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Sample records for kampala uganda 9-11

  1. CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-04-21

    Apr 21, 2006 ... English · Français ... CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ... Azuba has used this kind of evidence to convert more than one ... a bottomup approach was needed to draft ordinances that would work.

  2. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  3. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  4. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  5. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  6. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    TERMS Network Analysis, Economic Networks, Entrepreneurial Ecosystems , Economic Development, Data Collection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...the Project Synopsis, Developing Network Models of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Developing Economies, on the Network Science Center web site.) A...Thomas visited Kampala, Uganda in support of an ongoing Network Science Center project to develop models of entrepreneurial networks. Our Center has

  7. The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the role of ... to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from ... Keywords: Baumrind theory, communication, East Africa, parents, qualitative ...

  8. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal pathogens in a wastewater system in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Stalder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater systems in Kampala, Uganda, microbial contamination has increased over the past two decades. Those people who live or work along the Nakivubo channel and wetland and those who use the recreational areas along the shores of Lake Victoria are at an elevated risk of gastrointestinal in...

  9. Healthcare waste management in Uganda: management and generation rates in public and private hospitals in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugambe, R.K.; Ssempebwa, J.C.; Tumwesigye, N.M.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Adedimeji, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the management, characteristics and generation of healthcare waste (HCW) in public and private hospitals in Kampala City, Uganda. Methods We employed mainly qualitative methods through the use of a waste inventory, observations, document review and key

  10. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  11. Perceptions of contraceptives of adolescents in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Billie

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores adolescents’ perceptions of contraceptives and how these perceptions relate to their intention to engage in safe sexual behaviour. Ten in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescents aged 15-19 at a mixed secondary school in the capital Kampala

  12. The use of urban plant resources for health and food security in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria

    an understanding of the current and potential contribution of urban plant resources to human wellbeing (with a focus on food security) in Kampala, Uganda. To fulfil this aim, I created 4 objectives: 1) to assess plant species composition and use in Kampala’s homegardens, 2) to explore associations between...... homegardens and socio-economic determinants of dietary diversity and fruit consumption of children aged 2-5 years, 3) to explore the prevalence and determinants of wild plant collectors in Kampala, Uganda, and 4) to assess the extent and importance of alternative food sources of different food groups for low...... species) were collected for food purposes, while the other 25 species were collected for medicinal purposes and were also collected more frequently. The findings indicate that urban homegardens and wild space can play an important role in human wellbeing. It is important to incorporate biodiversity...

  13. Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of fast-food in Uganda is becoming an increasingly important ... to study the consumption and expenditure behaviour of consumers of fast-food in ... to restaurant negatively influenced the probability of fast-food consumption and ...

  14. Teaching obstetric ultrasound at Mulago Hospital - Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... basic obstetric ultrasound. Keywords: Ultrasound; obstetric; teaching; Uganda; low-resource; curriculum. .... tic and hands-on training were provided by one trainer. (HKA) who at the time .... any formal teaching session. Additionally, the study ...

  15. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Building Construction Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Izudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 270 million workplace accidents occur annually. In Uganda, Kampala district has the highest workplace injury and fatality rates. However, information on personal protective equipment (PPE—hand gloves, hardhats, overalls, safety boots, earplugs, safety harness with lanyard, and face shields—utilization among building construction workers remains scarce. We assessed PPE utilization and determinants among building construction workers in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 385 respondents. Data collected by structured questionnaire was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed in STATA at 5% significance level. Independent determinants of PPE use were established by a stepwise backward logistic regression analysis. Results. 305 (79.2% respondents were males, 290 (75.3% were 18–30 years, 285 (74.0% completed secondary education, and 197 (51.2% were temporary employees. 60 (15.6% respondents used PPE. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.64; 95% CI: 1.55–28.46; P=0.011, temporary (AOR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27; P<0.001 and casual (AOR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.001–0.071; P<0.001 employment, and previous knowledge of safety measures (AOR = 100.72; 95% CI: 26.00–390.16; P<0.001 were associated with PPE use. Conclusion. PPE use was low in Kampala, Uganda. Building construction companies should implement measures of the Uganda Occupational Health and Safety Act.

  16. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE, working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed.

  17. Assertiveness and Attitudes of HIV/AIDS Orphaned Girls Towards Education in Kampala (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitara, David Lagoro; Amongin, Hellen Christine; Oonyu, Joseph C; Baguma, Peter K

    2013-08-09

    Whereas HIV/AIDS prevalence has been declining in Uganda from 30% to less than 10% in the last 2 decades, the number of HIV/AIDS orphaned girls in secondary schools is still high and girl children have tended to carry the heaviest burdens of family responsibilities thereby adversely affecting their assertiveness and attitudes towards education. Assertiveness is a critical life skill that enables a person to state an opinion, claim a right, or establish authority and it is important to improve attitude towards education. This study examined the relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education of HIV/AIDS orphaned and non-orphaned adolescent school girls in Kampala. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Dominance (Do) Assertiveness Scale and the Attitude Scale were administered to 225 students consecutively selected from 6 secondary schools in Kampala. HIV/AIDS Orphaned girls had lower levels of assertiveness and most had a negative attitude towards education compared to non-orphaned girls. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to those orphaned by other causes. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education among orphaned adolescent secondary school girls in Kampala. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to other school girls and have a poor attitude towards education.

  18. Test Cost and Test Accuracy in Clinical Laboratories in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Jones, Robert; Elbireer, Ali

    2018-04-25

    To assess the accuracy and costs of laboratory tests in Kampala, Uganda. A random selection of 78 laboratories tested external quality assurance samples at market rates. There were 40 moderate- to high-complexity and 38 low-complexity laboratories. Four percent (3/78) of these laboratories were accredited and 94% (73/78) were private. The 40 moderate- to high-complexity laboratories performed malaria blood smear, urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, glucose, and three-panel tests: CBC, liver function tests, and kidney function tests. The 38 low-complexity laboratories performed malaria blood smear, urine hCG, and syphilis testing only. Hematology, HIV, syphilis, and malarial proficiency testing samples were prepared by accredited laboratories in Kampala. All other samples were provided by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia. 77.1% of all results were accurate (met target values). It varied widely by laboratory (50%-100%), test identity (malaria blood smear, 96%; serum urea nitrogen, 38%), and test type (quantitative: 66% [31%-89%], qualitative: 91% [68%-97%]). Test prices varied by up to 3,600%, and there was no correlation between test cost and accuracy (r2 = 0.02). There were large differences in accuracy and price across laboratories in Kampala. Price was not associated with quality.

  19. Attitudes of Stakeholders towards Physical Punishment on Pupils of International and National Schools in Kampala District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinga, Damien Mbikyo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an applied research study conducted to find solutions for the problem of the use of physical punishment in schools in the Kampala District of Uganda. In this study stakeholders were requested to state their actions and feelings towards the use of physical punishment in schools. The objective of the study was to investigate…

  20. Occupational stress, job satisfaction and job performance among hospital nurses in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabirye, Rose C; Brown, Kathleen C; Pryor, Erica R; Maples, Elizabeth H

    2011-09-01

    To assess levels of occupational stress, job satisfaction and job performance among hospital nurses in Kampala, Uganda; and how they are influenced by work and personal characteristics. Occupational stress is reported to affect job satisfaction and job performance among nurses, thus compromising nursing care and placing patients' lives at risk. Although these factors have been studied extensively in the US and Europe, there was a need to explore them from the Ugandan perspective. A correlational study was conducted with 333 nurses from four hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. A questionnaire measuring occupational stress, job satisfaction and job performance was used. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and anova. There were significant differences in levels of occupational stress, job satisfaction and job performance between public and private not-for-profit hospitals, nursing experience and number of children. Organizational differences between public and private not-for-profit hospitals influence the study variables. On-the-job training for nurse managers in human resource management to increase understanding and advocacy for organizational support policies was recommended. Research to identify organizational, family or social factors which contribute to reduction of perceived occupational stress and increase job satisfaction and job performance was recommended. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. HIV testing and risk perceptions: a qualitative analysis of secondary school students in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Aluzimbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of self-reported HIV testing and risk behavior among sexually active adolescents and youth in secondary schools in Kampala Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between June and October 2010 among secondary school students in Kampala, Uganda. Forty eight (48 students across the 54 schools were purposively selected for the qualitative sub-study based on their responses to particular questions. We thematically analyzed 28 interviews for our qualitative study using Nvivo software. Drug and alcohol use coupled with peers pressure impaired students’ perceptions towards HIV risk and therefore increased their susceptibility to HIV risk behaviors. Of the 28 scripts analyzed, 82% (23/28 had ever had sexual partners, 79% (22/28 were currently sexually active, and 57% (16/28 had ever been tested for HIV. In conclusion, most adolescents interviewed did not perceive HIV testing to be important to HIV prevention and reported low perception of susceptibility to HIV infection. Development of an adolescent HIV prevention model is important in improving uptake of HIV services.

  2. Exploring stigma as a barrier to cancer service engagement with breast cancer survivors in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Elizabeth; Orem, Jackson; Nakigudde, Gertrude; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Rao, Deepa

    2016-10-01

    To understand the role of stigma in the delay of cancer service engagement by women with breast cancer in Kampala, Uganda. Women in Sub-Saharan African countries are twice as likely to die from cancer as women in high-income countries, which is largely attributable to late diagnosis. While breast cancer-related stigma has been identified in Sub-Saharan Africa, limited research focuses on how stigma impacts the behavior of breast cancer patients in Uganda. This qualitative study used a grounded theory approach to examine illness narratives from 20 breast cancer survivors in Uganda, gathered through semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis showed that perceived and internalized stigma associated with breast cancer influenced care engagement throughout illness, delaying engagement and inhibiting treatment completion. Women identified key factors for overcoming stigma including acceptance of diagnosis, social support, and understanding of breast cancer. The growing burden of mortality associated with breast cancer in Uganda can be mitigated by improving early detection and treatment engagement through interventions which account for key psychosocial barriers such as stigma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was us...

  4. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...... is less of an alternative public sphere and more a way of articulating and contextualizing the world in a specific locality, which produces connections and opportunities in the young rappers’ lives....

  5. Occupational safety training and practices in selected vocational training institutions and workplaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintu, Denis; Kyakula, Michael; Kikomeko, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several industrial accidents, some of them fatal, have been reported in Uganda. Causes could include training gaps in vocational training institutions (VTIs) and workplaces. This study investigated how occupational safety training in VTIs and workplaces is implemented. The study was carried out in five selected VTIs and workplaces in Kampala. Data were collected from instructors, workshop technicians, students, workshop managers, production supervisors, machine operators and new technicians in the workplaces. A total of 35 respondents participated in the study. The results revealed that all curricula in VTIs include a component of safety but little is practiced in VTI workshops; in workplaces no specific training content was followed and there were no regular consultations between VTIs and industry on safety skills requirements, resulting in a mismatch in safety skills training. The major constraints to safety training include inadequate funds to purchase safety equipment and inadequate literature on safety.

  6. How mothers in poverty explain their use of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Nalukenge, Winifred; Siu, Godfrey; Seeley, Janet; Wight, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Corporal punishment in the early years is associated with anti-social behaviour and violence, but little is known about its social and cultural context in low income countries. This paper analyses how 12 deprived women in Kampala, Uganda, perceived corporal punishment, drawing on repeated semi-structured interviews. All thought it was sometimes necessary, for three main reasons. First, it was an important strategy to ensure good behaviour and maintain their and their child's, respectability, crucial to self-respect given severe poverty. Second, it was a means of establishing household routines and managing scarce resources. Third, it was a way to protect children from health risks. However, all mothers thought corporal punishment could be excessive, and most said it can be counter-productive, making children 'stubborn'. There appeared to be considerable variation in their degree of harsh parenting and emotional support. These findings could inform culturally appropriate interventions to reduce violence against children.

  7. Tuberculosis case finding in first-degree relative contacts not living with index tuberculosis cases in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Chheng P; Nsereko M; Malone LL; Okware B; Zalwango S; Joloba M; Boom WH; Mupere E; Stein CM

    2015-01-01

    Phalkun Chheng,1,2 Mary Nsereko,2 LaShaunda L Malone,2 Brenda Okware,2 Sarah Zalwango,2 Moses Joloba,2,3 W Henry Boom,2 Ezekiel Mupere,1,2,4 Catherine M Stein1,2 On behalf of the Tuberculosis Research Unit 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4Department of Pediatric...

  8. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  9. Identifying barriers to and facilitators of tuberculosis contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayakaka, Irene; Ackerman, Sara; Ggita, Joseph M; Kajubi, Phoebe; Dowdy, David; Haberer, Jessica E; Fair, Elizabeth; Hopewell, Philip; Handley, Margaret A; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Katamba, Achilles; Davis, J Lucian

    2017-03-09

    The World Health Organization recommends routine household tuberculosis contact investigation in high-burden countries but adoption has been limited. We sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of TB contact investigation during its introduction in Kampala, Uganda. We collected cross-sectional qualitative data through focus group discussions and interviews with stakeholders, addressing three core activities of contact investigation: arranging household screening visits through index TB patients, visiting households to screen contacts and refer them to clinics, and evaluating at-risk contacts coming to clinics. We analyzed the data using a validated theory of behavior change, the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation determine Behavior (COM-B) model, and sought to identify targeted interventions using the related Behavior Change Wheel implementation framework. We led seven focus-group discussions with 61 health-care workers, two with 21 lay health workers (LHWs), and one with four household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. We, in addition, performed 32 interviews with household contacts from 14 households of newly diagnosed TB patients. Commonly noted barriers included stigma, limited knowledge about TB among contacts, insufficient time and space in clinics for counselling, mistrust of health-center staff among index patients and contacts, and high travel costs for LHWs and contacts. The most important facilitators identified were the personalized and enabling services provided by LHWs. We identified education, persuasion, enablement, modeling of health-positive behaviors, incentivization, and restructuring of the service environment as relevant intervention functions with potential to alleviate barriers to and enhance facilitators of TB contact investigation. The use of a behavioral theory and a validated implementation framework provided a comprehensive approach for systematically identifying barriers to and facilitators of TB contact

  10. Market survey of Mondia whytei (mulondo) roots in Kampala City, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Katongole, Benard; Waiswa, Daniel; Nabanoga, Goretti Nsubuga

    2008-06-18

    This study explored the consumers' and vendors' perceptions about Mondia whitei roots, in Kampala city, Uganda; determined the marketing margins and the market flow of the roots in the city; documented demand and supply opportunities as well as challenges to marketing of the roots by the vendors. Seventy vendors and 70 consumers of the roots were administered with semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that M. whytei roots are largely perceived as sexual stimulant, appetiser, flavours for food and drinks, and stimulant for milk production in lactating mothers. Majority of the vendors (74%) and consumers (85%) perceived the trade in the roots as worthwhile. Men and adolescent boys were reported to be the main consumers. Retailers who buy the roots directly from collectors and later sell to consumers dominate the trade. The average price charged per piece and a kilogram of roots increases from collectors, middlemen and to the retailers. The average retail price was US $0.12 per piece of the root and US $1.50 per kg of the roots. Collectors charged the lowest price (US $0.06 and US $0.60 per piece and a kilogram of the roots respectively) though their profit margins remained the highest (50%). Several demand and supply opportunities exist for M. whytei roots and these included few sexual stimulant accepted alternatives to M. whytei roots in Kampala city; consumers' willingness to pay high prices when the roots are scarce, and a large number of M. whytei roots gatherers that could promote the cultivation of this plant for the market. Challenges, such as seasonal low supply of the roots, and unorganised market structure, hamper the trade in M. whytei roots. There is a need for experimental research on efficacies of the perceived uses of the roots reported in this study. The possibility of value addition to the roots sold should be investigated.

  11. Tuberculosis case finding in first-degree relative contacts not living with index tuberculosis cases in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chheng P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phalkun Chheng,1,2 Mary Nsereko,2 LaShaunda L Malone,2 Brenda Okware,2 Sarah Zalwango,2 Moses Joloba,2,3 W Henry Boom,2 Ezekiel Mupere,1,2,4 Catherine M Stein1,2 On behalf of the Tuberculosis Research Unit 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: To assess the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among first-degree relative (FDR contacts not living with tuberculosis (TB cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of household contacts living with an index TB case and FDR contacts living outside of households in Kampala, Uganda, is presented. Results: A total of 177 contacts (52 FDRs and 125 index household contacts of 31 TB cases were examined. Compared with index household contacts, FDR contacts were older, more likely to be TB symptomatic (50% vs 33%, had a higher percentage of abnormal chest X-rays (19% vs 11%, sputum smear positive (15% vs 5%, and many similar epidemiologic risk factors, including HIV infection (13% vs 10%. Contact groups had similar pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence: 9.6% in FDR vs 10.4% in index household contacts and similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: 62% in FDR vs 61% in index households. Conclusion: TB is common among FDR contacts. High TB prevalence justifies targeting FDRs during household contact investigations. Combining TB active-case finding among FDR contacts with household contact investigation in low-income setting is feasible. This should be part of national TB control program strategies for increasing TB case-detection rates and reducing community TB transmission and death. Keywords: prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis, limited resource setting, contact tracing

  12. Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William

    2016-01-01

    Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  14. Malaria Burden in Pregnancy at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda

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    Fatuma Namusoke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-associated malaria is a major global health concern. To assess the Plasmodium falciparum burden in pregnancy we conducted a cross-sectional study at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Malaria prevalence by each of three measures—peripheral smear, placental smear, and placental histology was 9% (35/391, 11.3% (44/389, and 13.9% (53/382 respectively. Together, smear and histology data yielded an infection rate of 15.5% (59/380 of active infections and 4.5% (17/380 of past infections; hence 20% had been or were infected when giving birth. A crude parity dependency was observed with main burden being concentrated in gravidae 1 through gravidae 3. Twenty-two percent were afflicted by anaemia and 12.2% delivered low birthweight babies. Active placental infection and anaemia showed strong association (OR=2.8 whereas parity and placental infection had an interactive effect on mean birthweight (P=.036. Primigravidae with active infection and multigravidae with past infection delivered on average lighter babies. Use of bednet protected significantly against infection (OR=0.56 whilst increased haemoglobin level protected against low birthweight (OR=0.83 irrespective of infection status. Albeit a high attendance at antenatal clinics (96.8%, there was a poor coverage of insecticide-treated nets (32% and intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (41.5%.

  15. Sanitary Quality of Raw Milk within the Commodity Subsector in Mbarara District and Kampala City in Uganda

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    N. Grillet

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary quality of raw milk is an important issue in Uganda for social, economical and health reasons. The present study carried out on the informal raw milk subsector of Uganda highlighted two main issues: (i poor hygiene conditions from the production location all the way to the consumer; (ii lack of an efficient preservation system to limit bacteria development during transportation to Kampala. The bacteria population reached very high levels close to 2 x 106 colony forming units per milliliter on the farm milk of Mbarara District in the southwestern region of the country, and these levels increased 150-fold during transportation to Kampala. The sector also includes rudimentary pasteurization units, where the overheated milk comes out bacteria-free. However, conservation over several days of the overheated milk makes this process potentially more dangerous than beneficial. Thus, the need for all the players of the sector to implement a strategy to improve milk quality can be two ways: (i by changing common practices to ensure better hygiene conditions; (ii by improving milk preserving through new methods such as cooling, small-scale pasteurization, or the use of the lactoperoxidase system. This study can help develop a technical and scientific basis to generate quality improvement actions in Uganda. But, whatever the strategy adopted by decision makers, it can only be implemented if all the stakeholders of the sector are involved.

  16. Environmental Survey of Drinking Water Sources in Kampala, Uganda, during a Typhoid Fever Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J L; Kahler, A M; Nansubuga, I; Nanyunja, E M; Kaplan, B; Jothikumar, N; Routh, J; Gómez, G A; Mintz, E D; Hill, V R

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, a typhoid fever outbreak began in downtown Kampala, Uganda, and spread into adjacent districts. In response, an environmental survey of drinking water source types was conducted in areas of the city with high case numbers. A total of 122 samples was collected from 12 source types and tested for Escherichia coli , free chlorine, and conductivity. An additional 37 grab samples from seven source types and 16 paired large volume (20 liter) samples from wells and springs were also collected and tested for the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Escherichia coli was detected in 60% of kaveras (drinking water sold in plastic bags) and 80% of refilled water bottles; free chlorine was not detected in either source type. Most jerry cans (68%) contained E. coli and had free chlorine residuals below the WHO-recommended level of 0.5 mg/liter during outbreaks. Elevated conductivity readings for kaveras, refilled water bottles, and jerry cans (compared to treated surface water supplied by the water utility) suggested that they likely contained untreated groundwater. All unprotected springs and wells and more than 60% of protected springs contained E. coli Water samples collected from the water utility were found to have acceptable free chlorine levels and no detectable E. coli While S Typhi was not detected in water samples, Salmonella spp. were detected in samples from two unprotected springs, one protected spring, and one refilled water bottle. These data provided clear evidence that unregulated vended water and groundwater represented a risk for typhoid transmission. IMPORTANCE Despite the high incidence of typhoid fever globally, relatively few outbreak investigations incorporate drinking water testing. During waterborne disease outbreaks, measurement of physical-chemical parameters, such as free chlorine residual and electrical conductivity, and of microbiological parameters, such as the presence of E. coli or the implicated etiologic agent, in drinking

  17. Current patterns of prehospital trauma care in Kampala, Uganda and the feasibility of a lay-first-responder training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha; Mabweijano, Jacqueline R; Lipnick, Michael S; Caldwell, Nolan; Miyamoto, Justin; Wangoda, Robert; Mijumbi, Cephas; Hsia, Renee; Dicker, Rochelle; Ozgediz, Doruk

    2009-12-01

    Uganda currently has no organized prehospital emergency system. We sought to measure the current burden of injury seen by lay people in Kampala, Uganda and to determine the feasibility of a lay first-responder training program. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of current prehospital care providers in Kampala: police officers, minibus taxi drivers, and Local Council officials, and collected data on types and frequencies of emergencies witnessed, barriers to aid provision, history of training, and current availability of first-aid supplies. A context-appropriate course on basic first-aid for trauma was designed and implemented. We measured changes in trainees' fund of knowledge before and after training. A total of 309 lay people participated in the study, and during the previous 6 months saw 18 traumatic emergencies each; 39% saw an injury-related death. The most common injury mechanisms were road crashes, assault, and burns. In these cases, 90% of trainees provided some aid, most commonly lifting (82%) or transport (76%). Fifty-two percent of trainees had previous first-aid training, 44% had some access to equipment, and 32% had ever purchased a first-aid kit. Before training, participants answered 45% of test questions correctly (mean %) and this increased to 86% after training (p emergencies and deaths in Kampala, Uganda and provide much needed care but are ill-prepared to do so. A context-appropriate prehospital trauma care course can be developed and improve lay people's knowledge of basic trauma care. The effectiveness of such a training program needs to be evaluated prospectively.

  18. Genomic copy concentrations of selected waterborne viruses in a slum environment in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Katukiza, A Y; Temanu, H; Chung, J W; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L

    2013-06-01

    The presence of viruses in a slum environment where sanitation is poor is a major concern. However, little is known of their occurrence and genomic copy concentration in the slum environment. The main objective of this study was to determine the genomic copy concentrations of human adenoviruses F and G, Rotavirus (RV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and human adenovirus species A,C,D,E, and F (HAdV-ACDEF) in Bwaise III, a typical slum in Kampala, Uganda. Forty-one samples from surface water, grey water and ground water were collected from 30 sampling locations. The virus particles were recovered by glass wool filtration with elution using beef extract. DNA and RNA viruses were detected by the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. HAdV-F and G were detected in 70.7% of the samples with concentrations up to 2.65 × 10(1) genomic copies per mL (gc mL(-1)). RV and HAV were detected in 60.9% and 17.1% of the samples, respectively. The maximum concentration of RV was 1.87 × 10(2)gc mL(-1). In addition, 78% of the samples tested positive for the HAdV-ACDEF, but all samples tested negative for HEV. These new data are essential for quantitative microbial risk assessment, and for understanding the effects of environmental pollution in slums.

  19. Risk factors for severe post partum haemorrhage in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandabwa, J; Doyle, P; Todd, J; Ononge, S; Kiondo, P

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors for severe postpartum haemorrhage. A case control study. Mulago hospital labour wards, Kampala, Uganda. One hundred and six mothers with severe postpartum haemorrhage were recruited between 15th November 2001 and 30th November 2002 and were compared with 500 women who had normal delivery. The predictors for postpartum haemorrhage were co-existing hypertension (O.R 9.3, 95% CI: 1.7-51.7), chronic anaemia (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 9.5-31.7), low socio economic background (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 3.0, 9.2), past history of postpartum haemorrhage (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.8), previous delivery by Caesarean section (OR 7.5, 95% CI: 3.5-14.3), long birth interval of more than sixty months (OR 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1-13.0), prolonged third stage (OR 49.1, 95% CI: 8.8-342.8) and non use of oxytocics (OR 4.3%, 95% CI: 1.2-15.3). Severe postpartum haemorrhage is common in our environment and is associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality. The determinants of postpartum haemorrhage are useful in identifying mothers at risk and together with the services of a skilled birth attendant at delivery will prevent postpartum haemorrhage and reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. In our study, the following risk factors were identified: pre-existing hypertension, chronic anaemia, low socio-economic background, history of postpartum haemorrhage, previous delivery by Caesarean section, longbirth interval of more than sixty months, prolonged third stage and non use of oxytocics were found to be significant.

  20. Foetal haemoglobin and disease severity in sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda

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    Mpalampa Lena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is a major chronic health problem in Uganda. In patients with SCA, the level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF has been found to be important in influencing the clinical course of the disease. Thus populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a milder clinical course with fewer complications as compared to populations with lower levels. Disease modifying drugs can increase the Hb F levels and modify the presentation of SCA. Methods This was a cross sectional study in which we determined foetal haemoglobin levels and examined the relationship between HbF levels and disease severity in SCA patients in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. We consecutively enrolled 216 children aged 1 year to 18 years with SCA attending the Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago Hospital whose guardians had given consent. The history included age at onset of initial symptoms and diagnosis, number of hospitalisations and blood transfusions and other complications of SCA (cardiovascular accidents, avascular hip necrosis and priapism. A detailed physical examination was performed to assess the current state and help describe the disease severity for each patient. Blood samples were drawn for HbF levels. HbF levels ≥10% was defined as high. Results Of the 216 children, (80 37% had HbF levels ≥10%. Significant correlations were observed between HbF level and several clinical parameters independent of age including age at diagnosis (p value 0.013, number of hospitalisations (p value 0.024 and transfusions (p value 0.018 since birth. Conclusion A third of the children with SCA attending the Sickle cell clinic in Mulago Hospital have high HbF levels. Higher HbF level is associated with later onset of symptoms and presentation, and less severe disease characterised by fewer hospitalisations and blood transfusions. We suggest HbF levels should be determined at initial contact for patients with SCA to

  1. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

    2012-08-01

    Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14-24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12-4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81-10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30-6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12-4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16-7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were

  2. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

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    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  3. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences.Methods: We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N¼457 of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-incenter for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration.Results: The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR¼2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62 and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53 were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reportinghunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33, any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92 and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82 were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization.Conclusion: The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In

  4. Urban settings do not ensure access to services: findings from the immunisation programme in Kampala Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babirye, Juliet N; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kiguli, Juliet; Nuwaha, Fred

    2014-03-06

    Previous studies on vaccination coverage in developing countries focus on individual- and community-level barriers to routine vaccination mostly in rural settings. This paper examines health system barriers to childhood immunisation in urban Kampala Uganda. Mixed methods were employed with a survey among child caretakers, 9 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 9 key informant interviews (KIIs). Survey data underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Latent content analysis was used for qualitative data. Of the 821 respondents in the survey, 96% (785/821) were mothers with a mean age of 26 years (95% CI 24-27). Poor geographical access to immunisation facilities was reported in this urban setting by FGDs, KIIs and survey respondents (24%, 95% CI 21-27). This coupled with reports of few health workers providing immunisation services led to long queues and long waiting times at facilities. Consumers reported waiting for 3-6 hours before receipt of services although this was more common at public facilities. Only 33% (95% CI 30-37) of survey respondents were willing to wait for three or more hours before receipt of services. Although private-for-profit facilities were engaged in immunisation service provision their participation was low as only 30% (95% CI 27-34) of the survey respondents utilised these facilities. The low participation could be due to lack of financial support for immunisation activities at these facilities. This in turn could explain the rampant informal charges for services in this setting. Charges ranged from US$ 0.2 to US$4 and these were more commonly reported at private (70%, 95% CI 65-76) than at public (58%, 95% CI 54-63) facilities. There were intermittent availability of vaccines and transport for immunisation services at both private and public facilities. Complex health system barriers to childhood immunisation still exist in this urban setting; emphasizing that even in urban areas with great physical access, there are hard to reach people

  5. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda - a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Wolfgang; Baughman, Andrew L; Serwadda, David; Tappero, Jordan W; Kwezi, Rachel; Nakato, Namakula D; Barker, Joseph

    2017-06-10

    Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37%) and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two thirds (65%) of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19%) FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  6. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent-driven sampling survey

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    Wolfgang Hladik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW. Methods We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. Results A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37% and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI. Two thirds (65% of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19% FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. Conclusions One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  7. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization

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    Samuel Fuhrimann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might con- tribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming san- itation safety planning approach.

  8. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Niwagaba, Charles B; Buwule, Joseph; Babu, Mohammed; Medlicott, Kate; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2014-11-01

    Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might contribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization's 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming sanitation safety planning approach.

  9. Big Class Size Challenges: Teaching Reading in Primary Classes in Kampala, Uganda's Central Municipality

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    Kewaza, Samuel; Welch, Myrtle I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading has established that reading is a pivotal discipline and early literacy development dictates later reading success. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate challenges encountered with reading pedagogy, teaching materials, and teachers' attitudes towards teaching reading in crowded primary classes in Kampala,…

  10. Problem Drinking, Alcohol-Related Violence, and Homelessness among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines problem drinking, alcohol-related violence, and homelessness among youth living in the slums of Kampala—an understudied population at high-risk for both alcohol use and violence. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 with youth living in the slums and streets of Kampala, Uganda (n = 1134, who were attending Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in centers. The analyses for this paper were restricted to youth who reported current alcohol consumption (n = 346. Problem drinking patterns were assessed among youth involved in alcohol-related violence. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the impact of homelessness on alcohol-related violence through different measures of problem drinking. Nearly 46% of youth who consumed alcohol were involved in alcohol-related violence. Problem drinkers were more likely to report getting in an accident (χ2 = 6.8, df = 1, p = 0.009, having serious problems with parents (χ2 = 21.1, df = 1, p < 0.0001 and friends (χ2 = 18.2, df = 1, p < 0.0001, being a victim of robbery (χ2 = 8.8, df = 1, p = 0.003, and going to a hospital (χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001. For the mediation analyses, statistically significant models were observed for frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Interventions should focus on delaying and reducing alcohol use in this high-risk population.

  11. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    the intersection of open data, human rights, and African development. Jon is the founder or co- founder of several organizations and initiatives...drove across Kampala to meet with Teddy Ruge, a co- founder of Hive CoLab and a noted Ugandan Social Entrepreneur, and Brian Ndyaguma, the operations...www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 At Outbox, we were hosted by Richard Zulu , the general manager. Outbox was founded in 2012 and is the newest business incubator

  12. Sexual, Reproductive Health Needs, and Rights of Young People in Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M N Renzaho

    Full Text Available Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks, especially those living in urban slums. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with comprehensive categories of sexual and reproductive health, including sexual behaviours; sexual education and access to contraceptive services; family planning; prevention of STDs; sexual consent as a right; gender based violence; as well as HIV testing, counselling, disclosure and support.The study was cross-sectional in design and was carried out in July 2014 in Makindye and Nakawa Divisions of Kampala City, Uganda. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala's urban slums.Sixty two percent of participants reported having ever had sex and the mean age of sexual debut was 16 years (95%CI: 15.6, 16.4 years, range: 5-23 years. The odds of reporting ever having had sexual intercourse were higher among respondents living alone (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.35, 5.61; p<0.01 than those living in a nuclear family. However, condom use was only 54%. The number of sexual partners in the last 12 months preceding the survey averaged 1.8 partners (95%CI: 1.7, 1.9; range 1-4 with 18.1% reporting an age gap of 10 years or older. More than three quarters (80.6% of sexually active participants reported that their first sexual encounter was consensual, suggesting that most young people are choosing when they make their sexual debut. Low prevalence of willing first sexual intercourse was associated with younger age (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.90, p<0.05, having a disability (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.16, 0.98, p<0.05, living with non-relatives (OR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.16, 0.97, p<0.05, and being still at school (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.67, p<0.01. These results remained significant after adjusting for covariates, except for disability and the age of participants. The proportion of unwilling first sexual intercourse was significantly higher

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

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    David Patrick Kateete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human. Fifty eight (60% Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21, Enterococci (16, Streptococci (13, Lactococci (5, Micrococci (2 and Arcanobacteria (1 were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25% coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12, Klebsiella oxytoca (5, Proteus vulgaris (2, Serratia (2, Citrobacter (1, Cedecea (1 and Leclercia (1 were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35% including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri. Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435

  14. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Tirgani, Sana; Komakech, Allan John; Niwagaba, Charles B; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-08-01

    Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL -1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL -1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8.5-12ngL -1 ) and Lake Victoria (1.0-2.5ngL -1 ), due to dilution, sorption to sediment and uptake by plants in the wetland. ∑PFAS concentrations were within the range 1700-7900pgg -1 dry weight (dw) in soil and 160pgg -1 dw (maize cobs) to 380pgg -1 dw (sugarcane stems) in plants. The dominant PFASs were perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in wastewater, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in soil and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) and PFOA in different plant tissues, reflecting PFAS-specific partitioning behaviour in different matrices. Soil-water partitioning coefficient (log K d ) in wetland soil under yam was lowest for short-chain PFHxA (1.9-2.3Lkg -1 ) and increased with increasing chain length to 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS). The log K oc values ranged between 2.2 and 3.6Lkg -1 , with the highest log K oc estimated for long-chain perfluorocarbon PFASs (i.e. PFUnDA 3.2-3.5Lkg -1 and PFOS 3.2-3.6Lkg -1 ). The concentration ratio (CR) between plants and soil was <1 for all PFASs and plant species, with the highest CR estimated for PFHpA (0.65-0.67) in sugarcane stem and PFBS (0.53-0.59) in yam root. Overall, this investigation demonstrated PFASs entry into the terrestrial food chain and drinking water resources in Kampala, Uganda. Source identification, assessment of

  15. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawagi, Faith; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Mukisa, John; Serwadda, Patrick; Kyalema, Samuel; Kizza, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and practices of STIs, among susceptible populations such as women of reproductive age, living in slums like Katanga in Kampala Uganda need to be established. This was a cross-sectional study with 339 participants in Katanga slum. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, entered and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Data was summarized using frequencies for categorical data and medians for continuous data. Majority of the participants (71.9%) were ≥25years with a mean age of 28.0(SD ±7.0) years. The commonest symptoms known to the participants were genital itching (60%) and genital rash (14.5%). Most mentioned multiple partners (63.7%) and unprotected sex (50.7%) as predisposing factors to STIs. Knowledge on methods of prevention was high (92.3%) however, 18.8% were found positive for STIs using the syndromic approach and 82% mentioned having suffered from STIs in the past 6 months more than once. Most participants did not know about the systemic effects of STIs to their health and didnot follow the appropriate behavior patterns despite being knowledgeable about the various methods of prevention of STIs.

  16. High Levels of Persistent Problem Drinking in Women at High Risk for HIV in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Helen A. Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of problem drinking in a cohort of women at high-risk of HIV in Kampala, Uganda. Overall, 1027 women at high risk of HIV infection were followed from 2008 to 2013. The CAGE and AUDIT questionnaires were used to identify problem drinkers in the cohort. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Blood and genital samples were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. At enrollment, most women (71% reported using alcohol at least weekly and about a third reported having drunk alcohol daily for at least 2 weeks during the past 3 months. Over half (56% were problem drinkers by CAGE at enrollment, and this was independently associated with vulnerability (being divorced/separated/widowed, less education, recruiting clients at bars/clubs, and forced sex at first sexual experience. Factors associated with problem drinking during follow-up included younger age, meeting clients in bars/clubs, number of clients, using drugs and HSV-2 infection. HIV prevalence was associated with drinking at enrollment, but not during follow-up. This longitudinal study found high levels of persistent problem drinking. Further research is needed to adapt and implement alcohol-focused interventions in vulnerable key populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-05

    This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 µg/m 3 ) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 µg/m 3 ) in smoke-free establishments. In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the

  18. Frequency and Predictors for Late Start of Antiretroviral Therapy in Primary Care Clinics, Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendagire, Ibrahim; Cobelens, Frank; Kambugu, Andrew; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Background: Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved greatly in many parts of the world, including Uganda, yet, many patients delay to start ART even when registered within the HIV services. We assessed, in a routine ambulatory care setting, what proportion of patients start ART late

  19. Perinatal death audits in a peri-urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya ...

  20. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  1. Modifiable risk factors for typhoid intestinal perforations during a large outbreak of typhoid fever, Kampala Uganda, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulage, Lilian; Masiira, Ben; Ario, Alex R; Matovu, Joseph K B; Nsubuga, Peter; Kaharuza, Frank; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Routh, Janell; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-09-25

    Between January and June, 2015, a large typhoid fever outbreak occurred in Kampala, Uganda, with 10,230 suspected cases. During the outbreak, area surgeons reported a surge in cases of typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP), a complication of typhoid fever. We conducted an investigation to characterize TIP cases and identify modifiable risk factors for TIP. We defined a TIP case as a physician-diagnosed typhoid patient with non-traumatic terminal ileum perforation. We identified cases by reviewing medical records at all five major hospitals in Kampala from 2013 to 2015. In a matched case-control study, we compared potential risk factors among TIP cases and controls; controls were typhoid patients diagnosed by TUBEX TF, culture, or physician but without TIP, identified from the outbreak line-list and matched to cases by age, sex and residence. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standard questionnaire from 1st -23rd December 2015. We used conditional logistic regression to assess risk factors for TIP and control for confounding. Of the 88 TIP cases identified during 2013-2015, 77% (68/88) occurred between January and June, 2015; TIPs sharply increased in January and peaked in March, coincident with the typhoid outbreak. The estimated risk of TIP was 6.6 per 1000 suspected typhoid infections (68/10,230). The case-fatality rate was 10% (7/68). Cases sought care later than controls; Compared with 29% (13/45) of TIP cases and 63% (86/137) of controls who sought treatment within 3 days of onset, 42% (19/45) of cases and 32% (44/137) of controls sought treatment 4-9 days after illness onset (OR adj  = 2.2, 95%CI = 0.83-5.8), while 29% (13/45) of cases and 5.1% (7/137) of controls sought treatment ≥10 days after onset (OR adj  = 11, 95%CI = 1.9-61). 68% (96/141) of cases and 23% (23/100) of controls had got treatment before being treated at the treatment centre (OR adj  = 9.0, 95%CI = 1.1-78). Delay in seeking treatment increased the risk of TIPs

  2. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of mobile phone ownership and usage among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-08-01

    The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14-24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this

  3. Gender variations in access, choice to use and cleaning of shared latrines; experiences from Kampala Slums, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiringira, Japheth; Atekyereza, Peter; Niwagaba, Charles; Günther, Isabel

    2014-11-19

    Sanitation is one of the most intimate issues that affect women, especially in slums of developing countries. There are few studies that have paid attention to the gender variations in access, choice to use and cleaning of shared latrines in slums. This paper draws on qualitative data from a cross sectional study conducted between 2012 and 2013 in six slums of Kampala City, Uganda. The study involved both women and men. Data were collected from 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 15 Key informant interviews; community transects and photographs of shared latrines. Location of a shared latrine facility, distance, filthy, narrow and irregular paths; the time when a facility is visited (day or night), privacy and steep inclines were gender 'filters' to accessing shared latrines. A full latrine pit was more likely to inhibit access to and choice of a facility for women than men. Results indicate that the available coping mechanisms turned out to be gendered, with fewer options available for women than men. On the whole, women sought for privacy, easy reach, self-respect and esteem, cleanliness and privacy than men. While men like women also wanted clean facilities for use; they (men) were not keen on cleaning these facilities. The cleaning of shared latrines was seen by both women and men as a role for women. The presence of sanitation facilities as the first step in the access, choice, use, and cleaning by both women and men has distinct motivations and limitations along gender lines. The study confirms that the use and cleaning of latrines is regulated by gender in daily living. Using a latrine for women was much more than relieving oneself: it involved security, intimacy and health concerns.

  4. Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    Full Text Available The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future.We conducted a cross-sectional study among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples (a population at high risk for HIV transmission attending a research clinic in Kampala, Uganda on perceptions and attitudes about medical circumcision for male children for HIV prevention. Correlates of willingness to circumcise male children were assessed using generalized estimating equations methods.318 HIV serodiscordant couples were interviewed, 51.3% in which the female partner was HIV uninfected. Most couples were married and cohabiting, and almost 50% had at least one uncircumcised male child of ≤18 years of age. Overall, 90.2% of male partners and 94.6% of female partners expressed interest in medical circumcision for their male children for reduction of future risk for HIV infection, including 79.9% of men and 87.6% of women who had an uncircumcised male child. Among both men and women, those who were knowledgeable that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.34 and 1.14 and those who had discussed the HIV prevention effects of medical circumcision with their partner (APR 1.08 and 1.07 were significantly (p≤0.05 more likely to be interested in male child circumcision for HIV prevention. Among men, those who were circumcised (APR 1.09, p = 0.004 and those who were HIV seropositive (APR 1.09, p = 0.03 were also more likely to be interested in child circumcision for HIV prevention.A high proportion of men and women in Ugandan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant partnerships were willing to have their male children circumcised for eventual HIV prevention benefits. Engaging both parents may increase interest in medical male circumcision for HIV prevention.

  5. Informal waste collection and its co-existence with the formal waste sector: The case of Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Burger, C.P.J.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze how the informal collectors and the formal sector co-exist in solid waste collection in Kampala. We rely on household surveys and a small survey among the informal collectors in Kampala. Findings suggest that informal collectors play a substantial role in the first stage – collecting

  6. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

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    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  7. Diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending an urban public health facility in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Joanita Nangendo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV in Uganda is 7.3%, and yet nearly 40% of people living with HIV are unaware of their status. The current HIV testing policy which is strictly blood-based poses several challenges including: a need for high level laboratory skills, stringent waste disposal needs, and painful sample collection. It is envisaged that introduction of a rapid, painless HIV oral fluid test as a potential alternative is likely to increase the number of people testing. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending Kisenyi Health Centre IV in Kampala.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 440 adults recruited consecutively at Kisenyi Health Centre IV from January to March 2016. The diagnostic accuracy of the HIV oral test was assessed by comparing to the national HIV serial testing algorithm. We also assessed for acceptability among patients and health care workers (HCWs by triangulating responses from a structured questionnaire, three focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews. Acceptability was defined as willingness to take the test at the time of the study and intention for future use of the test if it was availed. The prevalence of HIV infection among study participants was 14.8%. The HIV oral fluid test was highly accurate with sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0, specificity of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0, positive predictive value (PPV of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0 and negative predictive value (NPV of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0. Acceptability of HIV oral testing was also high at 87.0% (95% CI; 83.6-89.9. Participants preferred HIV oral testing because it was: pain free (91%, n = 399 and did not require blood draw (82%, n = 360.The HIV oral fluid test has high diagnostic accuracy and acceptability. HIV oral testing is a suitable addition to the national HIV testing strategies with the potential of increasing access to HIV testing services in

  8. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-06-14

    Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary "evil" for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk.

  9. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID

  10. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Josephine A Afema

    Full Text Available In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95% while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be

  11. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0±2.3 to 64.6±11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4±18.4 to 265.6±63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8±0.13 to 1.40±0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas

  12. The effects of enhanced access to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative study of community perceptions in Kampala city, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Neema, Stella; Otolok-Tanga, Erasmus; Wamuyu-Maina, Gakenia; Kasasa, Simon; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2008-03-01

    Since 2001, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has been integrated as part of the Uganda National Program for Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Care and Support. If patients take Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) as prescribed, quality of life is expected to improve and patients become healthier. It is, however, postulated that scale up of ARVs could erode the previous achievement in behaviour change interventions. This study examined community perceptions and beliefs on whether enhanced access to ARVs increases risk behaviour. It also examined people's fears regarding HIV/AIDS infection and the use of ARVs. This was a qualitative study that utilized Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant (KI) interviews. Participants were purposefully sampled. Twenty FGDs comprising of 190 participants and 12 KI interviews were conducted. FGDs were conducted with adult men and women (above 25 years), and youth (male and female) while KI interviews were held with Kampala City Council officials, Kawempe Division Local Council officials, health workers and religious leaders. All data was tape recorded with consent from participants and transcribed thereafter. Typed data was analyzed manually using qualitative latent content analysis technique. Most participants felt that enhanced access to ART would increase risky sexual behaviour; namely promiscuity, lack of faithfulness among couples, multiple partners, prostitution, unprotected sexual practices, rape and lack of abstinence as the risky sexual behaviours. A few FGDs, however, indicated that increased ART access and counselling that HIV-positive people receive promoted positive health behaviour. Some of the participants expressed fears that the increased use of ARVs would promote HIV transmission because it would be difficult to differentiate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons since they all looked healthy. Furthermore, respondents expressed uncertainty about ARVs with regard to adherence, sustainable supply, and capacity to ensure

  13. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  14. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  15. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morof, Diane F; Sami, Samira; Mangeni, Maria; Blanton, Curtis; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-based violence and mental health outcomes among a population of female urban refugees and asylum seekers. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, a study team interviewed a stratified random sample of female refugees and asylum seekers aged 15-59 years from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia. Questionnaires were used to collect information about recent and lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the 500 women selected, 117 (23.4%) completed interviews. The weighted lifetime prevalences of experiencing any (physical and/or sexual) violence, physical violence, and sexual violence were 77.5% (95% CI 66.6-88.4), 76.2% (95% CI 65.2-87.2), and 63.3% (95% CI 51.2-75.4), respectively. Lifetime history of physical violence was associated with PTSD symptoms (Pviolence (P=0.014). Overall, 112 women had symptoms of depression (weighted prevalence 92.0; 95% CI 83.9-100) and 83 had PTSD symptoms (weighted prevalence 71.1; 95% CI 59.9-82.4). Prevalences of violence, depression, and PTSD symptoms among female urban refugees in Kampala are high. Additional services and increased availability of psychosocial programs for refugees are needed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisler Mark C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.

  17. Community vulnerability and stratified risk: Hegemonic masculinity, socioeconomic status, and HIV/AIDS in a sex work community in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sane, Megan M

    2018-01-29

    This article examines the social patterning of health, economic uncertainty, hegemonic masculinity, and vulnerability among men who live and work in a low-income sex work community in Kampala, Uganda. This problematises the notion that vulnerable communities are homogenous, in demographics, economic status, and risk. This article draws on ethnographic data collected in 2016, including semi-structured interviews and participant observation. This article uses a stratified risk framework to describe the central finding of this study, which is that men's experience in Kataba is characterised by a struggle to fulfil the provider role that constitutes a core aspect of their socially ascribed gender role. In a context of economic scarcity, men's lives are fraught with strain and this intersects with other forms of risk. Finally, by focusing on community vulnerability rather than individual risk, this work contributes to theories of gender and sex work, and informs HIV/AIDS praxis.

  18. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

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    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  19. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN KAMPALA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    77 No. 7 July 2000. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN KAMPALA, UGANDA ... spread much (106 cases in 1995), resulting in a low level of immunity ... An intensive social ... development of a network of community health workers,.

  1. Comparison of environmental performance for different waste management scenarios in East Africa: The case of Kampala City, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.; Leemans, R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste flows management in East African cities has become an environmental and public health concerns to the city authorities and the general public. We assessed the environmental impacts of waste recycling in Kampala City, for four designed waste management scenarios, namely: (1) Scenario S1

  2. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  3. Prevalence, barriers and factors associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positive status to children: a cross-sectional study in an urban clinic in Kampala, Uganda

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    Charles Peter Osingada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disclosure of parental HIV status is associated with a number of positive outcomes such as improved adherence to clinic appointments, lower levels of parental anxiety and depression, and mutual emotional support between parents and their children. Very few studies in low-resource settings have addressed the issues of parental disclosure of their HIV status to their children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult parents attending HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment clinic at Makerere University Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI, Kampala, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the Parent Disclosure Interview (PDI questionnaire which is a standard tool developed specifically for HIV infected parents. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.1. Results Of 344 participants, only 37 % had told at least one of their children that they were HIV positive. Barriers to disclosure were fear that children may tell other people about the parent’s HIV status, desire not to worry or upset children and perceptions that children may not understand. Age of the parent, religion and having someone committed to care of the children were positively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positives status. Attainment of tertiary level of education was negatively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV status. Conclusions Parental disclosure of a positive HIVstatus to their children is still low in urban Kampala. There is therefore need to develop locally relevant interventions so as to increase rates of parental disclosure of a positive HIV status to their children and thus promote open and honest discussions about HIV/AIDS at family level.

  4. Prevalence, barriers and factors associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positive status to children: a cross-sectional study in an urban clinic in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osingada, Charles Peter; Okuga, Monica; Nabirye, Rose Chalo; Sewankambo, Nelson Kaulukusi; Nakanjako, Damalie

    2016-07-11

    Disclosure of parental HIV status is associated with a number of positive outcomes such as improved adherence to clinic appointments, lower levels of parental anxiety and depression, and mutual emotional support between parents and their children. Very few studies in low-resource settings have addressed the issues of parental disclosure of their HIV status to their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult parents attending HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment clinic at Makerere University Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Kampala, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the Parent Disclosure Interview (PDI) questionnaire which is a standard tool developed specifically for HIV infected parents. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.1. Of 344 participants, only 37 % had told at least one of their children that they were HIV positive. Barriers to disclosure were fear that children may tell other people about the parent's HIV status, desire not to worry or upset children and perceptions that children may not understand. Age of the parent, religion and having someone committed to care of the children were positively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positives status. Attainment of tertiary level of education was negatively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV status. Parental disclosure of a positive HIVstatus to their children is still low in urban Kampala. There is therefore need to develop locally relevant interventions so as to increase rates of parental disclosure of a positive HIV status to their children and thus promote open and honest discussions about HIV/AIDS at family level.

  5. ‘It is like a tomato stall where someone can pick what he likes’: structure and practices of female sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective interventions among female sex workers require a thorough knowledge of the context of local sex industries. We explore the organisation of female sex work in a low socio-economic setting in Kampala, Uganda. Methods We conducted a qualitative study with 101 participants selected from an epidemiological cohort of 1027 women at high risk of HIV in Kampala. Repeat in-depth life history and work practice interviews were conducted from March 2010 to June 2011. Context specific factors of female sex workers’ day-to-day lives were captured. Reported themes were identified and categorised inductively. Results Of the 101 women, 58 were active self-identified sex workers operating in different locations within the area of study and nine had quit sex work. This paper focuses on these 67 women who gave information about their involvement in sex work. The majority had not gone beyond primary level of education and all had at least one child. Thirty one voluntarily disclosed that they were HIV-positive. Common sex work locations were streets/roadsides, bars and night clubs. Typically sex occurred in lodges near bars/night clubs, dark alleyways or car parking lots. Overall, women experienced sex work-related challenges at their work locations but these were more apparent in outdoor settings. These settings exposed women to violence, visibility to police, a stigmatising public as well as competition for clients, while bars provided some protection from these challenges. Older sex workers tended to prefer bars while the younger ones were mostly based on the streets. Alcohol consumption was a feature in all locations and women said it gave them courage and helped them to withstand the night chill. Condom use was determined by clients’ willingness, a woman’s level of sobriety or price offered. Conclusions Sex work operates across a variety of locations in the study area in Kampala, with each presenting different strategies and challenges for those operating

  6. 'It is like a tomato stall where someone can pick what he likes': structure and practices of female sex work in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalukenge, Winifred; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2013-08-10

    Effective interventions among female sex workers require a thorough knowledge of the context of local sex industries. We explore the organisation of female sex work in a low socio-economic setting in Kampala, Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study with 101 participants selected from an epidemiological cohort of 1027 women at high risk of HIV in Kampala. Repeat in-depth life history and work practice interviews were conducted from March 2010 to June 2011. Context specific factors of female sex workers' day-to-day lives were captured. Reported themes were identified and categorised inductively. Of the 101 women, 58 were active self-identified sex workers operating in different locations within the area of study and nine had quit sex work. This paper focuses on these 67 women who gave information about their involvement in sex work. The majority had not gone beyond primary level of education and all had at least one child. Thirty one voluntarily disclosed that they were HIV-positive. Common sex work locations were streets/roadsides, bars and night clubs. Typically sex occurred in lodges near bars/night clubs, dark alleyways or car parking lots. Overall, women experienced sex work-related challenges at their work locations but these were more apparent in outdoor settings. These settings exposed women to violence, visibility to police, a stigmatising public as well as competition for clients, while bars provided some protection from these challenges. Older sex workers tended to prefer bars while the younger ones were mostly based on the streets. Alcohol consumption was a feature in all locations and women said it gave them courage and helped them to withstand the night chill. Condom use was determined by clients' willingness, a woman's level of sobriety or price offered. Sex work operates across a variety of locations in the study area in Kampala, with each presenting different strategies and challenges for those operating there. Risky practices are present in all

  7. First things first: effectiveness and scalability of a basic prehospital trauma care program for lay first-responders in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Sudha Jayaraman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that in the absence of a formal emergency system, lay people face a heavy burden of injuries in Kampala, Uganda, and we demonstrated the feasibility of a basic prehospital trauma course for lay people. This study tests the effectiveness of this course and estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness of scaling up this training. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For six months, we prospectively followed 307 trainees (police, taxi drivers, and community leaders who completed a one-day basic prehospital trauma care program in 2008. Cross-sectional surveys and fund of knowledge tests were used to measure their frequency of skill and supply use, reasons for not providing aid, perceived utility of the course and kit, confidence in using skills, and knowledge of first-aid. We then estimated the cost-effectiveness of scaling up the program. At six months, 188 (62% of the trainees were followed up. Their knowledge retention remained high or increased. The mean correct score on a basic fund of knowledge test was 92%, up from 86% after initial training (n = 146 pairs, p = 0.0016. 97% of participants had used at least one skill from the course: most commonly haemorrhage control, recovery position and lifting/moving and 96% had used at least one first-aid item. Lack of knowledge was less of a barrier and trainees were significantly more confident in providing first-aid. Based on cost estimates from the World Health Organization, local injury data, and modelling from previous studies, the projected cost of scaling up this program was $0.12 per capita or $25-75 per life year saved. Key limitations of the study include small sample size, possible reporter bias, preliminary local validation of study instruments, and an indirect estimate of mortality reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Lay first-responders effectively retained knowledge on prehospital trauma care and confidently used their first-aid skills and supplies for at least six months. The costs of

  8. 'Test and Treat' Among Women at High Risk for HIV-infection in Kampala, Uganda: Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanja, Yunia; Kamacooko, Onesmus; Bagiire, Daniel; Namale, Gertrude; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Seeley, Janet

    2018-03-01

    Data on implementation of 'Test and Treat' among key populations in sub-Saharan Africa are still limited. We examined factors associated with prompt antiretroviral therapy/ART (within 1 month of HIV-positive diagnosis or 1 week if pregnant) among 343 women at high risk for HIV infection in Kampala-Uganda, of whom 28% initiated prompt ART. Most (95%) reported paid sex within 3 months prior to enrolment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine baseline characteristics associated with prompt ART. Sex work as main job, younger age and being widowed/separated were associated with lower odds of prompt ART; being enrolled after 12 months of implementing the intervention was associated with higher odds of prompt ART. Younger women, widowed/separated and those reporting sex work as their main job need targeted interventions to start ART promptly after testing. Staff supervision and mentoring may need strengthening during the first year of implementing 'test and treat' interventions.

  9. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% ( n  = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% ( n  = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% ( n  = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% ( n  = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% ( n  = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent ( n  = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% ( n  = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality

  10. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years in Kampala city, Uganda

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    Moses Ocan

    2017-09-01

    tract infections with most antimicrobial agents accessed and used without a prescription in Kampala city, Uganda.

  11. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years) in Kampala city, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocan, Moses; Aono, Mary; Bukirwa, Clare; Luyinda, Emmanuel; Ochwo, Cathy; Nsambu, Elastus; Namugonza, Stella; Makoba, Joseph; Kandaruku, Enock; Muyende, Hannington; Nakawunde, Aida

    2017-09-21

    agents accessed and used without a prescription in Kampala city, Uganda.

  12. The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the role of parents in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Johanna; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Tillgren, Per; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2009-06-01

    This qualitative study explores how young Ugandans perceive and experience the role of parents in preventing the spread of HIV among youths. Data were gathered from semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 16 in-school youths, ages 18-20, residing in Kampala. A key finding is that the youths perceived parenting styles as influencing HIV prevention among youths. The participants identified several harmful consequences from a lack of parental guidance or inadequate parenting and they discussed the gains of parental support in terms of assisting HIV prevention among youths. The participants expressed the idea that parents can importantly contribute to preventing the spread of HIV among youths by supporting their own adolescent children and discussing topics like sex, relationships, and HIV in an age-appropriate way. However, the participants also felt that Ugandan parents in general are unable to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from exposure to HIV. The in-school youths felt that parents are unsupportive in terms of HIV prevention among youths by way of fear of talking about sex, parents' lack of time to engage with their children, and authoritarian or indulgent parenting. The participants also described how parents treat girls and boys differently; however, no significant association was found between how girls and boys conceptualised parents' roles.

  13. DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients in Kampala, Uganda

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    Katabazi Fred A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification and differentiation of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by DNA fingerprinting has provided a better understanding of the epidemiology and tracing the transmission of tuberculosis. We set out to determine if there was a relationship between the risk of belonging to a group of tuberculosis patients with identical mycobacterial DNA fingerprint patterns and the HIV sero-status of the individuals in a high TB incidence peri-urban setting of Kampala, Uganda. Methods One hundred eighty three isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 80 HIV seropositive and 103 HIV seronegative patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-RFLP. Using the BioNumerics software, strains were considered to be clustered if at least one other patient had an isolate with identical RFLP pattern. Results One hundred and eighteen different fingerprint patterns were obtained from the 183 isolates. There were 34 clusters containing 54% (99/183 of the patients (average cluster size of 2.9, and a majority (96.2% of the strains possessed a high copy number (≥ 5 copies of the IS6110 element. When strains with P = 0.615, patients aged P = 0.100, and sex (aOR 1.12, 95%CI 0.60–2.06, P = 0.715. Conclusion The sample showed evidence of a high prevalence of recent transmission with a high average cluster size, but infection with an isolate with a fingerprint found to be part of a cluster was not associated with any demographic or clinical characteristics, including HIV status.

  14. 'SASA! is the medicine that treats violence'. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change

  15. Human rights dimensions of food, health and care in children's homes in Kampala, Uganda - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Line Erikstad; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Eide, Wenche Barth

    2016-03-18

    More than 14 % of Ugandan children are orphaned and many live in children's homes. Ugandan authorities have targeted adolescent girls as a priority group for nutrition interventions as safeguarding nutritional health before pregnancy can reduce the chance of passing on malnutrition to the offspring and thus future generations. Ugandan authorities have obligations under international human rights law to progressively realise the rights to adequate food, health and care for all Ugandan children. Two objectives guided this study in children's homes: (a) To examine female adolescent residents' experiences, attitudes and views regarding: (i) eating patterns and food, (ii) health conditions, and (iii) care practices; and (b) to consider if the conditions in the homes comply with human rights standards and principles for the promotion of the rights to adequate food, health and care. A human rights-based approach guided the planning and conduct of this study. Five children's homes in Kampala were included where focus group discussions were held with girls aged 12-14 and 15-17 years. These discussions were analysed through a phenomenological approach. The conditions of food, health and care as experienced by the girls, were compared with international standards for the realisation of the human rights to adequate food, health and care. Food, health and care conditions varied greatly across the five homes. In some of these the girls consumed only one meal per day and had no access to clean drinking water, soap, toilet paper and sanitary napkins. The realisation of the right to adequate food for the girls was not met in three homes, the realisation of the right to health was not met in two homes, and the realisation of the right to care was not met in one home. In three of the selected children's homes human rights standards for food, health or care were not met. Care in the children's homes was an important contributing factor for whether standards for the rights to adequate

  16. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual practice and its management in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara; Ssengooba, Freddie; Peters, David H

    2014-08-18

    Many full-time Ugandan government health providers take on additional jobs - a phenomenon called dual practice. We describe the complex patterns that characterize the evolution of dual practice in Uganda, and the local management practices that emerged in response, in five government facilities. An in-depth understanding of dual practice can contribute to policy discussions on improving public sector performance. A multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis was supplemented by interviews with policy stakeholders and a review of historical and policy documents. Five facility case studies captured the perspective of doctors, nurses, and health managers through semi-structured in-depth interviews. A causal loop diagram illustrated interactions and feedback between old and new actors, as well as emerging roles and relationships. The causal loop diagram illustrated how feedback related to dual practice policy developed in Uganda. As opportunities for dual practice grew and the public health system declined over time, government providers increasingly coped through dual practice. Over time, government restrictions to dual practice triggered policy resistance and protest from government providers. Resulting feedback contributed to compromising the supply of government providers and, potentially, of service delivery outcomes. Informal government policies and restrictions replaced the formal restrictions identified in the early phases. In some instances, government health managers, particularly those in hospitals, developed their own practices to cope with dual practice and to maintain public sector performance. Management practices varied according to the health manager's attitude towards dual practice and personal experience with dual practice. These practices were distinct in hospitals. Hospitals faced challenges managing internal dual practice opportunities, such as those created by externally-funded research projects based within the hospital. Private

  17. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

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    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  18. Assessing the Performance of Medical Personnel Involved in the Diagnostic Imaging Processes in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

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    Michael G Kawooya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Uganda, has limited health resources and improving performance of personnel involved in imaging is necessary for efficiency. The objectives of the study were to develop and pilot imaging user performance indices, document non-tangible aspects of performance, and propose ways of improving performance. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey employing triangulation methodology, conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital over a period of 3 years from 2005 to 2008. The qualitative study used in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and self-administered questionnaires, to explore clinicians′ and radiologists′ performancerelated views. Results: The study came up with following indices: appropriate service utilization (ASU, appropriateness of clinician′s nonimaging decisions (ANID, and clinical utilization of imaging results (CUI. The ASU, ANID, and CUI were: 94%, 80%, and 97%, respectively. The clinician′s requisitioning validity was high (positive likelihood ratio of 10.6 contrasting with a poor validity for detecting those patients not needing imaging (negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. Some requisitions were inappropriate and some requisition and reports lacked detail, clarity, and precision. Conclusion: Clinicians perform well at imaging requisition-decisions but there are issues in imaging requisitioning and reporting that need to be addressed to improve performance.

  19. Assessing the Performance of Medical Personnel Involved in the Diagnostic Imaging Processes in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawooya, Michael G.; Pariyo, George; Malwadde, Elsie Kiguli; Byanyima, Rosemary; Kisembo, Harrient

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Uganda, has limited health resources and improving performance of personnel involved in imaging is necessary for efficiency. The objectives of the study were to develop and pilot imaging user performance indices, document non-tangible aspects of performance, and propose ways of improving performance. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey employing triangulation methodology, conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital over a period of 3 years from 2005 to 2008. The qualitative study used in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and self-administered questionnaires, to explore clinicians’ and radiologists’ performancerelated views. Results: The study came up with following indices: appropriate service utilization (ASU), appropriateness of clinician's nonimaging decisions (ANID), and clinical utilization of imaging results (CUI). The ASU, ANID, and CUI were: 94%, 80%, and 97%, respectively. The clinician's requisitioning validity was high (positive likelihood ratio of 10.6) contrasting with a poor validity for detecting those patients not needing imaging (negative likelihood ratio of 0.16). Some requisitions were inappropriate and some requisition and reports lacked detail, clarity, and precision. Conclusion: Clinicians perform well at imaging requisition-decisions but there are issues in imaging requisitioning and reporting that need to be addressed to improve performance. PMID:23230543

  20. Primary effusion lymphoma associated with Human Herpes Virus-8 and Epstein Barr virus in an HIV-infected woman from Kampala, Uganda: a case report

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    Osuwat Lawrence O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma. Case presentation A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions. Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL. Conclusions A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of

  1. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama

    2017-06-01

    Hospitality establishments in Kampala are not protecting the public from tobacco smoke exposure nor adequately limiting access to tobacco products. Effective dissemination of the Tobacco Control Act 2015 is important in ensuring that owners of public places are aware of their responsibility of complying with critical tobacco control laws. This would also likely increase self-enforcement among owners of hospitality establishments and public patrons of the no-smoking restrictions.

  2. The Ugandan Youth Quality of Life index: assessing the relevance of incorporating perceived importance into the quality of life measure and factors associated with the quality of life among youth in slum areas of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Kamanga, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    While quality of life (QoL) has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala. The QoL questionnaire included 36 questions divided into a two-part scale: 18 questions rated for satisfaction (Part 1) and 18 other questions rated on importance (Part 2). The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N=310) and the other for the confirmatorty factor analysis (CFA; N=353). The effect of demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors on QoL was assessed using linear regressions. The EFA yielded three factors: living conditions and lifestyle (seven items, α=0.84), social relationships (five items, α=0.86), and personal independence (five items, α=0.76). In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: Comparative Fit Index=0.95, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.06, and p of Close Fit >0.05. The model incorporating perceived importance had lower Akaike Information Criteria and Bayesian Information Criteria values than the unweighted model, thereby providing very strong support to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings when measuring QoL in Uganda. Poor QoL was associated with poor educational attainment, drug and substance misuse, and family disruption. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between QoL and lifestyle and structural issues among youth in Uganda. The study provides the

  3. The Ugandan Youth Quality of Life index: assessing the relevance of incorporating perceived importance into the quality of life measure and factors associated with the quality of life among youth in slum areas of Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M. N. Renzaho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: While quality of life (QoL has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. Design: Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala. The QoL questionnaire included 36 questions divided into a two-part scale: 18 questions rated for satisfaction (Part 1 and 18 other questions rated on importance (Part 2. The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N=310 and the other for the confirmatorty factor analysis (CFA; N=353. The effect of demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors on QoL was assessed using linear regressions. Results: The EFA yielded three factors: living conditions and lifestyle (seven items, α=0.84, social relationships (five items, α=0.86, and personal independence (five items, α=0.76. In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: Comparative Fit Index=0.95, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.06, and p of Close Fit >0.05. The model incorporating perceived importance had lower Akaike Information Criteria and Bayesian Information Criteria values than the unweighted model, thereby providing very strong support to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings when measuring QoL in Uganda. Poor QoL was associated with poor educational attainment, drug and substance misuse, and family disruption. Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is a relationship between QoL and lifestyle and

  4. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men.

  5. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Francisco, Leilani; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Kaye, Dan; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-06-29

    Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. The SASA! STUDY is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18-49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. This is one of few cluster randomised trials globally to assess

  6. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramsky Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members; past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females; community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence; and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males. 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved

  7. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. Discussion This is one of few

  8. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Alpha thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia patients, Kampala, Uganda. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.48. Introduction. In the early 1960's many adults with sickle cell anaemia. (SCA) as well as those with mild disease were reported in Jamaica1. Various factors, both genetic and environmental, are.

  9. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  10. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  11. A large and persistent outbreak of typhoid fever caused by consuming contaminated water and street-vended beverages: Kampala, Uganda, January - June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Bulage, Lilian; Nsubuga, Fred; Pande, Gerald; Oguttu, David Were; Mafigiri, Richardson; Kihembo, Christine; Kwesiga, Benon; Masiira, Ben; Okullo, Allen Eva; Kajumbula, Henry; Matovu, Joseph K B; Makumbi, Issa; Wetaka, Milton; Kasozi, Sam; Kyazze, Simon; Dahlke, Melissa; Hughes, Peter; Sendagala, Juliet Nsimire; Musenero, Monica; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Hill, Vincent R; Mintz, Eric; Routh, Janell; Gómez, Gerardo; Bicknese, Amelia; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-01-05

    On 6 February 2015, Kampala city authorities alerted the Ugandan Ministry of Health of a "strange disease" that killed one person and sickened dozens. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the nature of the disease, mode of transmission, and risk factors to inform timely and effective control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of fever (≥37.5 °C) for more than 3 days with abdominal pain, headache, negative malaria test or failed anti-malaria treatment, and at least 2 of the following: diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, constipation, fatigue. A probable case was defined as a suspected case with a positive TUBEX® TF test. A confirmed case had blood culture yielding Salmonella Typhi. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures of 33 suspected case-patients and 78 controls, and tested water and juice samples. From 17 February-12 June, we identified 10,230 suspected, 1038 probable, and 51 confirmed cases. Approximately 22.58% (7/31) of case-patients and 2.56% (2/78) of controls drank water sold in small plastic bags (OR M-H  = 8.90; 95%CI = 1.60-49.00); 54.54% (18/33) of case-patients and 19.23% (15/78) of controls consumed locally-made drinks (OR M-H  = 4.60; 95%CI: 1.90-11.00). All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Water and juice samples exhibited evidence of fecal contamination. Contaminated water and street-vended beverages were likely vehicles of this outbreak. At our recommendation authorities closed unsafe water sources and supplied safe water to affected areas.

  12. Using Formative Research to Design a Behavior Change Strategy to Increase the Use of Improved Cookstoves in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

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    Stephanie L. Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework—opportunity, ability, and motivation—was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  13. A Colonial Legacy of African Gender Inequality? Evidence from Christian Kampala, 1895-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Meier zu Selhausen, Felix; Weisdorf, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The colonial legacy of African underdevelopment is widely debated but hard to document. We use occupational statistics from Protestant marriage registers of historical Kampala to investigate the hypothesis that African gender inequality and female disempowerment are rooted in colonial times. We find that the arrival of Europeans in Uganda ignited a century- long transformation of Kampala involving a gender Kuznets curve. Men rapidly acquired literacy and quickly found their way into white-col...

  14. Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Nakuti, Janet; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Cundill, Bonnie; Francisco, Leilani; Kaye, Dan; Musuya, Tina; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-07-31

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are important and interconnected public health concerns. While it is recognized that they share common social drivers, there is limited evidence surrounding the potential of community interventions to reduce violence and HIV risk at the community level. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors. From 2007 to 2012 a pair-matched cluster randomized controlled trial (CRT) was conducted in eight communities (four intervention and four control) in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, 18- to 49-years old, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1,583) and four years post intervention implementation (n = 2,532). Six violence and HIV-related primary outcomes were defined a priori. An adjusted cluster-level intention-to-treat analysis compared outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The intervention was associated with significantly lower social acceptance of IPV among women (adjusted risk ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.79) and lower acceptance among men (0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.15); significantly greater acceptance that a woman can refuse sex among women (1.28, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and men (1.31, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.70); 52% lower past year experience of physical IPV among women (0.48, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.39); and lower levels of past year experience of sexual IPV (0.76, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.72). Women experiencing violence in intervention communities were more likely to receive supportive community responses. Reported past year sexual concurrency by men was significantly lower in intervention compared to control communities (0.57, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.91). This is the first CRT in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the community impact of a mobilization program on the social acceptability of IPV, the past year prevalence of IPV and levels of sexual concurrency. SASA

  15. HIV/AIDS status disclosure increases support, behavioural change and, HIV prevention in the long term: a case for an Urban Clinic, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Ssegujja, Eric; Ssali, Sarah; Tumwine, Christopher; Nekesa, Nicolate; Nannungi, Annette; Ryan, Gery; Wagner, Glenn

    2014-06-21

    Disclosure of HIV status supports risk reduction and facilitates access to prevention and care services, but can be inhibited by the fear of negative repercussions. We explored the short and long-term outcomes of disclosure among clients attending an urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were administered to a purposeful sample of 40 adult HIV clients that was stratified by gender. The information elicited included their lived experiences and outcomes of disclosure in the short and long term. A text data management software (ATLAS.ti) was used for data analysis. Codes were exported to MS Excel and pivot tables, and code counts made to generate statistical data. Of the 134 short-term responses elicited during the interview regarding disclosure events, most responses were supportive including encouragement, advice and support regarding HIV care and treatment. The results show on-disclosing to spouse, there was more trust, and use of condoms for HIV prevention. Only one third were negative responses, like emotional shock and feeling of distress. The negative reactions to the spouses included rejection, shock and distress in the short term. Even then, none of these events led to drastic change such as divorce. Other responses reflected HIV prevention and call for behavioural change and advice to change sexual behaviour, recipient seeking HIV testing or care. Women reported more responses of encouragement compared to men. Men reported more preventive behaviour compared to women. Of the 137 long-term outcomes elicited during disclosure, three quarters were positive followed by behavioral change and prevention, and then negative responses. Men reported increased care and support when they disclosed to fellow men compared to when women disclosed to women. There was better or not change in relationship when women disclosed to women than when women disclosed to men. There is overwhelming support to individuals that disclose their HIV status

  16. vegetation biomass prediction in the cattle corridor of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    3Ministry of Water and Environment, Climate Change Unit, P. O. Box 2811, Kampala, Uganda ... (r=0.99). Precipitation has influenced vegetative biomass in the cattle corridor as there is a positive .... since they are cloud free (Campbell, 2006).

  17. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public Health... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of... and Regulations and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations and...

  18. The pattern of cancer in Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (21.1°/0), breast cancer (10.9%), lymphoma. (5.9%) ... diagnosed in 1977-80, before HIV infection was recognized. ... restricted resources, the problem of extensive migration, the lack ..... be put on the prevention and early detection of cancer.

  19. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  20. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  1. in Mulago Hospital in Kampala - Uganda.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operative time, postoperative pain, duration taken to return to work, postoperative complications, wound healing rate and patient's ... the average post-operative pain scores (P-value = 0.054). No difference in the need for extra analgesia was ... standardized pre-operative preparation and post- operative management.

  2. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container

  3. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants

  4. Blogging 9/11 and Memory Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Paganoni

    2011-09-01

    This article highlights a few of the salient discursive and linguistic patterns that recur in the 9/11 narratives that have multiplied online on several dedicated websites and investigates the evolution of 9/11 cultural memory practices, torn between the discourse of the unrepresentable and the imperative to remember. It claims that blogging 9/11, immediately after the attacks and over the years, well illustrates how the logic of memory and its interpretation of the past follow different criteria from history writing. It shows how memorialization practices, dictated by the fear of forgetting the vanishing present, contribute to that excess of memory that lies at the core of the instability and mutual competition of sources retrieved on the Internet and that might ultimately lead to a rethinking of what is the contribution of collective memory to historiography.

  5. Postdisaster Psychological Intervention since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Patricia J.; Brymer, Melissa J.; Bonanno, George A.

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of research and experience after 9/11 has led to the development of evidence-based and evidence-informed guidelines and strategies to support the design and implementation of public mental health programs after terrorism and disaster. This article reviews advances that have been made in a variety of areas, including development of…

  6. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously as... within the time specified in an approved mining reclamation plan, unless a longer period is authorized in... topsoil necessary for vegetative restoration; and (vi) Reestablishing native vegetative communities. (b...

  7. Hollywood in Uganda: Local Appropriation of Trans-National English-Language Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achen, Stella; Openjuru, George Ladaah

    2012-01-01

    Hollywood movies are popular in Uganda. This paper reports a study that investigated access to English-language Hollywood movies in Uganda, by way of an ethnographic audience study carried out in slum areas of the city of Kampala. The researchers visited and participated in the watching and reviewing of English-language movies in makeshift video…

  8. Nature and dynamics of climate variability in the uganda cattle corridor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteology Department

    2013-08-12

    Aug 12, 2013 ... 1Department of Geography, Geo-Informatics and Climatic Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda. 2Africa Innovations Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 3Department of Biology, Gulu ..... research activities under the project “Adaptation to the. Impact of Climate Variability on Food and Health Security in the Cattle ...

  9. Aesthetic Appreciation, Ethics, and 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Aretoulakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous critical articles on what really happened on the otherwise beautiful morning of 11 September 2001. Beyond doubt, the bulk of the critical responses to the terrorist attacks focused on the ethical and humanitarian, or rather the unethical and inhumane implications of the atrocious act, leaving no room for any philosophical reflection on the potential assessment or reception of the event from the perspective of art and aesthetics. The few years that have gone by since 2001 have provided us with some a sense of emotional detachment from the horror of that day, a detachment that may have awakened our aesthetic and artistic instincts with regard to the attacks themselves as well as their visual representation. Chronological distance renders an unprejudiced and independent stance more possible now than ever. It also allows us to reconsider our initial politically correct and ethically justified repulsion of the efforts made by a few artists to aestheticize 9/11. Such repulsion, however, was associated with the delusion that by denouncing aesthetics we were really securing the prevalence of politics, morality and ethical responsibility in a terror-afflicted society. My point in this paper is that there is a need for aesthetic appreciation when contemplating a violent event such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks. What is more, appreciation of the beautiful, even in case of a 9/11, seems necessary because it is a key to establishing an ethical stance towards terror, life, and art. It should be stressed that independent aesthetic experience is not important in itself but is a means of cultivating an authentic moral and ethical judgment.

  10. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddumba, E K

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda's population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.

  11. Uptake of community-based, self-collected HPV testing vs. visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in Kampala, Uganda: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Erin; Pedersen, Heather N; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Mwesigwa, David; Singer, Joel; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2015-10-01

    To compare two cervical cancer screening methods: community-based self-collection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Pilot randomised controlled trial of 500 women aged 30-65 in the community of Kisenyi, Uganda. Women randomised to self-collection-based HR-HPV testing provided a cervico-vaginal swab for HR-HPV, and results were provided by phone after laboratory testing. Women who tested HPV positive were referred for VIA at the local health unit. Women randomised to VIA underwent screening at the local health unit, where women who tested positive with VIA were provided cryotherapy at time of screening, as per local standard of care. Women were referred for colposcopy when indicated. Outcome measures were uptake of screening, HR-HPV prevalence, VIA result and treatment rates. In the HR-HPV arm, 248 of 250 (p < 0.01) women provided samples, while in the VIA arm, 121 of 250 (48.4%) women attended screening. Among the 73 of 248 HR-HPV-positive women, 45.2% (N = 33) attended VIA screening for follow-up, 21.2% (N = 7) of whom screened positive; five received treatment and two were missing clinical follow-up records. Of the 121 women in the VIA arm who attended screening, 13.2% (N = 16) screened positive; seven received cryotherapy, three refused treatment, five were referred to colposcopy; and one woman had suspected cervical cancer and received treatment after confirmatory testing. This pilot study demonstrated trial feasibility and willingness of the women to participate and be randomised successfully into the two arms. Self-collection-based cervical cancer screening had a higher uptake than VIA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ICTs and development: assessing internet and mobile phone use among the urban poor in Kawempe division, Kampala district

    OpenAIRE

    Namatovu, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder, 2012 This study set out to understand and assess internet and mobile phone uses among the urban poor in Kawempe division in Kampala district, Uganda. As the internet and mobile phones are rapidly diffusing through communities with more people having access to them, it is important to understand what people are actually doing with their access. There has been so much optimism and scepticism among scholars around the potential of ...

  13. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  14. 12 CFR 9.11 - Investment of fiduciary funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of fiduciary funds. 9.11 Section 9.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.11 Investment of fiduciary funds. A national bank shall invest funds of a...

  15. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  16. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134 of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590. Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590, 13.7% (n = 81 reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81 and 22.5% (n = 18 among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4, being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0, and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5. Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  17. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power line carried on tall metal pylons, and a smaller 33-kV line, with three conduc- tors supported on wooden poles, ... able literature on bird mortality associated with power lines (e.g. Lehman et al. 2005,. Jenkins et al. 2010, Edison .... the conductor wires would have been hard to see. Residents reported that other birds.

  18. Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 5 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Teaching obstetric ultrasound at Mulago Hospital - Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This original teaching intervention is an effective method to improve ... In ad- dition, no teaching or testing material is available in the literature that can be used to carry ..... trasound in rural areas using a tablet platform and mobile.

  20. Bedside practice of blood transfusion in a large teaching hospital in Uganda : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J D; Kajja, I; Bimenya, G S; Postma, Maarten; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    BACKGROUND: Adverse transfusion reactions can cause morbidity and death to patients who receive a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion practice in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda is analyzed to see if and when these practices play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients. MATERIALS AND

  1. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  2. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  3. Anthology and Absence: The Post-9/11 Anthologizing Impulse

    OpenAIRE

    Lovering Rounds, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The decade after the attacks of 9/11 and the fall of the World Trade Center saw a proliferation of New York-themed literary anthologies from a wide range of publishers. With titles like Poetry After 9/11, Manhattan Sonnet, Poems of New York, Writing New York, and I Speak of the City, these texts variously reflect upon their own post-9/11 plurivocality as preservative, regenerative, and reconstructive. However, the work of such anthologies is more complex than filling with plurivocality the ph...

  4. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  5. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  6. Muslims in Pre- and Post-9/11 Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims have never ceased to be important for the West and have been depicted in vilifying and stereotypical manners in western literature and films. However, after the tragic event of 9/11, a dramatic change has been observed in the world’s focus towards Muslims. Although stereotypes and discriminatory actions were nothing new to Muslims, the post-9/11 backlash was absolutely terrible and heartbreaking. People have started to consider Muslims either terrorists or sympathetic to terrorists, and they have been suspected and distrusted. Lots of books, articles and films have depicted Muslims in a derogatory and extreme manner. Pre-9/11 Hollywood movies True Lies and The Siege explicitly show the stereotypical attitude of the West to Muslims while post-9/11 novels like The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Once in a Promised Land by Laila Halaby depict the plight and predicament of Muslims in America. The article aims to depict the stereotypical, vilifying and antagonistic attitudes of the West to Arabs and Muslims in both pre- and post- 9/11 era. It also aims to prove that the depiction is highly motivated by the media, western authorities and the West’s desire for social, cultural and political dominance over the East. Keywords: Orientalism, Others, Terrorism, Media

  7. Academic Freedom in America after 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John K.

    2005-01-01

    College campuses around the country reacted to the September 11, 2001, terrorist acts with rallies, vigils, discussions, and a wide range of debates about the causes and cures for terrorism. Yet the story told about academia in the media was often quite different. Conservatives claimed that the reaction to 9/11 in academia was another example of…

  8. Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, J.

    2013-01-01

    'Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11' is anchored in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in America and their cultural legacies, most prominently in the forms of cultural resistance. By investigating a multimedia assemblage of creative objects - hip hop album, TV sit-com,

  9. Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Kirenga, Bruce; Muwonge, Catherine; Kyaligonza, Steven; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2016-12-01

    Patient satisfaction towards care during encounter with clinicians is key for better treatment outcomes. We assessed patient satisfaction with TB clinical care consultations in Kampala, Uganda. This was a facility-based cross sectional study done between September 2012 and February 2013 using qualitative method of data collection. Participants consecutively completed a pre-tested structured satisfaction questionnaire. A criteria of the rating as good; >75% was considered acceptable, (50-75%) as more effort is needed and patient satisfaction, were: time spent with clinician (85.4%), explanation of what was done (87.6%), technical skills (91.6%), personal manner of the clinician seen (91.6%). Factors for low satisfaction were; waiting time before getting an appointment (61.8%), convenience of location of consultation office (53.4%), getting through to the office by phone (21.3%) and length of time waiting at the office (61.2%). Tuberculosis patients in Kampala are satisfied with TB clinical care consultations. Addressing factors with low patient satisfaction may significantly impact on treatment outcome.

  10. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  11. Driving deaths and injuries post-9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Amber BackwellInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaObjectives: In the days immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11, thousands of Americans chose to drive rather than to fly. We analyzed highway accident data to determine whether or not the number of fatalities and injuries following 9/11 differed from those in the same time period in 2000 and 2002.Methods: Motor crash data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System were analyzed to determine the numbers and rates of fatalities and injuries nationally and in selected states for the 20 days after September 11, in each of 2000, 2001, and 2002.Results: While the fatality rate did not change appreciably, the number of less severe injuries was statistically higher in 2001 than in 2000, both nationally and in New York State.Conclusions: The fear of terror attacks may have compelled Americans to drive instead of fly. They were thus exposed to the heightened risk of injury and death posed by driving. The need for public health to manage risk perception and communication is thus heightened in an era of global fear and terrorism.Keywords: public health, traffic, injuries, epidemiology

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  13. Parenting and Temperament Prior to September 11, 2001, and Parenting Specific to 9/11 as Predictors of Children's Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Smith, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Parenting is related to children's adjustment, but little research has examined the role of parenting in children's responses to disasters. This study describes parenting responses specific to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and examines pre-9/11 parenting, child temperament, and 9/11-specific parenting as predictors of children's posttraumatic stress…

  14. The scourge of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala; a preventable clinical and public health menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamulegeya, Louis H; Kizito, Mark; Nassali, Rosemary; Bagayana, Shiela; Elobu, Alex E

    2015-09-01

    Trauma is an increasingly important cause of disease globally. Half of this trauma is from road traffic injuries with motorcycles contributing 21-58%. Low protective gear use, lack of regulation and weak traffic law enforcement contribute to unsafe nature of commercial motorcycles also known as "boda boda" in Uganda. To determine the prevalence of protective gear use, the occurrence of head injury and the relationship between the two among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala. Following ethical approval we recruited consecutive consenting participants to this analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, double entered in Epidata and analyzed with STATA. Proportions and means were used to summarize data. Odds ratios were calculated for association between wearing helmets and occurrence and severity of head injury. All 328 participants recruited were male. Of these, 18.6% used Protective gear and 71.1 % sustained head injury. Helmets protected users from head injury (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.23-0.8) and significantly reduced its severity when it occurred. Protective gear use was low, with high occurrence of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Uganda. More effective strategies are needed to promote protective gear use among Uganda's commercial motorcycle riders.

  15. Dare We Not Teach 9/11 yet Advocate Citizenship Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Robert A.; Haas, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors advocate for systematic teaching of 9/11 within the social studies curriculum (K-16). The examination of the issues and impact of 9/11 illustrate the power of civic education in a democracy. Illustrated are the key concepts and associated issues and values of 9/11 with the National Council for the Social Studies curriculum standards.…

  16. How human brucellosis incidence in urban Kampala can be reduced most efficiently? A stochastic risk assessment of informally-marketed milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Makita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Kampala, Uganda, studies have shown a significant incidence of human brucellosis. A stochastic risk assessment involving two field surveys (cattle farms and milk shops and a medical record survey was conducted to assess the risk of human brucellosis infection through consumption of informally marketed raw milk potentially infected with Brucella abortus in Kampala and to identify the best control options.In the cattle farm survey, sera of 425 cows in 177 herds in the Kampala economic zone were sampled and tested for brucellosis using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA. Farmers were interviewed for dairy information. In the milk shop surveys, 135 milk sellers in the urban areas were interviewed and 117 milk samples were collected and tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA. A medical record survey was conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital for serological test results. A risk model was developed synthesizing data from these three surveys. Possible control options were prepared based on the model and the reduction of risk was simulated for each scenario. Overall, 12.6% (6.8-18.9: 90%CI of informally marketed milk in urban Kampala was contaminated with B.abortus at purchase and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 5.8 (90% CI: 5.3-6.2 per 10,000 people. The best control option would be the construction of a milk boiling centre either in Mbarara, the largest source of milk, or in peri-urban Kampala and to ensure that milk traders always sell milk to the boiling centre; 90% success in enforcing these two options would reduce risk by 47.4% (21.6-70.1: 90%CI and 82.0% (71.0-89.0: 90%CI, respectively.This study quantifies the risk of human brucellosis infection through informally marketed milk and estimates the incidence rate in Kampala for the first time; risk-based mitigation strategies are outlined to assist in developing policy.

  17. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  18. IDRC in Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory, the Government of Uganda ... tions informed Uganda's information ... to improve its management and build information technology systems. The hospital ... volunteers to refer sick children to medical.

  19. Past, Present, and Future of Neurosurgery in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Michael M; Warf, Benjamin; Fuller, Anthony; Freischlag, Kyle; Muhumuza, Michael; Ssenyonjo, Hussein; Mukasa, John; Mugamba, John; Kiryabwire, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgery in Uganda was virtually non-existent up until late 1960s. This changed when Dr. Jovan Kiryabwire spearheaded development of a neurosurgical unit at Mulago Hospital in Kampala. His work ethic and vision set the stage for rapid expansion of neurosurgical care in Uganda.At the beginning of the 2000s, Uganda was a country of nearly 30 million people, but had only 4 neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery's progress was plagued by challenges faced by many developing countries, such as difficulty retaining specialists, lack of modern hospital resources, and scarce training facilities. To combat these challenges 2 distinct programs were launched: 1 by Dr. Benjamin Warf in collaboration with CURE International, and the other by Dr. Michael Haglund from Duke University. Dr. Warf's program focused on establishing a facility for pediatric neurosurgery. Dr. Haglund's program to increase neurosurgical capacity was founded on a "4 T's Paradigm": Technology, Twinning, Training, and Top-Down. Embedded within this paradigm was the notion that Uganda needed to train its own people to become neurosurgeons, and thus Duke helped establish the country's first neurosurgery residency training program.Efforts from overseas, including the tireless work of Dr. Benjamin Warf, have saved thousands of children's lives. The influx of the Duke Program caused a dynamic shift at Mulago Hospital with dramatic effects, as evidenced by the substantial increase in neurosurgical capacity. The future looks bright for neurosurgery in Uganda and it all traces back to a rural village where 1 man had a vision to help the people of his country. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  20. Expiry of medicines in supply outlets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru

    2010-02-01

    The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.

  1. Documenting Horror: The Use of Sound in Non-Fiction 9/11 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Schlotterbeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While conventional 9/11 documentaries focus on the most known and visible images of the attack, three films that work against this tendency, 9/11 (2002, 11'09''01 - September 11 (2002 and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004, avoid the television news coverage of the towers and portray the attacks primarily through sound. These films avoid or scantly interject the too familiar footage, working instead with the audio track’s ability to convey the horrors of the event.  By emphasizing sound, these films address a challenge familiar to documentary studies: how to appropriately represent a historical event whose tragic scale makes aesthetic representation questionable.

  2. Securitisation: The case of post-9/11 United States Africa policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): weak states were believed to pose an existential threat to the US. American aid to Africa consequently more than tripled in the years following 9/11. Using the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory, we investigate the interaction between ...

  3. Itaallane Giulietto Chiesa - 9/11 tabulõhkuja / Ivari Vee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vee, Ivari

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia publitsist ja politoloog ning Europarlamendi saadik Giulietto Chiesa kohtus Tallinnas ajakirjanike ja teiste huvilistega ning tutvustas oma raamatut "Zero" ning selle ainetel valminud filmi "9/11. Uurimine nullist"

  4. Biometric Identifiers and Border Security: 9/11 Commission Recommendations and Related Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Krouse, William

    2005-01-01

    In its final report, the 9/11 Commission concluded that funding and completing a "biometric entry-exit screening system" for travelers to and from the United States is essential to U.S. national security...

  5. securitisation: the case of post-9/11 united states africa policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarryn

    Using the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory, we investigate the interaction .... help explain why post 9/11 changes in US Africa policy took place. .... African condition.39 In addition, the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

  6. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy

    2006-01-01

    ...) Congress would have appropriated a total of about $437 billion for military operations, base security, reconstruction, foreign aid, embassy costs, and veterans health care for the three operations initiated since the 9/11 attacks...

  7. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy

    2007-01-01

    ... of about $610 billion fo for military r operations, b base security security, reconstruction, foreig foreign aid, embassy costs, and veterans health care for the three operations initiated since the 9/11 attacks...

  8. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Through FY2006, Congress has appropriated a total of about $437 billion for military operations, base security, reconstruction, foreign aid, embassy costs, and veterans health care for the three operations initiated since the 9/11 attacks...

  9. Children's Fears: A Pre-9/11 and Post-9/11 Comparison Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Children are influenced by the salient events surrounding them (e.g., 9/11 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, massacre at Virginia Tech). In this study, the author examined fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 in a pre-and post-September 11, 2001, comparison using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J.…

  10. Villes ciblées - recyclage des déchets et négoce agricole à Kampala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles. Kampala Urban Agriculture Team networks, tours project sites during WUF3 [Third World Urban Forum]. Download PDF. Journal articles. Kampala Focus Cities project launched. Download PDF. Journal articles. Lancement du projet de ville ciblée de Kampala. Download PDF. Journal articles. Journalist's ...

  11. Let's talk about sex work in humanitarian settings: piloting a rights-based approach to working with refugee women selling sex in Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jennifer S; Bakomeza, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Although it is well known that refugees engage in sex work as a form of livelihood, stigma and silence around this issue persist within humanitarian circles. As a result, these refugees' sexual and reproductive health and rights, and related vulnerabilities, remain overlooked. Their protection and health needs, which are significant, often go unmet at the field level. In 2016, the Women's Refugee Commission and Reproductive Health Uganda partnered to pilot a peer-education intervention tailored to meet the needs of refugee women engaged in sex work in Kampala. Findings from the pilot project suggest the feasibility of adapting existing rights-based and evidence-informed interventions with sex workers to humanitarian contexts. Findings further demonstrate how taking a community empowerment approach can facilitate these refugees' access to a range of critical information, services and support options - from information on how to use contraceptives, to referrals for friendly HIV testing and treatment, to peer counselling and protective peer networks.

  12. Factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a facility-based study in two urban diabetes clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyokunzire C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Kyokunzire,1 Nicholas Matovu2,3 1Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Community Health, Division of Noncommunicable Diseases, Ministry of Health – Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 3Global Health Corps Fellowship Program 2017/2018, New York, NY, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of adherence and the factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among type 1 diabetic children and adolescents at two urban diabetes clinics in Kampala, Uganda.Research design and methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at two major diabetes clinics in Kampala. Caretakers of the children and adolescents were interviewed using pretested questionnaires to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes care, knowledge, attitudes, and adherence to diabetes care recommendations in type 1 diabetes. Prevalence rate ratios (PRRs at the 95% confidence interval (CI were used to establish the factors associated with adherence using modified Poisson regression, with robust standard errors. The data were analyzed by using STATA Version 13.0.Results: The overall prevalence of adherence to diabetes care recommendations was at 37%. However, evaluating adherence to specific treatment parameters showed that 52%, 76.5%, and 29.5% of the children and adolescents adhered to insulin, blood glucose monitoring, and dietary recommendations, respectively. In the final adjusted model, active diet monitoring (adjusted PRR [APRR]: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.78, being under care of a sibling (APRR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.61, 1.71, being under care of a married caretaker (APRR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14 and a separated or divorced caretaker (APRR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.27, taking three or less tests of blood glucose per day (APRR: 0

  13. Correlates of suicide ideation and attempt among youth living in the slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Yao, Huang

    2012-02-01

    While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14-24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457) were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23-4.52), parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16-3.77), trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09-3.51), sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20-4.89), loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12-6.40) and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53-4.23) were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11-3.76), sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30-7.87), and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25-3.79) were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  14. Correlates of Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Kasirye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14–24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457 were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23–4.52, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16–3.77, trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09–3.51, sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20–4.89, loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12–6.40 and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53–4.23 were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11–3.76, sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30–7.87, and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25–3.79 were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  15. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Ssengooba, Willy; Muwonge, Catherine; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Kyaligonza, Stephen; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk

  16. Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private sector

  17. Compassion and Grace: Spiritual Gifts and Relations of Exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    that looked at the role of religion in the lives of urban refugees; the forms of assistance that religious institutions provide; the practices of providing assistance as well as how the provision of assistance is regulated and what norms guide this. The aim was to find out how religious institutions act...... as service providers in a context of displacement, more particularly in an urban context where refugees and asylum seekers are not entitled to receive humanitarian assistance....

  18. More support for mothers: a qualitative study on factors affecting immunisation behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamani Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were held with those in charge of community mobilisation for immunisation, fathers and mothers. Data was analysed using content analysis. Results Influences on the mother's immunisation behaviour ranged from the non-supportive role of male partners sometimes resulting into intimate partner violence, lack of presentable clothing which made mothers vulnerable to bullying, inconvenient schedules and time constraints, to suspicion against immunisation such as vaccines cause physical disability and/or death. Conclusions Immunisation programmes should position themselves to address social contexts. A community programme that empowers women economically and helps men recognise the role of women in decision making for child health is needed. Increasing male involvement and knowledge of immunisation concepts among caretakers could improve immunisation.

  19. Teachers’ conflicting cultural schemas of teaching comprehensive school-based sexuality education in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Billie; Hutter, Inge

    2018-01-01

    Teachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers’ values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to sexuality

  20. Teachers’ conflicting cultural schemas of teaching comprehensive school-based sexuality education in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, B. (Billie); I. Hutter (Inge)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTeachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers’ values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to

  1. Factors associated with asthma among under-fives in Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Ostergaard, Marianne S; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital...

  2. Religion and Displacement in Africa: Compassion and Sacrifice in Congolese Churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the role of religion in contexts of displacement. The article looks at the role churches and church leaders play in the lives of refugees and more particularly the assistance that these actors provide. The analytical approach is to take into consideration both religious idea...... to refugees, how this is conceptualised as well as the practices in a perspective that includes the intersection between religious ideas (compassion and sacrifice) and ideas around social relationships, gift-giving and reciprocity....

  3. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  4. The Effect of 9/11 on the Heritability of Political Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, a rally effect led to a precipitous rise in political trust. However, the increase in political trust concealed a simultaneous decline among a smaller portion of the population. This paper examines the psychological mechanisms underlying these heterogeneous attitudes towards government and shows that a biosocial model best explains the observed patterns of response. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors of political trust reveals the stable but dynamic nature of heritability: genetic influences of political trust increased immediately following 9/11 but quickly decayed to pre-9/11 levels.

  5. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11 Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) When required...

  6. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  7. Compelling Memory: 9/11 and the Work of Mourning in Mike Binder's Reign over Me

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeren, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that the American commemoration of 9/11 has been dominantly conducted in a compelling, spectacularized manner. The obligation to remember is accompanied by an expectation that this memory will be put on display in the form of emotional expression and/or memory objects.

  8. A Balancing Act: Interpreting Tragedy at the 9/11 Memorial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Noah

    2018-01-01

    The 9/11 Memorial Museum's docent program offers visitors artifact-based entry-points into a difficult, emotional history. The program's launch raised a host of questions, many centered on how to balance and convey strongly held, often traumatic, and sometimes conflicting experiences with a newly constructed institutional narrative. This article…

  9. Engaging "Apolitical" Adolescents: Analyzing the Popularity and Educational Potential of Dystopian Literature Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Although dystopian novels have been prevalent under the young adult banner for decades, their abundance and popularity post-9/11 is noteworthy. The 21st century has found academics and laypersons alike discussing the supposed political apathy of young adults and teenagers of the Millennial Generation. However, despite this common complaint--and…

  10. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  11. Engagement in Trauma-Specific CBT for Youth Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Gopalan, Geetha; Olin, Serene; McKay, Mary M.; Marcus, Sue M.; Radigan, Marleen; Chung, Michelle; Legerski, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Treatment participation was examined among youth enrolled in an evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for trauma following the 9/11 World Trade Center disaster. Staff at nine agencies serving a predominantly low-income, ethnically diverse population were trained to deliver CBT and structured engagement strategies. A total of 445 youth…

  12. From trauma victim to terrorist: redefining superheroes in Post-9/11 Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.; Berninger, M.; Ecke, J.; Haberkorn, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I use trauma theory to identify and discuss post-9/11 film adaptation of graphic novels as trauma narratives. I argue, for example, that since the first major recognition of the graphic novel as a legitimate form of literature in the late 1980s, trauma has played an important part in

  13. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  14. Academic Freedom in the Post-9/11 Era. Education, Politics and Public Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edward J., Ed.; Downing, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Academic freedom has been a principle that undergirds the university since 1915. Beyond this, it also protects a spirit of free inquiry essential to a democratic society. But in the post-9/11 present, the basic principles of academic freedom have been deeply challenged. There have been many startling instances where the rhetoric of national…

  15. Report of the Summer School of Pitch, Music & Associated Pathologies (Lyon, July 9-11, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, J.; Asano, R.; Attina, V.; d’Errico, M.; El Boghdady, N.; Estivalet, G.; Grön, L.; Guillemard, D.; Kang, H.J.; Luckmann, A.; Mina, F.; Tabibi, S.; Viswanathan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The summer school on Pitch, Music and Associated Pathologies was held for 2½ days, July 9-11, 2014, at the Valpré conference center in Lyon. Fifty-five researchers and students from universities and research institutions from 11 countries participated in it. The summer school was organized in 2

  16. The Talk of the Town: 9/11, the Lost Image, and the Machiavellian Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Fleming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A “lost” 9/11 photograph re-surfaced publicly in 2005/2006 and triggered some revealing debate in the United States about what 9/11 images “should” show. The paper unpacks the image and some key responses to it in order to describe a contemporary “Machiavellian moment” in which civic humanist ideals turn out to deny a reality that the image briefly hinted at, a reality recovered in the paper via discussion of a YouTube commentary thread concerned with a 9/11 “tribute” mashup video derived from comic books. Contrasting the latter with “proper” debate in The New Yorker and elsewhere, the paper argues for the necessity of hearing a different conversation that is discernibly “out there”. The result of doing so will be a better understanding of the materialization of affect in images and speech acts. It is argued that this will help us better grasp the nature of the “hot cognitions” that focus around a major event such as 9/11 and the ways in which those are mediated.

  17. Social Justice Issues and Music Education in the Post 9/11 United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to examine the impact of historical sociopolitical events on music education, particularly post 9/11 with the intent of establishing a context for social justice issues; and second, how we might examine the broad implications to further music education research focusing on social justice. Issues of…

  18. 76 FR 54112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... prevalent physical injuries were blunt trauma injuries suffered by those who were struck by debris or who... term ``9/11 crash site'' includes the area in Manhattan south of the line that runs along Reade Street..., including that the claimant's injury was ``a result of'' the aircraft crashes or debris removal. Depending...

  19. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  20. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.A.; Hartenstein, M.; Nawano, M.

    2004-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11 th 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security

  1. Human trafficking and U.S. government responses post- 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    DeCeoursty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis examines the effectiveness of U.S. government anti-human trafficking efforts in the post- 9/11 environment. The body of human trafficking literature has revealed four common themes: human agency, labor rights, the sex industry, and crime control. The thesis examines five federal departments that were selected based on their relative experience, expertise, and operational mandates. Open source statistical data and other infor...

  2. Framing alleged Islamist plots: a case study of British press coverage since 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, James

    2015-01-01

    In the decade post 9/11 , the UK terrorist threat was associated with a series of high profile counter terrorism operations, linked to specific plots. These terrorism related episodes received significant media attention and,\\ud as a consequence, were a visible sign of the contemporary terrorist threat. This paper seeks to identify the dominant frames rendered in news media reporting on these episodes. Through a longitudinal study of UK press coverage, the analysis reveals that two prominent ...

  3. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  4. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Green MD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Raza, Owais

    2017-10-03

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities and trauma caused by the road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims' pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions respectively. Data was descriptively analyzed, and after the principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA. From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 2016, 4 and 5 key weaknesses and capacities respectively were identified to affect the pre-hospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist like ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, coordination and others), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to absence of predefined EMS systems particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment; insufficient skills/training of the first responders; inadequate EMS resources; and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities. Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

  6. Social Justice : Perspectives from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...

  7. Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Gesamtübersicht — und neueste Erkenntnisse zur Fledermausjagd der schnellsten Falken in Deutsch- land. Ornithologischer Jahresbericht Museum Heineanum 20: 99–141. Kityo, R. & Kerbis, J.C. 1996. Observations on the distribution and ecology of bats in Uganda. Journal of the East Africa Natural ...

  8. Finding Closure, Continuing Bonds, and Codentification After the 9/11 Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2017-06-13

    In this article, I'm interested in the 2750 victims of the 9/11 attacks in New York City. I consider two connected issues. The first regards bereavement journeys of victims' families and the significance of receiving a body to bury vis-à-vis the normative assignment to find closure. The second issue I address is how forensic experts, their technologies, and managing protocols interact with victims' families and their emotions. Using insights from Science and Technology Studies, I articulate some of the goods and bads of identification practices and argue for extensive communication and cooperation between experts and victims' families.

  9. Tax Policy and the Fiscal Cost of Disasters: NY and 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Haughwout, Andrew F.

    2006-01-01

    While the terrible attack on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 caused a substantial short–run shock to New York City's economy, the city demonstrated substantial economic resilience over the longer run. Prices for office space increased relative to the nation between 2001 and 2003, and demand for housing has been robust. Combined with a short–lived national recession, the 9/11 attack led to severe short–run fiscal pressure on the city. Budget deficits were addressed mainly through...

  10. New York City social workers after 9/11: their attachment, resiliency, and compassion fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Carol; Bettmann, Joanna E; Minami, Takuya; Jasperson, Rachael A

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment classification, resiliency, and compassion fatigue in New York social workers following 9/11. We used single occasion, quasi-random sampling, surveying 481 social workers living in Manhattan. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that secure attachment is predictive of the ability to cope with secondary traumatic stress as well as capacity for resilience, explaining approximately 7% of the variance in both compassion fatigue and resiliency. These findings suggest that secure attachment may serve as a source of resilience for social workers, immunizing them from significant compassion fatigue. Such findings have significant implications for clinicians working with traumatized populations.

  11. Boycott or Buycott? Malay Middle-Class Consumption Post-9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Much current anti-consumerist and anti-globalisation discourse identifies boycotting as an immensely powerful force. Religious and secular activists alike promote consumer boycotts as a type of practised resistance that promises to break US economic, military and cultural hegemony. Obviously...... in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11. I shall show how this issue evokes a wide range of contestations and paradoxes in the everyday lives of suburban Malay Muslim middle-class families. Most of all, the boycott confronts divergent Malay middle-class groups with the problem of how to translate intentionality...

  12. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  13. “Mirroring terror”: The impact of 9/11 on Hollywood Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By drawing upon Siegfried Kracauer’s concept of cinema as a “mirror” of society, this article explores the impact of the “terror years” since 2001 on US cinema. Hollywood was the main cultural apparatus for coping with 9/11, which had left Americans struggling in the “desert of the real” (Žižek. Visual content simplifies traumatic events like the terrorist attacks for audiences—often expressing them in simple Manichean black and white terms and thereby offering moral guidance, unity, and a sense of destiny. Hollywood’s response to 9/11 included all these different aspects: It appealed to an “unbroken” spirit, strove to reassert the symbolic coordinates of the prevailing American reality, and mobilised for a response to new challenges. With time passing, Hollywood also incorporated the mounting doubts and dissent associated with this process. As the review of relating movies of the “terror years” demonstrates, the American film industry has examined, processed, and interpreted the meaning of the terrorist attacks in great variety: Ranging from merely atmospheric references to re-enactments, from pro-war propaganda to critical self-inquiry.

  14. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  15. The Oprahfication of 9/11: September 11, the war in Iraq, and The Oprah Winfrey show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Cotten, T.T.; Springer, K.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses how The Oprah Winfrey Show presented the aftermath of 9/11 and the pending war in Iraq in its episodes. It shows that in "The Oprahfication of 9/11," the show’s discourse on terrorism and war "transform[ed] possible feelings of fear, anger, anxiety, and grief into acts of

  16. Distribution of haematological and chemical pathology values among infants in Malawi and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Newton I.; Khonje, Tiwonge; Mipando, Linda; Nkanaunena, Kondwani; Katundu, Pauline; Lubega, Irene; Elbireer, Ali; Bolton, Steve; Bagenda, Danstan; Mubiru, Michael; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Taha, Taha E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on paediatric reference laboratory values are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To describe the distribution of haematological and chemical pathology values among healthy infants from Malawi and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthy infants, 0–6 months old, born to HIV-uninfected mothers recruited from two settings in Blantyre, Malawi and Kampala, Uganda. Chemical pathology and haematology parameters were determined using standard methods on blood samples. Descriptive analyses by age-group were performed based on 2004 Division of AIDS Toxicity Table age categories. Mean values and interquartile ranges were compared by site and age-group. Results A total of 541 infants were included altogether, 294 from Malawi and 247 from Uganda. Overall, the mean laboratory values were comparable between the two sites. Mean alkaline phosphatase levels were lower among infants aged ≤21 days while aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase were higher in those aged 0–7 days than in older infants. Mean haematocrit, haemoglobin and neutrophil counts were higher in the younger age-groups (<35 days) and overall were lower than US norms. Red and white blood cell counts tended to decrease after birth but increased after ~2 months of age. Mean basophil counts were higher in Malawi than in Uganda in infants aged 0–1 and 2–7 days; mean counts for eosinophils (for age groups 8–21 or older) and platelets (for all age groups) were higher in Ugandan than in Malawian infants. Absolute lymphocyte counts increased with infant age. Conclusion The chemical pathology and haematological values in healthy infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers were comparable in Malawi and Uganda and can serve as useful reference values in these settings. PMID:23164296

  17. Awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients' rights at Uganda's national referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoya, Harriet Rachel; Kibuule, Dan; Mitonga-Kabwebwe, Honoré; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ssempebwa, John C

    2013-06-21

    The realisation of patients' rights in resource-constrained and patient-burdened public health care settings in Uganda remains an obstacle towards quality health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviour and health outcomes. Although the Uganda Patients' Charter of 2009 empowers patients to demand quality care, inequitable access and abuse remain common. The study aimed to assess level of awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients' rights amongst patients and health workers (HWs) at Uganda's national referral hospital, Mulago Hospital in Kampala. A three-phase cross-sectional questionnaire-based descriptive survey was conducted amongst 211 patients, 98 HWs and 16 key informants using qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The study was conducted in May-June 2012, 2.5 years after the launch of the Uganda Patients' Charter. At least 36.5% of patients faced a challenge regarding their rights whilst seeking health care. Most of the patients (79%) who met a challenge never attempted to demand their rights. Most patients (81.5%) and HWs (69.4%) had never heard of the Uganda Patients' Charter. Awareness of patients' rights was significantly higher amongst HWs (70%) than patients (40%) ( p bribe HWs with money to access care, and political, socio-economic and tribal status. Awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients' rights remains limited at Mulago Hospital. There is a need for urgent implementation of an integrated multilevel, multichannel, patient-centred approach that incorporates social services and addresses intrinsic patient, HW and health system factors to strengthen patients' rights issues at the hospital.

  18. Awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients’ rights at Uganda's national referral hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibuule, Dan; Mitonga-Kabwebwe, Honoré; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The realisation of patients’ rights in resource-constrained and patient-burdened public health care settings in Uganda remains an obstacle towards quality health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviour and health outcomes. Although the Uganda Patients’ Charter of 2009 empowers patients to demand quality care, inequitable access and abuse remain common. Aim The study aimed to assess level of awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients’ rights amongst patients and health workers (HWs) at Uganda's national referral hospital, Mulago Hospital in Kampala. Methods A three-phase cross-sectional questionnaire-based descriptive survey was conducted amongst 211 patients, 98 HWs and 16 key informants using qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The study was conducted in May–June 2012, 2.5 years after the launch of the Uganda Patients’ Charter. Results At least 36.5% of patients faced a challenge regarding their rights whilst seeking health care. Most of the patients (79%) who met a challenge never attempted to demand their rights. Most patients (81.5%) and HWs (69.4%) had never heard of the Uganda Patients’ Charter. Awareness of patients’ rights was significantly higher amongst HWs (70%) than patients (40%) (p bribe HWs with money to access care, and political, socio-economic and tribal status. Conclusion and recommendations Awareness of, responsiveness to and practice of patients’ rights remains limited at Mulago Hospital. There is a need for urgent implementation of an integrated multilevel, multichannel, patient-centred approach that incorporates social services and addresses intrinsic patient, HW and health system factors to strengthen patients’ rights issues at the hospital. PMID:24563777

  19. The need to reemphasize behavior change for HIV prevention in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C; Kajubi, Phoebe; Ruark, Allison; Kamya, Sarah; D'Errico, Nicole; Hearst, Norman

    2013-03-01

    Uganda has long been considered an AIDS success story, although in recent years declines in prevalence and incidence appear to have stalled or even reversed. During the early stages of Uganda's AIDS prevention program, health messages emphasized behavior change, especially fidelity. Ugandans were made to fear AIDS and feel personally at risk of dying from a new, poorly understood disease. In this research, six focus group discussions with 64 participants in peri-urban and rural areas outside Kampala suggest that HIV prevention messages have shifted in the direction of risk reduction: condoms, testing, and drugs. Ugandans now seem less afraid of becoming infected with HIV, at least in part because antiretroviral therapy is available, and this diminished fear may be having a disinhibiting effect on sexual behavior. Participants believe that HIV rates are on the rise, that more individuals are engaged in multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships, and that sexual behavior is less restrained than a generation ago. These findings suggest that AIDS-prevention programs in Uganda would benefit from refocusing on the content that yielded success previously-sexual behavior change strategies. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  20. Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

    2009-10-01

    Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group.

  1. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  2. Peer Review in Controversial Topics—A Case Study of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Wyndham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an historical reminiscence, this paper examines the peer review process as experienced by authors currently seeking publication of their research in a highly controversial area. A case study of research into the events of 9/11 (11 September 2001 illustrates some of the problems in peer review arising from undue influences based on financial and political considerations. The paper suggests that ethical failures, rather than flaws in the process itself, are mainly responsible for perceived problems. The way forward lies in improved ethics and a more open process. In addition, editorial review boards and peer review strategies would help to improve the ethics of peer review in general.

  3. Framing the Tenth Anniversary of 9/11:  A Comparison of CNN and Phoenix TV commemorative websites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yuxi

    2013-01-01

    It has been more than ten years since the 9/11 attacks in 2001, but the events related to the attacks are still a focus for the whole world. This study examined the news coverage of the 9/11 tenth anniversary from Phoenix TV and CNN, which are among the most influential news media in China and the U.S., respectively. A systematic content analysis was performed using latest news, opinion articles, photographs, and videos as classified by CNN and Phoenix TV on their commemorative 9/11 tenth ann...

  4. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  5. Plague in Uganda

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Dr. Paul Mead, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on Plague in Uganda.  Created: 1/25/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  6. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  7. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda's Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Braniff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Al-Qaeda has suffered a number of setbacks, but has also successfully spawned an expansionist global jihadist movement that will survive the death of Osama bin Laden. This article describes how the multifaceted threat posed by global jihadism has evolved over the last decade. It first recounts some of the more salient examples of Al-Qaeda’s post-9/11 strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations, and then offers a balance sheet of Al-Qaeda’s contemporary strengths and weaknesses. Al-Qaeda continues to enable the violence of others, orient that violence towards the United States and its allies in a distributed game of attrition warfare, and foster a dichotomous “us versus them” narrative between the Muslim world and the rest of the international community. Despite this overarching consistency, Al-Qaeda shepherds a different phenomenon than it did ten years ago. The aggregation of the movement’s strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations has fundamentally changed the nature of the jihadist threat to the West. This evolved threat is not inherently more dangerous, as counterterrorism efforts today focus on and disrupt capability earlier and more consistently than prior to September 2001. This multifaceted global jihad will, however, continue to produce greater numbers of attacks in more locations, from a more diverse cadre of individuals spanning a wider ideological spectrum.   

  8. The dilemma of the failed state thesis in post-9/11 world affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schoeman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The 9/11 terrorist attacks shifted the emphasis of failed states as just a regional humanitarian problem to one that could present a global security threat. In this regard US policymakers, especially, identified failed states as possible terrorist threats. However, this renewed attention to the study of state failure has exposed a number of theoretical weaknesses in this body of literature. The latter could mainly be ascribed to the way in which US policy makers have often used generalised definitions of failed states and then applied it to states that are perceived as threats. Another problem is the fact that government sponsored research institutes and think tanks are operating independently from university academics. This situation has caused theoretical confusion as conditions in failed states are often interpreted differently resulting in the development of a number of opposing theories, definitions and confusing classification models. The body of literature is further accused of endorsing a “Weberian” definition (ideal type of the state against which degrees of “failure” in non-complying states are measured. This article will investigate the extent of these theoretical weaknesses and expose the dangers of following an approach that seem to misinterpret the political realities of developing states (often regarded as failed – this despite having an extensive popular following. It will further focus on possible alternative approaches – or the formulation of ideas that are better suited and relevant to the often unique internal political, social and economic dynamics of unstable states.

  9. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ADIKSI GAME TERHADAP KEAKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN ANAK USIA 9-11 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasya Latubessy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan teori kognitif, usia anak 9-11 tahun termasuk dalam kategori yang sudah mampu meningkatkan pemikiran simbolis dan melampaui hubungan informasi sensoris dan tindakan fisik. Oleh sebab itu, pada usia tersebut diperlukan perhatian dan pengawan khusus dalam perkembangan anak. Saat ini, anak berada pada era teknologi digital. Dimana, akses teknologi diperoleh dengan mudah. Anak-anak senang bermain game online dengan perangkat teknologi smartphone dimiliki. Kecenderungan anak dalam bermain ini dapat mengakibatkan pada adiksi game. Sementara tipe game sendiri belum banyak menyediakan game edukasi yang digemari anak. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat adanya hubungan antara adiksi game dengan keaktifan pembelajaran anak. Aspek keaktifan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran yang digunakan pada penelitian ini meliput aspek visual activities, listening activities, writing activities, motor activities, emotional activities. Menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif dengan desain penelitian korelasi bivariat. Metode analisis uji korelasi menggunakan Pearson Product Moment dengan bantuan SPSS. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa bahwa terdapat hubungan antara adiksi game dengan keaktifan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran. Hubungan yang terjadi adalah korelasi negatif dimana, semakin tinggi adiksi game maka keaktifan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran semakin menurun. Dengan koefisien korelasi antara adiksi game dengan keaktifan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran sebesar -0,413 dengan sig.= 0,023 (p<0,05. Kata kunci: korelasi, adiksi, game, keaktifan, pembelajaran, anak.

  10. “Temperate and Nearly Cloudless”: The 9/11 Commission Report as Postmodern Pastiche

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    Alan Nadel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available “Tuesday, September 11, 2001 dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States”. Thus begins Chapter One of the 9/11 Commission Report, a chapter that bears the title, “‘We have Some Planes’”. As with all good pop fiction, the reader awaits to see what this quote means, although we know already that it will mark a crucial moment, one that renders the innocuous urgent, or gives meaning to a startling chaos of coincidence. Pop culture has taught us the formula well: Everything looks fine; high school kids sip pop and dance in front of the juke box; Ole Doc Jones is mowin’ the lawn while Mrs. Jones makes lemonade. BUT strange noises have been heard in the cellar; no one can find the cat; Mr. Grundy insists he saw flashing lights last night, but no one believes him because Mrs. Grundy says he’s been acting strange ever since she flushed his Viagra; mysteriously, all the clocks in Indianapolis have started running fast or slow by exactly 24 hours. Then we hear the message on the police radio: “we’ve got some planes…as large as football fields hovering over every Wall-Mart in the nation”. At last someone will believe the geeky newspaper boy and his big brother’s girlfriend, who knew all along he was on to something. Let’s hope it’s not too late.

  11. Emergency preparedness post-9/11 enhancements at US nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9-11, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) took several actions to improve the security profile and emergency response of its licensees. In early 2002 the commission issued orders to its nuclear power plant licensees which included changes to emergency plans, the performance of staffing adequacy reviews, changes to augmentation practices and the establishment of alternative facilities. Since that time NRC has implemented a force-on-force exercise program that includes emergency response. This program has helped licensees improve their response by testing procedures under simulated attack conditions. More recently, licensees have begun a program to enhance drills and exercises through the use of security event based scenarios. These drills will enhance previous practice and focus on two emerging issues: improving the interface between emergency response, security response and operations during security events and recovery from the loss of plant equipment due to terrorist acts. Additional areas of enhancement such as protective actions for plant personnel will also be discussed and the status of actions to date will be provided. (author)

  12. Implementation of Patient-Centered Education for Chronic-Disease Management in Uganda: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Rabin, Tracy; Canavan, Maureen E; Nassali, Faith; Kirchhoff, Phillip; Kalyesubula, Robert; Coca, Steven; Rastegar, Asghar; Knauf, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The majority of non-communicable disease related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Patient-centered care is an essential component of chronic disease management in high income settings. To examine feasibility of implementation of a validated patient-centered education tool among patients with heart failure in Uganda. Mixed-methods, prospective cohort. A private and public cardiology clinic in Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Adults with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. PocketDoktor Educational Booklets with patient-centered health education. The primary outcomes were the change in Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13), as well as the acceptability of the PocketDoktor intervention, and feasibility of implementing patient-centered education in outpatient clinical settings. Secondary outcomes included the change in satisfaction with overall clinical care and doctor-patient communication. A total of 105 participants were enrolled at two different clinics: the Mulago Outpatient Department (public) and the Uganda Heart Institute (private). 93 participants completed follow up at 3 months and were included in analysis. The primary analysis showed improved patient activation measure scores regarding disease-specific knowledge, treatment options and prevention of exacerbations among both groups (mean change 0.94 [SD = 1.01], 1.02 [SD = 1.15], and 0.92 [SD = 0.89] among private paying patients and 1.98 [SD = 0.98], 1.93 [SD = 1.02], and 1.45 [SD = 1.02] among public paying patients, pmanagement as well as satisfaction with doctor-patient communication and overall care in Uganda. Our results show that printed booklets are locally appropriate, highly acceptable and feasible to implement in an LMIC outpatient setting across socioeconomic groups.

  13. Vaginal practices among women at high risk of HIV infection in Uganda and Tanzania: recorded behaviour from a daily pictorial diary.

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    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravaginal practices (IVP are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African and have been implicated as risk factors for HIV acquisition. However, types of IVP vary between populations, and detailed information on IVP among women at risk for HIV in different populations is needed. We investigated IVP among women who practice transactional sex in two populations: semi-urban, facility workers in Tanzania who engage in opportunistic sex work; and urban, self-identified sex workers and bar workers in Uganda. The aim of the study was to describe and compare IVP using a daily pictorial diary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred women were recruited from a HIV prevention intervention feasibility study in Kampala, Uganda and in North-West Tanzania. Women were given diaries to record IVP daily for six weeks. Baseline data showed that Ugandan participants had more lifetime partners and transactional sex than Tanzanian participants. Results from the diary showed that 96% of Tanzanian participants and 100% of Ugandan participants reported intravaginal cleansing during the six week study period. The most common types of cleansing were with water only or water and soap. In both countries, intravaginal insertion (e.g. with herbs was less common than cleansing, but insertion was practiced by more participants in Uganda (46% than in Tanzania (10%. In Uganda, participants also reported more frequent sex, and more insertion related to sex. In both populations, cleansing was more often reported on days with reported sex and during menstruation, and in Uganda, when participants experienced vaginal discomfort. Participants were more likely to cleanse after sex if they reported no condom use. CONCLUSIONS: While intravaginal cleansing was commonly practiced in both cohorts, there was higher frequency of cleansing and insertion in Uganda. Differences in IVP were likely to reflect differences in sexual behaviour between populations, and may warrant

  14. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9-11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A; Murphy, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9-11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6-18 months later. Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via the SAIL databank and linked to earlier data collected on breakfast consumption. Multilevel modelling assessed associations between breakfast consumption and SATs. Trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales. Year 5 and 6 students, n 3093 (baseline) and n 3055 (follow-up). Significant associations were found between all dietary behaviours and better performance in SATs, adjusted for gender and individual- and school-level free school meal entitlement (OR=1·95; CI 1·58, 2·40 for breakfast, OR=1·08; CI 1·04, 1·13 for healthy breakfast items). No association was observed between number of unhealthy breakfast items consumed and educational performance. Association of breakfast consumption with educational performance was stronger where the measure of breakfast consumption was more proximal to SATs tests (OR=2·02 measured 6 months prior to SATs, OR=1·61 measured 18 months prior). Significant positive associations between self-reported breakfast consumption and educational outcomes were observed. Future research should aim to explore the mechanisms by which breakfast consumption and educational outcomes are linked, and understand how to promote breakfast consumption among schoolchildren. Communicating findings of educational benefits to schools may help to enhance buy-in to efforts to improve health behaviours of pupils.

  15. French Fiction, Empathy, and the Utopian Potential of 9/11

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    Tim Gauthier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In From Solidarity to Schisms , Cara Cilano conceptualizes September 11 as a moment “characterized by unfathomable vulnerability and the possibility of a better future.” She argues the event, while traumatic, might have served as an impetus to reconfigure American self-perceptions and thoughts about its place in the world. Instead, she contends, the United States squandered the utopian potential of this moment. Cilano remains optimistic, however, because she sees European fictional discourse on 9/11 as emblematic of a desire for a melding of divergent perspectives. Their critique aims to keep America’s sense of itself unbalanced, thus providing fuel for self-reflection, analysis, and, most important, renewal. Taking the measure of current Franco-American relations, this essay tests the validity of this contention by examining works of French fiction published in the five years after the attacks. Four of these texts—Christian Garcin’s La jubilation des hasards , Didier Goupil’s Le jour de mon retour sur terre , Luc Lang’s 11 septembre, mon amour , and Frédéric Beigbeder’s Windows on the World —will be the focus of this essay. Are they being written to take advantage of the cosmopolitan potential of the moment, or grasping the opportunity to criticize a (weakened nation, and thereby expressing uniquely French concerns? The essay contemplates the extent to which self-interest and questions of identity—personal, political, national—interfere with empathy, thus posing a considerable challenge to the utopian dream of a cosmopolitan world.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with body mass index (BMI in children aged 9-11 years. Methods: The study is part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE. Body composition was determined using the bipolar bioimpedance technique. The mean BMI value was categorized as recommended by the World Health Organization. For seven consecutive days, participants used an accelerometer to objectively monitor sedentary behavior (SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Individual factors (anthropometric and behavioral, family aspects, and family and school environment were provided by participants and parents and were analyzed by multilevel linear regression adjusted for gender, ethnicity, school, number of siblings, and total annual family income. Results: The mean BMI was 20.1 kg/m2, and 51.8% of the children were overweight/obese (50.3% boys, 53.4% girls, p = 0.014. Considering all participants, the associated factors of BMI were body fat percentage (BF%, β = 0.0216, p < 0.001 and screen time (ST, β = 0.0050, p = 0.006. In boys, the associated factors were BF% (β = 0.0209, p < 0.001, ST (β = 0.006, p = 0.036, and healthy eating policies or practices (β = 0.0276, p = 0.025. In girls, only BF% was associated (β = 0.0221, p < 0.001 with BMI. Conclusions: High prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in children from São Caetano do Sul. Different associated factors were identified between the genders, with only BF% being common in both genders.

  17. A study of the degree of Pollution in Nakivubo Channel, Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo channel traverses highly populated Kampala slums, markets, industrial areas and a wetland. It discharges its water at Murchison bay in Lake Victoria. The degree of pollution in the channel has a direct effect on the aquatic life in the lake, the health of communities along the channel, and the cost of water treatment ...

  18. Factors affecting dairy production in peri-urban areas of Kampala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand for dairy products by the increasing urban population and the need to provide ... was therefore recommended that if milk production in the peri-urban areas of Kampala is to .... approximately 80% of the total labour use in dairy farming.

  19. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conrad Musinguzi,1 Leticia Namale,1 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,2 Aruna Dahal,1 Patricia Nahirya-Ntege,1 Adeodata Kekitiinwa1 1Directorate of Health Systems Strengthening, Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health Uganda, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62% compared with being transactional (42% or laissez-faire (14%. Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32, job satisfaction (r=0.38, and team work (r=0.48, while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21 and teamwork (r=0.18. Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized

  20. Comorbidity amplifies the effects of post-9/11 posttraumatic stress disorder trajectories on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Zweig, Kimberly Caramanica; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R; Cone, James E

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to examine the impact of physical and mental health comorbidities on the association between post-9/11 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories over 10 years and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 9/11-exposed persons. 30,002 responding adult World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees reporting no pre-9/11 PTSD were studied. PTSD trajectories (chronic, delayed, remitted, no PTSD) were defined based on a 17-item PTSD Checklist-Specific to 9/11 across three waves of survey data. Three indicators of poor HRQOL were defined based on CDC HRQOL-4 measures. We computed age-adjusted prevalence of physical and mental health comorbidity (depression/anxiety) by PTSD trajectory and used modified Poisson regression to assess the effect of PTSD trajectory on poor HRQOL prevalence, accounting for comorbidity. Age-adjusted prevalence of overall comorbid conditions was 95.8 and 61.4% among the chronic and no-PTSD groups, respectively. Associations between 9/11-related PTSD trajectories and poor HRQOL were significant and became greater when comorbidity was included. Adjusted prevalence ratios were elevated for fair/poor health status (APR 7.3, 95% CI 6.5, 8.2), ≥ 14 unhealthy days (4.7; 95% CI 4.4, 5.1), and ≥ 14 activity limitation days during the last 30 days (9.6; 95% CI 8.1, 11.4) in the chronic PTSD group with physical and mental health comorbidity compared to those without PTSD and comorbidity; similar associations were observed for delayed PTSD. Ten years post-9/11 physical and mental health comorbidities have a substantial impact on the PTSD trajectories and HRQOL association. The need for early identification and treatment of PTSD and comorbidity should be emphasized to potentially improve HRQOL.

  1. Post-9/11 drug- and alcohol- related hospitalizations among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Welch, Alice E; Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-06-01

    To describe patterns of drug- and alcohol-related hospitalizations among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks and to assess whether 9/11-related exposures or post-9/11 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with increased odds of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, were linked to New York State (NYS) administrative hospitalization data to identify alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations from enrollment to December 31, 2010. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between substance use-related hospitalization, 9/11-related exposure and PTSD. Of 41,176 NYS resident enrollees, we identified 626 (1.5%) who had at least one alcohol- or drug-related hospitalization; 53.4% (n = 591) of these hospitalizations were for alcohol only diagnoses and 46.6% (n = 515) were drug-related. Witnessing ≥3 traumatic events on 9/11 was significantly associated with having a drug-related hospitalization (AOR 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]). PTSD was significantly associated with both having a drug-related hospitalization as well as an alcohol only-related hospitalization. (AOR 2.6, 95% CI = [2.0, 3.3], AOR 1.8, 95% CI = [1.4, 2.3], respectively). Witnessing traumatic events and having PTSD were independently associated with substance use-related hospitalizations. Targeting people who witnessed traumatic events on 9/11 and/or who have PTSD for substance use- treatment could reduce alcohol and drug-related hospitalizations connected to 9/11. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis among patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyego, Paul; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ddungu, Henry; Walimbwa, Stephen; Nalwanga, Damalie; Reynolds, Steven J; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2017-03-14

    Early diagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma is challenging because the definitive diagnostic procedure of biopsy, requires skills and equipment that are not readily available. As a consequence, diagnosis may be delayed increasing the risk of mortality. We set out to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with the misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis (TB) among patients attending the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). A retrospective cohort study design was used among HIV patients with associated lymphoma patients attending the UCI, Kampala, Uganda between February and March 2015. Eligible patient charts were reviewed for information on TB treatment, socio-demographics, laboratory parameters (Hemoglobin, CD4cells count and lactate dehydrogenase) and clinical presentation using a semi structured data extraction form. A total of 183 charts were reviewed; 106/183 were males (57.9%), the median age was 35 (IQR, 28-45). Fifty six (30.6%) patients had a possible misdiagnosis as TB and their median time on TB treatment was 3.5 (1-5.3) months. In multivariate analysis the presence of chest pain had an odd ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% CI 1.89-10.58, p HIV associated lymphoma attending UCI are misdiagnosed and treated as TB. Chest pain and stage III and IV of lymphoma were associated with an increased risk of a possible misdiagnosis of lymphoma as TB.

  3. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  4. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  5. 9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…

  6. Playing with Words: Investigating the Use of Language Play in the Persuasive Writing of 9-11-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2018-01-01

    There has been little research into how children use language play in writing. The unprompted language play of 36 children was investigated through their writing of a short advertisement. The sample comprised three attainment sub-groups from a larger repeat-design study of persuasive writing in the 9-11 age-range. The writing was analysed using…

  7. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  8. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  9. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

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    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  10. Comparing Children's Fears in Alabama: An Investigation Using Post-9/11 and Post-Invasion of Iraq Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fears of children and adolescents in Alabama in the aftermath of 9/11 and after the initial invasion of Iraq in 2003. The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995, 2005) was utilized to measure the fears of youth in Grades 2-12. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. 721.3130 Section 721.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in...

  12. Risk Factors, Resilience, and Psychological Distress among Holocaust and Nonholocaust Survivors in the Post-9/11 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamet, Ann; Szuchman, Lenore; Perkel, Linda; Walsh, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Many older adults have experienced or witnessed devastating life events including wars, hurricanes, and explosions. This study examined retraumatization and the relationship between certain risk factors, resilience, and psychological distress in the post-9/11 environment among 120 community-dwelling older adults. Results indicate that Holocaust…

  13. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  14. Cost and cost-effectiveness analysis of a community mobilisation intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Michau, Lori; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-02-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a major public health concern. To date there are few rigorous economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing IPV in low-income settings. This study provides a cost and cost effectiveness analysis of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to change social norms and prevent IPV. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Both financial and economic costs were collected retrospectively from the provider's perspective to generate total and unit cost estimates over four years of intervention programming. Univariate sensitivity analysis is conducted to estimate the impact of uncertainty in cost and outcome measures on results. The total cost of developing the SASA! Activist Kit is estimated as US$138,598. Total intervention costs over four years are estimated as US$553,252. The annual cost of supporting 351 activists to conduct SASA! activities was approximately US$389 per activist and the average cost per person reached in intervention communities was US$21 over the full course of the intervention, or US$5 annually. The primary trial outcome was past year experience of physical IPV with an estimated 1201 cases averted (90% CI: 97-2307 cases averted). The estimated cost per case of past year IPV averted was US$460. This study provides the first economic evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention aimed at preventing IPV. SASA! unit costs compare favourably with gender transformative interventions and support services for survivors of IPV. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00790959.

  15. Who do you know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Environment of Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    and Samsung . Outbox markets itself not just as an incubator, but also as a place for the tech community to meet with potential mentors and access...different membership focus. Their members are 4 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 more diverse . There...Internet connection, lounge area, and conference room. The businesses under incubation at Mara LaunchPad are more diverse than those at the other

  16. [Accepted Manuscript] Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, M.; Siu, G.E.; Kiwanuka, T.; Seeley, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experien...

  17. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  18. Global issues from an African point of view. 7th International Women and Health Meeting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallat, L

    1993-01-01

    The seventh International Women and Health Meeting (IWHM) was held in Kampala, Uganda, during September 12-17, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to devise strategies to confront such issues as the impact of economic policies on women's health, the implementation of reproductive rights, population control and policies, contraceptive technologies, AIDS, and sexual abuse and violence. In addition to these topics, discussion centered on interaction with the upcoming 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some participants were frustrated, however, by the procedural problems that prevented creation of a cohesive position paper and left important strategic questions unanswered. Women from Latin America and the Caribbean were kept from full participation by the lack of a Spanish translator but nevertheless held an information session on regional developments in abortion reform and population policy. These women were also successful in their bid to host the eighth IWHM in Brazil in 1996.

  19. Young People Volunteering in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Riiser, Nina Milling

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...

  20. Pediatric Neurosurgical Outcomes Following a Neurosurgery Health System Intervention at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anthony T; Haglund, Michael M; Lim, Stephanie; Mukasa, John; Muhumuza, Michael; Kiryabwire, Joel; Ssenyonjo, Hussein; Smith, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric neurosurgical cases have been identified as an important target for impacting health disparities in Uganda, with over 50% of the population being less than 15 years of age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Duke-Mulago collaboration on pediatric neurosurgical outcomes in Mulago National Referral Hospital. We performed retrospective analysis of all pediatric neurosurgical cases who presented at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, to examine overall, preprogram (2005-2007), and postprogram (2008-2013) outcomes. We analyzed mortality, presurgical infections, postsurgical infections, length of stay, types of procedures, and significant predictors of mortality. Data on neurosurgical cases was collected from surgical logbooks, patient charts, and Mulago National Referral Hospital's yearly death registry. Of 820 pediatric neurosurgical cases, outcome data were complete for 374 children. Among children who died within 30 days of a surgical procedure, the largest group was less than a year old (45%). Postinitiation of the Duke-Mulago collaboration, we identified an overall increase in procedures, with the greatest increase in cases with complex diagnoses. Although children ages 6-18 years of age were 6.66 times more likely to die than their younger counterparts preprogram, age was no longer a predictive variable postprogram. When comparing pre- and postprogram outcomes, mortality among pediatric patients within 30 days after a neurosurgical procedure increased from 4.3% to 10.0%, mortality after 30 days increased slightly from 4.9% to 5.0%, presurgical infections decreased by 4.6%, and postsurgery infections decreased slightly by 0.7%. Our data show the provision of more complex neurological procedures does not necessitate improved outcomes. Rather, combining these higher-level procedures with essential pre- and postoperative care and continued efforts in health system strengthening for pediatric neurosurgical

  1. Burden of Surgical Conditions in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Nationwide Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.

  2. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A.; Gordon, Mollie R.; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company’s workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees’ emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals. PMID:23066661

  3. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius T Kamwesiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17% items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75. Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision

  4. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( in English ) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( both in English and Luganda ) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point out issues for further adaptation and improvement

  5. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point

  6. International workshop on knowledge management in scientific organizations, KMSO 2009, Damascus (SY), 9-11 March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication includes the papers presented at the International workshop on knowledge management in scientific organizations which held in Damascus 9-11 March 2009. KM processes and technologies are main topics of the workshop with keynote speeches and exercises covering: Knowledge Generation, Knowledge Preservation, Knowledge Distribution, Knowledge Utilization and KM technologies which cover Information and Communication Technology, Internet, Intranet and Extranet, Data Mining and Warehousing, Knowledge bases and information repositories, Information retrieval, Intelligent agents and expert systems, Groupware and collaborative systems

  7. Global rhetorics of disaster: media constructions of Bataclan and the 'Colectiv Revolution' in the wake of 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Alexandru, Maria-Sabina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the recent global emergence of a rhetoric of disaster that connects violent events such as terrorist attacks and destructive accidents under an assumption of similarity based on their equally resulting in tragedy and mourning. I will compare discursive constructions of the terrorist attacks on 9/11, often considered the archetypal terrorist act of the new millennium, the Club Colectiv fire in Bucharest (October 30, 2015), followed by the “Colectiv Revolution” that led to...

  8. Syndrome, Symptom, Trauma-chains in Post-9/11 Novels: Safran Foer, Ken Kalfus and Don DeLillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    Perhaps Slavoj Zizek's famous or notorious exhortation ‘Enjoy Your Symptom!' set forth in a 1992 book of that title, containing his Lacanian analyses of Hollywood film, should more properly, esp. post 9/11, be formulated ‘enjoy your syndrome!' Certainly a whole new batch of trauma literature and ......, a larger cultural criticism is required to fully understand the development in question....

  9. The Karimojong from Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133......, with gene diversities of 84.79% and 83.94%, respectively. The less discriminating locus observed was DXS7133, with a gene diversity of 39.79%. High overall values of power of discrimination were obtained for female (1 in 1.8 x 10(10)) and male samples (1 in 1.6 x 10(6)), as well as high power of exclusion...

  10. Investigation of an isolated case of human Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever in Central Uganda, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Balinandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most geographically widespread tick-borne viral infection. Outbreaks of CCHF in sub-Saharan Africa are largely undetected and thus under-reported. On November 9, 2015, the National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory at the Uganda Virus Research Institute received an alert for a suspect VHF case in a 33-year-old male who presented with VHF compatible signs and symptoms at Mengo Hospital in Kampala. Methods: A blood sample from the suspect patient was tested by RT-PCR for CCHF and found positive. Serological testing on sequential blood specimens collected from this patient showed increasing anti-CCHFV IgM antibody titers, confirming recent infection. Repeat sampling of the confirmed case post recovery showed high titers for anti-CCHFV-specific IgG. An epidemiological outbreak investigation was initiated following the initial RT-PCR positive detection to identify any additional suspect cases. Results: Only a single acute case of CCHF was detected from this outbreak. No additional acute CCHF cases were identified following field investigations. Environmental investigations collected 53 tick samples, with only 1, a Boophilus decoloratus, having detectable CCHFV RNA by RT-PCR. Full-length genomic sequencing on a viral isolate from the index human case showed the virus to be related to the DRC (Africa 2 lineage. Conclusions: This is the fourth confirmed CCHF outbreak in Uganda within 2 years after more than 50 years of no reported human CCHF cases in this country. Our investigations reaffirm the endemicity of CCHFV in Uganda, and show that exposure to ticks poses a significant risk for human infection. These findings also reflect the importance of having an established national VHF surveillance system and diagnostic capacity in a developing country like Uganda, in order to identify the first cases of VHF outbreaks and rapidly respond to reduce secondary cases. Additional efforts should focus on

  11. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. Copyright © 2015

  12. The Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda Through Mushroom Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarahim Mayanja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on empowering women both in peri-urban and rural areas through mushroom production. It was conducted in Kampala Metropolitan area-Uganda, during October 2016. It focused on estimating profits, conducting benefit-cost analysis/ratio (BCR and return on investment (ROI, finding reasons as to why women involved in the mushroom production and identifying the constraints of mushroom farming from the perspective of women as well as the possible solutions to the constraints. 29 women were interviewed face to face through the use of the questionnaires. The study revealed an average net profit of 3,464.28 US dollars, BCR of 3.84 and ROI of 2.84 per farm in a period of three months. Our study revealed that mushroom production is a profitable enterprise for women. The major reason for women to involve in mushroom was to earn income. However, a range of other reasons was given such as fast maturity of mushrooms, availability of market, healthy benefits of mushrooms, etc. were the most important reasons. The problems faced by women farmers were ranked from the most pressing problem to the least pressing problem in this order; Low market prices per kilogram of mushroom, scarcity of cotton during some seasons, poor quality mushroom spawn supplied to farmers by breeders, inadequate extension, and advisory services were the most observed problems among others. The suggested solutions were organizing farmers into groups or cooperatives in order to negotiate for better markets locally and abroad together with the help of government, researchers to carry out more research on the suitability of other substrates like bagasse other than relying on only cotton, ensuring that mushroom spawn breeders conform to the set standards of quality spawn production and re-equipping local extension workers with knowledge regarding mushroom production among others.

  13. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially

  14. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  15. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  16. Remote mapping of vegetation and geological features by lidar in the 9-11-μm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, Bernard R.; McVey, Brian D.; Petrin, Roger R.; Tiee, Joe J.; Wilson, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    We report examples of the use of a scanning tunable CO 2 laser lidar system in the 9-11-μm region to construct images of vegetation and rocks at ranges as far as 5 km from the instrument. Range information is combined with horizontal and vertical distances to yield an image with three spatial dimensions simultaneous with the classification of target type. Object classification is based on reflectance spectra, which are sufficiently distinct to allow discrimination between several tree species, between trees and scrub vegetation, and between natural and artificial targets. Limitations imposed by laser speckle noise are discussed

  17. 9th PEF status colloquium from March 9-11, 1993 at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Kaendler, G.; Reinhardt, W.

    1993-04-01

    During the 9-11th of March 1993 the ninth status report of the project ''European Research Centre for Air Pollution Prevention Measures'' (PEF) took place at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics were presented: investigation into damage and elucidation of the causes and effects of forest decline (task 1A); research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants (task 2); development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions (task 3); and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors (task 4). (orig./BBR) [de

  18. Vesicovaginal fistula in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdie, Fiona Katherine; Moffatt, Joanne; Jones, Kevin

    2018-03-09

    Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7.21. Patients travelled an average distance of 153 km and the majority travelled by public transport. Rates of prolonged labour were high. 69% of fistula-causing delivery resulted in stillbirth and 12% resulted in early neonatal death. Following surgery, 94% of patients were dry on discharge. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a severe, life-changing injury. Although largely eradicated from the Western world thanks to modern obstetric practice, VVF is still highly prevalent in developing countries where factors such as young childbearing age and poor access to emergency obstetric care increase the incidence (Wall et al. 2005 ). At the current rate of fistula repair, it is estimated that it would take 400 years to treat those already suffering with fistula, providing that no new cases emerged (Browning and Patel 2004 ). What do the results of this study add? The Ugandan women in this study reiterate tales of foetal loss, social isolation and epic journeys in search of fistula repair, as previously described in the literature. The study offers some hope for prompt help-seeking during labour and after fistulas are developed. It demonstrates the success of fistula repairs at Kitovu Hospital but highlights the paucity of service provision across Uganda. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Further epidemiological research is required to quantify the true

  19. Sexual Risk Behavior, Sexual Violence, and HIV in Persons With Severe Mental Illness in Uganda: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study and National Comparison Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Patric; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Thorson, Anna Ekéus; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We investigated prevalence of past-year sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) in Uganda, and compared results to general population estimates. We also investigated whether persons with SMI reporting sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure were more likely to be HIV-infected. We included 602 persons consecutively discharged from Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, February to April 2010. We asked about past-year number of sexual partners and condom use. We assessed sexual violence with the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Instrument. We performed HIV testing. We used data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey for comparison. Women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general population. We found no difference in sexual risk behavior in men. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infection in men, but not women. Sexual violence exposure was not associated with HIV infection in women. Findings suggest that SMI exacerbates Ugandan women's sexual vulnerability. Public health practitioners, policymakers, and legislators should act to protect health and rights of women with SMI in resource-poor settings.

  20. Pentagon 9/11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Alfred; Papadopoulos, Sarandis; Putney, Diane; Berlage, Nancy; Welch, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    As no other event in U.S. history, not even Pearl Harbor, the deadly assaults on New York and Washington that took the lives of almost 3,000 people on 11 September 2001 shattered the nation's sense of security...

  1. Pentagon 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    rooms. On the 4th Floor above the aircraft entry hole, when smoke and heat dis- oriented one of the troopers, Officers Donald Behe and Abraham Diaz ...11 September 2001. 4. Interv Jester, 19 Oct 01, 20; ibid, 31 Jan 06, 2; Alicia Borlik, "DoD Drill Tests Response to Terrorist Attack:’ 9Jun 98, AFPS...Behe, Diaz , and Mapp citations, OSD Hist. For rescue accounts by two Virginia state troopers see memos Trooper Myrlin Wimbish for 1st Sgt Richard S

  2. Country watch: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namutebi, S K

    1996-01-01

    During its work in Rakai district, CONCERN recognized that women lack property/inheritance rights, a situation which increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Widows are being disinherited of all their properties, including their marital homes. Since many of these women lack both education and skills, their survival often depends upon either marrying again or engaging in sex work. Many women are ignorant of their rights under the national law. Lawyers from the Ugandan Women Lawyers Association help women and children understand their rights, but they do not provide continuously available services. CONCERN therefore initiated a program of community-based legal educators (paralegals) selected by village communities and recommended by local leaders. The paralegals must be over age 28 years, respected by the community, able to maintain confidentiality, and have participated in previous HIV/AIDS sensitization work. Selected candidates are subsequently trained by lawyers from a governmental ministry in the basics of the law pertaining to sexual abuse, marriage, inheritance, divorce, domestic violence, children's rights and responsibilities, and the legal system in Uganda, as well as referrals, gender sensitization, and adult education methods. The paralegals now provide awareness seminars in their communities which include brainstorming, role plays, use of picture codes, group discussions, and lectures.

  3. The importance of using food and nutrient intake data to identify appropriate vehicles and estimate potential benefits of food fortification in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyamuhangire, William; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Kaaya, Archileo; Kikafunda, Joyce; Harvey, Philip W J; Rambeloson, Zo; Dary, Omar; Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2013-06-01

    Concern over micronutrient inadequacies in Uganda has prompted the introduction of mass fortification. To use food intake to determine nutrient inadequacies in children aged 24 to 59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and to model the adequacy of mass fortification. Data were collected by the 24-hour recall method in three regions. Usual nutrient intakes were calculated by adjusting actual intake distribution for the intraindividual variance. The impact of fortification on intake adequacy was simulated. The nutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake across regions were vitamin A (30% to 99%), vitamin B12 (32% to 100%), iron (55% to 89%), zinc (18% to 82%), and calcium (84% to 100%). According to simulations, fortification of vegetable oil and sugar with vitamin A would reduce the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy in the Western and Northern regions; in Kampala it would eliminate vitamin A inadequacy but would cause 2% to 48% of children to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The proposed fortification of wheat flour would reduce the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, folate, and niacin in Kampala, but would have little impact in the other two regions due to low flour consumption. Micronutrient fortification of vegetable oil and sugar in all regions and of wheat flour in Kampala would reduce the prevalence of micronutrient inadequacies. However, the wheat flour formulation should be modified to better meet requirements, and the vitamin A content in sugar should be reduced to minimize the risk of high intakes. Maize flour may be suitable for targeted fortification, but prior consolidation of the industry would be required for maize flour to become a good vehicle for mass fortification.

  4. The Effect of School-Based Exercise Practices of 9-11 Year Old Girls Students on Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…

  5. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguli, Sarah; Mafigiri, David; Nakigudde, Janet; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-08-01

    Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in Western countries. Three Focus Group Interviews and three Key Informant Interviews were conducted with 24 caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital Kampala, Uganda. An interview guide adapted from the Calgary-Cambridge Guide was used to conduct focus group and Key Informant Interviews. Two investigators worked independently to review transcripts and analyse them for content and emerging themes. Caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital expect attending doctors to build a relationship with them, by demonstrating the verbal and nonverbal skills outlined in the CCG including maintaining eye contact, using appropriate gestures and voice during communication, and being nonjudgmental. The communication needs and expectations of caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital are similar to those of patients and caregivers in Western countries. The CCG can be used as a training guide to enhance the communication skills of current and future doctors in Mulago Hospital. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in Toro Game Reserve, Uganda. ... As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinobe, J.R.; Gebresenbet, G.; Niwagaba, C.B.; Vinnerås, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities

  8. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinobe, J.R., E-mail: joel.kinobe@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Gebresenbet, G. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Niwagaba, C.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  9. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  10. Motivators of couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT uptake in a rural setting in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nannozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Couple HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT is one of the key preventive strategies used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married/living together is 7.2% among women and 7.6% among men. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV-positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to get social support and reduce new infections. The uptake of CHCT among attendees of health facilities in rural Uganda is as high as 34%. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivators of CHCT uptake in Mukono district, a rural setting in Uganda. Methods The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district about 28 km east of the capital Kampala, using a descriptive and explorative qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with HIV focal persons, village health team (VHT members, religious leaders and political leaders. We also interviewed persons in couple relationships. Data was analysed using NVivo 8 software. Ethical clearance was received from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. Results The study was conducted from June 2013 to July 2013 We conducted 4 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and interviewed 53 persons in couple relationships. None of the participants were a couple. The women were 68% (36/53 and 49% (26/53 of them were above 29 years old. The motivators of CHCT uptake were; perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child in the family and suspicion of infidelity. Other important motivators were men involvement in antenatal care (ANC attendance and preparation for marriage. Conclusion The motivators for CHCT uptake included the perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child, preparation for marriage, lack of trust among couples and men involvement in antenatal care. Greater

  11. Motivators of couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) uptake in a rural setting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannozi, Victoria; Wobudeya, Eric; Matsiko, Nicholas; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2017-01-23

    Couple HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT) is one of the key preventive strategies used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married/living together is 7.2% among women and 7.6% among men. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV-positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to get social support and reduce new infections. The uptake of CHCT among attendees of health facilities in rural Uganda is as high as 34%. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivators of CHCT uptake in Mukono district, a rural setting in Uganda. The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district) about 28 km east of the capital Kampala, using a descriptive and explorative qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with HIV focal persons, village health team (VHT) members, religious leaders and political leaders. We also interviewed persons in couple relationships. Data was analysed using NVivo 8 software. Ethical clearance was received from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. The study was conducted from June 2013 to July 2013 We conducted 4 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and interviewed 53 persons in couple relationships. None of the participants were a couple. The women were 68% (36/53) and 49% (26/53) of them were above 29 years old. The motivators of CHCT uptake were; perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child in the family and suspicion of infidelity. Other important motivators were men involvement in antenatal care (ANC) attendance and preparation for marriage. The motivators for CHCT uptake included the perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child, preparation for marriage, lack of trust among couples and men involvement in antenatal care. Greater attention to enhancers of CHCT programming is needed in trying to

  12. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention to improve treatment adherence among HIV-positive youth in Uganda: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Yashodhara; Haberer, Jessica; Huang, Haijing; Kambugu, Andrew; Mukasa, Barbara; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Wabukala, Peter; Wagner, Glenn J; Linnemayr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the first qualitative studies to discuss programmatic barriers to SMS-based interventions for HIV-positive youth and discusses pathways through which youth perceive them to work. We conducted six focus groups with 20 male and 19 female HIV-positive youths in two clinics in Kampala, Uganda. We find that youth commonly use SMS as over 90% of this study's youths knew how to read, write and send messages and almost three-fourths of them had phones. Youth strongly felt that the success of this intervention hinged on ensuring confidentiality about their HIV-positive status. Key programmatic challenges discussed where restrictions on phone use and phone sharing that could exclude some youth. Participants felt that the intervention would improve their adherence by providing them with needed reminders and social support. Youths' suggestions about intervention logistics related to content, frequency, timing and two-way messages will be helpful to practitioners in the field.

  13. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  14. Uganda rainfall variability and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2018-05-01

    This study analyzes large-scale controls on Uganda's rainfall. Unlike past work, here, a May-October season is used because of the year-round nature of agricultural production, vegetation sensitivity to rainfall, and disease transmission. The Uganda rainfall record exhibits steady oscillations of ˜3 and 6 years over 1950-2013. Correlation maps at two-season lead time resolve the subtropical ridge over global oceans as an important feature. Multi-variate environmental predictors include Dec-May south Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, east African upper zonal wind, and South Atlantic wind streamfunction, providing a 33% fit to May-Oct rainfall time series. Composite analysis indicates that cool-phase El Niño Southern Oscillation supports increased May-Oct Uganda rainfall via a zonal overturning lower westerly/upper easterly atmospheric circulation. Sea temperature anomalies are positive in the east Atlantic and negative in the west Indian Ocean in respect of wet seasons. The northern Hadley Cell plays a role in limiting the northward march of the equatorial trough from May to October. An analysis of early season floods found that moist inflow from the west Indian Ocean converges over Uganda, generating diurnal thunderstorm clusters that drift southwestward producing high runoff.

  15. Financial Sector Assessment Update : Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment update of Uganda's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in November, 2004. The purpose of the mission was to help the Ugandan authorities identify financial system strengths and weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to increase the system's contribution ...

  16. Uganda Journal - Vol 48 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notes: Observations of Butterfly Migrations in Uganda, 2002 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ian Deshmukh, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23007 ...

  17. Isotope separation of relativistic projectile fragments as well as cross section measurements on 8,9,11Li secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.

    1991-06-01

    In the framework of this thesis the method of the 'momentum-loss achromate' was for the first time tested at relativistic energies. This experiment is presented in chapter 2 of the thesis. In a second experiment the method was then used, in order to make secondary beams of 8,9,11 Li available. With these secondary beams cross section measurements were performed, from which beside information on the nuclear radii of these nuclei also further information on the internal structure of the lithium isotopes can be derived. This experiment is described in chapter 3 of the thesis. In the framework of these two experiments for the applied heavy ions energy-loss measurements were performed. The results of these measurements are presented in chapter 4. (orig.) [de

  18. Science Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssempala, Fredrick

    High school students in Uganda perform poorly in science subjects despite the Ugandan government's efforts to train science teachers and build modern science laboratories in many public high schools. The poor performance of students in science subjects has been largely blamed on the inability by many science teachers to teach science through Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) to motivate the students to learn science. However, there have been no empirical studies done to establish the factors that influence science teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Uganda. Most of the published research on IBI has been conducted in developed countries, where the prevailing contexts are very different from the contexts in developing countries such as Uganda. Additionally, few studies have explored how professional development (PD) training workshops on inquiry and nature of science (NOS) affect chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. My purpose in this multi-case exploratory qualitative study was to explore the effect of a PD workshop on inquiry and NOS on chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Kampala city public schools in Uganda. I also explored the relationship between chemistry teachers' NOS understanding and the nature of IBI implemented in their classrooms and the internal and external factors that influence teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. I used a purposive sampling procedure to identify two schools of similar standards from which I selected eight willing chemistry teachers (four from each school) to participate in the study. Half of the teachers (those from School A) attended the PD workshop on inquiry and NOS for six days, while the control group (those from School B) did not. I collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and document analysis. I analyzed these data by structural, conceptual and theoretical coding approach. I established that all the participating chemistry

  19. Incidence of Induced Abortion in Uganda, 2013: New Estimates Since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Elena; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Blades, Nakeisha M; Bukenya, Justine N; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, abortion is permitted only when the life of a woman is in danger. This restriction compels the perpetuation of the practice in secrecy and often under unsafe conditions. In 2003, 294,000 induced abortions were estimated to occur each year in Uganda. Since then, no other research on abortion incidence has been conducted in the country. Data from 418 health facilities were used to estimate the number and rate of induced abortion in 2013. An indirect estimation methodology was used to calculate the annual incidence of induced abortions ─ nationally and by major regions. The use of a comparable methodology in an earlier study permits assessment of trends between 2003 and 2013. In 2013, an estimated 128,682 women were treated for abortion complications and an estimated 314,304 induced abortions occurred, both slightly up from 110,000 and 294,000 in 2003, respectively. The national abortion rate was 39 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49, down from 51 in 2003. Regional variation in abortion rates is very large, from as high as an estimated 77 per 1,000 women 15-49 in Kampala region, to as low as 18 per 1,000 women in Western region. The overall pregnancy rate also declined from 326 to 288; however the proportion of pregnancies that were unintended increased slightly, from 49% to 52%. Unsafe abortion remains a major problem confronting Ugandan women. Although the overall pregnancy rate and the abortion rate declined in the past decade, the majority of pregnancies to Ugandan women are still unintended. These findings reflect the increase in the use of modern contraception but also suggest that a large proportion of women are still having difficulty practicing contraception effectively. Improved access to contraceptive services and abortion-related care are still needed.

  20. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  1. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinobe, J R; Gebresenbet, G; Niwagaba, C B; Vinnerås, B

    2015-08-01

    The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-9/11 cancer incidence in World Trade Center-exposed New York City firefighters as compared to a pooled cohort of firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (9/11/2001-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, William; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Daniels, Robert D; Hall, Charles B; Webber, Mayris P; Jaber, Nadia; Yiin, James H; Schwartz, Theresa; Liu, Xiaoxue; Vossbrinck, Madeline; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported a modest excess of cancer cases in World Trade Center (WTC) exposed firefighters as compared with the general population. This study aimed to separate the potential carcinogenic effects of firefighting and WTC-exposure by using a cohort of non-WTC-exposed firefighters as the referent group. Methods Relative rates (RRs) for all cancers combined and individual cancer subtypes from 9/11/2001-12/31/2009 were modelled using Poisson regression comparing 11,457 WTC-exposed firefighters to 8,220 non-WTC-exposed firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago, and Philadelphia. Results Compared with non-WTC-exposed firefighters, there was no difference in the RR of all cancers combined for WTC-exposed firefighters (RR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83–1.12). Thyroid cancer was significantly elevated (RR=3.82, 95% CI: 1.07–20.81) over the entire study; this was attenuated (RR=3.43, 95% CI: 0.94–18.94) and non-significant in a secondary analysis controlling for possible surveillance bias. Prostate cancer was elevated during the latter half (1/1/2005-12/31/2009; RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.88). Conclusions Further follow-up is needed with this referent population to assess the relationship between WTC-exposure and cancers with longer latency periods. PMID:27582474

  3. Bedside practice of blood transfusion in a large teaching hospital in Uganda: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaf J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse transfusion reactions can cause morbidity and death to patients who receive a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion practice in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda is analyzed to see if and when these practices play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients. Materials and Methods: An observational study on three wards of Mulago Hospital. Physicians, paramedics, nurses, medical students and nurse students were observed using two questionnaires. For comparison, a limited observational study was performed in the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG in Groningen, The Netherlands. Results: In Mulago Hospital guidelines for blood transfusion practice were not easily available. Medical staff members work on individual professional levels. Students perform poorly due to inconsistency in their supervision. Documentation of blood transfusion in patient files is scarce. There is no immediate bedside observation, so transfusion reactions and obstructions in the blood transfusion flow are not observed. Conclusion: The poor blood transfusion practice is likely to play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients who receive a blood transfusion. There is a need for a blood transfusion policy and current practical guidelines.

  4. Individual and Parental Risk Factors for Sexual Exploitation Among High-Risk Youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Culbreth, Rachel; Wilson, Rebecca; Armistead, Lisa; Kasirye, Rogers; Swahn, Monica H

    2018-04-01

    This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex. Analyses included those who self-reported sexually active adolescents ( n = 593) of whom 39% reported CSEC history. CSEC was significantly associated with being female (odds ratio [ OR] = 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [4.22, 11.12]), living on the streets ( OR = 2.68; 95% CI = [1.65, 4.36]), using social media ( OR = 1.48; 95% CI = [0.94, 2.35]), being a victim of physical dating violence ( OR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.08, 2.80]), and ever being raped ( OR = 4.03; 95% CI = [2.51, 6.47]). Further analyses suggested differential risk associates among females and males. This study contributes to our knowledge of risk factors for CSEC among adolescents living in high-risk circumstances in low-resource countries and suggests that preventive efforts should prioritize adolescents with a history of living on the streets who engage in social media, use alcohol, and have a history of trauma.

  5. Psychosocial challenges and strategies for coping with HIV among adolescents in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, José A; Musiime, Victor; Byaruhanga, Judith; Francis, Kiweewa; Snow, Rachel C; Tsai, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although more than 90% of youth perinatally infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial factors that impact their wellbeing, or how these youth cope with these challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges and coping strategies among perinatal HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-19 years at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to stressors and specific coping strategies. Psychosocial challenges included stigma/discrimination, relationship challenges such as HIV status disclosure, and medication difficulties. Coping strategies included medication adherence, concealment or limited disclosure of HIV status, treatment optimism, social support, rationalizing, social comparison, spirituality/religiosity, avoidance, and distraction. Age and gender differences also emerged: younger participants generally lacked specific coping strategies; compared to females, male adolescents reported greater use of avoidance/distraction techniques. Findings underscore the need to address stigma within homes and schools, and to equip adolescents with the comprehensive knowledge and skills to address their varied challenges.

  6. Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with the Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City

    OpenAIRE

    Aiman Farag Mohammed Ali; Siti Fatimah Muis; Suhartono Suhartono

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition, a major risk factor for a number of infectious diseases, including acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTI), is common in developing countries. Nutritional status is an important index of the quality of life. Objectives:To analyze the correlation between food intake and health status to nutritional status of 9-11 years old children in Semarang. The study was a correlation study carried among school children in Semarang aged 9-11 years old. Data are presented in the descr...

  7. Synthesis of 5-organo-, 9-organo-, and 9,11-diorgano-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborate salts by a cross-combination reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharkin, L.I.; Ol'shevskaya, V.A.; Petrovskij, P.V.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown for the first time that salts of 5-iodine and 9,11-diiodine-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborates, containing iodine atoms near polyhedron pentagonal surface boron atoms, enter cross-combination reaction with magnesium organic compounds during catalysis by palladium complexes with formation of 5-organo-, 9-organo-, and 9,11-diorgano-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborate salts [ru

  8. Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.

  9. Coupled-channels analyses for 9,11Li + 208Pb fusion reactions with multi-neutron transfer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; So, W. Y.; Hagino, K.; Kim, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the role of two-neutron transfer processes in the fusion reaction of the 9,11Li + 208Pb systems. We first analyze the 9Li + 208Pb reaction by taking into account the coupling to the 7Li + 210Pb channel. To this end, we assume that two neutrons are directly transferred to a single effective channel in 210Pb and solve the coupled-channels equations with the two channels. By adjusting the coupling strength and the effective Q-value, we successfully reproduce the experimental fusion cross sections for this system. We then analyze the 11Li + 208Pb reaction in a similar manner, that is, by taking into account three effective channels with 11Li + 208Pb, 9Li + 210Pb, and 7Li + 212Pb partitions. In order to take into account the halo structure of the 11Li nucleus, we construct the potential between 11Li and 208Pb with a double folding procedure, while we employ a Woods-Saxon type potential with the global Akyüz-Winther parameters for the other channels. Our calculation indicates that the multiple two-neutron transfer process plays a crucial role in the 11Li + 208Pb fusion reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  10. MALAYSIA'S POST-9/11 SECURITY STRATEGY: WINNING "HEARTS AND MINDS" OR LEGITIMISING THE POLITICAL STATUS QUO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Humphreys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Emergency, the Malaysian government has maintained a security policy which somewhat paradoxically combines the use ofcoercive, repressive legislation with a "hearts and minds" ideology.Following 9/11, I argue that the government has adapted this "heartsand minds" approach to the so-called War on Terror. The BarisanNasional governments of Mahathir Mohamad and Abdullah Badawi bothformulated ideological strategies designed to undermine the ideological strength of al-Qaeda and establish Malaysia as a leader of the Muslim world. Mahathir and Abdullah hinged their ideological approach on a state-constructed form of Islam and sought to portray Malaysia as a tolerant and moderate Muslim country. However, it will be shown that the use of ideology in Malaysia is often calibrated to ensure regime security rather than national security. The Malaysian government has used its ideology to promote elite interests and limit the discursive space for alternative and opposing viewpoints. Significantly, ideology has been used to justify crackdowns against genuine political opponents and to legitimise the political status quo.

  11. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  12. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  13. Beyond the ENDF format: A modern nuclear database structure. SG38 meeting, OECD Conference Centre, 9-11 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Michal Wladyslaw; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; Beck, Bret; Trkov, Andrej; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Mcnabb, Dennis P.; Malvagi, Fausto; Grudzevich, Oleg T.; Mattoon, Caleb; Wiarda, Dorothea; Brown, David; Chadwick, Mark; Roubtsov, Danila; Iwamoto, Osamu; Yokoyama, Kenji; White, Morgan C.; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; Fiorito, Luca; Haeck, Wim; Dunn, Michael; Jouanne, Cedric

    2016-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. This document is the proceedings of the SG38 meeting which took place at the OECD Conference Centre, on 9-11 May 2016. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: - 1) Beyond the ENDF format: Working toward the first specifications (Dennis P. McNabb); - 2) Summary of LLNL/LANL/ORNL/BNL discussions on SG38 (Caleb M. Mattoon); - 3) Status of Top Level Hierarchy Requirements Document (D.A. Brown); - 4) GND: Storing multiple representations of a quantity using forms, components and styles (Bret Beck); - 5) Particle Database update (Caleb M. Mattoon); - 6) General Purpose Data Containers (Jeremy Lloyd Conlin); - 7) Functional data containers (Bret Beck); - 8) Top-level hierarchy specifications (D.A. Brown)

  14. Interpreting 9/11: The Role of Language and Narrative in the Construction of “American” Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Tallman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the attacks on September 11, 2001 (that killed approximately three thousand people the United States began waging war abroad, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and permanently displacing millions of innocent people. The interpretation of 9/11 as an act of war by the U.S. government and the mainstream news media provided the pretext for military aggression, legitimating war and militarization—on the basis of “national security”. This produced conditions for the heroic-narrative of the savior-nation to emerge, expressing itself in the United States’ “War on Terror”. The idea of the “War on Terror” was introduced in the aftermath of a lingering national trauma—in many ways generated by the government and the mainstream news media. Its repetition allowed it to become physically embodied in the human brain, and thereby, orienting people toward nationalism and the use of violence. This study places identity at the center of the problem, arguing that “American” identity is dependent upon the existence of an enemy- other (negative identity. Drawing upon discoveries in cognitive science and neuroscience permits one to appreciate the role of language and narrative in the construction of identity and the implications it has for both war and peace. Combining this research with a philosophical and religious analysis of the United States captures a trend in the actions, thought, and beliefs that help form the “American” self and its relationship to violence.

  15. Hollywood adaptations of comic books in a post-9/11 context: the economic and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Dupont

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la sortie de Jaws (Steven Spielberg, 1975 puis celle de Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977, l’industrie hollywoodienne s’est surtout concentrée sur la production de blockbusters essentiellement destinés à un jeune public. L’article va d’abord montrer qu’adapter à l’écran les aventures de super-héros américains est une formule très intéressante pour Hollywood car ces aventures semblent faites pour devenir des blockbusters. L’article va ensuite montrer que ces adaptations rencontrent également un certain succès car le contexte s’y prête ; les super-héros, tels qu’ils sont présentés, intéressent en effet les spectateurs dans un contexte post-11 septembre que l’on ne peut ignorer.With the release of Jaws (Steven Spielberg, 1975 and then Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977, blockbusters have dominated Hollywood’s way of doing business while they have confirmed the importance of the young audience. The paper will first show that adapting comic books is ideal for the film industry as comic books perfectly fit the blockbusters’ formula. All this explains why American studios have successfully adapted (and/or distributed many comic books over the past few years. But the paper will also underline that adapting comic books would however be fruitless if the context was not right for their characters. The paper will thus question the timing of these adaptations, and more precisely it will try to show that if comic book superheroes have an important audience in cinemas, it is probably because they are also in tune with the post-9/11 American mood.

  16. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753

  17. Training Young Russian Physicians in Uganda: A Unique Program for Introducing Global Health Education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Bulat A; Yausheva, Liliya M; Sadigh, Mitra; Ziganshina, Anna P; Pichugin, Arseniy A; Ziganshin, Ayrat U; Sadigh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a new concept in Russia. There has been an ongoing academic collaboration between the Yale School of Medicine in the United States and Makerere University College of Health Sciences in Uganda since 2010, and the US Western Connecticut Health Network/University of Vermont College of Medicine since 2012, to introduce global health concepts to Kazan State Medical University (KSMU) in Russia. The purpose was to educate Russian physicians and medical trainees about the practice of clinical medicine and medical education, as well as the general practice of global health in culturally diverse, resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial outcomes of this multi-institutional partnership and to assess the impact of the global health elective on the participants and on KSMU. Participants were selected to attend a 6-week elective in global health at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. The elective consisted of clinical experience, education about Uganda's common diseases, and region-specific sociocultural classes. It included a predeparture orientation and, upon return, completion of a standard questionnaire to assess the program's impact. Since 2010, there have been 20 KSMU members (4 medical students, 4 interns, 9 residents, 2 fellows, and 1 faculty member) who have participated in the program. As a result of the elective, the participants reported increased knowledge of tropical medicine (70%) and HIV/AIDS (75%), and 95% reported increased cultural sensitivity and desire to work with the underserved. The majority noted a very positive impact of their careers (90%) and personal life (80%). KSMU established the first successful collaborative program in global health education in Russia, leading to the integration of tropical medicine and global health courses in medical school curriculum. This elective has proven highly effective in introducing the concept of global health to faculty, fellows, residents, and medical students

  18. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing

  19. The revelation(s of Asher Levi: An iconographic literacy event as a tool for the exploration of fragmented selves in new literacies studies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Staples

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the dynamics of an iconographic literacy event that functions as a tool for explorations of literacy practices and fragmented selves, particularly in relationship to the literate lives of marginalized individuals in the post 9/11 era. The author examines what happened when a group of 10 African American women in an urban area employed new literacies in the teaching/learning spaces of their personal lives (i.e. individual homes, familiar eateries, communicative digital technologies to explore and respond to stories in post 9/11 popular culture narratives. The study employed ethnographic methods (interviews, journaling, email and instant message writing and critical observations with members of the inquiry over the course of two years. The author investigated critically the meeting of biography, fiction and autoethnography as a literacy event used to couch the literacies and fragmented selves of these women in the post 9/11 era. Findings regarding the nature of their post 9/11 literacies, as expressed through fragmented selves, are shared, along with implications for new literacies research and teaching. Findings show that the women’s post 9/11 literacies include a range and variation of critical sensibilities that include, but are not limited to, multiple levels of sociolinguistic integration, sociocultural criticality and heightened awarenesses.

  20. The level of physical and social skills after completion of the training program for children aged 9-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Francová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to determine changes in physical and social indicators in participants of a table tennis training program lasting 10 months. Physical and social indicators were compared within two different research groups. Methods: Two research groups were created. The first one comprised beginners with intellectual disabilities and the reference group was created by non-disabled participants. Altogether 15 participants, aged 9-11, were included in each group. A pre-test was introduced at the beginning of the study and was followed by a post-test 10 months later. Physical parameters were evaluated with the help of individual skills tests designed for table tennis. The area of social indicators was determined according to the Scales for Assessing Coping Skills by Whelan and Speake (1979. Results: As far as physical indicators (e.g. individual skills used in table tennis are concerned, individuals with intellectual disabilities improved by 24.5%. The improvement of non-disabled population reached 11%. Positive changes in social indicators, which include self-help socio-educational issues and interpersonal skills, were seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities - the improvement reached 7%; whereas the improvement in non-disabled participants was only 2%. The obtained results were evaluated separately for each group, due to the default level in pre-tests. Having compared the two groups we learnt that individuals with intellectual disabilities reached on average 63% of the non-disabled participants. Conclusions: The training programme has brought positive changes into the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities in all of the studied parameters, social and physical skills included. In accord with our comparative findings it has been recommended to reduce sport demands to the observed level. Also, a number, of methodological skills required for table tennis, has been modified in accordance with our

  1. Beyond the ENDF format: A modern nuclear database structure. SG38 meeting, JAEA Tokai site, 9-11 December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, T.; McNabb, D.; Mattoon, C.; Kugo, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Suyama, K.; Nishihara, K.; Konno, C.; Sato, T.; Brown, D.; White, M.; Beck, B.; Sinitsa, V.; Dunn, M.

    2013-12-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. This document is the proceedings of the third subgroup meeting which took place at the Tokai site of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan, on 9-11 December 2013 It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants as well as one draft paper: A - Introduction: - Welcome (T. Fukahori); - Reviewing our implementation plan (D. McNabb); - Overview of the SG38 wiki (C. Mattoon); B - Feedback from nuclear data users: - Application of nuclear data to light water reactor core analysis (T. Kugo); - Application of nuclear data to fast reactor analysis and design (K. Yokoyama); - Request for the format of the evaluated nuclear data file for the criticality safety evaluation (K. Suyama); - Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a minor-actinide transmuter with JENDL- 4.0 (K. Nishihara); - Application of nuclear data libraries in fusion neutronics and some comments (C. Konno); - Particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS (T. Sato); C - Review of the project sub-tasks: - Top level organization of nuclear data (D. Brown); Documentation: Requirements

  2. Peer Mentoring at the Uganda Cancer Institute: A Novel Model for Career Development of Clinician-Scientists in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Phipps

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer centers are beginning to emerge in low- and middle-income countries despite having relatively few oncologists and specialists in related fields. Uganda, like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a cadre of highly motivated clinician-scientists-in-training who are committed to developing the capacity for cancer care and research. However, potential local mentors for these trainees are burdened with uniquely high demands on their time for clinical care, teaching, institutional development, advocacy, and research. Facilitated peer mentoring helps to fill skills and confidence gaps and teaches mentoring skills so that trainees can learn to support one another and regularly access a more senior facilitator/role model. With an added consultant component, programs can engage limited senior faculty time to address specific training needs and to introduce junior investigators to advisors and even potential dyadic mentors. Two years after its inception, our facilitated peer mentoring career development program at the Uganda Cancer Institute in Kampala is successfully developing a new generation of researchers who, in turn, are now providing role models and mentors from within their group. This program provides a practical model for building the next generation of clinical scientists in developing countries.

  3. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S; Nakanjako, Damalie; Ddungu, Henry; Kambugu, Andrew; Manabe, Yukari C; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP) or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900). Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (ART (CD4ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery.

  4. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  5. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  6. Tobias Endler.  After 9/11:  Leading Political Thinkers about the World, the U.S. and Themselves, 17 Conversations.  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michale Gratale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This September marks ten years since the 9/11 terrorist attack against the U.S. back in 2001.  It is hard to believe that a decade has passed already; the images from that day seem so current, perhaps a result of their emotional resonance or constant reproduction and circulation in the world’s mediascapes.  For many, 9/11 was a watershed event which has defined the beginning of the twenty-first century, providing a political-ideological context from which to make sense of a world that had bee...

  7. SB6.0: The 6th International meeting on Synthetic Biology, July 9-11, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Linda J. [BioBricks Foundation

    2015-04-23

    The Synthetic Biology conference series (SBx.0) is the preeminent academic meeting in synthetic biology. Organized by the BioBricks Foundation, the SBx.0 conference series brings together leading researchers, students, industry executives, and policy makers from around the world to share, consider, debate, and plan efforts to make biology easier to engineer. Historically held every two years, the SBx.0 conferences are held in alternating locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia to encourage global participation and collaboration so that the ramifications of synthetic biology research and development are most likely to be safe ethical, and beneficial. On 9-11 July 2013, the 6th installment of the synthetic biology conference series (SB6.0) was held on the campus of Imperial College London (http://sb6.biobricks.org). The SB6.0 conference was attended by over 700 people, and many more were able to participate via video digital conference (http://sb6.biobricks.org/digital-conference/). Over the course of three days, the SB6.0 conference agenda included plenary sessions, workshops, and poster presentations covering topics ranging from the infrastructure needs arising when “Systematic Engineering Meets Biological Complexity” and design-led considerations for “Connecting People and Technologies” to discussions on “Engineering Biology for New Materials,” “Assessing Risk and Managing Biocontainment,” and “New Directions for Energy and Sustainability.” The $10,150 grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0010233) to the BioBricks Foundation was used to provide partial reimbursement for the travel expenses of leading researchers from the United States to speak at the SB6.0 conference. A total of $9,450 was used to reimburse U.S. speakers for actual expenses related to the SB6.0 conference, including airfare (economy or coach only), ground transportation, hotel, and registration fees. In addition, $700 of the grant was used to offset

  8. Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation Pilot Project - CIELO meeting, OECD Conference Centre, 9-11 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Michal Wladyslaw; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; Trkov, Andrej; Bauge, Eric; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Mcnabb, Dennis P.; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Grudzevich, Oleg T.; Mattoon, Caleb; Brown, David; Chadwick, Mark; Roubtsov, Danila; Iwamoto, Osamu; Kahler, Albert C.; Diez De La Obra, Carlos Javier; Qian, Jing; Wu, Haicheng; Ruan, Xichao; Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Kodeli, Ivan-Alexander; Plompen, Arjan; White, Morgan C.; Leal, Luiz Carlos; Fiorito, Luca; Danon, Yaron; Romain, Pascal; Dunn, Michael; Zerovnik, Gasper; Morillon, Benjamin; Jacqmin, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This document is the proceedings of the 2016 SG40-CIELO meeting, followed by a joint SG39/SG40 session, held at the OECD Headquarters Conference Center, Paris, France, on 9-11 May 2016. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - SG40-CIELO meeting: - SG40-1: Status of Cross Section Progress for "2"3"5","8U, "2"3"9Pu, "5"6Fe, "1"6O (Mark CHADWICK); - SG40-2: Summary of IRMM (Arjan PLOMPEN); - SG40-2.1: Giorginis "1"6O(n,alpha) insights (Arjan PLOMPEN); - SG40-3: New Oxygen "1"6O Hale evaluation (Mark CHADWICK); - SG40-4: "1"6O and "5"6Fe Iron resonance region evaluations (Luiz LEAL); - SG40-5: Iron evaluation work at BNL, ORNL, and IAEA (Mike HERMAN); - SG40-6: Minor Fe isotopes (David BROWN); - SG40-7: Iron evaluation work at CIAE (Jing QIAN); - SG40-8: IAEA CIELO data testing relevant to "5"6Fe (Andre TRKOV); - SG40-9: CIELO data testing (Skip KAHLER

  9. 76 FR 7862 - Implementation of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-347)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... brief introduction by Federal officials, followed by presentations from attendees who register to speak...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces a public meeting for receiving comments from the public on implementing the provisions of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (Pub...

  10. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  11. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (12th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2016, which was organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016. The Mobile Learning 2016 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  12. The Urgency of Visual Media Literacy in Our Post-9/11 World: Reading Images of Muslim Women in the Print News Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Diane Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A decade after the 9/11 attacks, educators concerned with social justice issues are faced with the question of how media representations powerfully constitute the subjectivities of teachers and students. The roles of Muslim women in society are often narrowly construed and projected via media cultures--an unofficial curriculum of the everyday much…

  13. Chronic probable PTSD in police responders in the world trade center health registry ten to eleven years after 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, James E; Li, Jiehui; Kornblith, Erica; Gocheva, Vihra; Stellman, Steven D; Shaikh, Annum; Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M

    2015-05-01

    Police enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) demonstrated increased probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the terrorist attack of 9/11/2001. Police enrollees without pre-9/11 PTSD were studied. Probable PTSD was assessed by Posttraumatic Stress Check List (PCL). Risk factors for chronic, new onset or resolved PTSD were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Half of police with probable PTSD in 2003-2007 continued to have probable PTSD in 2011-2012. Women had higher prevalence of PTSD than men (15.5% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.008). Risk factors for chronic PTSD included decreased social support, unemployment, 2+ life stressors in last 12 months, 2+ life-threatening events since 9/11, 2+ injuries during the 9/11 attacks, and unmet mental health needs. Police responders to the WTC attacks continue to bear a high mental health burden. Improved early access to mental health treatment for police exposed to disasters may be needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) (ISSN: 1026-0919) is a peer reviewed journal ... It should bear a background statement to originate the idea or research problem; ... Truly new procedures should be described in detail.

  15. Uganda's Vision 2040 and Human Needs Promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target the physical, economic, political and social development of Uganda. Although ... affordable quality health care and education, clean environment and green ..... focuses on preventive, curative and palliative medical services (Doyal and .... representation, tolerance, equity and constructive dialogues and openness to.

  16. Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Nebbi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... to receive increasing political, business and academic attention. In Uganda, ... Arising from this, poverty performance tracking has also lacked focus, ...... those already married was high for women (7%) compared to men (3%).

  17. Uganda elanikud tarbivad enim alkoholi / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas

  18. A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Boutwell, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

  19. The experiences of survivors and trauma counselling service providers in northern Uganda: Implications for mental health policy and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebling, H; Davidson, L; Akello, G F; Ochola, G

    Previous research in northern Uganda found high levels of trauma-related difficulties amongst the conflict-affected population. There is international evidence that psychological therapy can reduce depression, as one of the psychological effects of trauma, but very limited literature regarding the experiences of trauma counselling in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current British Academy and Leverhulme-funded research investigated the experiences of service users and providers of trauma services in Kitgum and Gulu, northern Uganda. It also examined their implications for mental health policy and legislation. A decision was made to utilise qualitative methodology to highlight the in-depth experiences of participants. The researcher's carried out interviews with 10 women and 10 men survivors attending trauma services in Kitgum and Gulu. The researchers also interviewed 15 key informants in Kitgum, Gulu and Kampala including trauma counselling service providers, ministers, cultural leaders and mental health professionals. The authors report the findings of the research based on thematic analysis of the interviews. Themes included the experiences of survivors, bearing witness and instilling hope, constraints to service provision, stigma and abuse, holistic approach, service providers doing their best, specialist populations, limited understanding, training and skills development, gaps in service provision and mental health policy and legislation. The interviews resulted in a clear indication that counselling and medication was valued by service users, and that service providers felt the treatments that were provided improved depression, and increased empowerment and engagement in social activities. However, the authors argue that there was a limit to the benefits that could be achieved without using the holistic approach that the survivors requested. Thus, in cases of trauma arising from conflict, there is a clear need for the state to ensure reparation and/or justice for the

  20. Understanding the role of embarrassment in gynaecological screening: a qualitative study from the ASPIRE cervical cancer screening project in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Flora F; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2014-04-11

    To define embarrassment and develop an understanding of the role of embarrassment in relation to cervical cancer screening and self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in Uganda. Cross-sectional, qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one interviews and focus groups. 6 key-informant health workers and 16 local women, purposively sampled. Key informant inclusion criteria: Ugandan members of the project team. Focus group inclusion criteria: woman age 30-69 years, Luganda or Swahili speaking, living or working in the target Ugandan community. unwillingness to sign informed consent. Primary and tertiary low-resource setting in Kampala, Uganda. In Luganda, embarrassment relating to cervical cancer is described in two forms. 'Community embarrassment' describes discomfort based on how a person may be perceived by others. 'Personal embarrassment' relates to shyness or discomfort with her own genitalia. Community embarrassment was described in themes relating to place of study recruitment, amount of privacy in dwellings, personal relationship with health workers, handling of the vaginal swab and misunderstanding of HPV self-collection as HIV testing. Themes of personal embarrassment related to lack of knowledge, age and novelty of the self-collection swab. Overall, embarrassment was a barrier to screening at the outset and diminished over time through education and knowledge. Fatalism regarding cervical cancer diagnosis, worry about results and stigma associated with a cervical cancer diagnosis were other psychosocial barriers described. Overcoming psychosocial barriers to screening can include peer-to-peer education, drama and media campaigns. Embarrassment and other psychosocial barriers may play a large role at the onset of a screening programme, but over time as education and knowledge increase, and the social norms around screening evolve, its role diminishes. The role of peer-to-peer education and community authorities on healthcare cannot be

  1. A qualitative study exploring nurses’ attitudes, confidence, and perceived barriers to implementing a traumatic brain injury nursing chart in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wynveen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Africa, traumatic brain injuries frequently result from road traffic injuries and assaults. Despite limited resources and the high costs of life-saving neurosurgical interventions, secondary brain injury prevention has the potential for improving outcomes. However, nurses and other medical personnel infrequently monitor vital signs, blood sugar, and pulse oximetry and only sporadically re-assess neurological status. Methods: In one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, 27 nurses from Mulago Hospital’s emergency centre, a tertiary care trauma hospital in Kampala, Uganda, provided feedback regarding a traumatic brain injury-focused education session and use of a nursing chart for detecting secondary brain injury. The interviews explored the nurses’ confidence and perceived barriers to long-term chart implementation and traumatic brain injury care, as well as their ideas for improving this intervention. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded using ATLAS.ti: Qualitative Data Analysis and Research Software (Cleverbridge, Inc., Chicago, USA and Microsoft Word and Excel (Microsoft Office, Redmond, USA for thematic content analysis. Results: Key findings identified in the interviews included the nurses’ attitudes toward the chart and their feelings of increased confidence in assessing and caring for these patients. The main barriers to continuous implementation included inadequate staffing and resources. Conclusion: Nurses were receptive to the education session and nursing chart, and felt that it increased their confidence and improved their ability to care for traumatic brain injured patients. However, lack of supplies, overwhelming numbers of patients, and inadequate staffing interfered with consistent monitoring of patients. The nurses offered various suggestions for improving traumatic brain injury care that should be further investigated. More research is needed to assess the applicability of a standardised

  2. HIV prevalence, attitudes and behaviour in clients of a confidential HIV testing and counselling centre in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, O; Barugahare, L; Schwartländer, B; Byaruhanga, E; Kataaha, P; Kyeyune, D; Heckmann, W; Ankrah, M

    1992-08-01

    To describe clients, operation and impact of an African public HIV testing and counselling centre. Analysis of samples from clients attending the AIDS Information Centre (AIC) in Kampala, Uganda in early 1991. HIV-1-positive and HIV-negative consecutive clients (250 of each), 86 consecutive couples, and 200 consecutive clients who were HIV-negative in 1990 and were attending for their repeat test. HIV seroprevalence rates, attitudes, behaviour and behaviour change. HIV-1 prevalence was 28% overall, 24% in men and 35% in women. Reasons for taking the HIV test were a planned marriage or a new relationship (27%; 84% in couples), to plan for the future (35%), distrust of sexual partner (14%) and illness or disease/death (not HIV-specific) of partner (20%). The majority of the reported intentions in response to a positive or a negative HIV test result were positive, demonstrating the ability to cope with this information. Of repeat clients, two (1%) had become HIV-1-positive. The majority of repeat clients reported one sexual partner only (67%) or sexual abstinence (25%). Compared with pre-test information from AIC clients attending for the first time, repeat clients reported casual sexual contacts less often (6 versus 25%) and, of those, the majority used condoms. Our study demonstrates the demand for and the feasibility of confidential HIV testing and counseling services in Uganda, and illustrates the value of these services in achieving behaviour changes. Such services should be considered an additional approach for the reduction of HIV transmission in Africa, especially in areas with high HIV seroprevalence rates.

  3. Serum vitamin D status in children with protein-energy malnutrition admitted to a national referral hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeta, Henry W; Kasolo, Josephine; Kiggundu, Reuben K; Kiragga, Agnes N; Kiguli, Sarah

    2015-09-07

    Vitamin D deficiency is a world-wide epidemic with recent estimates indicating that greater than 50% of the global population is at risk. In Uganda, 80% of healthy community children in a survey were found to be vitamin D insufficient. Protein-energy malnutrition is likely to be associated with vitamin D intake deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the associated factors among children admitted with protein-energy malnutrition to the pediatrics wards of Mulago hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Consecutive sampling was done with 158 children, aged 6-24 months, enrolled in a cross sectional study. One hundred and seventeen malnourished and 41 non malnourished children were enrolled from the Acute Care unit, pediatrics in-patient wards, outpatient and immunization clinics, following informed consent obtained from the children's parents/guardians. Children with protein energy malnutrition were categorized based on anthropometric measurements of weight-for-height and weight for length compared with the recommended WHO reference Z-score. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium and phosphate were assayed. One hundred seventeen malnourished and 41 non malnourished children were enrolled. The majority of study participants were male, 91 (57.6%). The mean serum vitamin D levels among the malnourished was 32.5 mmol/L (±12.0 SD) and 32.2 mmol/L (10.9 SD) among the malnourished, p = 0.868. Fifteen (36.6%) of the non malnourished children and 51 (43.6%) of the malnourished had suboptimal levels, p = 0.689. Malnourished children admitted with meningitis and cerebral palsy had lower serum vitamin D levels than those with other infections. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D values between the malnourished and non malnourished children. Clinicians should actively screen for children for serum vitamin D levels regardless of nutritional status.

  4. Adherence to iron supplements among women receiving antenatal care at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda-cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Tusuubira S; Ononge, Sam; Kiondo, Paul; Namusoke, Fatuma

    2017-10-25

    Antenatal iron supplementation is a cost effective way of reducing iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in resource limited countries like Uganda. Poor adherence to iron supplements has limited its effectiveness in reducing maternal anaemia as evidenced by the high burden of iron deficiency anemia in Sub-saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the level of and factors associated with adherence to iron supplementation among women attending antenatal clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Three hundred and seventy pregnant women were recruited in a cross sectional survey in Mulago National Referral Hospital antenatal clinic after informed consent between February and April 2014. Levels of adherence to iron supplements were assessed using visual analogue scale and factors associated collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. About 12% (11.6%) of the mothers attending the antenatal clinic adhered to iron supplements over 30 day period. Mothers who had had four or more antenatal visits prior to the survey [odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.97], had more than 2 week supply of iron supplements in the previous visit (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.02-1.09), prior health education (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.29) were more likely to adhere to iron supplements. Inadequate drug supplies and fear for side effects were the main reasons why participants missed the iron supplements. There was low adherence to iron supplements among mothers attending antenatal clinic at Mulago National Referral  Hospital. We recommend a national evaluation of adherence to iron supplements and look at ways of increasing adherence.

  5. The effect of interrupted anti-retroviral treatment on the reconstitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda. 2. Department of ... School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Abstract ..... Rodrigues DSS, Medeiros EAS, Weckx LY, Bonnez.

  6. Summary sensory workshop Uganda, 21 - 25 November 2005, Uganda Fisheries Laboratory in Entebbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) has requested The Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) to organize a sensory workshop in Uganda. ICEIDA is establishing a fisheries laboratory in Uganda in cooperation with the Ugandan government. One of the tasks within this

  7. Sex inequality, high transport costs, and exposed clinic location: reasons for loss to follow-up of clients under prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in eastern Uganda – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubega M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhamadi Lubega,1–4 Ibrahim A Musenze,3 Gukiina Joshua,2 George Dhafa,2 Rose Badaza,3 Christopher J Bakwesegha,3 Steven J Reynolds41District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, Iganga, Uganda; 2Research Institute, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Busoga University, Iganga, Uganda; 4National Institutes of Health/NIAID-ICER American Embassy, Kampala, UgandaBackground: In Iganga, Uganda, 45% of women who tested HIV-positive during antenatal care between 2007 and 2010 were lost to follow-up (LTFU. We explored reasons for LTFU during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT from a client perspective in eastern Uganda, where antiretroviral therapy (ART awareness is presumably high.Methods: Seven key informant interviews and 20 in-depth interviews, including both clients who had been retained under PMTCT care and those LTFU during PMTCT were held. Ten focus-group discussions involving a total of 112 participants were also conducted with caretakers/relatives of the PMTCT clients. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.Results: Our findings indicate that LTFU during PMTCT in eastern Uganda was due to sex inequality, high transport costs to access the services, inadequate posttest counseling, lack of HIV status disclosure, and the isolated/exposed location of the ART clinic, which robs the clients of their privacy.Conclusion: There is a need for approaches that empower women with social capital, knowledge, and skills to influence health-seeking practices. There is also a need to train low-ranking staff and take PMTCT services closer to the clients at the lower-level units to make them affordable and accessible to rural clients. Posttest counseling should be improved to enable PMTCT clients to appreciate the importance of PMTCT services through increasing the number of staff in antenatal care to match the client numbers for improved quality. The counseling should emphasize HIV status disclosure to

  8. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 15, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern Uganda ... Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region, Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  9. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  10. Domestic violence during pregnancy and risk of low birthweight and maternal complications: a prospective cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K; Mirembe, Florence M; Bantebya, Grace; Johansson, Annika; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2006-10-01

    To investigate whether domestic violence during pregnancy is a risk factor for antepartum hospitalization or low birthweight (LBW) delivery. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda, among 612 women recruited in the second pregnancy trimester and followed up to delivery, from May 2004 through July 2005. The exposure (physical, sexual or psychological violence during pregnancy) was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. The relative and attributable risks of LBW and antepartum hospitalization were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 169 women [27.7% 95% CI (24.3-31.5%)] who reported domestic violence during pregnancy did not differ significantly from the unexposed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, but differed significantly (P violence was 3.78 (95% CI 2.86-5.00). Such women had a 37% higher risk of obstetric complications (such as hypertension, premature rupture of membranes and anaemia) that necessitated antepartum hospitalization [RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.84)]. In this pregnancy cohort, domestic violence during pregnancy was a risk factor for LBW delivery and antepartum hospitalization.

  11. The mental health impact of 9/11 on inner-city high school students 20 miles north of Ground Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderoni, Michele E; Alderman, Elizabeth M; Silver, Ellen J; Bauman, Laurie J

    2006-07-01

    To determine the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 9/11 in a sample of New York City high school students and associations among personal exposure, loss of psychosocial resources, prior mental health treatment, and PTSD. A total of 1214 students (grades 9 through 12) attending a large community high school in Bronx County, 20 miles north of "Ground Zero," completed a 45-item questionnaire during gym class on one day eight months after 9/11. Students were primarily Hispanic (62%) and African American (29%) and lived in the surrounding neighborhood. The questionnaire included the PCL-T, a 17-item PTSD checklist supplied by the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The PCL-T was scored following the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD requiring endorsement of at least one repeating symptom, two hyperarousal symptoms, and three avoidance symptoms. Bivariate analysis comparing PTSD with personal exposure, loss of psychosocial resources, and mental health variables was done and multiple logistic regression was used to identify significant associations. There were 7.4 % of students with the PTSD symptom cluster. Bivariate analysis showed a trend for females to have higher rates of PTSD (males [6%] vs. females [9%], p = .06] with no overall ethnic differences. Five of the six personal exposure variables, and both of the loss of psychosocial resources and mental health variables were significantly associated with PTSD symptom cluster. Multiple logistic regression analysis found one personal exposure variable (having financial difficulties after 9/11, odds ratio [OR] = 5.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-9.7); both the loss of psychosocial resources variables (currently feeling less safe, OR = 3.58; 95% CI 1.9-6.8) and currently feeling less protected by the government, (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 2.1-7.7); and one mental health variable (use of psychotropic medication before 9/11, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.2-13.0) were

  12. The Metastable City and the Politics of Crystallisation: Protesting and Policing in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joschka Philipps

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When protests break out in downtown Kampala they tend to transform a fluid urban environment into bounded political camps, and myriad ambiguous concerns into comparatively clear-cut political issues. This article traces this process and conceptualises Kampala’s urban politics as a politics of crystallisation: as attempts to structure highly fluid dynamics into something concrete. The article is based on ethnographic research amongst opposition activists and the police forces. Both seek to activate political boundaries and make people gravitate towards their respective side. But in line with the fluidity of urban everyday life, they also work and collaborate across these boundaries. The national regime and the opposition thus function not as permanent, stable structures, but as processes, as fields of gravity whose emergence is incited and inhibited, financed, and policed. Drawing on Gilbert Simondon’s theory of individuation and AbdouMaliq Simone’s work on urbanity, this analytical framework offers a dynamic reading of urban contentious politics in general, and a reinterpretation of the paradoxes of power in African politics in particular.

  13. Is health care financing in Uganda equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikusooka, C M; Kyomuhang, R; Orem, J N; Tumwine, M

    2009-10-01

    Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a key determinant of health system performance. Equitable financing is based on: financial protection, progressive financing and cross-subsidies. This paper describes Uganda's health care financing landscape and documents the key equity issues associated with the current financing mechanisms. We extensively reviewed government documents and relevant literature and conducted key informant interviews, with the aim of assessing whether Uganda's health care financing mechanisms exhibited the key principles of fair financing. Uganda's health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of funding for Uganda's health sector. There is limited cross-subsidisation and high fragmentation within and between health financing mechanisms, mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and limited prepayment mechanisms. Without compulsory health insurance and low coverage of private health insurance, Uganda has limited pooling of resources, and hence minimal cross-subsidisation. Although tax revenue is equitable, the remaining financing mechanisms for Uganda are inequitable due to their regressive nature, their lack of financial protection and limited cross-subsidisation. Overall, Uganda's current health financing is inequitable and fragmented. The government should take explicit action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and through appropriate integration of financing mechanisms.

  14. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  15. Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Osur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC in two African countries. Design: Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting: Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample: Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures: In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results: In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions: MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality.

  16. Global rhetorics of disaster: media constructions of Bataclan and the “Colectiv Revolution” in the wake of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Sabina DRAGA ALEXANDRU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent global emergence of a rhetoric of disaster that connects violent events such as terrorist attacks and destructive accidents under an assumption of similarity based on their equally resulting in tragedy and mourning. I will compare discursive constructions of the terrorist attacks on 9/11, often considered the archetypal terrorist act of the new millennium, the Club Colectiv fire in Bucharest (October 30, 2015, followed by the “Colectiv Revolution” that led to a change of government in Romania, and the Bataclan terrorist attack in Paris (November 13, 2016. In a dialogue with Noemi Marin's concept of rhetorical space, I argue that, within the horizon of expectation created by 9/11, Bataclan and Colectiv have given rise to a specific rhetoric of mourning and revolt in reaction to disaster, which has an important public dimension, but, through a strong emotional appeal, is directed at every member of the audience in a personal way.

  17. 9/11, Hyperreality, and the Global Body Politic: Frédéric Beigbeder’s Windows on the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the success of Frédéric Beigbeder's Windows on the World is due to Beigbeder's use of the seemingly contradictory genres of autofiction and hyperrealism in the depiction of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. By positioning himself in the text alongside his fictionalized American counterpoint, Beigbeder configures 9/11 as a lived-body experience that models the ways in which the post-9/11 subject was formed within specific political, cultural, and national conditions. The effect of the novel’s hyperrealism is such that Beigbeder simultaneously posits and deconstructs the notion of national identity within the greater contexts of postmodernism and globalization.

  18. Lidar derived properties of air-masses advected from Ukraine, Sahara and Carpathian mountains to Warsaw, Poland on 9 - 11 August 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Lucja; Szczepanik, Dominika; Borek, Karolina; Heese, Birgit; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2018-04-01

    The aerosol layers of different origin, suspended in the atmosphere on 9-11 August 2015 were observed with the PollyXT-UW lidar in Warsaw, Poland. The HYSPLIT ensemble backward trajectories indicate that the observed air-masses attribute to a few different sources, among others, possible transport paths from Ukraine, Slovakia, and Africa. In this paper, we attempt to analyse and discuss the properties of aerosol particles of different origin that were suspended over Warsaw during this event.

  19. Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with the Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Farag Mohammed Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition, a major risk factor for a number of infectious diseases, including acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTI, is common in developing countries. Nutritional status is an important index of the quality of life. Objectives:To analyze the correlation between food intake and health status to nutritional status of 9-11 years old children in Semarang. The study was a correlation study carried among school children in Semarang aged 9-11 years old. Data are presented in the descriptive analyses and Spearman correlation. Overall, food intake (energy and protein of 9-11 years old children in Semarang is normal with ≥ 90% RDA, health status of them was satisfactory (very low AURTI incidence,and their nutritional status were mostly normal. There was a correlation between energy intake with nutritional status with indicators BMI, and z-score of W/A and H/A, but there was no correlation between protein intake and AURTI with nutritional status. Energy and food intake of the children correlate with all nutritional status being studied. It should be suggested to parents to implement balanced diet, to avoid the development of obesity among elementary school children through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition as well as obesity.How to CiteAli, A. F. M., Muis, S. F., & Suhartono, S. (2016. Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with The Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 249-256. 

  20. “This Was the World Now”: Don DeLillo’s Falling Man as the Literary Memorial to the 9/11 Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaj Tomaš

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When the news broke out that the military successfully neutralized the most wanted terrorists since the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, there was a wave of excitement, thrill, tears and patriotic riots in front of the White House. The Washington Post reports several thousands of young Americans rushing to the fence of the White House, in a spontaneous display of jubilation, dancing and cheering ‘USA!’. Not long passed before there were T-Shirts celebrating Bin Laden’s death being sold. President Obama addressed the nation, claiming that justice has been served. Relief flooded through the American world, even in the euphoric moment, as if they have been searching for some crumb of comfort, or partial closure ever since that awful morning of 9/11. The emotional and psychological wounds of the 9/11 tragedy become thus more evident, from ten years ago, when the image of the great world in its image crushed so profoundly that it become something new, an unknown and fearful of the so-called post-9/11, or – the world of after.

  1. Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were collected at the inlet and outlet of the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at Kiteezi landfill site. A ... some trace elements and also defined as elements with ... concerns regarding the environmental contamination .... ml plastic bottles.

  2. Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    The Land Act 1998. ➢. Women's movement Struggle over land – the lost co- ownership clause. ➢. Section 40 Consent clause- Protection of family land/ restrictions on the transfer of land by family members. ➢. (Section 57) Establishment of District Land. Boards- where at least one third must be women ...

  3. New Light on Chinese enterprises in Africa : Findings from a recent survey of Chinese Firms in Kampala, the capital of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Warmerdam (Ward); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper five issues will be analyzed. In the first place that no separation is made between providing Chinese aid, developing trade relations with China and starting investment activities in Africa. Secondly, is it true that the Chinese government helps Chinese entrepreneurs to

  4. Developing a cellular automata model of urban growth to inform spatial policy for flood mitigation : A case study in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Molina, Eduardo; Sliuzas, R.V.; Flacke, J.; Jetten, V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Urban growth may intensify local flooding problems. Understanding the spatially explicit flood consequences of possible future land cover patterns contributes to inform policy for mitigating these impacts. A cellular automata model has been coupled with the openLISEM integrated flood modeling tool

  5. New light on Chinese enterprises in Africa: Findings from a recent survey of Chinese firms in Kampala, the capital of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); W. Warmerdam (Ward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In this paper five issues will be analyzed. In the first place that no separation is made between providing Chinese aid, developing trade relations with China and starting investment activities in Africa. Secondly, is it true that the Chinese government helps Chinese

  6. Slum inhabitants' perceptions and decision-making processes related to an innovative sanitation service: evaluating the Blue Diversion Toilet in Kampala (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Mark; Messmer, Ulrike; Lüthi, Christoph; Tobias, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate provision of sanitation in informal urban settlements, also known as slums, continues to be an important issue. New technologies and services are being designed to solve this problem. However, the history of failed sanitation programmes and projects highlights a lack of understanding of how slum inhabitants decide on investing in such products and services. In this paper, we gather perspectives from potential clients and investigate how slum inhabitants (1) perceive the current situation and whether they desire improvements of sanitation, (2) how they evaluate a new toilet that is still in development, and how (3) social processes and (4) constraints affect decisions. Data were collected through interviewing 1538 people within a general household survey. People using shared and public latrines desire an improvement of their sanitation facilities. The lack of water for washing is perceived by residents as a the biggest problem when accessing current latrines. The new toilet was mostly evaluated positively: people like it, expect large health benefits from it and it complies with cultural norms. However, people also expect some problems with the functioning of the toilet and expect opposition to pay for the service, due to the high costs and a lack of space to set up new toilets.

  7. Interpreting Teachers' Perceptions of Contextual Influences on Sexuality Discourses within the School Curriculum: Lessons from Sex Health Education Teachers in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushabomwe, Annette; Nashon, Samson Madera

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of key findings of a study that investigated six Ugandan teachers' perceptions of contextual influences on sexuality discourses revealed that though there is some form of sex education in schools and though teachers are very enthusiastic about its implementation, it is largely constrained by conflicting social stances held by various…

  8. Expert Meeting on National Planning of Documentation and Library Services in Africa (Kampala, Uganda, 7-15 December 1970). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The three objectives of this meeting are: (1) to evolve principles for the national planning of documentation and library services in African countries in relation to social, economic and educational plans; (2) to assess the documentation and library needs of African States and correlate a plan of development of these services for the region with…

  9. Correction to: 'Test and Treat' Among Women at High Risk for HIV-Infection in Kampala, Uganda: Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanja, Yunia; Kamacooko, Onesmus; Bagiire, Daniel; Namale, Gertrude; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Seeley, Janet

    2018-03-01

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error. The incorrect range should be replaced in the in the second sentence of the Introduction section. The correct sentence should read as: These key populations and their sexual partners account for 10-51% of new infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [6-8]. The original article has been corrected.

  10. Grey Crowned Cranes Balearica regulorum in urban areas of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ssemmanda & Pom eroy 2010), and up to 25 birds were found roosting on py- lons in central Kampala in the late 1990s ... Storks Leptoptilos crumeniferus, manage to avoid fatal collisions with the power lines. (Kibuule & Pomeroy 2015). In addition ...

  11. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in ...

  12. Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Patients in Uganda Is Highly Resistant to Clarithromycin and Fluoroquinolones: Results of the GenoType HelicoDR Test Directly Applied on Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denish Calmax Angol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Around 70–90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA/fluoroquinolones (FLQ, we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Methods. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Results. Thirty-one samples (22% were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68% of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29% were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%, while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Conclusion. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  13. Hematological malignancies with t(9;11)(p21-22;q23)--a laboratory and clinical study of 125 cases. European 11q23 Workshop participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swansbury, G J; Slater, R; Bain, B J; Moorman, A V; Secker-Walker, L M

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports clinical and cytogenetic data from 125 cases with t(9;11)(p21-22;q32) which were accepted for a European Union Concerted Action Workshop on 11q23. This chromosome abnormality is known to occur predominantly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) FAB type M5a and less often in AML M4; in this series it was also found to occur, uncommonly, in other AML FAB types, in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (nine cases), in relatively young patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (five cases), acute biphenotypic leukemia (two cases), and acute undifferentiated leukemia (one case). All age groups were represented but 50% of the patients were aged less than 15 years. The t(9;11) was the sole abnormality in 57 cases with AML; trisomy 8 was the most common additional abnormality (23 cases, including seven with further abnormalities), and 28 cases had other additional abnormalities. Among the t(9;11)+ve patients with AML, the white cell count (WBC) and age group were significant predictors of event-free survival; central nervous system (CNS) involvement or karyotype class (sole, with trisomy 8, or with other), also contributed to prognosis although our data could not show these to be independent factors. The best outcome was for patients aged 1-9 years, with low WBC, and with absence of CNS disease or presence of trisomy 8. For patients aged less than 15 years, the event-free survival for ALL patients was not significantly worse than that of AML patients.

  14. Working toward resilience: a retrospective report of actions taken in support of a New York school crisis team following 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendall; Luna, Joanne M Tortorici

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective report details external support rendered to a Lower Manhattan school crisis team following the 9/11/01 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center This analysis occasions an opportunity for consideration of working assumptions, the formative use of data to plan support actions, and the subsequent emergence of a collaborative approach to post-disaster team support in school settings. The nature of assessment and nature of subsequent service delivery illustrates a community resilience-based approach to school crisis management. Recommendations for such work are based upon mixed qualitative and quantitative data gathered from on-scene team members as part of the ongoing support effort.

  15. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  16. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  17. Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our funding helped develop the Uganda Health Information Network, an electronic ... Hand-held computers, mobile caching services, and mobile telephones enable ... Now used in hundreds of health centres, the technology has enhanced healthcare ... promote land policies that are fair to women; stimulate high-quality, ...

  18. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that

  19. Healthy Child Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...

  20. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT. Furthermore, the paper examines international provisions related to copyright and reviews the Copyright Law Model. The paper also identifies gaps in the Uganda Copyright Bill, 2002 and ...

  1. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  2. Snakes and poles | Osmaston | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...

  3. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and

  4. Going interdisciplinary in Uganda's education system | Namusisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the relevance of interdisciplinary education, the crisis in which Uganda's education system is, where specialisation is at its peak. It analyses the form of the present curriculum, which leaves the learner in state of dilemma. The author again shows the need for interdisciplinarity, tries to find out whether ...

  5. Meaning of 9/11 for two Pakistani communities: from external intruders to the internalisation of a negative self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Jamil, Uzma

    2008-12-01

    Since September 11, the increase in international tensions and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have created turmoil and fears in immigrant communities, fanned by the media in the context of the war against terrorism. This paper aims to compare the meaning systems evoked around 9/11 within two Pakistani groups-an immigrant community in Montreal and a group in Karachi. It also intends to examine the representation of themselves and of the 'Other' within these two groups. Results suggest that both Karachi and Montreal Pakistani respondents favour a conspiracy scenario which protects the Muslim community from the responsibility of 9/11 events. They refer to an argumentation process based on 'proofs', thus mirroring the political rhetoric used by the US government and its allies to justify the military intervention in Iraq. In the Montreal group, the pervasive feeling of fear and the bleak image that the community has of itself support the hypothesis of an immigrant internalisation of the negative representations of Muslim and South Asian identities in the North American context. The negative self-image observed in these minority groups indicates that more effort than ever should be dedicated to understanding the impact of the present international context on minority-majority relations in multi-ethnic societies. It is as if America is sitting right here in the living room with us … We have to ask them permission to breathe. (Parveen, Karachi).

  6. Peripheral arterial disease among adult diabetic patients attending a large outpatient diabetic clinic at a national referral hospital in Uganda: a descriptive cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mbayo Mwebaze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. METHODS: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5-10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. RESULTS: The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%. PAD was prevalent in 57 (39% study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6% had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria.

  7. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 9,11 Li + Si at backward angles in the energy range (9.5 - 25) AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrascu, M.; Bordeanu, C.; Isbasescu, A.; Mihai, I.; Giurgiu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, an inclusive fusion experiment of 9,11 Li projectiles with Si targets, in the energy range (9.5 - 25) AMeV has been performed at Riken Ring Cyclotron-Japan using, for the detection of the fusion products, an ionization chamber, MUSIC, built in NIPNE-HH, Bucharest. In this experiment, the contribution of elastic and inelastic scattering, at forward detection angles is eliminated through the experimental set-up. For a clear investigation of the fusion process, the estimation of elastic and inelastic scattering at backward angles, between 80 angle - 180 angle was considered necessary. This estimation was made by the coupled channels computer code ECIS. ECIS is an iterative method, the first iteration of this procedure being DWBA. In the analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering of 9,11 Li projectile on Si target we assumed that the incident 9 Li and 11 Li waves are diffracted by an optical potential with an Woods-Saxon geometry. The adopted optical potential is given. For the depth of the real and imaginary volume terms we used values dependent on projectile energy and target mass number. These values have been chosen in good agreement with a semi-microscopic model with a double-folding potential. The set of optical parameters selected for the system 9,11 Li (13 AMeV) + Si is given. The presence of neutron halo of 11 Li nucleus was taken into account by using adjusted values for the parameters r R and a R . The 28 Si nucleus is considered a rigid rotor, including the couplings involving the ground state and a first to excited states. The quadrupole deformation parameter was β 2 = - 0.24. The results for the scattering of 11 Li projectile on Si target at 13 AMeV energy are given with the parameters R match , I and J max taken from the Monte Carlo simulations with PACE code. We found that the contribution of elastic and inelastic scattering for background angles, between 80 angle - 180 angle is under 2%. The contribution of a inelastic scattering taken

  8. [Association of physical activities, sedentary behaviors with overweight/obesity in 9-11 year-old Chinese primary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Li, Q; Song, Y; Ma, J; Wang, H J

    2016-06-18

    To explore the association of physical activities, sedentary behaviors with overweight/obesity in Chinese children aged 9-11 years, analyze the gender difference and heterogeneity of the association across different provinces, and provide evidence for prevention and control of overweight and obesity. Using the data of 40 692 children aged 9-11 years from Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010, the height and weight were measured and the time spent in physical activities, screen behaviors and homework were collected. We analyzed the associations among physical activities, sedentary behaviors and overweight/obesity in boys and girls separately, and assessed the heterogeneity of associations across different provinces with Meta-analysis. The prevalence of overweight/obesity of the boys (27.1%) was higher than that of the girls (12.9%), compared with the rural students (15.6%), the situation of overweight/obesity of the urban students (23.8%) was more serious, the prevalences of overweight/obesity were separately 22.6%, 19.2% and 17.5% among developed, middle-developed and undeveloped social economic status subgroups. The boys with physical activities no more than 1 hour per day were more likely to be overweight/obese, with the OR of 1.09 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.17). The girls with screen time more than 1 hour per day or homework time more than 2 hours per day were more likely to be overweight/obese, with the ORs of 1.13 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.26) and 1.18 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.35) respectively. The high level of sedentary behaviors (more than 135 min per day) was associated with overweight/obese in the girls, and the OR was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.08, 1.33). There was no significant heterogeneity of effect values between physical activities and overweight/obesity in the boys and between sedentary behaviors and overweight/obesity in the girls across the different provinces (P> 0.05). The associations among physical activities, sedentary behaviors and overweight

  9. All projects related to uganda | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ACCESS TO INFORMATION, LEGISLATION, REGULATIONS ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Colombia, Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania ... ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, AGRICULTURAL POLICY, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY.

  10. Motor development profile in 9-11 year-old children from the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas State, presenting low school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may present motor development delays that can influence their learning process, hence the need for specific assessment for the early detection of such delays in an attempt to resolve or mitigate possible future damage. Objective: Profile of motor development in children aged 9-11 years old presenting low academic achievement in the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas state. Methodology: An exploratory, descriptive, transversal study which uses the Motor Development Scale (MDS to analyze the main components of performance. Evaluations were carried out with 43 children of both genders. Results: The children assessed presented motor profiles ranging from “normal” to “far below average”, corroborating the findings in the literature. Conclusions: The results obtained are in agreement with the literature, showing a close relation between motor development and low school performance, emphasizing the importance of psychomotor intervention for the maturation of more complex motor patterns.

  11. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  12. Exposure to 9/11 among youth and their mothers in New York City: enduring associations with mental health and sociopolitical attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A

    2010-01-01

    The enduring impact of exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. There was no evidence of reciprocal effects of mother exposure on youth or of youth exposure on mothers. Although mothers reported engaging in more emotional processing coping assistance with their children, coping assistance was not associated with youth's symptomatology. Media exposure was found to be a strong predictor of youth's and mothers' sociopolitical attitudes about issues such as prejudice toward immigrants, social mistrust, and current events.

  13. Meeting of the 7. session of the scientific advisory committee of the world climate impact studies programme, Mauritius, 9-11 January 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A brief outline of ongoing projects implemented by UNEP as part of the current phase of the World Climate Impact Studies Programme (WCIP) is given. The projects are classified under several main headings: (i) Greenhouse gas/climate change issue; (ii) Coordination of national climate programmes; (iii) Methodology of climate impact assessment. Following the agreement with Delft Laboratories and the publication of the UNEP supported study of areas vulnerable to sea level rise, a site specific study of sea level rise impacts was being considered for development. However, the project would become the responsibility of the UNEP Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Centre (OCA/PAC). Overview of sea level rise, the inventory of climate impact studies, newsletter, methodology of climate impact assessment were other topics discussed at the seventh session of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the World Climate Impact Studies Programme, Mauritius, 9-11 January 1990

  14. From Independence Day to Land of Plenty: Screening American Patriotism from German Émigré Perspectives before and after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Independence Day and Land of Plenty are two tropes referring to the basis of American national identity: the Declaration of Independence with its guarantee of equal and inalienable rights and the promise of an inexhaustible abundance of resources. Independence Day and Land of Plenty are also two American feature films directed by German émigrés, the first being a science fiction blockbuster from 1996 by Roland Emmerich, the second an independent road movie from 2003 by Wim Wenders. Both films confront the issue of American patriotism albeit from different angles and at different times. Independence Day wholeheartedly embraces the American founding myths and translates them into a science fiction scenario. Wenders manoeuvres into an artistic space producing what I call patriotism of dissent. The films engage in a kind of dialectic dialogue on American patriotism. This article takes a close look at émigré perspectives on American patriotism before and after 9/11. By turning to the four patterns which political theorist Samuel P. Huntington identified as possible responses to the discrepancy between principles and practices of American democracy, I will analyse Independence Day as a filmic strategy to deny democratic gaps and Land of Plenty as a representative example of a moralistic reaction to democratic gaps. In the discourse of screening American patriotism from German émigré perspectives before and after 9/11, the work of Emmerich and Wenders exemplifies the spectrum of approaches to negotiate the fantasy of, desire for, and experience of American culture in the medium of film.

  15. Making Friends in Dark Shadows: An Examination of the Use of Social Computing Strategy Within the United States Intelligence Community Since 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chomik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tragic events of 9/11/2001 in the United States highlighted failures in communication and cooperation in the U.S. intelligence community. Agencies within the community failed to “connect the dots” by not collaborating in intelligence gathering efforts, which resulted in severe gaps in data sharing that eventually contributed to the terrorist attack on American soil. Since then, and under the recommendation made by the 9/11 Commission Report, the United States intelligence community has made organizational and operational changes to intelligence gathering and sharing, primarily with the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI. The ODNI has since introduced a series of web-based social computing tools to be used by all members of the intelligence community, primarily with its closed-access wiki entitled “Intellipedia” and their social networking service called “A-Space”. This paper argues that, while the introduction of these and other social computing tools have been adopted successfully into the intelligence workplace, they have reached a plateau in their use and serve only as complementary tools to otherwise pre-existing information sharing processes. Agencies continue to ‘stove-pipe’ their respective data, a chronic challenge that plagues the community due to bureaucratic policy, technology use and workplace culture. This paper identifies and analyzes these challenges, and recommends improvements in the use of these tools, both in the business processes behind them and the technology itself. These recommendations aim to provide possible solutions for using these social computing tools as part of a more trusted, collaborative information sharing process.

  16. Longitudinal determinants of depression among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees, 14-15 years after the 9/11 attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Norman, Christina; Nguyen, Angela; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks has been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid PTSD and depression up to 10-11 years post-disaster. However, little is known about the longitudinal predictors of mental health conditions over time. We examined longitudinal determinants of depression within strata of PTSD among 21,258 enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry who completed four questionnaires over 14 years of follow-up (Wave 1 in 2003-04; Wave 2 in 2005-06; Wave 3 in 2011-12; and Wave 4 in 2015-16). PTSD status was measured using the PTSD checklist on all four waves and defined as a score of ≥ 44; depression was assessed using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire at Waves 3 and 4 and defined as a score of ≥ 10. Across Waves 3 and 4, 18.6% experienced depression, and it was more common among those who ever had PTSD (56.1%) compared with those who had not (5.6%). Across PTSD strata, predictors of depression included low income, unemployment, low social integration and support, post-9/11 traumatic life events, and chronic physical illness. These factors also decreased the likelihood of recovering from depression. Depression symptoms were not measured at Waves 1 and 2; data was self-reported. These findings highlight the substantial burden of depression in a trauma-exposed population 14-15 years post-disaster, especially among those with PTSD. Similar life stressors predicted the course of depression among those with and without PTSD which may inform public health and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder among World Trade Center responders 11-13 years after the disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Hobbs, M J; Clouston, S A P; Gonzalez, A; Kotov, R; Luft, B J

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being. Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit. In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life. This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.

  18. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...... to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more...

  19. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  20. Brighter Smiles Africa--translation of a Canadian community-based health-promoting school program to Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Radziminski, N; Budden, H; Kasangaki, A; Zavuga, R; Gagnon, F A; Mbabali, M

    2010-08-01

    PROJECT GOAL: To adapt a successful Canadian health-promoting school initiative to a Ugandan context through international partnership. Rural children face many health challenges worldwide; health professionals in training understand these better through community-based learning. Aboriginal leaders in a Canadian First-Nations community identified poor oral health as a child health issue with major long-term societal impact and intervened successfully with university partners through a school-based program called "Brighter Smiles". Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (MUK) sought to implement this delivery model for both the benefit of communities and the dental students. MUK identified rural communities where hospitals could provide dental students with community-based learning and recruited four local schools. A joint Ugandan and Canadian team of both trainees and faculty planned the program, obtained ethics consent and baseline data, initiated the Brighter Smiles intervention model (daily at-school tooth-brushing; in-class education), and recruited a cohort to receive additional bi-annual topical fluoride. Hurdles included: challenging international communication and planning due to inconsistent internet connections; discrepancies between Canadian and developing world concepts of research ethics and informed consent; complex dynamics for community engagement and steep learning curve for accurate data collection; an itinerant population at one school; and difficulties coordinating Canadian and Ugandan university schedules. Four health-promoting schools were established; teachers, children, and families were engaged in the initiative; community-based learning was adopted for the university students; quarterly team education/evaluation/service delivery visits to schools were initiated; oral health improved, and new knowledge and practices were evident; an effective international partnership was formed providing global health education, research and health care

  1. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  2. 'Cand. Actinochlamydia clariae' gen. nov., sp. nov., a unique intracellular bacterium causing epitheliocystis in catfish (Clarias gariepinus in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steigen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epitheliocystis, caused by bacteria infecting gill epithelial cells in fish, is common among a large range of fish species in both fresh- and seawater. The aquaculture industry considers epitheliocystis an important problem. It affects the welfare of the fish and the resulting gill disease may lead to mortalities. In a culture facility in Kampala, Uganda, juveniles of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus was observed swimming in the surface, sometimes belly up, showing signs of respiratory problems. Histological examination of gill tissues from this fish revealed large amounts of epitheliocysts, and also presence of a few Ichthyobodo sp. and Trichodina sp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing of the epitheliocystis bacterium 16S rRNA gene shows 86.3% similarity with Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the developmental stages of the bacterium is similar to that of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. The similarity of the bacterium rRNA gene sequences compared with other chlamydia-like bacteria ranged between 80.5% and 86.3%. Inclusions containing this new bacterium have tubules/channels (termed actinae that are radiating from the inclusion membrane and opening on the cell surface or in neighbouring cells. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation of tubules/channels (actinae from the inclusion membrane has never been described in any of the other members of Chlamydiales. It seems to be a completely new character and an apomorphy. We propose the name Candidatus Actinochlamydia clariae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Actinochlamydiaceae fam. nov., order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae for this new agent causing epitheliocystis in African sharptooth catfish.

  3. Exploring geographic distributions of high-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their association with child diarrhea in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH practices are still prevalent in most low-income countries. Because of limited access to WASH, children may be put at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Objectives: This study aims to 1 develop a new measure of WASH-induced burden, the WASH Resource Index (WRI, and estimate its correlation with child diarrhea and an additive index of high-risk WASH practices; 2 explore the geographic distribution of high-risk WASH practices, child diarrhea, and summary indices at the cluster level; and 3 examine the association between the WRI and child diarrhea at the individual level. Design: A sample of 7,019 children from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were included in this study. Principal component analysis was used to develop a WRI, and households were classified as WASH poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest. A hot spot analysis was conducted to assess whether and how high-risk WASH practices and child diarrhea were geographically clustered. A potential association between the WRI and child diarrhea was examined through a nested regression analysis. Results: High-risk WASH practices were clustered at geographically distant regions from Kampala. The 2-week prevalence of child diarrhea, however, was concentrated in Eastern and East Central regions where high-risk WASH practices were not prevalent. At the individual level, none of the high-risk WASH practices were significantly associated with child diarrhea. Being in the highest WASH quintile was, however, significantly associated with 24.9% lower prevalence of child diarrhea compared to being in the lowest quintile (p<0.05. Conclusions: Only a weak association was found between the WRI and child diarrhea in this study. Future research should explore the potential utility of the WRI to examine WASH-induced burden.

  4. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The complexities of educating nurses in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C M; Rottman, C J; Lematia, R M

    1996-01-01

    Imagine that you are a woman living in rural Uganda. Your husband has returned to the city to work as a manual labourer. With a toddler playing alongside, you work long hot hours in the field to provide for your family. For weeks you have run a low-grade fever which you suspect is related to your advancing pregnancy. As traditional medicines have provided no relief, you sacrifice a day in the field and wait in line for care at a medical clinic outpost that is staffed one day a week. Nearing your turn, you hear a rumour that the government now requires payment in advance for care. As you and most of the others waiting in line do not have money, you leave together and arrange to pool resources from a community project so that you can all return to the clinic next week. Your pain increases and your productivity goes down. When the clinic day finally comes, the nurse does not show up because her own children need food and she prefers to earn ready cash by selling crafts in the market rather than work at the clinic for barely subsistence pay. The story does not end here, nor does that of countless other women in Uganda, including the caregivers. The difficulties are ongoing. And meeting health needs in Uganda as in many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa is complex and challenging.

  6. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  7. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujumba, Joseph; Kwiringira, Japheth

    2010-11-22

    Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the post conflict Pader district to curtail

  8. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Henry; Sekandi, Juliet N; Sempeera, Hassard; Makumbi, Fredrick E

    2016-01-27

    In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as '1' and none users as '0'. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6% in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3%) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6%) but only 22.1% knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93%) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8%) were high. Nearly 70% had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1% reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6% reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5%) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2

  9. All projects related to Uganda | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 1,845,170.00. Institutional Support : Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR). Project. Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR), Uganda, is the former East African Institute of Social and Economic Research ...

  10. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  11. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 11 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information communication technology use pattern by women tree farmers in Buzaya county, Kamuli district, Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... The effect of intercropping maize with lablab on grain and fodder production in small holder dairy farming systems in Masaka district, Uganda · EMAIL FREE ...

  12. Gender and Age-Appropriate Enrolment in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…

  13. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  14. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  15. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...

  16. The development of an information society for Uganda's industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the environment within which Uganda can be productively involved in the process of building an information society for industrial development. There are concerted efforts by the government of Uganda and civil society organisations in the country towards the development of information literacy and ...

  17. Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Chebet, A.; Muwanika, C.T.; Adong, C.J.; Okot, F.; Otim, G.; Birungi, J.; Kansiime, M.; Oyee, P.; Ninsiima, P.

    2015-01-01

    The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering

  18. Towards sustainable seed production of centro in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2000, 5: 13- 15. Printed in Uganda. ... cassava tuber yield. Production costs of I kg of seed were Shs 1200, 2000 and 3700 for centro ... of cassava are the second most important staple food of those ...

  19. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  20. Challenges to Quality Primary and Secondary Education in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...

  1. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  2. Three consecutive (1993, 1995, 1997) surveys of food intake, nutritional attitudes and knowledge, and lifestyle in 1000 French children, aged 9-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Rolland-Cachera, M-F

    2007-06-01

    the lifestyle of children in developed societies is susceptible to rapid changes and these may affect the nutritional status of children. Reduced physical activity and changes in diet have been proposed as contributing factors to the growth in childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to assess trends in the food-related behaviour and markers of activity/inactivity in French 9-11 year old children. Three successive surveys (1993, 1995, 1997) were carried out in samples of 1,000 French children, aged 9-11 years. Socio-demographic, anthropometric and food-related parameters were obtained for each child, using standardized questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. previous-day reports of food intake by the child revealed a strong persistence of the traditional French meal structure. Breakfast was eaten by 97% of children. Over the three surveys, an increasing percentage of reported breakfasts contained at least one dairy food, one cereal food, and one fruit or juice (from 11% to 17%). Almost all children had lunch, which occurred at the school cafeteria for one-third of the subjects. The afternoon snack, a traditional meal for French children, was consumed by 86-88% of the samples. Almost all children had dinner (99%), most often at home and in the company of all family members (73-87%). Lunches and dinners were composed of several courses presented in succession, as is usual in France. The foods most preferred by the children were often rich in sugar and/or fat (fried potatoes, ice cream, nut spread, chocolate, cake, etc). The children could list 'healthy foods'competently. They also demonstrated knowledge of terms used in nutrition (e.g. calories, fats) and were aware of possible links between intake of certain substances and disease. In families of higher socio-economic strata (income, education of parents) more time was devoted to sports by the children. Over the three surveys, linear trends indicated more exercise time per week and

  3. Increased mortality among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy: survival differences between sexes explained by late initiation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanters S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Steve Kanters,1,3 Margaret Nansubuga,2 Daniel Mwehire,2 Mary Odiit,2 Margaret Kasirye,2 William Musoke,2 Eric Druyts,3 Sanni Yaya,3 Anna Funk,3 Nathan Ford,4,5 Edward J Mills3,61Faculty of Health Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, 2Mildmay Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; 5Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa; 6Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USABackground: We aimed to assess the relationship between gender and survival among adult patients newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Uganda. We also specifically examined the role of antenatal services in favoring women's access to HIV care.Methods: From an observational cohort study, we assessed survival and used logistic regression and differences in means to compare men and women who did not access care through antenatal services. Differences were assessed on measures of disease progression (WHO stage and CD4 count and demographic (age, marital status, and education, behavioral (sexual activity, disclosure to partner, and testing, and clinical variables (hepatitis B and C, syphilis, malaria, and anemia. A mediational analysis that considered gender as the initial variable, time to death as the outcome, initial CD4 count as the mediator, and age as a covariate was performed using an accelerated failure time model with a Weibull distribution.Results: Between 2004 and 2011, a total of 4775 patients initiated ART, and after exclusions 4537 (93.2% were included in analysis. Men initiating ART were more likely to have a WHO disease stage III or IV (odds ratio: 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–1.66, and lower CD4 cell counts compared to women (median baseline CD4 124 cells/mm3, interquartile range [IQR]: 43–205

  4. Quantifying retention during pre-antiretroviral treatment in a large urban clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Barbara; Musaazi, Joseph; Musomba, Rachel; Ratanshi, Rosalind Parkes; Kiragga, Agnes N

    2015-07-01

    Retention studies are usually focused on patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART), however in Sub-Saharan Africa many patients get lost to program (LTP) in the pre-ART care period.. We investigated the proportion of patients not retained in care and factors associated with LTP (dead or lost to follow up ≥6 months) in the pre-ART care period. We analyzed data from the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. We included all adult patients ≥18 years, ART naïve at program enrollment from 1(st)/Jan/2005. We described the number of patients not retained in care during the 3 steps of enrollment-to-treatment "cascade": Step 1) From enrollment to CD4 count testing, Step 2) ART eligibility assessment. Patients were initially considered eligible if CD4 count was ART start. We described cumulative probability of being LTP by gender and ART eligibility using Kaplan Meier estimates. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify factors associated with being LTP at any stage for all patients and for those with a CD4 count available. Factors considered were age, gender, year of enrollment, and WHO stage. After enrollment in our program, cumulatively, a low proportion of patients (30.8 %) were retained and started on ART. The cumulative probability of being LTP was higher in males and patients not eligible for ART. In the multivariable Cox proportional Hazards model, male gender (HR: 1.19 CI 1.12-1.19) and clinical WHO stage 3 and 4 (HR: 1.20 CI 1.13-1.27) were associated with being LTP while older age was protective (HR: 0.98 0.96-0.99). Patients enrolled in the program more recently were also at lower risk of being LTP. In addition, among patients with CD4 count test, patients with higher CD4 count were at higher risk of being LTP. In our program there has been suboptimal retention of patients in pre-ART care, particularly of patients not eligible for ART. Since the proportion of eligible patients has recently increased due to the higher recommended

  5. Combined measurement of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cserti-Gazdewich Christine M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 is a cytoadhesion molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 have previously been reported with increased malaria disease severity. However, studies have not yet examined both sICAM-1 concentrations and monocyte ICAM-1 expression in the same cohort of patients. To better understand the relationship of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 measurements in malaria, both monocyte ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 concentration were measured in children with P. falciparum infection exhibiting a spectrum of clinical severity. Methods Samples were analysed from 160 children, aged 0.5 to 10.8 years, with documented P. falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. The patients belonged to one of three pre-study defined groups: uncomplicated malaria (UM, severe non-fatal malaria (SM-s, and fatal malaria (SM-f. Subset analysis was done on those with cerebral malaria (CM or severe malaria anaemia (SMA. Monocyte ICAM-1 was measured by flow cytometry. sICAM-1 was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results Both sICAM-1 and monocyte cell-surface ICAM-1 followed a log-normal distribution. Median sICAM-1 concentrations increased with greater severity-of-illness: 279 ng/mL (UM, 462 ng/mL (SM-s, and 586 ng/mL (SM-f, p Conclusion In this cohort of children with P. falciparum malaria, sICAM-1 levels were associated with severity-of-illness. Patients with UM had higher monocyte ICAM-1 expression consistent with a role for monocyte ICAM-1 in immune clearance during non-severe malaria. Among the subsets of patients with either SMA or CM, monocyte ICAM-1 levels were higher in CM, consistent with the role of ICAM-1 as a marker of cytoadhesion. Categories of disease in pediatric malaria may exhibit specific combinations of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 expression.

  6. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  7. Representing 9/11: Alejandro González Iñárritu’s short film in 11'09"01: September 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine CLEMENTE

    2011-09-01

    mesure, être lu comme une mise en scène du retour du trauma des attentats du 11 septembre.In his 11'9"01: September 11 short film, Alejandro González Iñárritu responds to the oversaturated broadcast of the burning Twin Towers that characterises 9/11 by confronting his audience with a black screen that is haunted by sounds recorded around the world on September 11th, 2001. Two minutes into the film a first image finally appears on the screen and the viewer can glimpse the footage of a person falling down the Twin Towers. Similar flashes soon sporadically burst through the black screen and, as these visions have an extremely fleeting quality to them, room is left for the viewer to wonder whether he truly saw ‘jumpers’. Ungraspable by essence, the viewing of Iñarritu’s short film can be likened to a traumatic experience, which Cathy Caruth defines as ‘an event that … is experienced too soon, too unexpectedly, to be fully known and is therefore not available to consciousness until it imposes itself again, repeatedly, in the nightmares and repetitive actions of the survivor’ – the flashes of the ‘jumpers’ that pervade the short film bearing undeniable similarities to the return of the trauma.The paper shows how Iñárritu’s short film attempts to represent the unrepresentable dimension of 9/11. Stressing the fact that the film uses images of the ‘jumpers’ that were widely censored by the media in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, it analyses how the director transcends the sphere of representation by deconstructing the viewers’ habitual cinematic experience. As he explores the limits of sight and sound, Iñárritu produces an extremely unsettling viewing experience for his audience who is forced to adopt a type of perception that verges on the traumatic experience and his film can, to a certain extent, be read as staging the return of the trauma of the 9/11 attacks.

  8. 7. meeting of the Atomic and Molecular Data Centre Network, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 9-11 November 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This is a brief summary report of the Seventh Atomic and Molecular Data Centre Network Meeting convened by the IAEA at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 9-11 November 1987. The goal of the Centre is to provide coordination of the international management of atomic and molecular data pertinent to controlled fusion research and technology. The meeting was attended by twelve representatives of centres from six member states. The meeting resulted in five conclusions: (i) the establishment of a single international atomic and molecular collision data base was stressed to be the short-term priority for the data centre network; (ii) the Specialists' Meeting on ''Atomic and Molecular Data for Plasma Edge Studies'' was reviewed, and the proposal for the formation of a coordinated research programme on the production and evaluation of atomic and molecular data for plasma edge studies as a means of generating the needed data for fusion research was endorsed; (iii) it was recommended that the recent report entitled ''Recommended Data on Atomic Collision Processes Involving Iron Ions'' be published as a special supplement to the Nuclear Fusion journal, 1987. This unit was asked to investigate the possibility to provide data covering recombination processes for iron ions which were not included in the recommended data base; (iv) the participants felt that a meeting covering the Atomic and Molecular and fusion data base was timely and important for maximizing the efficient usage of the Atomic and Molecular collision data base. The convening of a Specialists' Meeting on carbon and oxygen ion collision data was also discussed. Finally, (v) it was proposed that the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit should fully address all discrepancies within the recommended data base. Nine status and progress reports are summarized in the Appendices to the present summary report. Refs, 1 fig., tabs

  9. Analyzing power and differential cross section at 9. 9, 11. 9 and 13. 9 MeV for Ca(n,n)Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W.; Woye, E.; Mack, G. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Floyd, C.E.; Murphy, K.; Guss, P.P.; Wender, S.A.; Byrd, R.C.; Walter, R.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Physics; Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (USA))

    1982-09-13

    The analyzing power and differential cross section for elastic neutron scattering from calcium have been measured at 9.9, 11.9 and 13.9 MeV using the /sup 2/H(d,n)/sup 3/He source reaction and neutron time-of-flight (t.o.f.) techniques to detect the scattered neutrons. Polarized neutron beams were produced via the polarization transfer reaction /sup 2/H(d vector,n vector)/sup 3/He at THETA = 0/sup 0/. The data have been corrected for finite geometry and multiple scattering effects. None of the global neutron-nucleus optical model parameter sets usually referred to in the literature reproduces the present cross-section and analyzing power data. Individual as well as energy-averaged fits of the data resulting from new optical model searches are presented. It is shown that the quoted uncertainties of a recent empirical determination of the real part ..delta..Vsub(C) of the Coulomb correction term are probably underestimated. Our imaginary Coulomb correction term ..delta..Wsub(C) agrees quite well with both a very recent empirical determination and theoretical studies. Although the quality of the fits to the data can be improved by adding iota-dependent potentials to the general optical potential, no definite conclusions can be drawn from the present data as to whether or not iota-dependent potentials are important in neutron-calcium scattering in the energy range investigated. The data have also been analyzed using a Fourier-Bessel series description of the real central optical potential. Comparing the chi/sup 2/ values, the experimental data are better reproduced by the Fourier-Bessel method than by our Woods-Saxon optical model analyses. The Fourier-Bessel potentials obtained show strong deviations from the standard Woods-Saxon shape but are in good agreement with calculations using the nuclear structure approach.

  10. Analyzing power and differential cross section at 9.9, 11.9 and 13.9 MeV for Ca(n,n)Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Woye, E.; Mack, G.; Clegg, T.

    1982-01-01

    The analyzing power and differential cross section for elastic neutron scattering from calcium have been measured at 9.9, 11.9 and 13.9 MeV using the 2 H(d,n) 3 He source reaction and neutron time-of-flight (t.o.f.) techniques to detect the scattered neutrons. Polarized neutron beams were produced via the polarization transfer reaction 2 H(d vector,n vector) 3 He at THETA = 0 0 . The data have been corrected for finite geometry and multiple scattering effects. None of the global neutron-nucleus optical model parameter sets usually referred to in the literature reproduces the present cross-section and analyzing power data. Individual as well as energy-averaged fits of the data resulting from new optical model searches are presented. It is shown that the quoted uncertainties of a recent empirical determination of the real part ΔVsub(C) of the Coulomb correction term are probably underestimated. Our imaginary Coulomb correction term ΔWsub(C) agrees quite well with both a very recent empirical determination and theoretical studies. Although the quality of the fits to the data can be improved by adding iota-dependent potentials to the general optical potential, no definite conclusions can be drawn from the present data as to whether or not iota-dependent potentials are important in neutron-calcium scattering in the energy range investigated. The data have also been analyzed using a Fourier-Bessel series description of the real central optical potential. Comparing the chi 2 values, the experimental data are better reproduced by the Fourier-Bessel method than by our Woods-Saxon optical model analyses. The Fourier-Bessel potentials obtained show strong deviations from the standard Woods-Saxon shape but are in good agreement with calculations using the nuclear structure approach. (orig.)

  11. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  12. Comprehensive Support for Family Caregivers of Post-9/11 Veterans Increases Veteran Utilization of Long-term Services and Supports: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Smith, Valerie A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Miller, Katherine E. M.; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Wieland, Gilbert Darryl; Olsen, Maren K.; Kabat, Margaret; Henius, Jennifer; Campbell-Kotler, Margaret; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2018-01-01

    Family caregivers are an important component of the long-term services and supports (LTSS) system. However, caregiving may have negative consequences for caregiver physical and emotional health. Connecting caregivers to formal short-term home- and community-based services (HCBS), through information resources and referrals, might alleviate family caregiver burden and delay nursing home entry for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early impact of the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC) (established by P.L. 111-163 for family caregivers of seriously injured post-9/11 Veterans) on Veteran use of LTSS. A two-cohort pre-post design with a nonequivalent comparison group (treated n = 15 650; comparison n = 8339) was used to (1) examine the association between caregiver enrollment in PCAFC and any VA-purchased or VA-provided LTSS use among Veterans and (2) describe program-related trends in HCBS and institutional LTSS use. The comparison group was an inverse-propensity-score weighted sample of Veterans whose caregivers applied for, but were not accepted into, the program. From baseline through 24 months post application, use of any LTSS ranged from 13.1% to 17.8% for Veterans whose caregivers were enrolled in PCAFC versus from 3.8% to 5.3% for Veterans in the comparison group. Participation in PCAFC was associated with a statistically significant increased use of any LTSS from 1 to 24 months post application (over time odds ratios ranged from 2.71 [95% confidence interval: 2.31-3.17] to 4.86 [3.93-6.02]). Support for family caregivers may enhance utilization of LTSS for Veterans with physical, emotional, and/or cognitive conditions. PMID:29591540

  13. Aporia e trauma na crise de significados do Onze de Setembro Aporia and trauma in the crisis of meanings of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Simone Almeida Resende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recorrendo a conceitos e a teorias que relacionam significados, representações, memória e trauma, destacaremos como os acontecimentos de Onze de Setembro foram capazes de desestabilizar representações e significados, quebrar a linha da História, subverter sentidos, romper percepções espaço-temporais e abalar as grades de inteligibilidade que permitiam que os americanos dessem sentido à realidade e a si próprios. Nosso objetivo é compreender como representações mudas e hiper-reais dos eventos de 2001 provocaram uma situação de falha de linguagem, o que teria resultado em um momento de aporia. Arguiremos que o Onze de Setembro, devido à dificuldade de significação, encontrar-se-ia no cerne de um trauma nos imaginários coletivos americanos.Employing concepts and theories that relate meanings, representations, memory and trauma, we attempt to show how the 9/11 events have been able to disstabilize representations and meanings, break the line of History, subvert senses, bend space-time perceptions, and shake the grids of intelligibility that had allowed Americans to make sense of reality and of themselves. Our aim is to understand how mute and hiperreal representations of the events of 2001 provoked a situation where language failed, producing a moment of aporia. We will then argue that 11/9, due the difficulty of its signification, sits at the heart of a trauma in the American collective imaginaries.

  14. Assessment of gross motor skills and phenotype profile in children 9-11 years of age in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Viret, Pierre; Bui, Hung Tien; Laverdière, Caroline; Kalinova, Émilia; Comtois, Alain-Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new gross motor skill test battery in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children who have been off therapy for at least 1 year and to assess its discriminatory power (discriminant analysis) from healthy children. Twenty children (10 males and 10 females) 9-11 years of age (median age = 10.6 years) were assessed by the UQAC-UQAM test battery and then compared to recent provincial norms. This pilot study was also an opportunity to validate this test battery as a reliable tool for clinical or research purposes in the area of chronic or disabling diseases in children. Eleven motor skill variables grouped into five factors have been measured (speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time). Scores from 10 of the 11 motor skill tests showed significant differences when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Nearly 50% of patients obtained an average score below the 15th percentile. Furthermore, stepwise discriminant analysis allowed classifying successfully 88.4% of children in the correct group (ALL or Control). The normal development of GMS among children affected by ALL appears to have been compromised. The UQAC-UQAM test battery seems to be sensitive enough to quantify with precision the extent of the motor impairment in these children. The UQAC-UQAM test battery appears to be a useful tool to evaluate the extent to which ALL survivors are affected. Early motor intervention should be considered for those patients even during the treatment periods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Uganda group works to reduce AIDS' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrier, P

    1996-10-01

    War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.

  16. Review of indigenous knowledge in Uganda: implications for its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R.S. Tabuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda. Key words: traditional knowledge, conservation, traditional medicine, ethnobotany

  17. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  18. Uganda: condoms provoke an AIDS storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebere, R

    1991-03-01

    An advertisement in the Uganda weekly Topic printed in 1990 is the center of the controversy over whether promoting condom use to prevent AIDS is really promoting immorality and promiscuity. The ad states: "The bible may save your soul but this condom will save you life." Critics have called the ad blasphemy for showing a condom package alongside the Bible; claimed the condom fools people into thinking they are safe from AIDS; and blamed the practice of supplying condoms for the moral decadence that is destroying the country. In contrast the national AIDS Control Program (ACP) believes that supplying university students, who may be the group at highest risk, with condoms, is wise because they at lest know how to use them properly. A spokesman for the ACP said that the condom is one of the limited options that exist to fight the life-threatening epidemic. Present Museven changed his views to November 1990 from a policy of encouraging abstinence and monogamy, to promoting condoms. This change in government policy coincided with the report of 17,422 cases of AIDS, and the estimate that 1.3 million people in Uganda are infected with HIV.

  19. Burden of Placental Malaria among Pregnant Women Who Use or Do Not Use Intermittent Preventive Treatment at Mulago Hospital, Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okot Odongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33 of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33 of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp.

  20. All projects related to Uganda | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-06-30

    Project. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have adopted new land laws, policies and institutional arrangements to accommodate decentralization of land administration and management. Start Date: June 30, 2008 ... Topic: EPIDEMIOLOGY, WEATHER, EPIDEMICS, MALARIA, PROPHYLAXIS, Disease control. Region: Kenya ...

  1. The International Criminal Court and conflict transformation in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal on Conflict Resolution ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) commenced investigation of the armed conflict in Uganda in 2004. ... It also addresses the problem of assessing the impact of law on conflict through the use of an ...

  2. tracing uganda's global primary organic pineapple value chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... methods were used to validate results obtained from the .... TABLE 2. Agronomic information on organic pineapple production in Uganda ..... management, which makes the value chain expensive ..... A handbook for value ...

  3. Pitfalls of Constitutionalism and Political Transformation in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... were the people of Northern Uganda region, where the defeated armies re- ..... power (Museveni 1989) was back-tracking to manipulate the constitution. .... is important to term limits because I know what my president believes ...

  4. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  5. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  6. New Wireless Network for Uganda's Healthcare Workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-10

    Nov 10, 2010 ... Physicians and health care workers working in locations without fixed-line ... face serious problems in sharing and accessing critical medical and public ... to be a powerful tool for doctors and health care workers in Uganda.

  7. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Ethiopia, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia, Norway, United Kingdom. Programme: ... Sujet: YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DATA ANALYSIS, EMPLOYMENT STABILITY, Poverty alleviation, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, POLICY MAKING. Région: Kenya ...

  8. A century of soils research and development in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the early stages, Uganda's soils were considered fertile and little was done to improve productivity in a systematic way. ... labour costs. ... introduction of cash crops [cotton, tobacco, coffee or tea] .... opening of phosphate mine near Tororo;.

  9. All projects related to uganda | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-11

    Supporting business opportunities for rural women in east and southern Africa. Project. Women in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Uganda experience disadvantages and gender inequalities in labour and ... Start Date: Tuesday, August 11, 2015.

  10. All projects related to uganda | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL ... New research will explore the potential of community participation in Uganda and South ... as well as a cornerstone to good governance and the fight against corruption.

  11. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forming farmers' associations, leveraging mobile money technologies to reduce distance, and streamlining application procedures could bolster agricultural credit demand in Uganda. ...... analysis was collected for the latter's M.Sc. dissertation.

  12. Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality in Uganda | Atuhaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was guided by the following objectives; to investigating whether the number of antenatal Care visits, maternal education, age, area and region of residence had any effect on maternal mortality in Uganda. Descriptive statistics are used to ...

  13. adaptation of introduced mungbean genotypes in uganda abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    locations in Uganda, to determine the adaptability of introduced mungbean genotypes, and identify ... The six test multi-locations were grouped into two candidate mega-environments for ..... interactions: Challenges and opportunities for.

  14. Health Financing and Benefit Incidence Analysis in Uganda and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will attempt to assess the performance health systems in Uganda and ... the impoverishing effect of out-of-pocket payment for catastrophic health events. ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  15. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  16. All projects related to uganda | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Panafrican Research Agenda on the Integration of ICTs in Education - Phase I ... Developer Network : Open Source Personal Digital Assistant Software for ... the anti-retroviral therapy in Free State province, South Africa (102411); Uganda ...

  17. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN UGANDA: THE CASE OF UGANDA MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Epiphany Picho Odubuker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Leadership Styles and job satisfaction among the staff of Uganda Management Institute. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample size being 118. Purposive, stratified and systematic sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Data analysis involved frequencies and percentages, Spearman rank Order correlation, coefficient of determination, regression, and ANOVA. There was a strong positive re...

  18. A Scoping Study of the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Shinyekwa, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at mapping out the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda with a view to identify areas for further research in a systematic and more detailed way. The economic and social upgrading/downgrading conceptual framework to guide the Capturing the Gains research agenda was used in this process. The paper briefly presents the mobile phone domains, emphasising the relevant parts for Uganda, which include; software development, sales and marketing, mobile service provision and end...

  19. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  20. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    infections, anemia , tetanus, malaria, and tuberculosis. Incidence of AIDS quite high, reaching epidemic proportivns in southern areas. Uganda had...attributed to illness. Other fatal illnesses included anemia , tetanus, and whoop- ing cough, but some people also died of malnutrition. An estimat- ed...185 Persian Gulf States 550-89 Tunisia 550-42 Peru 550-80 Turkey 550-72 Philippines 550-74 Uganda 550-162 Poland 550-97 Uruguay 550-181 Portugal 550-71

  1. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  2. Uganda's participation in CTBT activities and earthquake monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugume, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Earthquake occurrence in Uganda is mostly related to East Africa Rift System. The country's western border lies within the Western branch of this system while the Eastern branch is only 200 km from its eastern border. The two tectonic features contribute to seismicity in Uganda. These are the Aswar shear zone running from Nimule at the border of Uganda and Sudan, to Mount Elgon on the Eastern border and Katonga fault break which cuts across the country from the foot hills of mount Rwenzori to the Western side of Lake Victoria. This unique tectonic setting makes Uganda one of most seismically active countries on the African continet as exemplified by some destructive earthquakes that have hit the country. For this reason the Government of uganda is in the process of setting up an earthquake monitoring system, the National Seismological Network, with efficient detectability, efficient data transmission and processing facilities so that earthquakes in Uganda can be properly assessed and seismic hazard studies of the country cunducted. The objectives of the said network, the seismic developments for the last two decades and its current satus are described

  3. Second generation plant health clinics in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel

    coverage, Regularity/timeliness and Quality of plant healthcare. Field work was carried out over 15 months between July 2010 and September 2011 in 13 districts in the eastern, central and western parts of Uganda. A total of 205 plant clinic sessions were held in the period. The plant clinics received 2...... from the clinics to diagnostic laboratories. Although the plant clinics have become part of Ministry policy and districts showed increasing interest and commitment, there are some structural barriers that made it difficult for the districts to institutionalise the clinics and for the Ministry to play...... their leading role. A mismatch between institutional mandates/authority and allocated resources limited the scope of the actions both at district and national level. The plant clinics risk ‘falling between the two chairs’ of extension and pest and disease control. Finding a solid institutional base...

  4. Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use without adequate soil erosion control measures is continuously increasing the risk of soil erosion by water mainly in developing tropical countries. These countries are prone to environmental disturbance due to high population growth and high rainfall intensity. The aim of this study is to assess the state of soil erosion by water in Uganda at national and district levels, for various land cover and land use (LCLU types, in protected areas as well to predict the impact of support practices on soil loss reduction. Predictions obtained using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model indicated that the mean rate of soil loss risk in Uganda’s erosion‐prone lands was 3.2 t∙ha−1∙y−1, resulting in a total annual soil loss of about 62 million tons in 2014. About 39% of the country’s erosion‐prone lands were comprised of unsustainable mean soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Out of 112 districts in Uganda, 66 districts were found to have unsustainable estimated soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Six districts in Uganda were found to have mean annual soil loss rates of >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Bududa (46.3 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Kasese (37.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bundibugyo (28.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bulambuli (20.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Sironko (14.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and Kotido (12.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Among the LCLU types, the highest soil loss rates of 11 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and 10.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 were found in moderate natural forest and dense natural forest, respectively, mainly due to their locations in highland areas characterized by steep slopes ranging between 16% to 21% and their high rainfall intensity, ranging from 1255 mm∙y−1 to 1292 mm∙y−1. Only five protected areas in Uganda were found to have high mean estimated mean soil loss rates >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Rwenzori Mountains (142.94 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Mount Elgon (33.81 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bokora corridor (12.13 t∙ha−1∙y−1

  5. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    . Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding......Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...... and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci...

  6. Bribery in health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    I examine the role of household permanent income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household expenditure increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount is about 0.37. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector is able to price discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A lifetime as TBA in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanabahita, C

    1993-01-01

    A 64-year old traditional birth attendant (TBA), Zowe Namasiga, in Kyobe county in the Rakai district of Uganda, delivered her 1st baby when she was 12 years old. She learned how to deliver babies by watching her father deliver babies. She married at 14 and had 7 children of her own. She delivered 2 of her own children all alone. She attended a 1-week workshop for TBAs hosted by World Vision International and attended by 52 other TBAs. The medical services that exist in rural Uganda and tend to be of low quality. The leading problem for pregnant women in Rakai district in insufficient transport. The closest clinic is 8 miles away from where the workshop was held, but it has no midwives and the staff are not trained to deliver babies. The ratio of midwife to women of reproductive age in Rakai district is 1:5000. Ms. Namasiga has to refer high risk patients to Kitovu Hospital, a distance of 62 km. In the workshop, illustrations of male and female reproductive systems helped them learn that the uterus is not connected to the digestive system. The TBAs learned about the importance of hygiene and of encouraging women to seek prenatal care and to receive tetanus toxoid injections. The workshop taught them how to identify high risk women and to refer them to the hospital. Few women go to the hospital, though, because town midwives do not treat them kindly. One participant described how she keeps premature babies alive: wraps them and places them in a circle of 5-liter metal cans filled with warm water. TBAs are concerned about AIDS. In fact, the last grandchild Ms. Namasiga delivered was born to parents with AIDS. She delivers babies with her bare hands, but now asks for payment so she can buy gloves to protect her cracked hands. Most TBAs care for AIDS orphans. TBAs assist at 90% of deliveries in this rural district.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School Teenagers towards HIV Transmission and Prevention in Rural and Urban Areas of Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can't contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is

  9. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  10. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  11. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub

  12. SOCIAL FRANCHISING IN CONTEXT OF MARKETING LONG-TERM AND REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTIVES (LARCS IN UGANDA: ANALYSIS OF PACE SOCIAL FRANCHISE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon SENSALIRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda is TFR is among the world’s highest at six children per woman, and contributes to the rising rate of poverty and maternal and infant mortality across the country. A social franchise model was adopted in Uganda to market and scale up contraceptive prevalence through the private sector. In 2008 PACE launched the Women’s Health Project, a core component of their reproductive health strategy to increase access to and demand for affordable, quality long‐term Family Planning (FP services, through the setup of a network of private healthcare providers, branded as “ProFam” social franchise health facilities. The program expanded and included services aimed to offer and improve reproductive health services, limiting births through increased use of IUDs and implants as well change negative perceptions to FP. Until 2014, this network consisted of 189 private facilities spread out in 56 districts, following a business model of social franchising. Methods: The multifaceted effect of the social franchise intervention under PACE was then measured through a longitudinal cross sectional survey on perceptions towards Long-Term and Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs use among the target population through a cross-sectional studies over two periods. The studies covered 53 districts hosting 194 privately owned health facilities branded Profam. Multi-stage cluster sampling approaches was used to draw a representative sample of women of reproductive age group. However, for Kampala (capital city, given its population size, the catchment area was restricted to a parish/Ward. Findings: There is an evident rise in current use of FP methods among WRA. Availability of LARCs particularly IUCDs significantly increased over the two time periods. Use of FP services among WRA is a socially sanctioned behavior/practice. There was reported increase in social support for FP services. There were high levels of correct knowledge about FP services and

  13. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of quality business information is crucial in attaining long-term and sustainable economic growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It is established that SMEs in northern Uganda operate in a business environment that is characterized by fragmented and incomplete information. It is a situation where an awareness of markets, technology, policies, regulations and finance is limited because businesses fail to receive timely business information. This article reports a portion of the results of a larger study using a descriptive design with survey research and other techniques. The study examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in the region and attempted to establish whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information as should be expected. The study’s respondents included the SMEs, information providers and business policy makers with the response rate of 87.3%; 72% and 85% respectively. The article proposes strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs. It concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs

  14. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  15. Inequitable Gender Norms From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Uganda: Tool Validation and Differences Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Pulerwitz, Julie; Burnett-Zieman, Brady; Banura, Cecily; Okal, Jerry; Yam, Eileen

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe and compare gender norms among 10- to 14-year-olds versus 15- to 24-year-olds and to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the GEM Scale's performance among these two age groups. We conducted a two-stage cluster-sampled survey among 387 females and 583 males, aged 10-24 years, in rural and urban communities near Kampala, Uganda. We applied, assessed, and adapted the GEM Scale (Pulerwitz and Barker, 2008), which measures views toward gender norms in four domains. We describe levels of support for (in)equitable norms, by gender and age, and associations with key health outcomes (partner violence). Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group measurement invariance analysis were used to assess scale performance. All participants reported high levels of support for inequitable gender norms; 10- to 14-year-olds were less gender equitable than their older counterparts. For example, 74% of 10- to 14-year-olds and 67% of 15- to 24-year-olds agreed that "a woman should tolerate violence to keep her family together." Comparing responses from males and females indicated similar support for gender inequity. Analyses confirmed a one-factor model, good scale fit for both age groups, and that several items from the scale could be dropped for this sample. The ideal list of items for each age group differed somewhat but covered all four scale domains in either case. An 18-item adapted scale was used to compare mean GEM Scale scores between the two age groups; responses were significantly associated with early sexual debut and partner violence. Young people internalize gender norms about sexual and intimate relationships, and violence, at early ages. Programs to address negative health outcomes should explicitly address inequitable gender norms and more consistently expand to reach younger age groups. In this first application of the GEM Scale among 10- to 14-year-olds, we confirm that it is a valid measure in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent

  16. Examining diffusion to understand the how of SASA!, a violence against women and HIV prevention intervention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmann, Elizabeth; Heise, Lori; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Devries, Karen; Abramsky, Tanya; Michau, Lori; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine

    2018-05-11

    A growing number of complex public health interventions combine mass media with community-based "change agents" and/or mobilisation efforts acting at multiple levels. While impact evaluations are important, there is a paucity of research into the more nuanced roles intervention and social network factors may play in achieving intervention outcomes, making it difficult to understand how different aspects of the intervention worked (or did not). This study applied aspects of diffusion of innovations theory to explore how SASA!, a community mobilisation approach for preventing HIV and violence against women, diffused within intervention communities and the factors that influenced the uptake of new ideas and behaviours around intimate partner relationships and violence. This paper is based on a qualitative study of couples living in SASA communities and secondary analysis of endline quantitative data collected as part of a cluster randomised control trial designed to evaluate the impact of the SASA! The primary trial was conducted in eight communities in Kampala, Uganda between 2007 and 2012. The secondary analysis of follow up survey data used multivariate logistic regression to examine associations between intervention exposure and interpersonal communication, and relationship change (n = 928). The qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20) and framework analysis methods to explore the intervention attributes that facilitated engagement with the intervention and uptake of new ideas and behaviours in intimate relationships. We found communication materials and mid media channels generated awareness and knowledge, while the concurrent influence from interpersonal communication with community-based change agents and social network members more frequently facilitated changes in behaviour. The results indicate combining community mobilisation components, programme content that reflects peoples' lives and direct support through local change agents can

  17. "How Do We Start? And How Will They React?" Disclosing to Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, Stella; Paparini, Sara; Seeley, Janet; Bernays, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite great advances in pediatric HIV care, rates and the extent of full disclosure of HIV status to infected children remain low especially in resource-constrained setting. The World Health Organisation recommends that, by the age of 10-12 years old, children should be made fully aware of their HIV-positive status. However, this awareness is often delayed until much later in their adolescence. Few studies have been conducted to investigate what influences caregivers' decision-making process in this regard in low-income settings. In this article, we present an analysis of care dyads of caregivers and HIV-positive young people in Kampala, Uganda, as part of the findings of a longitudinal qualitative study about young people's adherence to antiretroviral therapy embedded in an international clinical trial (BREATHER). Repeat in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 young people living with HIV throughout the course of the trial, and once-off interviews with 16 of their caregivers were also carried out toward the end of the trial. In this article, we examine why and how caregivers decide to disclose a young person's HIV status to them and explore their feelings and dilemmas toward disclosure, as well as how young people reacted and the influence it had on their relationships with and attitudes toward their caregivers. Caregivers feared the consequences of disclosing the young person's positive status to them and disclosure commonly occurred hurriedly in response to a crisis, rather than as part of an anticipated and planned process. A key impediment to disclosure was that caregivers feared that disclosing would damage their relationships with the young people and commonly used this as a reason to continue to postpone disclosure. However, young people did not report prolonged feelings of blame or anger toward their caregivers about their own infection, but they did express frustration at the delay and obfuscation surrounding the disclosure process. Our findings

  18. Evaluation of 'see-see and treat' strategy and role of HIV on cervical cancer prevention in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandin Sven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is scant information on whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositivity has an influence on the outcome of treatment of precancerous cervical lesions using cryotherapy. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities detectable by visual inspection and cervical lesions diagnosed by colposcopy according to HIV serostatus and described the outcomes of cryotherapy treatment. Methods Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and Lugol's iodine (VILI in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy. Results Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75% returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5% women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL, 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer. Of the 608 women, 103 (16% were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4. Conclusions Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid

  19. L’Université américaine dans le débat public après le 11 septembre American Universities and the Public Debate over 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Guerlain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The various reactions to 9/11 in the academic community and the attacks on U.S scholars and campuses are analyzed in this article. One particular text is chosen for close scrutiny: ACTA’s “Defending Civilization: How Our Universities Are Failing America And What Can Be Done About It” The view taken here is that the atrocities of 9/11 have been instrumentalized in order to further discredit the humanities and social science departments of American universities that have been under attack at least since the so-called “culture wars”. The so-called war on terrorism threatens the civil liberties that some academics wish to preserve.

  20. A Political Economy Analysis of Domestic Resource Mobilization in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad

    -building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......-making. The first two instances relate to the actual mobilization of resources, whereas the third example focuses on bargains over spending priorities within a given revenue base. We find that in Uganda, a low-income country with competing political factions, there are specific challenges to mobilizing resources......This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution...

  1. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  2. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  4. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  5. The politics of mother tongue education: The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentanda, Medadi Erisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the trend of mother tongue (MT education in Uganda by examining particularly government’s practices towards MT education. MT education was (reintroduced in Uganda in 2006/2007 due to disappointing literacy acquisition by learners with the hope of improving literacy skills among particularly rural children. Based on data gathered from rural government and private schools in rural areas, this paper questions what exactly it is that government seeks to reclaim, restore and/or rejuvenate in Uganda’s education system via MT education.

  6. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  7. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  8. Abolition of user fees: the Uganda paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Mugisha, Frederick; Kirunga, Christine; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2011-11-01

    Inadequate health financing is one of the major challenges health systems in low-income countries currently face. Health financing reforms are being implemented with an increasing interest in policies that abolish user fees. Data from three nationally representative surveys conducted in Uganda in 1999/2000, 2002/03 and 2005/06 were used to investigate the impact of user fee abolition on the attainment of universal coverage objectives. An increase in illness reporting was noted over the three surveys, especially among the poorer quintiles. An increase in utilization was registered in the period immediately following the abolition of user fees and was most pronounced in the poorest quintile. Overall, there was an increase in utilization in both public and private health care delivery sectors, but only at clinic and health centre level, not at hospitals. Our study shows important changes in health-care-seeking behaviour. In 2002/03, the poorest population quintile started using government health centres more often than private clinics whereas in 1999/2000 private clinics were the main source of health care. The richest quintile has increasingly used private clinics. Overall, it appears that the private sector remains a significant source of health care. Following abolition of user fees, we note an increase in the use of lower levels of care with subsequent reductions in use of hospitals. Total annual average expenditures on health per household remained fairly stable between the 1999/2000 and 2002/03 surveys. There was, however, an increase of US$21 in expenditure between the 2002/03 and 2005/06 surveys. Abolition of user fees improved access to health services and efficiency in utilization. On the negative side is the fact that financial protection is yet to be achieved. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains high and mainly affects the poorer population quintiles. A dual system seems to have emerged where wealthier population groups are switching to the private sector.

  9. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural…

  10. Observations on the Distribution and Ecology of Bats in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bat community patterns in Uganda are examined in relation to their occurrence in the different vegetation zones of the country. The data available so far cover only three of the country's floristic regions. These data suggest that the northern drier region U1 has more microchiropteran bats and that species diversity of ...

  11. Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ... knowledge to make decisions about planting, harvesting, and managing livestock, but ... to be effective for minimizing risks and increasing agricultural productivity. ... In time, this network of information – made possible by digital technology ...

  12. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  13. Integrating mental health into primary health care – Uganda's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    demographic and health indicators.1 The data showed a high growth rate in excess of 3% ... an integrated form with all other health care needs including promotive and ... In 1999 the government of Uganda (Ministry of Health) developed a ten .... The usual drug procurement system was strengthened with a special project.

  14. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  15. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  16. Higher Education Research in Uganda: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, J. S.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Research is regarded as essential for development and the application of new knowledge for the benefit of society. Higher education in Uganda has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years. Universities have become the most important institutions in the achievement of national and international goals in enhancing the quality of life, wealth creation,…

  17. All projects related to Uganda | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. This project examines employment creation for youth and women in Africa, focusing on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism sector. Region: Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 646,600.00. Why don't they fight: A study to examine youth responses to ...

  18. Immunization Status and Child Survival in Uganda Edward Bbaale1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under-five mortality rate is 90 per 1,000 live births. ... 46% to 52% but still below the worldwide target of 90% (Uganda Bureau of Statistics. (UBOS) and ICF ... detrimental child-survival effects of parental poverty and low educational attainment.

  19. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  20. (Liberibacter spp.) associated with citrus greening disease in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Citrus is one of the largest fruit crops grown in Uganda ... of several citrus industries in Asia and. Africa (da Graca ... role in transmission of HLB, psyllid feeding ... The Indian Ocean islands of Reunion and ..... Pacific Grove, California: Duxbury ...