This article aims to understand variations in efficiency and the extent to which changes in efficiency are associated with key health policies that have been introduced to strengthen access to health services over the past decade. The analysis makes use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure relative efficiency and changes in productivity and regression analysis to assess the association with the implementation of health policies. Data on 28 operational districts were obtained for 2008-11, focussing on the five provinces selected to represent a range of conditions in Cambodia. DEA was used to calculate efficiency scores assuming constant and variable returns to scale and Malmquist indices to measure productivity changes over time. This analysis was combined with qualitative findings from 17 key informant interviews and 19 in-depth interviews with managers and staff in the same provinces. The DEA results suggest great variation in the efficiency scores and trends of scores of public health services in the five provinces. Starting points were significantly different, but three of the five provinces have improved efficiency considerably over the period. Higher efficiency is associated with more densely populated areas. Areas with health equity funds in Special Operating Agency (SOA) and non-SOA areas are associated with higher efficiency. The same effect is not found in areas only operating voucher schemes. We find that the efficiency score increased by 0.12 the year any of the policies was introduced. This is the first study published on health district productivity in Cambodia. It is one of the few studies in the region to consider the impact of health policy changes

  14. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushi Morishita

    Full Text Available Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF. We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia.In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups.The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5-594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6-813.4], p = 0.104. The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5-25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4-70.8], p<0.001. Indirect costs constituted the largest portion of total costs (72.3% in ACF and 61.5% in PCF. Total costs were equivalent to 11.3% and 18.6% of annual household income in ACF and PCF, respectively. ACF patients were less likely to dissave to afford TB-related expenses. Costs as percentage of annual household income were significantly associated with an occurrence of selling property (p = 0.02 for ACF, p = 0.005 for PCF.TB-affected households face severe financial hardship in Cambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs incurred particularly before treatment

  15. A Report from the Cambodia Training Event for Awareness of Melioidosis (C-TEAM, October 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotharith Bory

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is an endemic infection in Cambodia, a lower middle income SE Asian country. Despite more laboratories isolating and identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei in recent years, the infection remains under-recognised and under-diagnosed, particularly in the adult population. Lack of knowledge about the disease and lack of utilization of microbiology laboratories contributes to this, along with laboratory capacity issues. Treatment costs often hamper optimal management. In response to these issues, a national one-health training event was held in October 2017 to raise awareness of the disease amongst clinical, laboratory, and public health professionals. The meeting format, findings, and outcomes are described here.

  16. Estimation of solar radiation over Cambodia from long-term satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Pankaew, P.; Laksanaboonsong, J. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Kitichantaropas, P. [Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, 17 Rama 1 Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia was estimated from a long-term satellite data. A 14-year period (1995-2008) of visible channel data from GMS5, GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used to provide earth-atmospheric reflectivity. A satellite-based solar radiation model developed for a tropical environment was used to estimate surface solar radiation. The model relates the satellite-derived earth-atmospheric reflectivity to absorption and scattering coefficients of various atmospheric constituents. The absorption of solar radiation due to water vapour was calculated from precipitable water derived from ambient relative humidity and temperature. Ozone data from the TOMS and OMI satellite data were employed to compute the solar radiation absorption by ozone. The depletion of radiation due to aerosols was estimated from the visibility data. Five new solar radiation measuring stations were established at Cambodian cities, namely Siem Reap (13.87 N, 103.85 E), Kompong Thom (12.68 N, 104.88 E), Phnom Penh (11.55 N, 104.83 E), Sihanouke Ville (10.67 N, 103.63 E) and Kampot (10.70 N, 104.28 E). Global solar radiation measured at these stations was used to validate the model. The validation was also carried out by using solar radiation measured at four Thai meteorological stations. These stations are situated near the Cambodian border. Monthly average daily global irradiation from these stations was compared with that calculated from the model. The measured and calculated irradiation is in good agreement, with the root mean square difference of 6.3%, with respect to the mean values. After the validation, the model was used to calculate monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia. Based on this satellite-derived irradiation, solar radiation maps for Cambodia were generated. These maps show that solar radiation climate of this country is strongly influenced by the monsoons. A solar radiation database was also generated

  17. The sale of tarantulas in Cambodia for food or medicine: is it sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of tarantulas for either human consumption or for preparation of medicines has become more widespread in Cambodia over the last 10-20 years. With increased media exposure, the trade seems to be increasing, but there are serious questions as to its sustainability because of possible over-collecting of the spiders and also loss of habitats. This note outlines some of the fundamental questions that need to be addressed if this spider trade is to be sustainable or else we could see the loss of an important link in the forest food chain.

  18. Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Harry Yi-Jui

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan. A comprehensive review of electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, was conducted to identify evaluations of gambling experiences in Taiwan. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed. Various types of gambling are prevalent in Taiwan, even though the laws of Taiwan forbid illegal gambling. Both traditional and novel types of gambling have brought adverse impacts to Taiwanese people in multiple aspects of everyday life. The strategies and attitudes of the government towards gambling have been forced to change as gambling has flourished. Various types of gambling have developed in Taiwan in response to social, economic and cultural changes over time. The psychological aspects of gambling, however, need further study to provide fundamental information for developing intervention models for pathological gambling. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  20. Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manderson Lenore

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue.

  1. Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-09-24

    The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue.

  2. Participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions in informal economy workplaces in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Tong, Leng; Kannitha, Yi; Sophorn, Tun

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to improve safety and health in informal economy workplaces such as home workplaces, small construction sites, and rural farms in Cambodia by using "participatory" approach. The government, workers' and employers' organizations and NGOs jointly assisted informal economy workers in improving safety and health by using participatory training methodologies. The steps taken were: (1) to collect existing good practices in safety and health in Cambodia; (2) to develop new participatory training programmes for home workers and small construction sites referring to ILO's WISE training programme, and (3) to train government officers, workers, employers and NGOs as safety and health trainers. The participatory training programmes developed consisted of action-checklists associated with illustrations, good example photo sheets, and texts explaining practical, low-cost improvement measures. The established safety and health trainers reached many informal economy workers through their human networks, and trained them by using the developed participatory training programmes. More than 3,000 informal economy workers were trained and they implemented improvements by using low-cost methods. Participatory training methodologies and active cooperation between the government, workers, employers and NGOs made it possible to provide practical training for those involved in the informal economy workplaces.

  3. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  4. Diversity of Monogononta rotifer species among standing waterbodies in northern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratha Sor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and abundance of Monogononta rotifer species were recorded from lakes and reservoirs in the upper part of the Cambodian Mekong River basin in April and November 2010. One hundred and seven species are reported, 25 of which are new records to Cambodia and 8 taxa were unidentifiable to species level. Species richness at the regional and local scale was not significantly different between habitat types or between seasons, whether it was estimated using incidence or abundance data. Comparison of incidence data also revealed no significant difference from species richness of ponds concurrently sampled in the same region. There appeared to be a high level of diversity among sites that could not be attributed to nestedness or to the 5 environmental variables measured. Each habitat type and season offered substantially different rotifer communities, with the proportion of unshared species between sample sets ranging from 14-49%. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA analyses also revealed clustering and significant differences among sample sets based on habitat type and season. Therefore, each habitat type and season contributed to the overall rotifer biodiversity. When the incidence data from this study are combined with those in previously reported studies, the overall species richness estimate for Cambodia is 403 species (95% CI = 386-432 and the number of species records has reached 306. 

  5. Metacyclops woni n. sp., a New Cyclopoid Species (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Cyclopidae from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jimin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new cyclopoid species belonging to the genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described, based upon the specimens from a temporary pool in a forest of Mt. Phnom Domnak Dambouk, situated in the southwestern part of Cambodia. Metacyclops woni sp. nov. is characterized by its quite short caudal rami, about 2.5 times longer than wide, with a spinule row on anterior quarter of lateral margin. This new species belongs to the species group with the spine formula 3,4,4,3 of swimming legs 1-4. Among the members of the species group with the combination of characters of 11-segmented antennule and a single apical spine on the second endopodal segment of leg 4, it most resembles M. deserticus Mercado-Salas and Suárez-Morales, 2013 from Mexico in carrying an outermost caudal seta slightly longer than the innermost caudal seta and an apical spine on the second endopodal segment of leg 4 slightly shorter than the segment. However, it differs clearly from the present new species by much longer caudal rami with lateral caudal seta at nearly halfway of lateral margin of the ramus and smooth posterior margin of intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4. This is the first record of the genus Metacyclops from Cambodia and the fourth one from Southeast Asia.

  6. Intensive Circulation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Peri-urban Sentinel Pigs near Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Cappelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We estimated the force of JE infection in two cohorts of 15 sentinel pigs by fitting a generalised linear model on seroprevalence monitoring data observed during two four-month periods in 2014. Our results provide evidence for intensive circulation of JE virus in a periurban area near Phnom Penh, the capital and most populated city of Cambodia. Understanding JE virus transmission in different environments is important for planning JE virus control in the long term and is also an interesting model to study the complexity of vector-borne diseases. Collecting quantitative data such as the force of infection will help calibrate epidemiological model that can be used to better understand complex vector-borne disease epidemiological cycles.

  7. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Predictors of exclusive breast-feeding in early infancy: a survey report from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuri; Ali, Moazzam; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Saroeun, Ou; Kanal, Koum; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2010-12-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is recommended in the first 6 months of an infant's life. This study aims to investigate the present status of infant feeding practices and identify factors that affect EBF practices during the first 6 months following infant birth in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey with a semistructured questionnaire was given to 312 mothers with children aged 6 to 24 months who visited the immunization clinic in the National Maternal and Child Health Centre in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from December 2005 to February 2006. Eighty-three percent of mothers fed breast milk exclusively in the first month, whereas only 51.3% continued EBF in the first 6 months. Within 30 minutes after delivery, 39% of mothers began breast-feeding. Results from logistic regression analysis indicate that the lack of a maternal antenatal EBF plan (odds ratio [OR] = 10.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.68-27.24, p feeding classes (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.13-3.28, p feed their babies, keeping in mind the benefits it may yield. Paternal involvement in breast-feeding classes may increase their awareness and consequently complement EBF practices. Finally, development of conducive working environments and policies for working mothers should be carefully explored because it could have positive influence in better care and promotion of EBF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  10. Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

  12. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season ;deficit; area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  13. Molecular characterization of sympatrically distributed Neotricula aperta-like snails in the Mekong River, Kratie, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chennan; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Kirinoki, Masashi; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Muth, Sinuon; Meng, Chuor Char; Ai, Yingchun; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-six samples of Neotricula aperta-like snails were collected from six locations in Cambodia. Their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences were examined using haplotype network and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis. Twenty-seven haplotypes (H1-H27) were observed and were divided into two different groups/lineages. Of 27, 17 haplotypes (H11-H27) were clustered with the reference samples of the γ-race N. aperta. The remaining 10 haplotypes (H1-H10) were clustered in a separate group/lineage, differing from the reference samples of the α-, β-, and γ-race N. aperta, suggesting a new lineage belonging the genus Neotricula. Our results show that both the γ-race and a new lineage were sympatrically present approximately 60 km upstream of the Mekong River near the Kratie port, Cambodia. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to confirm the taxonomic status of this new, unidentified lineage.

  14. Preliminary study of river water in gold mining areas of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sieng, Sotham

    2004-01-01

    In Cambodia, artisanal mining has recently come to a social concern because of the possibility to cause environmental degradation and human health problems. The General Department of Mineral Resources of Cambodia is collecting environmental specimens in mining sites to watch the situation. This time, four water samples from Sampov Loon and one from Memong mining site were sent from the Department to Hiroshima University, Japan, and the samples were analyzed by means of PIXE at the University. A volume of 10 μl from each sample was separated and dropped onto 4 μm polypropylene backing foil. The measurement was carried out by using 2.5 MV single-ended Vande Graaff accelerator. A Si(Li) detector (active area, 80mm 2 ; sensitive depth, 5 mm; Be-window's thickness, 25 μm; resolution, 167 eV fwhm at 5.9 keV) was used for both of in vacuo PIXE and non-vacuum external beam PIXE measurement. A computer code PIXS was used for the quantification. The result indicates that there are at least two kinds of water in Sampov Loon and one of them possibly represents polluted condition. (author)

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to Artemisinin Derivatives and Piperaquine: A Major Challenge for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Valentine; Witkowski, Benoit; Ménard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone of current strategies for fighting malaria. Over the last decade, ACTs have played a major role in decreasing malaria burden. However, this progress is being jeopardized by the emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Artemisinin resistance was first detected in western Cambodia in 2008 and has since been observed in neighboring countries in southeast Asia. The problem of antimalarial drug resistance has recently worsened in Cambodia, with reports of parasites resistant to piperaquine, the latest generation of partner drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin, leading to worrying rates of clinical treatment failure. The monitoring and the comprehension of both types of resistance are crucial to prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant parasites outside southeast Asia, and particularly to Africa, where the public health consequences would be catastrophic. To this end, new tools are required for studying the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to antimalarial drugs and for monitoring the geographic distribution of the resistant parasites. In this review, we detail the major advances in our understanding of resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine and define the challenges that the malaria community will have to face in the coming years. PMID:27928074

  16. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  17. Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Children in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Emma K.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kumar, Varun; Amornchai, Premjit; Wongdeethai, Nattavut; Chheng, Kheng; Chantratita, Narisara; Putchhat, Hor; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A prospective cohort study of MRSA carriage conducted over one month at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, identified MRSA carriage in 87 (3.5%) of 2,485 children who came to the outpatient department, and 6 (4.1%) of 145 inpatients, including at least two with cases of nosocomial acquisition. Genotyping of all 93 MRSA isolates resolved 5 genotypes. Most (91%) isolates were assigned to sequence type 834. Only 28 (32%) of 87 MRSA carriers identified in the outpatient department had no history of recent healthcare contact. The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited. PMID:21292906

  18. [Epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in Cambodia seroprevalence of HIV/STD among commercial sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshige, K; Morio, S; Mizushima, S; Kitamura, K; Tajima, K; Ito, A; Suyama, A; Usuku, S; Phalla, T; Leng, H B; Sopheab, H; Eab, B; Soda, K

    1999-01-01

    To describe epidemiological features of HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Cambodia, a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire study and serological tests was carried out from December 1997 to January 1998. We report the main results of the analyses of serological tests in this article. Two hundred ninety six CSWs working in Sisophon and Poi Pet, located in northwest Cambodia, Bantey Mean Chey province, were recruited for interview based on a questionnaire on sexual behavior, and serological tests. The blood samples were examined for HIV antibody, Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody, TPHA, Hepatitis B surface antigen, and Hepatitis B surface antibody. The relationship between HIV and the other STD's was analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. The HIV seroprevalence rate was 43.9% (130 out of 296). The seropositive rate of Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (C.T.-IgG-Ab) was 73.3% (217 out of 296). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between C.T.-IgG-Ab positive and HIV prevalence. (Odds Ratio: 5.33; 95% Confidence Interval, 2.82-10.07). This study suggests that the existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is closely related with HIV prevalence among CSWs in Cambodia. Other STDs may also increase susceptibility to male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV. This suggests that appropriate prevention against STDs will be needed for the control of HIV prevalence in Cambodia.

  19. Glass Barriers : Constraints to Women's Small-Scale Cross-Border Trade in Cambodia and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Seror, Marlon; Record, Richard; Clarke, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Trade facilitation projects often assume indirect benefits for small-scale, cross-border traders. Recent studies have shown the challenges faced in Africa by this population, especially women, but it remains unknown in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, despite large trade facilitation investments. This paper fills this gap, thanks to an innovative mix of original qualitati...

  20. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  1. Diets and Feeding Practices during the First 1000 Days Window in the Phnom Penh and North Eastern Districts of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphos Vicheth Som

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children under 5 were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thus, a strong focus on improving feeding practices within the first 1000 days window to reduce child malnutrition prevalence in Cambodia is needed. This cross-sectional study assessed the current feeding practices among of women of reproductive age, pregnant women, lactating women and children less than 24 months living in six districts from Phnom Penh and two rural provinces in the North East of Cambodia. The nutritional status of pregnant women was poor, with 21.4% having a Middle Upper arm circumference below 23 cm. While breastfeeding was predominant within the first 6 months of age in every district, feeding practices of pregnant women and children were a concern, as >70% of the children were not meeting the minimum acceptable diet, and most of the women did not improve their diet during pregnancy. Inadequate nutrition during the first 1000 days is highly prevalent in Cambodia. A comprehensive national Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition strategy needs to be developed and operationalized to improve feeding practices of Cambodian women and children.

  2. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  3. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  4. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Jarl

    Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  5. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  6. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  7. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  8. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  10. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria: Trend of isolation rate and characteristics of NTM in Cambodia during 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khann

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The isolation rate of NTM in Cambodia among presumptive MDR-TB patients was found to be remarkably high and increasing over the last 3 years and strongly correlated with the grade of smear result. Further studies and appropriate managements should be done for those patients.

  11. Reevaluating the Relationship between Education and Child Labour Using the Capabilities Approach: Policy and Implications for Inequality in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades, improving living standards and diminishing poverty. Unfortunately, it has failed to do so evenly. Growth within the country has widened the gap between rich and poor and exacerbated the rural/urban divide. This inequality is mirrored in the school system. Inequality within the…

  12. Regulatory oversight on nuclear safety in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T-T. [Atomic Energy Council, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Taiwan is a densely populated island and over 98% of its energy is imported, 16.5% of which is nuclear, in the form of materials and services. Ensuring that the most stringent nuclear safety standards are met therefore remains a priority for the government and the operator, Taiwan power Company (Taipower). There are eight nuclear power reactors in Taiwan, six of which are in operation and two are under construction. The first began operating nearly 40 years ago. For the time being the issue of whether to decommission or extend life of the operating units is also being discussed and has no conclusion yet. Nuclear energy has been a hot issue in debate over the past decades in Taiwan. Construction of Lungmen nuclear power plant, site selection of a final low-level waste disposal facility, installation of spent fuel dry storage facilities and safety of the currently operating nuclear power reactors are the issues that all Taiwanese are concerned most. In order to ensure the safety of nuclear power plant, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has implemented rigorous regulatory work over the past decades. After the Fukushima accident, AEC has conducted a reassessment program to re-evaluate all nuclear power plants in Taiwan, and asked Taipower to follow the technical guidelines, which ENSREG has utilized to implement stress test over nuclear power plants in Europe. In addition, AEC has invited two expert teams from OECD/NEA and ENSREG to conduct peer reviews of Taiwan's stress test national report in 2013. My presentation will focus on activities regulating safety of nuclear power programs. These will cover (A) policy of nuclear power regulation in Taiwan, (B)challenges of the Lungmen Plant, (C) post-Fukushima safety re-assessment, and (D)radioactive waste management. (author)

  13. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... Among other things, President Bush publicly stated in 2001 that the United States would do "whatever it takes" to help Taiwan's defense and approved, in April 2001, a substantial sale of U.S. weapons to Taiwan...

  15. Contribution to a Revised Orchid Flora of Taiwan (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jye Su

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Orchidaceae, Listera meifongensis is described from Taiwan. The native species of Galeola in Taiwan are also revised. Illustrations and taxonomic notes are given for these species.

  16. Factors associated with Taiwan anesthesiologists' intention to leave anesthesia practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-O Wang

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Unfavorable working conditions were considered to lower the satisfaction of anesthesiologists in Taiwan. In particular, an inability to take care of the family and a low salary were major factors in deterring anesthesiologists in Taiwan from continuing in anesthesia.

  17. Underreporting of maternal mortality in Taiwan: A data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Pi Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.

  18. The Research of Foreign Exchange Exposures in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi Chen

    2006-01-01

    The research will be mainly focused on the relationship between the stock returns and the fluctuation of foreign exchange rate exposure in Taiwan listed corporations. Due to the environmental limitations and in sufficient resources, if Taiwan inclines to develop international trade, the exchange market plays an important role in the advances of Taiwan's economy. Therefore, the fluctuations of foreign exchange rate must have a substantially impact on the profitability of industries in Taiwan.

  19. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO 2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO 2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO 2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO 2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m 3 in 2000 and 784 m 3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m 3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental

  20. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  1. An Event Study of Chinese Tourists to Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); S.-H. Hsu (Shu-Han); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe number of Chinese tourists visiting Taiwan has been closely related to the political relationship across the Taiwan Strait. The occurrence of political events and disasters or accidents have had, and will continue to have, a huge impact on the Taiwan tourism market. To date,

  2. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  3. 75 FR 15726 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl.... industry was materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports of PVA from Taiwan... Alcohol From Taiwan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation...

  4. 27 October 2014 - H.E. Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis

  5. The Study of Aeromagnetic Surveys in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. T.; Tong, L. T.; Lin, W.; Chang, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne magnetic survey is a cost-effective method for regional geological investigation. Most of developed countries use aeromagnetic data as important fundamental information for resources development. The first aeromagnetic survey was conducted in the offshore areas of west and southern Taiwan in 1968 by U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office to help Taiwan finding oil. Later, in 2007, a helicopter-borne magnetic survey was proceed in east Taiwan for underground granite bodies. In order to improve better understanding of deep geological structures associated with the Holocene volcanism in Taiwan, we applied helicopter-borne magnetic technique in northern Taiwan include Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) and Kueishan island in 2013 and 2014 to obtain the distribution information of potential magma chamber as well as hydrothermal pathways along regional geological structures. The most important findings of the high-resolution aeromagnetic dataset since 1960's to 2014 acquired include: (1) the distribution of subsurface igneous rocks and the Curie point depth in Tatun Volcano Group, Keelung Volcano Group, and Kueishantao Volcano; (2) the widely distributed NE high-magnetic belts in northern Taiwan may be associated with NE fractures created by long-term subsidence in this area; (3) the high-magnetic belts in south of Lanyang River which is very different from the magnetic characteristics of the Central Range may imply paleo oceanic plate; (4) the NE high-magnetic belts in Penghu area formed by magma intrusion along NE fractures and the dense and high-magnetic anomalies may be associated with the Miocene basaltic lava overlying on the pre-Tertiary igneous dykes and are widely spread in northern Penghu area. The new aeromagnetic survey techniques help us to investigate the areas with steep terrain or covered by dense vegetation which was difficult to obtain reasonable geological understanding, and also provide an opportunity for us to apply the geothermal energy prospecting.

  6. Development of Legal Norms on Marriage and Divorce in Cambodia : The Civil Code Between Foreign Inputs and Local Growth (2)

    OpenAIRE

    KUONG, Teilee

    2016-01-01

    This second part of the research focuses on the development of law on divorce in Cambodia, aiming at identifying the continuation and changes in the legislative development of Cambodia in regulating divorce and post-divorce relationship. It starts with a brief overview of the legislative development from the early 20th century up till the latest codification of the 2007 Civil Code. Along this line of historical narratives, the research then examines two important elements in the legal effects...

  7. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  8. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm co-infection: spatial distribution and determinants in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chammartin, Frédérique; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-01-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection risk and to investigate determinants of co-infection in Preah Vihear Province, North Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in 60 villages of Preah Vihear Province. Diagnosis was performed on two stool samples, using combined Baermann technique and Koga agar culture plate for S. stercoralis and Kato-Katz technique for hookworm. Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were used to assess demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural determinants of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection and to predict co-infection risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2576 participants included in the study, 48.6% and 49.0% were infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm, respectively; 43.8% of the cases were co-infections. Females, preschool aged children, adults aged 19-49 years, and participants who reported regularly defecating in toilets, systematically boiling drinking water and having been treated with anthelmintic drugs had lower odds of co-infection. While S. stercoralis infection risk did not appear to be spatially structured, hookworm mono-infection and co-infection exhibited spatial correlation at about 20 km. Co-infection risk was positively associated with longer walking distances to a health centre and exhibited a small clustering tendency. The association was only partly explained by climatic variables, suggesting a role for underlying factors, such as

  10. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Chheng

    Full Text Available Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th 2009 and October 12(th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR age was 2.0 (0.8-6.4 years, with 850 (69% episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%, scrub typhus (7.8%, and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%. 76 (6.3% episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%, Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%, Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%, Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5% and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%. There were 69 deaths (5.6%, including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19, dengue virus (5, and melioidosis (4. 10 of 69 (14.5% deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-6.9. Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant. Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2, as were HIV infection and cardiac disease.We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines

  11. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Chaorattanakawee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Methods Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai–Cambodian and Thai–Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2 assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. Results IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai–Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA, though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Conclusions Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in

  12. Factors associated with induced abortion among female entertainment workers: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-07-31

    To explore risk factors associated with induced abortion among sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia. This study included 556 FEWs aged 18-47 years randomly selected from entertainment establishments in the two cities in 2014 using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. History of induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. Of the total sample, 45.6% reported currently using a contraceptive method with condom (42.4%) being the most common method, followed by pills (25.6%). One-fourth (25%) of the respondents reported having been pregnant at least once, and 21.4% reported having at least one induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. After controlling for other covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model, FEWs with a history of induced abortion remained significantly more likely to be currently working in a karaoke bar (AOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.78), to have worked longer as a FEW (AOR=1.42, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43), to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the past 12 months (AOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54), to be currently using a contraceptive method (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), to be able to find condoms when they needed them (AOR=2.03, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.82), and to report inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners in the past 3 months (AOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.44). This study highlights the high rates of unwanted pregnancies that ended in induced abortions among FEWs in Cambodia. Access of FEWs to quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services is deemed a high priority. Integrated interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health among these vulnerable women should be tailored to reach the most-at-risk groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  13. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Weissman

    Full Text Available Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia.Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited.The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%, were young (median age 23, IQR [20-27], had secondary education or higher (80.5%, not married (89.7%, and employed (90.2%. The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%, with a male (79.9%, 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%. The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8% and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35-44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30-34, only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37, 23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09, 7.73], inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33], and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR = 3.25 [1.35, 7.85] were

  14. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established

  15. Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsrichanalai Chansuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the link between pfmdr1 copy number, in vitro susceptibility to individual drugs and treatment failure to combination therapy. Methods Blood samples were collected from P. falciparum-infected patients enrolled in two in vivo efficacy studies in north-western Cambodia: 135 patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL group in Sampovloun in 2002 and 2003, and 140 patients with artesunate-mefloquine (AM group in Sampovloun and Veal Veng in 2003 and 2004. At enrollment, the in vitro IC50 was tested and the strains were genotyped for pfmdr1 copy number by real-time PCR. Results The pfmdr1 copy number was analysed for 115 isolates in the AM group, and for 109 isolates in the AL group. Parasites with increased pfmdr1 copy number had significantly reduced in vitro susceptibility to mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate. There was no association between pfmdr1 polymorphisms and in vitro susceptibilities. In the patients treated with AM, the mean pfmdr1copy number was lower in subjects with adequate clinical and parasitological response compared to those who experienced late treatment failure (n = 112, p p = 0.364. The presence of three or more copies of pfmdr1 were associated with recrudescence in artesunate-mefloquine treated patients (hazard ratio (HR = 7.80 [95%CI: 2.09–29.10], N = 115, p = 0.002 but not with recrudescence in artemether-lumefantrine treated patients (HR = 1.03 [95%CI: 0.24–4.44], N = 109, p = 0.969. Conclusion This study shows that pfmdr1 copy number is a molecular

  16. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for

  17. Tuberculosis active case finding in Cambodia: a pragmatic, cost-effectiveness comparison of three implementation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard; Khim, Keovathanak; Boudarene, Lydia; Yoong, Joanne; Phalla, Chea; Saint, Saly; Koeut, Pichenda; Mao, Tan Eang; Coker, Richard; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2017-08-22

    Globally, almost 40% of tuberculosis (TB) patients remain undiagnosed, and those that are diagnosed often experience prolonged delays before initiating correct treatment, leading to ongoing transmission. While there is a push for active case finding (ACF) to improve early detection and treatment of TB, there is extremely limited evidence about the relative cost-effectiveness of different ACF implementation models. Cambodia presents a unique opportunity for addressing this gap in evidence as ACF has been implemented using different models, but no comparisons have been conducted. The objective of our study is to contribute to knowledge and methodology on comparing cost-effectiveness of alternative ACF implementation models from the health service perspective, using programmatic data, in order to inform national policy and practice. We retrospectively compared three distinct ACF implementation models - door to door symptom screening in urban slums, checking contacts of TB patients, and door to door symptom screening focusing on rural populations aged above 55 - in terms of the number of new bacteriologically-positive pulmonary TB cases diagnosed and the cost of implementation assuming activities are conducted by the national TB program of Cambodia. We calculated the cost per additional case detected using the alternative ACF models. Our analysis, which is the first of its kind for TB, revealed that the ACF model based on door to door screening in poor urban areas of Phnom Penh was the most cost-effective (249 USD per case detected, 737 cases diagnosed), followed by the model based on testing contacts of TB patients (308 USD per case detected, 807 cases diagnosed), and symptomatic screening of older rural populations (316 USD per case detected, 397 cases diagnosed). Our study provides new evidence on the relative effectiveness and economics of three implementation models for enhanced TB case finding, in line with calls for data from 'routine conditions' to be included

  18. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel H; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M; Day, Nicholas P J; Kumar, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th) 2009 and October 12(th) 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8-6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational

  19. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  20. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  1. Russia-Taiwan Relations: History and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vradiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of potential possibilities for the development of business, scientific and technical cooperation, Taiwan could be considered as a prospective partner for Russian businessmen in East Asia. It is defined by the island’s high degree of import dependence upon main categories of raw material resources and by its leading role in producing a number of articles in the manufacturing industry. The article will briefly review the contemporary history of Russia’s relations with Taiwan. It will also analyze the current status and presume the possibility for future prospects of bilateral economic and trade relations.

  2. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Yoon, In-Kyu; Vong, Sirenda; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Gibbons, Robert V.; Mammen, Mammen P.; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Buathong, Rome; Huy, Rekol; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2011-01-01

    Background Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries. Methods and Findings Cohort studies were conducted among children aged dengue field site consortium over at least 2 dengue seasons. Age-group specific multiplication factors (MFs) were computed by comparing data from three cohort studies to national surveillance data in the same province and year. In Thailand, 14,627 person-years of prospective cohort data were obtained in two provinces and 14,493 person-years from one province in Cambodia. Average annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue was 23/1,000 and 25/1,000 in Thailand, and 41/1,000 in Cambodia. Calculated MFs in these provinces varied by age-group and year (range 0.4–29). Average age-group specific MFs were then applied to country-level reporting data and indicated that in Thailand a median 229,886 (range 210,612–331,236) dengue cases occurred annually during 2003–2007 and a median 111,178 (range 80,452–357,135) cases occurred in Cambodia in children dengue cases was 8.7 and 2.6-fold in Thailand, and 9.1 and 1.4-fold in Cambodia, respectively. During the high-incidence year 2007, >95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue. Conclusion Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly

  3. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  4. Prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical outcomes in Takeo Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörchen, Manfred; Langdon, Toby; Ormsby, Gail M; Meng, Ngy; Seiha, Do; Piseth, Kong; Keeffe, Jill E

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical outcomes in persons 50 years or older above in Takeo Province, Cambodia. A population based survey. A total of 93 villages were selected through probability proportionate to size using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Households from 93 villages were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) of 4650 people 50 years or older was tested and lens status and cause of visual impairment were assessed. The response rate was 96.2%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness [presenting visual acuity (PVA) blind in Takeo Province. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of low vision (PVA blind was 64.7% (female 59.5%, male 78.1%). Cataract surgical outcome was poor (best-corrected visual acuity blindness. A repeated survey using the same methodology after 8-12 years might be helpful in proving genuine change over time.

  5. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations.

  6. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T; McKinney, Barbara; Pierson, Antoine; Luong, Khue N; Hoang, Quynh T; Meharwal, Sandeep; Carvalho, Humberto M; Nguyen, Cuong Q; Nguyen, Kim T; Bond, Kyle B

    2014-01-01

    The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme. However, the paper-based format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results. In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors' feedback about usability. The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  7. Becoming and being academic women in Cambodia: Cultural and other understandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TW Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia’s higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the assistance of NVivo. Becoming an academic for many Cambodian women meant support from their parents and others close to them. Receipt of an international scholarship may have been critical. Perhaps the most important issue for these academic women was the need to balance demands on their time. Teaching hours could be negotiated, potentially at least, but only where the student numbers warranted it. An affirmative action approach appears to have developed at one of the two universities. Areas for future research are identified.

  8. Lost in translation? How project actors shape REDD+ policy and outcomes in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Forest protection policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are currently being implemented by international donors, governments and conservation agencies across the developing world aiming for reduction of greenhouse gases while ensuring fair distribution...... of benefits. This paper draws on a case study in northern Cambodia to analyse how conservation practitioners and the local forest management committees engaged in implementing REDD+ actively translate and influence the policy and its implementation in accordance with their respective interests through...... particular communication strategies. When assessing project progress and outcomes, the conservation practitioners involved in implementing projects show an interest in emphasising positive project assessments by downplaying potential project complications, and by primarily communicating with pro...

  9. Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: the impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; Men, Chean R; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    Public providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the geographic spread of HEFs over time in Cambodia to identify their impact on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Among households with some OOP payment, HEFs reduce the amount paid by 35%, on average. The effect is larger for households that are poorer and mainly use public health care. Reimbursement of providers through a government operated scheme also reduces household OOP payments but the effect is not as well targeted on the poor. Both compensation models raise household non-medical consumption but have no impact on health-related debt. HEFs reduce the probability of primarily seeking care in the private sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Moringa oleifera from Cambodia Ameliorates Oxidative Stress, Hyperglycemia, and Kidney Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujiao; Choi, Eun-Ju; Han, Weon Cheol; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Jin; Hwang, Ji-Young; Park, Pyo-Jam; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the antidiabetic effect of Moringa oleifera from various parts of the world. However, M. oleifera from Cambodia has never determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera extract from Cambodia. The leaf ethanolic extract contained flavonoids (31.90 mg/mL), polyphenols (53.03 mg/mL), lycopene (0.042 mg/mL), and ß-carotene (0.170 mg/mL), and possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 92.40, 99.25, and 83.57 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL, respectively. Db/db mice were orally administered the leaf extract (150 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered fasting plasma glucose (from 483 to 312 mg/dL), triglyceride (from 42.12 to 23.00 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 107.21 to 64.25 mg/dL) compared to control group, and increased the insulin levels from 946 ± 92 to 1678 ± 268 pg/mL. The histopathological damage and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal tissue decreased. These results indicate the potential antidiabetic benefits of M. oleifera ethanolic leaf extract.

  11. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-11-02

    Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  12. The multi-step process of building TB/HIV collaboration in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eang Mao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS have synergistic health impacts in terms of disease development and progression. Therefore, collaborative TB and HIV/AIDS activities are a logical health systems response. However, the establishment of these activities presents a challenge for countries that have strong vertical disease programs that differ in their implementation philosophies. Here, we review the process by which TB/HIV collaboration was established in Cambodia. A cycle of overlapping and mutually reinforcing initiatives – local research; piloted implementation with multiple options; and several rounds of policy formulation guided by a cross-functional Technical Working Group – was used to drive nationwide introduction of a full set of TB/HIV collaborative activities. Senior Ministry of Health officials and partner organizations brought early attention to TB/HIV. Both national programs implemented initial screening and testing interventions, even in the absence of a detailed, overarching framework. The use of multiple options for HIV testing identified which programmatic options worked best, and early implementation and pilots determined what unanswered questions required further research. Local conduct of this research – on co-treatment timing and TB symptom screening – speeded adoption of the results into policy guidance, and clarified the relative roles of the two programs. Roll-out is continuing, and results for a variety of key indicators, including screening PLHIV for TB, and testing TB patients for HIV, are at 70-80% and climbing. This experience in Cambodia illustrates the influence of health research on policy, and demonstrates that clear policy guidance, the pursuit of incremental advances, and the use of different approaches to generate evidence can overcome structural barriers to change and bring direct benefits to patients.

  13. Artemisinin resistance without pfkelch13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Angana; Bopp, Selina; Magistrado, Pamela; Wong, Wesley; Daniels, Rachel; Demas, Allison; Schaffner, Stephen; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Dhorda, Mehul; Miotto, Olivo; Woodrow, Charles; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Wirth, Dyann; Fairhurst, Rick; Volkman, Sarah K

    2017-05-12

    Artemisinin resistance is associated with delayed parasite clearance half-life in vivo and correlates with ring-stage survival under dihydroartemisinin in vitro. Both phenotypes are associated with mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 pfkelch13 gene. Recent spread of artemisinin resistance and emerging piperaquine resistance in Southeast Asia show that artemisinin combination therapy, such as dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, are losing clinical effectiveness, prompting investigation of drug resistance mechanisms and development of strategies to surmount emerging anti-malarial resistance. Sixty-eight parasites isolates with in vivo clearance data were obtained from two Tracking Resistance to Artemisinin Collaboration study sites in Cambodia, culture-adapted, and genotyped for pfkelch13 and other mutations including pfmdr1 copy number; and the RSA 0-3h survival rates and response to antimalarial drugs in vitro were measured for 36 of these isolates. Among these 36 parasites one isolate demonstrated increased ring-stage survival for a PfKelch13 mutation (D584V, RSA 0-3h  = 8%), previously associated with slow clearance but not yet tested in vitro. Several parasites exhibited increased ring-stage survival, yet lack pfkelch13 mutations, and one isolate showed evidence for piperaquine resistance. This study of 68 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Cambodia with known clearance values, associated the D584V PfKelch13 mutation with increased ring-stage survival and identified parasites that lack pfkelch13 mutations yet exhibit increased ring-stage survival. These data suggest mutations other than those found in pfkelch13 may be involved in conferring artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum. Piperaquine resistance was also detected among the same Cambodian samples, consistent with reports of emerging piperaquine resistance in the field. These culture-adapted parasites permit further investigation of mechanisms of both artemisinin and piperaquine

  14. Economic inequality and undernutrition in women: multilevel analysis of individual, household, and community levels in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Hong, Rathmony

    2007-03-01

    Many people in developing countries are still struggling to emerge from the realm of extreme poverty, where economic improvements tend to benefit a small, affluent group of the population and cause growing inequality in health and nutrition that affects the most vulnerable groups of the population, including women and children. To examine how household and community economic inequality affects nutritional status in women using information on 6,922 nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years included in the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey. Nutritional status is defined with the use of the body-mass index (BMI). BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 is defined as undernourishment. The household wealth index was calculated from household ownership of durable assets and household characteristics. Community wealth is an average household wealth index at the community level. Household and community economic inequalities were measured by dividing the wealth index into quintiles. The effects of household and community economic inequality were estimated by multilevel analysis. Independently of community economic status and other risk factors, women in the poorest 20% of households are more likely to be undernourished than women in the richest 20% of households (RR = 1.63; p = .008). The results also show variation among communities in the nutritional status of women. Age, occupation, and access to safe sources of drinking water are significantly associated with women's nutritional status. Improving household income and creating employment opportunities for women, in particular poor women, may be a key to improving the nutritional status of women in Cambodia.

  15. Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

    2014-06-01

    In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cultural Epigenesis of Gender-Based Violence in Cambodia: Local and Buddhist Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-06-01

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators. From these results, the eight cultural forces, or cultural attractors, that are seen to propel a person to violence were identified. Violence stemmed from blighted endowment, or 'bad building' (sɑmnaaŋ mɨn lʔɑɑ) determined by deeds in a previous life (kam). Children with a vicious character (kmeeŋ kaac or doṣa-carita) might grow to be abusers, and particular birthmarks on boys were thought to be portents. Krʊəh, or mishap, especially when a female's horoscope predicted a zodiac house on the descent (riesəy), explained vulnerability to violence and its timing. Astrological incompatibility (kuu kam) was a risk factor. Lust, anger and ignorance, the 'Triple Poison', fuelled it. 'Entering the road to ruin' (apāyamuk), including alcohol abuse, womanising and gambling, triggered it. Confusion and loss of judgement (mohā) led to moral blindness (mo baŋ). These were the eight cultural attractors that shaped the landscape of violence against women. The cultural epigenesis of violence against women in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women. An understanding of the epigenesis of violence could strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women.

  17. Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

    2012-04-01

    The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55-2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96-2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95-2.30). These associations were even stronger in women - the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid-infectious disease association. Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal-oral) of the betel quid ingredients. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geochemistry of aquifer sediments and arsenic-rich groundwaters from Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Helen A.L.; Gault, Andrew G.; Lythgoe, Paul; Polya, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated As is well known to be present in aquifers utilised for drinking water and irrigation in West Bengal and Bangladesh. This problem has also more recently been discovered in other parts of Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Inner Mongolia and the Middle Ganges Plain. Analysis of groundwaters in Kandal Province of Cambodia found waters with comparable geochemistry to the As-rich groundwaters of the West Bengali Delta. Similarities included high but heterogeneous As distributions, predominantly in the form As(III), high Fe, moderate to high HCO 3 - , circumneutral pH, low SO 4 2- and geochemical components indicative of reducing conditions. Good positive correlations between As, Fe, HCO 3 - and NH 4 + , and dissolved organic C is consistent with As release predominantly via microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As bearing Fe(III) oxides. Further evidence for such a process is found from correlations between As, Fe and organic matter from analysis of aquifer sediments, by the presence of goethite in the finer fractions and from the association of As with amorphous, poorly crystalline and well crystallised hydrous Fe oxides. The presence of several high As, but low Fe, wells implies that microbes could have a more direct role in mediating As release via the direct utilisation of Fe(III) or As(V) as electron acceptors. The presence of elevated As in waters with short aquifer residence times (as indicated by their geochemical signature) highlights the possible vulnerability of these aquifers to the influx of surface derived waters, providing an additional source of labile organic C that could exacerbate As release by stimulating microbial activity

  19. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria.A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity.The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for

  20. Tuberculosis case-finding in Cambodia: analysis of case notification data, 2000 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furphy, Valérie Burrus; Kobayashi, Miwako; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Eang, Mao Tan; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The routine tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system in Cambodia has been strengthened under the National TB Programme (NTP). This paper provides an overview of the TB surveillance data for Cambodia at the national level for the period 2000 to 2013 and at the subnational level for 2013. The proportion of the total population that were screened for TB rose from 0.4% in 2001 to 1.1% in 2013, while the smear-positivity rate decreased from 28.9% to 8.1% in the same period. The total number of notified TB cases increased steadily from 2000; this has stabilized in recent years with 39 055 cases notified in 2013. The proportion of all TB cases that were smear-positive decreased from 78% in 2000 to 36% in 2013. Case notification rates (CNRs) for all forms of TB and new smear-positive TB in 2013 were 261 and 94 per 100 000 population, respectively. Higher CNRs were found in the north-western and south-eastern parts of the country and were higher for males especially in older age groups. The increase in TB screening, decline in the smear-positive rate and decline in notified smear-positive TB cases likely reflect a long-term positive impact of the NTP. A negative correlation between the proportion of the population screened and the smear-positivity rate at the subnational level helped identify where to find undiagnosed cases. Subnational differences in case notification of the elderly and in children provide more specific targets for case-finding and further encourage strategic resource allocation. PMID:25960919

  1. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  2. Artyfechinostomum malayanum: Metacercariae Encysted in Pila sp. Snails Purchased from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Sinuon, Muth; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-06-01

    The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0-8.1 × 1.6-2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120-135 × 68-75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.

  3. Removing arsenic from groundwater in Cambodia using high performance iron adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Takeda, R; Nada, A; Thavarith, L; Tang, S; Nuki, K; Sakurai, K

    2014-09-01

    In Cambodia, groundwater has been contaminated with arsenic, and purification of the water is an urgent issue. From 2010 to 2012, an international collaborative project between Japan and Cambodia for developing arsenic-removing technology from well water was conducted and supported by the foundation of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Japan. Quality of well water was surveyed in Kandal, Prey Veng, and Kampong Cham Provinces, and a monitoring trial of the arsenic removal equipment using our patented amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent was performed. Of the 37 wells surveyed, arsenic concentration of 24 exceeded the Cambodian guideline value (50 μg L(-1)), and those of 27 exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 μg L(-1)). Levels of arsenic were extremely high in some wells (>1,000-6,000 μg L(-1)), suggesting that arsenic pollution of groundwater is serious in these areas. Based on the survey results, 16 arsenic removal equipments were installed in six schools, three temples, two health centers, four private houses, and one commune office. Over 10 months of monitoring, the average arsenic concentrations of the treated water were between 0 and 10 μg L(-1) at four locations, 10-50 μg L(-1) at eight locations, and >50 μg L(-1) at four locations. The arsenic removal rate ranged in 83.1-99.7%, with an average of 93.8%, indicating that the arsenic removal equipment greatly lower the risk of arsenic exposure to the residents. Results of the field trial showed that As concentration of the treated water could be reduced to condition. This is one of the succeeding As removal techniques that could reduce As concentration of water below the WHO guideline value for As in situ.

  4. Comparing two survey methods for estimating maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Hoeuy; Heng, Yang Van; Samol, Ha; Husum, Hans

    2008-03-01

    We need solid estimates of maternal mortality rates (MMR) to monitor the impact of maternal care programs. Cambodian health authorities and WHO report the MMR in Cambodia at 450 per 100,000 live births. The figure is drawn from surveys where information is obtained by interviewing respondents about the survival of all their adult sisters (sisterhood method). The estimate is statistically imprecise, 95% confidence intervals ranging from 260 to 620/100,000. The MMR estimate is also uncertain due to under-reporting; where 80-90% of women deliver at home maternal fatalities may go undetected especially where mortality is highest, in remote rural areas. The aim of this study was to attain more reliable MMR estimates by using survey methods other than the sisterhood method prior to an intervention targeting obstetric rural emergencies. The study was carried out in rural Northwestern Cambodia where access to health services is poor and poverty, endemic diseases, and land mines are endemic. Two survey methods were applied in two separate sectors: a community-based survey gathering data from public sources and a household survey gathering data direct from primary sources. There was no statistically significant difference between the two survey results for maternal deaths, both types of survey reported mortality rates around the public figure. The household survey reported a significantly higher perinatal mortality rate as compared to the community-based survey, 8.6% versus 5.0%. Also the household survey gave qualitative data important for a better understanding of the many problems faced by mothers giving birth in the remote villages. There are detection failures in both surveys; the failure rate may be as high as 30-40%. PRINCIPLE CONCLUSION: Both survey methods are inaccurate, therefore inappropriate for evaluation of short-term changes of mortality rates. Surveys based on primary informants yield qualitative information about mothers' hardships important for the design

  5. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined. Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative and serum retinol-binding protein (positive concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  6. Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Pediatric Infection in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chheng, Kheng; Tarquinio, Sarah; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Sin, Lina; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Tumapa, Sarinna; Putchhat, Hor; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST) 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive. Conclusions This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak. PMID:19675670

  7. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  8. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. Methods We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Results Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. Conclusions The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control

  9. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  10. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with pediatric infection in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Chheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection.We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive.This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.

  11. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  12. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  13. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  14. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  15. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  16. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  17. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chang (Ching-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  18. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-H. Chang (Chu-Hsiang)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  19. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  20. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  1. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  2. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung

    2009-01-01

    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  3. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  4. Industrialization and Household Complexity in Rural Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, William

    1990-01-01

    In 274 Taiwanese townships, farm household complexity in 1960 and 1970 was positively related to the proportion of the labor force in nonagricultural occupations. The close proximity of industry to family farms in Taiwan has reduced rural to urban migration usually associated with industrialization. Contains 46 references. (Author/SV)

  5. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final phase of an.... 1673d(b)) (the Act) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially...

  6. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Taiwan, China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Taiwan. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through...

  7. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  8. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  9. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  10. An explorative study of the practice of light trapping and the informal market for crickets in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke-Svendsen, C.; Ao, V.; Lach, T.

    2018-01-01

    was to describe the informal food sector for wild caught crickets in Cambodia. The information was collected in April-May 2012. Information on collection equipment and techniques, processing and trade were obtained from light trap owners, traders, market vendors and governmental representatives. Five cricket......Edible insects are an integrated part of the food sector in many South-East Asian countries. While the majority of studies focus on Thailand and its cricket farming sector, neighbouring countries like Cambodia and Laos also form a regional market for edible insects. The aim of this research...... species were identified to be the main trade object. Cricket trapping contributed to livelihoods of rural households operating in a self-governing market. As the crickets are caught from the wild, the sustainability of the market has to be questioned. The use of a framework to structure future studies...

  11. Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwic, Aaron; Kim, Erin; Khema, Cinn; Phanna, Chet; Sophary, Phan; Cantwell, Raymond E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in rural households in Cambodia that have adopted household water treatment. The following factors were significantly associated (α E. coli contamination: cleaning the drinking vessel with untreated water, not drying the cup (with a cloth), accessing treated water by the use of a scoop (ref: using a tap), having more than one untreated water storage container, having an untreated water storage container that appeared dirty on the outside, and cows living within 10 m of the household. This study provides further evidence confirming previous studies reporting an association between inadequate cleanliness of water storage containers and household drinking water contamination, and identifies practical recommendations statistically associated with reduced post-treatment E. coli contamination in the household setting in rural Cambodia.

  12. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  13. Policies and legislation driving Taiwan's development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2010-01-01

    Under the current wave of international responses to the growing threat of climate change, Taiwan cannot afford to step back from its goal of advancing its renewable energy, strengthening its energy self sufficiency and energy security. This paper will first analyze the high level dependency structure of Taiwan's energy demands; then we will explore Taiwan current situation in terms of renewable energy development; furthermore from an overview of the course of changes and development in Taiwan's energy policy, highlight the commitment to and aims of Taiwan's Renewable Energy Development, made by the government at the Annual National Energy Conference. Fourth, we shall analyse technological R and D, incentives, taxes, market reforms and other related policy tools. Fifth, in light of public announcements and budgets set in recent years for Taiwan's renewable energy research plan, highlight main strategies being given impetus by the government. Sixth, the author will discuss the implications of recent significant legal reforms to the development of renewable energy in Taiwan and from the correlating aspects of industrial structures and energy consumption, take the first steps in emphasizing the urgent need for adjustments to be made to Taiwan's industrial structure. Finally, this paper will conclude by examining current policies, legislation and strategies which are in place to promote this area in Taiwan and discuss the potential competitiveness and future scenarios which the development of Renewable Energy could mean for Taiwan. (author)

  14. Point‐of‐sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the prevalence of point‐of‐sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point‐of‐sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one‐third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point‐of‐sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one‐third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu).Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores.Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS.Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  15. Health and safety management practices of contractors in South East Asia: A multi country study of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, P.; Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Phung, V. M.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ath, C.; Heng, A. Y. T.; Kit, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The construction sector is notorious for accounting for numerous occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses in many countries. In emerging economies this situation could be direr, and health and safety (H&S) management by contractors is important to tackling this. This study investigated the H&S management practices of contractors in three South East Asian countries (Malaysia, Vietnam, and Cambodia) with the view to highlighting implementation issues. A questionnaire instrument containing 40...

  16. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition

  17. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.

  18. Performance-based financing with GAVI health system strengthening funding in rural Cambodia: a brief assessment of the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Obara, Hiromi; Nagai, Mari; Murakami, Hitoshi; Chan Lon, Rasmey

    2014-07-01

    Though Cambodia made impressive gains in immunization coverage between the years 2000 and 2005, it recognized several health system challenges to greater coverage of immunization and sustainability. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) opened a Health System Strengthening (HSS) funding window in 2006. To address the health system challenges, Cambodia has been receiving the GAVI HSS fund since October 2007. The major component of the support is performance-based financing (PBF) for maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services. To examine the impact of the PBF scheme on MNCH services and administrative management in rural Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Kroch Chhmar Operational District (OD), Cambodia. Quantitative analyses were conducted on the trends of the numbers of MNCH services. A brief analysis was conducted using qualitative data. After the commencement of the PBF support, the volume of MNCH services was significantly boosted. In addition, strengthened financial and operational management was observed in the study area. However, the quality of the MNCH services was not ensured. Technical assistance, rather than the PBF scheme, was perceived by stakeholders to play a vital role in increasing the quality of the services. To improve the quality of the health services provided, it is better to include indicators on the quality of care in the PBF scheme. Mutual co-operation between PBF models and technical assistance may ensure better service quality while boosting the quantity. A robust but feasible data validation mechanism should be in place, as a PBF could incentivize inaccurate reporting. The capacity for financial management should be strengthened in PBF recipient ODs. To address the broader aspects of MNCH, a balanced input of resources and strengthening of all six building blocks of a health system are necessary. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  19. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0; HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23% and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%, SS19 (94.37%, and swDQ (91.94%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.

  20. Discrepancy of cytogenetic analysis in Western and eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Pui-Yi; Li, Tzu-Ying; Yeh, Chung-Nan; Li, Yi-Shian; Chu, Shao-Yin; Lee, Ming-Liang

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the results of second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping in western and eastern Taiwan, and identifying any regional differences in the prevalence of fetal chromosomal anomalies. From 2004 to 2009, pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis in their second trimester at three hospitals in western Taiwan and at four hospitals in eastern Taiwan were included. All the cytogenetic analyses of cultured amniocytes were performed in the cytogenetics laboratory of the Genetic Counseling Center of Hualien Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. We used the chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test to evaluate the variants of clinical indications, amniocyte karyotyping results, and prevalence and types of chromosomal anomalies in western and eastern Taiwan. During the study period, 3573 samples, 1990 (55.7%) from western Taiwan and 1583 (44.3%) from eastern Taiwan, were collected and analyzed. The main indication for amniocyte karyotyping was advanced maternal age (69.0% in western Taiwan, 67.1% in eastern Taiwan). The detection rates of chromosomal anomalies by amniocyte karyotyping in eastern Taiwan (45/1582, 2.8%) did not differ significantly from that in western Taiwan (42/1989, 2.1%) (p = 1.58). Mothers who had abnormal ultrasound findings and histories of familial hereditary diseases or chromosomal anomalies had higher detection rates of chromosomal anomalies (9.3% and 7.2%, respectively). The detection rate of autosomal anomalies was higher in eastern Taiwan (93.3% vs. 78.6%, p = 0.046), but the detection rate of sex-linked chromosomal anomalies was higher in western Taiwan (21.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.046). We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (pCambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms.

  2. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  3. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthy, Lay; Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-01-01

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  4. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  5. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  6. Mercury Contamination of Skin-whitening Creams in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Some producers of skin-whitening creams in Thailand, China and Taiwan appear to be aware of the risks of mercury contamination and have modified their products. However, other producers of skin-whitening creams continue to use mercury. XRF analysis allows for rapid screening of mercury in cosmetics and should be used to gather additional information on mercury content in cosmetics in support of public health efforts to stem the import, export and sales of skin creams containing mercury.

  7. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    flights and tourism across the Taiwan Strait in July. While the resumption of the cross-strait dialogue for the first time in a decade was welcomed... Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 Shirley A. Kan Specialist in Asian Security Affairs March 3, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7...number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms

  8. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  9. Coal consumption and economic growth in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the causality issue between coal consumption and economic growth for Taiwan. The co-integration and Granger's causality test are applied to investigate the relationship between the two economic series. Results of the co-integration and Granger's causality test based on 1954--1997 Taiwan data show a unidirectional causality from economic growth to coal consumption with no feedback effects. Their major finding supports the neutrality hypothesis of coal consumption with respect to economic growth. Further, the finding has practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning, as coal conservation is a feasible policy with no damaging repercussions on economic growth

  10. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keh-Chin [Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming [Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lin, Wei-Min [Tainan University of Technology (China)

    2008-01-15

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  11. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming; Lin, Wei-Min

    2008-01-01

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  12. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  13. Taiwan in 2004: Elections, Referenda, and Other Democratic Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    .... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...

  14. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  15. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  17. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P sauce through pregnancy and early lactation had higher eTDP and breast milk thiamine concentrations and their infants had higher eTDP, which was more pronounced in the high group. Thiamine-fortified fish sauce has the potential to prevent infantile beriberi in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02221063.

  18. The clinical and microbiological characteristics of enteric fever in Cambodia, 2008-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M F Kuijpers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from clinical charts and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Whole genome sequence analysis was performed on a subset of 121 isolates.One-hundred-and-ninety unique patients were diagnosed with Salmonella Paratyphi A and 64 with Salmonella Typhi. In the period 2008-2012, Salmonella Paratyphi A comprised 25.5% of 47 enteric fever cases compared to 86.0% of 207 cases during 2013-2015. Presenting symptoms were identical for both serovars but higher median leukocyte counts (6.8 x 109/L vs. 6.3 x 109/L; p = 0.035 and C-reactive protein (CRP values (47.0 mg/L vs. 36 mg/L; p = 0.034 were observed for Salmonella Typhi infections. All but one of the Salmonella Typhi isolates belonged to haplotype H58 associated with multidrug resistance (MDR (i.e. resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole.;42.9% actually displayed MDR compared to none of the Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS was observed in 96.9% (62/64 of Salmonella Typhi isolates versus 11.5% (21/183 of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates (all but one from 2015. All isolates were susceptible to azithromycin and ceftriaxone.In Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Salmonella Paratyphi A now causes the majority of enteric fever cases and decreased susceptibility against ciprofloxacin is increasing. Overall, Salmonella Typhi was significantly more associated with MDR and

  19. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  20. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  1. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone's background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs' high interest in receiving health

  2. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-01-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  3. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N; da Sousa, C P; Paredes, S

    1995-09-16

    To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. 206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. 174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast killed 1.45 people and wounded 1.27. Households with a land mine victim

  4. Iron isotope constraints on arsenic release from Mekong Delta sediments, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Hirata, T.; Yamagata, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Abe, G.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a world-wide environmental problem and threatens more than 100 million people living in delta areas of South, SE and East Asia. It is typically associated with reducing aquifers with organic-rich alluvial sediments, little thermal gradients, low sulfate concentrations, and slow flushing rates. Such conditions are typical for low-lying countries in Asian deltas; however, compared to Bangladesh, Cambodia has received far less attention. Upon reductive dissolution of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides that adsorbed As, Fe and As are released into solution as dissolved Fe2+ and arsenate, respectively. Following the oxidation of dissolved Fe2+, newly-formed Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides adsorb As again. Thus, in anoxic waters, concentrations of As correlate with those of dissolved Fe2+. Fluctuating redox conditions in the aquifer are control As release, although inhibition of adsorption of arsenate and arsenite onto the Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides occurs when the concentrations of phosphate, bicarbonate, silicate, and/or organic matter become sufficiently high. Biogeochemical redox reactions of Fe result in significant isotope fractionation (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008). We hypothesized that magnitude of isotope fractionation of Fe in the aquifer sediments, reflecting repeated (incomplete) redox reactions of Fe, may be proportional to the amount of total As release. We aim to calibrate the As release from aquifer sediment by Fe isotope analysis. As a preliminary study, series of sediment samples were collected from the Mekong Delta, Cambodia, in September 2016. Based on measurements by XRF, ICP-AES and ICP-MS, concentrations of As varied significantly covering the range from 4.5 to 15.5 µg/g with a median value of 11 µg/g (higher than the average crustal value of 5 µg/g), and those of Fe is from 2.6 to 9.7 wt.% with a median value of 7.1 wt.%. Concentrations of As and Fe show positive correlation (R2 = 0.72), indicating an effective redox cycling of Fe and As as

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING IN CAMBODIA: A LESSON LEARNED FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Rosita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  This study examines organic rice contract farming inCambodiaand its impact on farmers’ livelihood. The study’s objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme inCambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers’ livelihoods. This study contributes new research findings on contract farming practices and farmers’ livelihood due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu province,Cambodia.Rice contract farming is not widespread inCambodiaat present, but is expected to expand significantly in the near future. Contract farming can increase investment into agricultural and infrastructure in rural areas. Contract farming can also enable farmers to access credit, inputs, technical advice and information about market condition and pricing trends. Yet, the disadvantages of contract farming include loss of farmer bargaining power and a potential reduction in profit margins, increased emphasis on improving production quality, land consolidation in favor of participating contract farmers, and less secure livelihoods.In this study, the contract farming arrangements of Angkor Kasekam Rongroeung (AKR Company is studied. A survey of 16 contract farmers and 20 non-contract farmers in Kampong Speu province has been undertaken to examine the AKR contract farming scheme arrangements and to identify farmer’s motivations to participate in contract farming and its impact on farmers’ livelihood.AKR rice contract farming improves farmers’ livelihood because they get a higher income and rice yields. Higher price, good rice seed, and access to market are the main reasons for farmers to participate in AKR contract farming. However, strict requirements, heavy penalties, poor extension services, and lack of information about the contract terms and conditions reduce farmers’ long-term participation in contract farming. In addition

  6. Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tan Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, melioidosis is an emerging disease that suddenly increased in the Er-Ren River Basin, beginning in 2005 and in the Zoynan region during 2008–2012, following a typhoon. Additionally, the disease sporadically increased in a geography-dependent manner in 2016. Subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, and the inhalation of soil or water contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei are recognized as the transmission modes of melioidosis. The appearance of environmental B. pseudomallei positivity in northern, central and southern Taiwan is associated with disease prevalence (cases/population: 0.03/100,000 in the northern region, 0.29/100,000 in the central region and 1.98/100,000 in the southern region. However, melioidosis-clustered areas are confined to 5 to 7.5 km2 hot spots containing high-density populations, but B. pseudomallei-contaminated environments are located >5 km northwestern of the periphery of these hot spots. The observation that the concentration of B. pseudomallei-specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind in a hot spot indicated that airborne transmission had occurred in Taiwan. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of a contaminated crop field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity in aerosols collected from the southeast over a two-year period. The genotype ST58 was identified by multilocus sequence typing in human and aerosol isolates. The genotype ST1001 has increased in prevalence but has been sporadically distributed elsewhere since 2016. These data indicate the transmission modes and environmental foci that support the dissemination of melioidosis are changing in Taiwan.

  7. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen); Yi-Hsu; Cheng-Jen Lin; Kongkiti Phusavat; Nirote Sinnarong

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwan aquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This study is derived from a need to improve the distribution performance of agricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demands in Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived from both a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategies are developed. This development is based on key success factors and strategies for...

  8. Low-level radwaste transportation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, L.F.; Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the past ten years, 273 voyages have been made to ship radwaste produced by nuclear power plants and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). It more or less lowers the problem of insufficient storage space in Taiwan. Although all organizations followed various regulations to operate the transportation, ten events occurred in marine transport. However, they were ordinary incidents and neither released any radiation to contaminate the environment nor caused any casualty. (J.P.N.)

  9. Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Po Yang

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation of the Manual of Taiwan Vascular Plants, name changes for 7 dicots are needed. Four new names are given: Melastoma scaberrima (Hayata Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, Medinilla taiwaniana Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, Rhaphiolepis indica (L. Lindley ex Ker var. shilanensis Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, and Helwingia japonica (Thunb. Dietr. ssp. taiwaniana Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu.

  10. Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Lung Lin; Tian- Syh Liu

    2003-01-01

    The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops during the holidays and gradually rises to an average level after the ho...

  11. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  12. Radiation chemistry in Taiwan, fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, U.P.

    1980-01-01

    Both fundamental and applied research works on radiation chemistry in Taiwan have been described from the view point of economic development of new radiation chemical industry by applying unique chemical reactions on radiation processing. Seven items on the basic and applied research works and the status of recent industrial development of radiation chemistry have been consequently selected to be delineated as the major contents along this line in this paper. (author)

  13. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  14. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  15. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  16. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  17. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  18. Invasive Candidiasis: An Overview from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yuan Ruan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, especially in critically ill patients. We review the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis with an emphasis on data from Taiwan. An increasing incidence of candidemia became apparent from 1980 to the end of the 1990s, followed by relative stability. Crude mortality rates of patients with candidemia were in the range of 35% to 60%. Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan and accounts for more than 50% of all cases. Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis are the three most common nonalbicansCandida species that cause invasive candidiasis. The above four Candida species account for more than 90% of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan. Overall, invasive Candida isolates have remained highly susceptible to fluconazole (> 90% susceptibility over the past two decades. However, periodic surveillance is needed to monitor antifungal resistance because reduced fluconazole susceptibility in non-albicans Candida is not an uncommon trend. Voriconazole and echinocandins continue to exhibit excellent in vitro activity against invasive Candida isolates.

  19. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  20. Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. PMID:23467308

  1. Cross-Market Linkages of Taiwan Index Futures Contracts Listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange and the Singapore Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng "Wilson" Liu; Gyoungsin "Daniel" Park

    2007-01-01

    Cointegration tests and ex ante trading rules are applied to study cross-market linkages between the Taiwan Index futures contracts listed on the Singapore Exchange and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization-weighted Stock Index futures contracts listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange. The exchange rate-adjusted returns of the two futures series do not differ significantly in mean but in variances, and show significant mean-reverting tendencies between them. Our trading strategies are able t...

  2. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  3. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-01-30

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  4. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Active prospective surveillance study with post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infections in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barriers to the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for surgical site infection (SSI surveillance have been described in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the SSI incidence rate in a Cambodian hospital and to compare different modalities of SSI surveillance. We performed an active prospective study with post-discharge surveillance. During the hospital stay, trained surveyors collected the CDC criteria to identify SSI by direct examination of the surgical site. After discharge, a card was given to each included patient to be presented to all practitioners examining the surgical site. Among 167 patients, direct examination of the surgical site identified a cumulative incidence rate of 14 infections per 100 patients. An independent review of medical charts presented a sensitivity of 16%. The sensitivity of the purulent drainage criterion to detect SSIs was 83%. After hospital discharge, 87% of the patients provided follow-up data, and nine purulent drainages were reported by a practitioner (cumulative incidence rate: 20%. Overall, the incidence rate was dependent on the surveillance modalities. The review of medical charts to identify SSIs during hospitalization was not effective; the use of a follow-up card with phone calls for post-discharge surveillance was effective. Keywords: Surgical wound infection, Cambodia, Infection control, Developing countries, Follow-up studies, Feasibility studies

  6. Social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Lubek, I; Dy, B C; Pen, S; Kros, S; Chhit, M

    2003-04-01

    To determine the social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Using a structured behavioural questionnaire, interviews were conducted with 140 direct sex workers attending a health centre in Siem Reap for HIV screening. Consistent condom use with their clients was reported by 78% of sex workers compared to only 20% with their non-paying partners. Consistent condom use with clients was significantly higher among higher income than lower income sex workers (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.18) and those with good rather than poor negotiation skills (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.26), after adjustment for age, educational level, marital status, number of sexual encounters per week, and knowledge of AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The most frequently reported reason for not using condoms with clients was not being able to persuade them (66.7%), while for non-paying partners, the reason was that they loved them (60.0%). To complement the government's current programme of client education, 100% condom policy and brothel administrative measures, additional strategies to increase condom use among clients and non-paying partners should be directed at (i) the social policy and community levels to address sex workers' economic and cultural barriers to condom use, and (ii) personal level empowerment through developing sex workers' condom negotiation skills.

  7. Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

    2013-10-01

    The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Vitamin A supplementation in Cambodia: program coverage and association with greater maternal formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Davinder S; Pee, Saskia de; Sun, Kai; Raju, V K; Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity, mortality, and blindness among children in developing countries. The objective of this study is to characterize the coverage of the Cambodian national vitamin A program among preschool children and to identify risk factors for not receiving vitamin A supplementation. The study subjects were preschool children and their families who participated in the 2005 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative survey. Of 1,547 preschool children, aged 12-59 months, 42.8% received a vitamin A capsule within the last six months. There were no significant differences in paternal education, child age, fever within the last 2 weeks, stunting, underweight, or wasting between children who did or did not receive a vitamin A capsule. Maternal education of > or =10 years (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02-4.29), 7-9 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.15), 4-6 years (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.26-2.32), and 1-3 years (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10-2.06) was associated with the child receiving a vitamin A capsule compared to no formal education in multivariate analyses adjusting for other potential confounders. The national vitamin A supplementation program in Cambodia did not reach over one-half of preschool children in 2005. Greater maternal formal education appears to be an important determinant for receipt of a vitamin A capsule by preschool children.

  9. Who Wants to Save the Forest? Characterizing Community-Led Monitoring in Prey Lang, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turreira-García, Nerea; Meilby, Henrik; Brofeldt, Søren; Argyriou, Dimitris; Theilade, Ida

    2018-06-01

    Community monitoring is believed to be successful only where there is sustained funding, legislation for communities to enforce rules, clear tenure rights, and an enabling environment created by the state. Against this backdrop, we present the case of an autonomous grassroots-monitoring network that took the initiative to protect their forest, in a context, where no external incentives and rule enforcement power were provided. The aim was to analyze the socio-demographic and economic backgrounds, motivations and achievements of forest monitors, compared to non-monitors in the same communities. A total of 137 interviews were conducted in four villages bordering Prey Lang forest in Cambodia. We used binary logit models to identify the factors that influenced the likelihood of being a monitor. Results show that there were few (22%, n = 30) active monitors. Active monitors were intrinsically motivated forest-users, and not specifically associated with a particular gender, ethnicity, or residence-time in that area. The most common interventions were with illegal loggers, and the monitors had a general feeling of success in stopping the illegal activities. Most (73%, n = 22) of them had been threatened by higher authorities and loggers. Our results show that despite the lack of power to enforce rules, absence of external funding and land-ownership rights, and enduring threats of violence and conflicts, autonomous community monitoring may take place when community members are sufficiently motivated by the risk of losing their resources.

  10. Microbioligical Hazard Contamination in Fermented Vegetables Sold in Local Markets in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrun, Rithy; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu; Inatsu, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

     Fermented vegetables are common part of Cambodian diet. The food safety status for these foods has not been investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological hazards that contaminated fermented vegetables. A total of 68 samples of fermented vegetables were purchased randomly from five wet markets in Phnom Penh. The conventional culture methods for microbiological analysis were used. Coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli, Cronobactersakazakii, and Enterobacter spp.), opportunistic non-Entrobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Listeria spp. were found in these fermented foods. The highest contamination rate of Enterococcus spp. was 34% of total fermented vegetable samples, followed by Bacillus spp. coliform bacteria and E. coli (31%, 24% and 10%, respectively). The potential foodborne pathogen, C. sakazakii, was identified in one sample. Fermented mixed vegetables showed higher contamination rate of coliform bacteria (50%) than fermented single-type vegetables (13%). The results showed that fermented vegetables sold in wet market are poor in hygiene. The stage in the processing chain where contamination occurred should be identified and basic sanitary practice should be enforced to improve the food safety of fermented vegetables in Cambodia.

  11. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  12. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’ in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  13. Collaborating for resilience: conflict, collective action, and transformation on Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D. Ratner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on outcomes and lessons learned from a 15-month initiative in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake. Employing the appreciation-influence-control (AIC model of participatory stakeholder engagement, the initiative built shared understanding of the sources of vulnerability in fisheries livelihoods and catalyzed collective action to support resilience in this valuable and productive social-ecological system. Outcomes include the transfer of a large, commercial fishing concession to community access, and resolution of a boundary dispute involving community fishery organizations in neighboring provinces. Motivated by these successes, the main national grassroots network representing fishing communities also modified its internal governance and strategy of engagement to emphasize constructive links with government and the formal NGO sector. The AIC approach, we argue, provides an effective route to enable collective action in ways that strengthen dialogue and collaboration across scales, fostering the conditions for local-level transformations that can contribute to improvement in governance. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications for resilience practice.

  14. Land Reforms and the Tragedy of the Anticommons—A Case Study from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the land reforms of recent decades have followed an approach of “formalization and capitalization” of individual land titles (de Soto 2000. However, within the privatization agenda, benefits of unimproved land (such as land rents and value capture are reaped privately by well-organized actors, whereas the costs of valorization (e.g., infrastructure or opportunity costs of land use changes are shifted onto poorly organized groups. Consequences of capitalization and formalization include rent seeking and land grabbing. In developing countries, formal law often transpires to work in favor of the winners of the titling process and is opposed by the customary rights of the losers. This causes a lack of general acknowledgement of formalized law (which is made responsible for deprivation of livelihoods of vulnerable groups and often leads to a clash of formal and customary norms. Countries may fall into a state of de facto anarchy and “de facto open access”. Encroachment and destruction of natural resources may spread. A reframing of development policy is necessary in order to fight these aberrations. Examples and evidence are provided from Cambodia, which has many features in common with other countries in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa in this respect.

  15. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society.

  16. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N. Bazzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  17. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level.

  18. Social network analysis of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  20. Rehabilitating health services in Cambodia: the challenge of coordination in chronic political emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Macrae, J; Zwi, A B

    1999-09-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it opportunities to resolve a number of conflicts around the world, including those in Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador and Mozambique. International political efforts to negotiate peace in these countries were accompanied by significant aid programmes ostensibly designed to redress the worst effects of conflict and to contribute to the consolidation of peace. Such periods of political transition, and associated aid inflows, constitute an opportunity to improve health services in countries whose health indicators have been among the worst in the world and where access to basic health services is significantly diminished by war. This paper analyzes the particular constraints to effective coordination of health sector aid in situations of 'post'-conflict transition. These include: the uncertain legitimacy and competence of state structures; donor choice of implementing channels; and actions by national and international political actors which served to undermine coordination mechanisms in order to further their respective agendas. These obstacles hindered efforts by health professionals to establish an effective coordination regime, for example, through NGO mapping and the establishment of aid coordinating committees at national and provincial levels. These technical measures were unable to address the basic constitutional question of who had the authority to determine the distribution of scarce resources during a period of transition in political authority. The peculiar difficulties of establishing effective coordination mechanisms are important to address if the long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation aid is to be enhanced.

  1. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology.......: Overall, just over 2% of dogs harboured potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis in the studied communities and hence pose a minimal zoonotic risk for the transmission of Giardia to humans.......BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology....... The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence of G...

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lewis, Andrew; Takata, Junko; Miliya, Thyl; Lubell, Yoel; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Rith, Kolthida; McKellar, Gregor; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; McGonagle, Erin; Stoesser, Nicole; Moore, Catrin E; Parry, Christopher M; Turner, Claudia; Day, Nicholas P J; Cooper, Ben S; Turner, Paul

    2018-05-01

    To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous. K. pneumoniae isolates from neonates were more likely than those from nonneonates to be resistant to ampicillin-gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins. In patients with community-acquired gram-negative bacteremia, third-generation cephalosporin resistance was associated with increased mortality rates, increased intensive care unit admissions, and 2.26-fold increased healthcare costs among survivors. High antimicrobial resistance in this setting is a threat to human life and the economy. In similar low-resource settings, our methods could be reproduced as a robust surveillance model for antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D; Krueger, Whitney S; Chum, Channimol; Wierzba, Thomas F; Heil, Gary L; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R; Friary, John A; Capuano, Ana W; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Peiris, Malik; Shao, Hongxia; Perez, Daniel R; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-04-01

    Southeast Asia remains a critical region for the emergence of novel and/or zoonotic influenza, underscoring the importance of extensive sampling in rural areas where early transmission is most likely to occur. In 2008, 800 adult participants from eight sites were enrolled in a prospective population-based study of avian influenza (AI) virus transmission where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had been reported in humans and poultry from 2006 to 2008. From their enrollment sera and questionnaires, we report risk factor findings for serologic evidence of previous infection with 18 AI virus strains. Serologic assays revealed no evidence of previous infection with 13 different low-pathogenic AI viruses or with HPAI avian-like A/Cambodia/R0404050/2007(H5N1). However, 21 participants had elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), validated with a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA assay specific for avian H9. Although cross-reaction from antibodies against human influenza viruses cannot be completely excluded, the study data suggest that a number of participants were previously infected with the avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus, likely due to as yet unidentified environmental exposures. Prospective data from this cohort will help us better understand the serology of zoonotic influenza infection in a rural cohort in SE Asia. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  5. Dyslipidemias and Elevated Cardiovascular Risk on Lopinavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sowath; Ouk, Vara; Chanroeurn, Hak; Thavary, Saem; Boroath, Ban; Canestri, Ana; Viretto, Gérald; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Ségéral, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data. We estimated the 10-year risks of coronary heart disease with the Framingham, Ramathibodi-Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (Rama-EGAT), and the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) risk equations. We identified patients with LDL above targets defined by the French expert group on HIV and by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IDSA-AACTG). Results Of 115 patients enrolled—mean age 40.9 years, 69.2% male, mean time on LPV/r 3.8 years—40 (34.8%) had hypercholesterolemia (> 2.40 g/L), and 69 (60.0%) had low HDL cholesterol (dyslipidemia was high in this cohort of HIV-infected Cambodian patients on LPV/r. Roughly one third had high LDL levels requiring specific intervention. PMID:27579612

  6. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results. Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability. Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  7. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  8. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  9. Higher Education Research Community in Taiwan: An Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Chan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the evolution and characteristics of the higher education research community in Taiwan. In echoing the development of the East Asian region, Taiwan has made substantial progress during the past two decades. The massification of higher education itself has played a major role in promoting the academic differentiation or…

  10. Inclusive Higher Education for Students with Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was intended to present the current status of inclusive higher education for students with disabilities in Taiwan. Literature review, documentary analysis, and field observation were used to collect the needed information. The history for educating students with disabilities in higher education institutions in Taiwan has…

  11. Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rivina humilis L., was found recently in the central part of Taiwan. This plant represents a new record of this genus and species for Taiwan. This Neotropical plant, native to the southern USA, Mexico, the Caribbean islands, and Central and South America, is described and illustrated in this report.

  12. Intercultural Training for US Business Expatriates in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tien-Chen; McLean, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the intercultural training needs for US business expatriates on assignment in Taiwan. The study assesses Taiwan culture-specific training needs of US expatriates from the perspectives of both US expatriates and their Taiwanese colleagues and compares the perceived importance of these intercultural training needs…

  13. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  14. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  15. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  16. Social Context, Parental Exogamy and Hakka Language Retention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; Kuan, Ping-Yin; Lomeli, Arlett

    2016-01-01

    The Hakka people, the largest ethno-linguistic minority group in Taiwan, have found their ethnic language retention diminishing. Using the data collected by the Taiwan Education Panel Survey and Beyond in 2010, we are the first to study its reason for decrease. Results indicate that out-marriage amongst Hakka people and losing ethnic concentration…

  17. Teaching Benchmark Strategy for Fifth-Graders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lai, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The key purpose of this study was how we taught the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction for fifth-graders in Taiwan. 26 fifth graders from a public elementary in south Taiwan were selected to join this study. Results of this case study showed that students had a much progress on the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction…

  18. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  19. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  20. Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

  1. The Buddha and the Computer: Career Guidance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin R.

    Career decision making in Taiwan was examined in the context of a society undergoing dynamic change as modern entrepreneurial values are accommodated in a cherished traditional culture. Especially during the past 20 years, the economy of Taiwan has changed from agriculture to technology. At the same time, the educational needs of students have…

  2. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  3. Transformation and Framework of Teacher Professional Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the situation of teacher professional development in Taiwan, including the history and the framework of teacher professional development. With diversification of teacher education systems and institutions, teacher professional development in Taiwan is undergoing a gradual governance shift from the model of centralised state…

  4. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  5. Dispersal of Airborne Pollen in Chatienshan Nature Reserve, Northern Taiwan, with Emphasis on Taiwan Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first study on the pollen rain in natural forest in Taiwan using pollen traps, the dispersal patterns of airborne pollen were determined, with emphasis on Fagus hayatae and some major plant species, and the relationship between pollen assemblages and vegetation was elucidated. Seventeen pollen traps were installed on the western slope of Mt. Takai, northern Taiwan, from March 21 to May 10, 2008. Pollen and spores belonging to 37 families and 43 genera were identified. The results of correspondence analysis suggested differentiation of three vertical zones of pollen assemblages that corresponded to three vegetation types. Three patterns of occurrence were identified for the major pollen taxa, namely ubiquitous occurrence, local occurrence, and peak occurrence. The pollen influx of F. hayatae, a taxon characterized by local occurrence, was remarkably lower at a distance of over 200 m away from the pure stands. This suggests that pollen-mediated gene flow between the beech populations in Taiwan is unlikely. Besides providing basic data on the pollen dispersal of some important taxa in the middle altitudes of Taiwan, the present study also points out that caution should be taken in interpreting pollen percentage data from sediments.

  6. Notes on Zygomycetes of Taiwan (III: Two Blakeslea Species (Choanephoraceae New to Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Man Ho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Blakeslea (Choanephoraceae, Mucorales are reported as new records for Taiwan. They are Blakeslea monospora B. S. Mehrotra & Baijal and B. trispora Thaxter isolated from soil and fallen flowers. The morphological characters of both fungi are described.

  7. Scutellaria hsiehii (Lamiaceae, a New Species from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Hsieh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Ophiopogon (O. rupestris, O. tristylatus and one species of Peliosanthes (P. cambodiana of Asparagaceae (Convallariaceae s. str. discovered recently in southern Cambodia and in Vietnam are described and illustrated. All described species are probably local endemics with a restricted distribution. Data reported for each described species comprise a standard citation of type specimens, description, list of available paratypes, proposed species epithet etymology, data on ecology, phenology and distribution, as well as short taxonomic remarks.

  8. Access to mental health and psychosocial services in Cambodia by survivors of trafficking and exploitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the extreme forms of violence and acute and longer-term mental health consequences associated with trafficking and exploitation. However, there has been little research on post-trafficking mental health and psychosocial support services for survivors. This study explored the availability and accessibility of mental health and psychosocial support services in Cambodia for women, men and children trafficked and exploited for sex or labour purposes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of representatives from seven service organizations providing mental health and psychosocial support services for people who have been trafficked. This qualitative method was selected to gain insights into the service approaches and challenges faced by the small number of post-trafficking service providers in Cambodia. A conceptual framework outlining access dimensions associated with service provision guided the structure of the study. Findings indicate that among the available post-trafficking services, there are few trained mental health specialists, an over-representation of shelter services in urban versus rural areas and limited services for males, people with disabilities, individuals exploited for labour (versus sexual exploitation) and those with more serious mental illnesses. Providers believe that discrimination and stigma related to both mental health and human trafficking hinder trafficked people's willingness to access services, but suggest that awareness-raising may reduce these prejudices. Care in this sector is precarious due to over-reliance on financial support by donors versus government. Recent increases in newly qualified professionals and providers suggest potential improvements in the quality and availability of psychological support for trafficking survivors. Psychological support for the growing number of identified trafficking survivors in Cambodia will depend on improved geographical

  9. A Comprehensive Approach to Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Prevention: Experiences from the Field in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Greig; Van Bui, Truong; Sidik, Mirjam; Moore, Danielle; Ederer, David J; Parker, Erin M; Ballesteros, Michael F; Sleet, David A

    2017-11-30

    Motorcyclists account for 23% of global road traffic deaths and over half of fatalities in countries where motorcycles are the dominant means of transport. Wearing a helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 69% and death by 42%; however, both child and adult helmet use are low in many countries where motorcycles are a primary mode of transportation. In response to the need to increase helmet use by all drivers and their passengers, the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative (GHVI) was established to increase helmet use in three countries where a substantial portion of road users are motorcyclists and where helmet use is low. The GHVI approach includes five strategies to increase helmet use: targeted programs, helmet access, public awareness, institutional policies, and monitoring and evaluation. The application of GHVI to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda resulted in four key lessons learned. First, motorcyclists are more likely to wear helmets when helmet use is mandated and enforced. Second, programs targeted to at-risk motorcyclists, such as child passengers, combined with improved awareness among the broader population, can result in greater public support needed to encourage action by decision-makers. Third, for broad population-level change, using multiple strategies in tandem can be more effective than using a single strategy alone. Lastly, the successful expansion of GHVI into Cambodia and Uganda has been hindered by the lack of helmet accessibility and affordability, a core component contributing to its success in Vietnam. This paper will review the development of the GHVI five-pillar approach in Vietnam, subsequent efforts to implement the model in Cambodia and Uganda, and lessons learned from these applications to protect motorcycle drivers and their adult and child passengers from injury.

  10. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  11. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Walls

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design: Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results: M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB. The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001. The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions: There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms.

  12. Seroprevalence, genotypic distribution and potential risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections among adults in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroko; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Svay, Somana; Lim, Olline; Hok, Sirany; Goto, Noboru; Ohisa, Masayuki; Akita, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Junko; Do, Son Huy; Katayama, Keiko; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-04-01

    We investigated hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among adults in Siem Reap, Cambodia, to consider the prevention strategy in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in Cambodia. Serological tests for determining HBV and HCV infections and questionnaires were performed from 2010 to 2012 among the general population in the province of Siem Reap. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the factors related to HBV and HCV infections. There were 483 participants, comprising 194 men and 289 women (age range, 18-89 years). The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was not very high at 4.6%, while anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) was high at 38.5%. All HBV DNA samples were classified as genotype C. Anti-HBc showed the trend that the older the age, the higher the positive rate (P = 0.0002). The prevalence of HCV RNA and anti-HCV were 2.3% and 5.8%, respectively. HCV RNA was detected in 39.3% of anti-HCV positive samples and most of them were classified as genotype 6 (54.5%) and 1 (27.3%). Remarkably, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, history of operation and blood transfusion were significantly associated with the positivity for HBV infection and HCV RNA, respectively. Our results showed that operation and blood transfusion were potential risk factors for HBV and HCV infection, respectively, and supposed that horizontal HBV transmission may be frequent in adults in Cambodia. Hence, for reducing HBV and HCV infections, it is necessary to improve the safety of blood and medical treatment. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  13. Forest Disturbances and Regrowth Assessment Using ALOS PALSAR Data from 2007 to 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mermoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a new methodology for monitoring forest disturbances and regrowth using ALOS PALSAR data in tropical regions. In the study, forest disturbances and regrowth were assessed between 2007 and 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The deforestation rate in Vietnam has been among the highest in the tropics in the last few decades, and those in Cambodia and Lao are increasing rapidly. L-band ALOS PALSAR mosaic data were used for the detection of forest disturbances and regrowth, because L-band SAR intensities are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass loss. The methodology used here combines SAR data processing, which is particularly suited for change detection, forest detection and forest disturbances and regrowth detection using expectation maximization, which is closely related to fuzzy logic. A reliable training and testing database has been derived using AVNIR-2 and Google Earth images for calibration and validation. Efforts were made to apply masking areas that are likely to show different SAR backscatter temporal behaviors from the forests considered in the study, including mangroves, inundated forests, post-flooding or irrigated croplands and water bodies, as well as sloping areas and urban areas. The resulting forest disturbances and regrowth map (25-m resolution indicates disturbance rates of −1.07% in Vietnam, −1.22% in Cambodia and −0.94% in Lao between 2007 and 2010, with corresponding aboveground biomass losses of 60.7 Tg, 59.2 Tg and 83.8 Tg , respectively. It is expected that the method, relying on free of charge data (ALOS and ALOS2 mosaics, can be applied widely in the tropics.

  14. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  15. Southeast Asia Report. Peoples Republic of Kampuchea: Biographic Information on Officials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    ... from the PRK's Phnom Penh Domestic Service radio broadcasts in Cambodian unless otherwise specified. Other than through comparisons with printed sources such as SPK, VNA, or KPL the spellings of the names published herein cannot be confirmed...

  16. High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheak Chhoun

    Full Text Available With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces of Cambodia from May-June 2015. Information was obtained on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl, hypertension with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and hypercholesterolemia with fasting blood cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors.The study sample included 510 adults living with HIV; 67% were female, with a mean age of 45 (standard deviation = 8 years. Of these, 8.8% had diabetes mellitus, 15.1% had hypertension and 34.7% had hypercholesterolemia. Of the total participants with non-communicable diseases (n = 244, 47.8% had one or more diseases, and 75% were not aware of their diseases prior to the study: new disease was diagnosed in 90% of diabetes mellitus, 44% of hypertension and 90% of hypercholesterolemia. Single disease occurred in 81%, dual disease in 17% and triple disease in 2%. In adjusted analyses, those consuming 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings as significantly with diabetes mellitus, those eating 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings and using lard for cooking were significantly associated with hypertension, and those being unemployed, having monthly income less than 100

  17. Utilizing three years of epidemiological data from medical missions in Cambodia to shape the mobile medical clinic formulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeany Kim Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this project was to gather epidemiological data on common diseases and medications dispensed during medical mission trips to Cambodia to shape the mobile medical clinic formulary. Methods: Data for patients seen during week-long mobile medical clinics was collected in Cambodia during Septembers 2012 to 2014. Each patient’s gender, age, weight, blood pressure, glucose, pertinent laboratory values, diagnoses, and medications dispensed were collected. Blood pressure and glucose levels were measured in patients 18 years and above. Data collected onto paper intake forms were transferred onto spreadsheets without patient identifying information and analyzed for aggregate means, common diseases, and most dispensed medications. This project received institutional review board approval. Results: A total of 1,015 patients were seen over three years. Women made up 61.4%, and the mean age was 41.8 years. The most common diagnosis was gastrointestinal disorders (22.9% that included gastroesophageal reflux disease and intestinal parasites. Next, 20.1% of patients had hypertension (BP>140/90, 18.0% had presbyopia, 15.4% had back and joint pain, followed by 8.8% with headache, including migraines. Approximately 8.4% of patients had hyperglycemia (RPG >140 mg/dl. The top five medications dispensed were acetaminophen, omeprazole, multivitamin, ibuprofen, and metformin. For hypertension, amlodipine and lisinopril were dispensed. Conclusion: Cambodia lacks systematic public health collection of epidemiological data for prevalence of diseases. Hence, investigators collected and analyzed information from week-long mobile medical clinics over three years. Proton-pump inhibitors and H. pylori lab tests were recommended for gastrointestinal disorders. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were recommended for pain. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were recommended over diuretics since patients were

  18. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  19. Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 Infections in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Chia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was first described in USA in 1969 but retrospective studies in The Netherlands further detected EV71 in the clinical specimens collected in 1963. EV71 has one single serotype measured by using hyperimmune animal antisera but can be phylogenetically classified into three genogroups (A, B, and C including 11 genotypes (A, B1–B5, C1–C5. In Taiwan, EV71 caused a large-scale nationwide epidemic in 1998. Retrospective studies further detected EV71 in clinical specimens collected from hand–foot–mouth disease patients in 1980 and 1986. Therefore, EV71 may have circulated in Taiwan prior to 1980. Since 1998, EV71 has cyclically caused nationwide epidemics with different predominant genotypes in 1998 (genotype C2, 2000–2001 (B4, 2005 (C4, 2008 (B5, and 2012 (B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4 viruses isolated in 2005 were probably from China, B5 viruses isolated in 2008 were probably from South Eastern Asia, and B5 viruses isolated in 2012 were probably from Xiamen, China. Several studies have collected postinfection sera from children to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different EV71 genotypes and found that antigenic differences between genogroup B and C viruses did not have a clear pattern but that genotype A virus was antigenically different from genogroup B and C viruses. In conclusion, EV71 cyclically caused nationwide epidemics through international importations. EV71 surveillance in Taiwan should combine genetic and serological methods.

  20. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the