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Sample records for kampala uganda 9-11

  1. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but microfoci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG.

  2. CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS AND PREFERENCES FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN KAMPALA, UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Anecho, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the findings from a consumer survey that was conducted to understand the consumer characteristics and preferences for organic products in Kampala, Uganda. The survey used a mall intercept survey method to investigate consumer revealed preferences for key organic and conventional products attributes. A face-to-face interview was used to collect data on consumer preferences towards organic food attributes that reveals preference for specific organic and conventional product...

  3. CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS AND PREFERENCES FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN KAMPALA, UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Anecho, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the findings from a consumer survey that was conducted to understand the consumer characteristics and preferences for organic products in Kampala, Uganda. The survey used a mall intercept survey method to investigate consumer revealed preferences for key organic and conventional products attributes. A face-to-face interview was used to collect data on consumer preferences towards organic food attributes that reveals preference for specific organic and conventional product...

  4. Recentralization of Kampala City Administration in Uganda

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    Nabukeera Madinah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The government disseminated a new constitution in 1995 with the provision on decentralization of Article 176 2 (b that acted shortly before the rebirth of the local government act in 1997. Devolution as a form of decentralization transferred both political and administrative powers from the center to lower local councils specially to handle the responsibility of service delivery. Following the approval of the Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA Act 2010, the city’s administration reverted to the central government. Detractors of decentralization allege that the conveyance in the policy and legislation for change of Kampala city administration was timely because decentralization failed to deliver desired services to residents. This article contends that recentralization of Kampala city administration was a necessary evil, it decreased the autonomy of sub-national governments in civil service administration, eroded accountability to the electorates, and transferred the allegiance of the accounting officer from local governments with and for which they work to the central government that designates and positions. To inflame accountability in local governments, the article champions for the reexamining of the KCCA Act 2010 to allow power sharing between the mayor and executive director to enhance bottom-up accountability, checks and balances, and for participation of central government in appointing of executive director to allow financial and security support. It additionally requests for a reconsideration of the 9th Parliament to lobby for the amendments owing to challenges in its implementation and impact on accountability.

  5. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  6. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  7. Compassion and Grace: Spiritual Gifts and Relations of Exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    This paper is about gift-giving and relations of exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda. It focuses in particular on the moral discourses of providing assistance and help, of giving, and sharing that accompany these relations of exchange. The paper is based on a research project that l...

  8. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within the B...

  9. Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probability of consuming fast-food; and to determine the level of expenditure on ... from a sample of 300 respondents using a multi-stage sampling procedure. ... the fast-food sector to agricultural marketing and farmers' livelihoods in Uganda.

  10. Correlates of Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse Among Gay and Bisexual Men: Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, H Fisher; Kajubi, Phoebe; Kamya, Moses R.; Rutherford, George W.; Mandel, Jeffrey S.; McFarland, Willi

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a respondent-driven sampling survey (N = 215) to characterize correlates of risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda. We used RDSAT software to produce population estimates for measures and created exportable weights for multivariable analysis. Overall, 60.5% of gay/bi men identify as gay and 39.5% as bisexual; 91.6% are Ugandans. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) was associated with identifying as gay, being younger and having had an HIV t...

  11. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...

  12. Assertiveness and Attitudes of HIV/AIDS Orphaned Girls Towards Education in Kampala (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitara, David Lagoro; Amongin, Hellen Christine; Oonyu, Joseph C; Baguma, Peter K

    2013-08-09

    Whereas HIV/AIDS prevalence has been declining in Uganda from 30% to less than 10% in the last 2 decades, the number of HIV/AIDS orphaned girls in secondary schools is still high and girl children have tended to carry the heaviest burdens of family responsibilities thereby adversely affecting their assertiveness and attitudes towards education. Assertiveness is a critical life skill that enables a person to state an opinion, claim a right, or establish authority and it is important to improve attitude towards education. This study examined the relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education of HIV/AIDS orphaned and non-orphaned adolescent school girls in Kampala. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Dominance (Do) Assertiveness Scale and the Attitude Scale were administered to 225 students consecutively selected from 6 secondary schools in Kampala. HIV/AIDS Orphaned girls had lower levels of assertiveness and most had a negative attitude towards education compared to non-orphaned girls. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to those orphaned by other causes. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education among orphaned adolescent secondary school girls in Kampala. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to other school girls and have a poor attitude towards education.

  13. Low HIV testing rates among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda

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    Cobelens Frank

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing among tuberculosis patients is critical in improving morbidity and mortality as those found to be HIV positive will be offered a continuum of care including ART if indicated. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three Kampala City primary care clinics: to assess the level of HIV test uptake among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients; to assess patient and health worker factors associated with HIV test uptake; and to determine factors associated with HIV test uptake at the primary care clinics Methods Adult patients who had been diagnosed with smear-positive PTB at a primary care clinic or at the referral hospital and who were being treated at any of the three clinics were interviewed. Associations between having taken the test as the main outcome and explanatory variables were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Between April and October 2007, 112 adults were included in the study. An HIV test had been offered to 74 (66%. Of the 112 patients, 61 (82% had accepted the test; 45 (74% had eventually been tested; and 32 (29% had received their test results. Patients who were Conclusions The overall HIV test uptake was surprisingly low at 40%. The HIV test uptake was significantly higher among TB patients who were identified at hospital, among females and in the unemployed.

  14. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

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    Rawlance Ndejjo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE, working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed.

  15. Strategie di occupazione dello spazio urbano: il caso delle chiese pentecostali di Kampala (Uganda

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    Alessandro Gusman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basato su una ricerca di lungo periodo a Kampala (Uganda iniziata nel 2005, l’articolo si focalizza sulle strategie di occupazione dello spazio urbano da parte delle chiese pentecostali, le compara con le confessioni cristiane di epoca coloniale e le analizza nell’ottica teorica dello “spatial turn”. Negli ultimi tre decenni le chiese pentecostali sono sorte a centinaia in città, con strategie non centralizzate: in questo modo si osserva la compresenza di semplici strutture costruite con materiali di fortuna con altre di dimensioni maggiori e più stabili, per arrivare in alcuni casi alle dimensioni di “mega-churches”, con congregazioni di decine di migliaia di fedeli. Queste modalità differenziate di presenza nello spazio urbano sono considerate nell’articolo parte del processo di entrata progressiva del movimento pentecostale nella sfera pubblica ugandese. Attraverso l’analisi del caso di studio di Kampala, l’articolo mostra il ruolo delle religioni nel connotare e significare lo spazio urbano, sia attraverso la presenza fisica, sia con la retorica della lotta spirituale per la “conquista” di tale spazio.

  16. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods.

  17. Occupational safety training and practices in selected vocational training institutions and workplaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintu, Denis; Kyakula, Michael; Kikomeko, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several industrial accidents, some of them fatal, have been reported in Uganda. Causes could include training gaps in vocational training institutions (VTIs) and workplaces. This study investigated how occupational safety training in VTIs and workplaces is implemented. The study was carried out in five selected VTIs and workplaces in Kampala. Data were collected from instructors, workshop technicians, students, workshop managers, production supervisors, machine operators and new technicians in the workplaces. A total of 35 respondents participated in the study. The results revealed that all curricula in VTIs include a component of safety but little is practiced in VTI workshops; in workplaces no specific training content was followed and there were no regular consultations between VTIs and industry on safety skills requirements, resulting in a mismatch in safety skills training. The major constraints to safety training include inadequate funds to purchase safety equipment and inadequate literature on safety.

  18. Social norms and compliance with road traffic rules in urban areas: Initial impressions of drivers in Kampala, Uganda

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    Freddie F. Mawanga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the government of Uganda has formulated traffic rules for road drivers, set penalties for violation of these rules and deployed traffic personnel to enforce compliance. However, there is continued non-compliance with these rules, particularly among drivers of personal vehicles on Kampala roads. It is likely that the actions of these drivers are influenced by individual or social perceptions and pressures (social norms. These social norms include injunctive norms (influences from people that drivers respect, descriptive norms (influences from other drivers’ behaviour and perceived behaviour control (drivers exploiting available opportunities. The study explores the existence of these norms among drivers of personal vehicles and analyses the way the norms affect compliance with road traffic rules when moderated by road obstructions and control systems in Kampala, Uganda.

  19. Adverse neonatal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contr...

  20. The viral aetiology of influenza-like illnesses in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda, 2008

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    Stephen Balinandi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the threat of zoonoses and the emergence of pandemic-prone respiratory viruses increases, there is a need to establish baseline information on the incidence of endemic pathogens in countries worldwide.Objectives: To investigate the presence of viruses associated with influenza-like illnesses (ILI in Uganda.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from patients diagnosed with ILI in Kampala and Entebbe between 14 August2008 – 15 December 2008. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting 12 respiratory viruses was used.Results: A total of 369 patients (52.3% females was enrolled; the median age was 6 years (range1–70. One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 172 (46.6% cases and their prevalence were influenza A virus (19.2%, adenovirus (8.7%, human rhinovirus A (7.9%, coronavirusOC43 (4.3%, parainfluenza virus 1 (2.7%, parainfluenza virus 3 (2.7%, influenza B virus (2.2%,respiratory syncytial virus B (2.2%, human metapneumovirus (1.4%, respiratory syncytialvirus A (1.1%, parainfluenza virus 2 (0.5% and coronavirus 229E (0.5%. There were 24 (14.0% mixed infections.Conclusions: This study identified some of the respiratory viruses associated with ILI in Uganda.The circulation of some of the viruses was previously unknown in the study population. These results are useful in order to guide future surveillance and case management strategies involving respiratory illnesses in Uganda.

  1. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda.

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    Bulafu, C; Baranga, D; Mucunguzi, P; Telford, R J; Vandvik, V

    2013-10-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 forests fragments of different ownership status and level of protection near Kampala, Uganda. Eleven of the 22 fragments were lost over 20 years, and six of the remnants reduced in size. Forest structure and composition also showed dramatic changes, with six of the remnant fragments showing high temporal species turnover. Species richness increased in four of the remaining forests over the resample period. Forest ownership affected the fate of the forests, with higher loss in privately owned forests. Our study demonstrates that ownership affects the fate of forest fragments, with private forests having both higher rates of area loss, and of structural and compositional change within the remaining fragments. Still, the private forests contribute to the total forest area, and they harbor biodiversity including IUCN "vulnerable" and "endangered" species. This indicates the conservation value of the fragments and suggests that they should be taken into account in forest conservation and restoration.

  2. The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

    Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

  3. Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William

    2016-01-01

    Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed.

  4. Malaria Burden in Pregnancy at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda

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    Fatuma Namusoke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-associated malaria is a major global health concern. To assess the Plasmodium falciparum burden in pregnancy we conducted a cross-sectional study at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Malaria prevalence by each of three measures—peripheral smear, placental smear, and placental histology was 9% (35/391, 11.3% (44/389, and 13.9% (53/382 respectively. Together, smear and histology data yielded an infection rate of 15.5% (59/380 of active infections and 4.5% (17/380 of past infections; hence 20% had been or were infected when giving birth. A crude parity dependency was observed with main burden being concentrated in gravidae 1 through gravidae 3. Twenty-two percent were afflicted by anaemia and 12.2% delivered low birthweight babies. Active placental infection and anaemia showed strong association (OR=2.8 whereas parity and placental infection had an interactive effect on mean birthweight (P=.036. Primigravidae with active infection and multigravidae with past infection delivered on average lighter babies. Use of bednet protected significantly against infection (OR=0.56 whilst increased haemoglobin level protected against low birthweight (OR=0.83 irrespective of infection status. Albeit a high attendance at antenatal clinics (96.8%, there was a poor coverage of insecticide-treated nets (32% and intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (41.5%.

  5. Strategies for coping with feed scarcity among urban and peri-urban livestock farmers in Kampala, Uganda

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    Emma Ivarsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.

  6. Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Lee F Schroeder

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda.Test types (identity and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI. AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015.Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954 of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests, moderate (33 tests, and minimal (55 tests availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46.One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

  7. Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lee F; Elbireer, Ali; Jackson, J Brooks; Amukele, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda. Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015. Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46). One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

  8. The impact of biogas and fuelwood use on institutional kitchen air quality in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, A I; Stefanos, S A; Tumwesige, V; Lsoto, D; Meding, A H; Adong, A; Schauer, J J; Larson, R A

    2017-04-19

    Experts have suggested that microscale biogas systems offer a source of renewable energy that improves indoor air quality, but such impacts have not been directly measured. This study documented cooking behaviors and measured 2.5-μm particulate matter (PM2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) concentrations within 14 institutional kitchens in Kampala, Uganda, that prepare meals using biogas (n=5), a mixture of biogas and fuelwood (n=3), and fuelwood (n=6). Small institutions (10-30 people) with biogas kitchens had 99% lower concentrations of PM2.5 (21 μg/m(3) ) than fuelwood kitchens (3100 μg/m(3) ). Larger institutions (>100 people) had biogas systems that produced insufficient gas and relied on fuelwood to meet over 90% of their energy needs. PM2.5 concentrations in these biogas-firewood kitchens were equivalent to concentrations in fuelwood kitchens. Although concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in biogas were as high as 2000 ppm, 75% of systems had undetectable H2 S levels (<100 ppm) in the biogas. Kitchens using biogas with high H2 S had correspondingly higher SO2 concentrations in the kitchen air. However, even the highest SO2 concentration in biogas kitchens (150 μg/m(3) ) was lower than SO2 concentration in fuelwood kitchens (390 μg/m(3) ). The results suggest that biogas systems can offer air quality improvements if sized properly for energy demands. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: a case of Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Isunju, John Bosco; Kemp, Jaco

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate moderation among others, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health, and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities which transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive benefits. This paper aimed to classify and map recent land cover and provide a multi-temporal analysis of changes from 2002 to 2014 in the Nakivubo wetland through which wastewater from Kampala city drains to Lake Victoria in Uganda. The paper contributes through spatially congruent change maps showing site-specific land cover conversions. In addition, it gives insight into what happened to the wetlands, why it happened, how the changes in the wetlands affect the communities living in them, and how the situation could be better managed or regulated in future. The analysis is based on very high resolution (50-62 cm) aerial photos and satellite imagery, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Overall, the analysis of losses and gains showed a 62 % loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, mostly attributable to crop cultivation. Cultivation in the wetland buffering the lake shore makes it unstable to anchor. The 2014 data shows large portions of the wetland calved away by receding lake waves. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will lower the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will be likely to have a greater impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. This calls for a multi-faceted approach, coordination of the various stakeholders and engagement of wetland-dependent communities as part of the solution, and might require zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones.

  10. Comparison of rapid tests for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda

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    McNerney Ruth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a growing concern worldwide. Rapid detection of resistance expedites appropriate intervention to control the disease. Several technologies have recently been reported to detect rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly in sputum samples. These include phenotypic culture based methods, tests for gene mutations and tests based on bacteriophage replication. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of implementing technology for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in a high disease burden setting in Africa. Methods Sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients presenting to the Mulago Hospital National TB Treatment Centre in Kampala, Uganda, were examined by conventional methods and simultaneously used in one of the four direct susceptibility tests, namely direct BACTEC 460, Etest, "in-house" phage test, and INNO- Rif.TB. The reference method was the BACTEC 460 indirect culture drug susceptibility testing. Test performance, cost and turn around times were assessed. Results In comparison with indirect BACTEC 460, the respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting rifampicin resistance were 100% and 100% for direct BACTEC and the Etest, 94% and 95% for the phage test, and 87% and 87% for the Inno-LiPA assay. Turn around times ranged from an average of 3 days for the INNO-LiPA and phage tests, 8 days for the direct BACTEC 460 and 20 days for the Etest. All methods were faster than the indirect BACTEC 460 which had a mean turn around time of 24 days. The cost per test, including labour ranged from $18.60 to $41.92 (USD. Conclusion All four rapid technologies were shown capable of detecting rifampicin resistance directly from sputum. The LiPA proved rapid, but was the most expensive. It was noted, however, that the LiPA test allows sterilization of samples prior to testing thereby reducing the risk of accidental laboratory transmission. In contrast the

  11. Low-cost rapid detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis using bacteriophage in Kampala, Uganda

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    Smith Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious public health problem. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, has been reported in all regions of the world. Current phenotypic methods of assessing drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are slow. Rapid molecular methods to detect resistance to rifampicin have been developed but they are not affordable in some high prevalence countries such as those in sub Saharan Africa. A simple multi-well plate assay using mycobacteriophage D29 has been developed to test M. tuberculosis isolates for resistance to rifampicin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of this technology in Kampala, Uganda. Methods In a blinded study 149 M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for resistance to rifampicin by the phage assay and results compared to those from routine phenotypic testing in BACTEC 460. Three concentrations of drug were used 2, 4 and 10 μg/ml. Isolates found resistant by either assay were subjected to sequence analysis of a 81 bp fragment of the rpoB gene to identify mutations predictive of resistance. Four isolates with discrepant phage and BACTEC results were tested in a second phenotypic assay to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations. Results Initial analysis suggested a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.5% respectively for the phage assay used at 4 and 10 μg/ml when compared to the BACTEC 460. However, further analysis revealed 4 false negative results from the BACTEC 460 and the phage assay proved the more sensitive and specific of the two tests. Of the 39 isolates found resistant by the phage assay 38 (97.4% were found to have mutations predictive of resistance in the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene. When used at 2 μg/ml false resistant results were observed from the phage assay. The cost of reagents for testing each isolate was estimated to be 1.3US$ when testing a batch of 20

  12. Effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in Kampala, Uganda slums.

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    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Access to and use of hygienic shared sanitation facilities is fundamental in reducing the high risk of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving the cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in three urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. The study follows the risk, attitudes, norms, abilities and self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change and some factors of the social dilemma theory. A pre-versus post-intervention survey was conducted in three slums of Kampala, Uganda, between December 2012 and September 2013. From the pre-intervention findings, users of dirty sanitation facilities were randomly assigned to discussions, discussions + commitment and control interventions. The interventions were implemented for 3 months with the aim of improving cleaning behaviour. This paper provides an analysis of 119 respondents who belonged to the intervention discussion-only (n = 38), discussions + commitment (n = 41) and the control (no intervention, n = 40) groups. Compared to the control, discussions and discussions + commitment significantly improved shared toilet users' cleaning behaviour. The rate of improvement was observed through behavioural determinants such as cleaning obligation, cleaning ease, cleaning approval and affective beliefs. Our study findings show that group discussions and commitment interventions derived from RANAS model of behaviour change are effective in improving the shared sanitation users' cleaning behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda.

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    Abrahmsén, Markus; Persson, Ylva; Kanyima, Benon Mbabazi; Båge, Renée

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an extensive problem in the dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of SCM in dairy cattle in the urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to gain information about pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted as a field study in 18 smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. All cows at the farms were physically examined, and cows with signs of clinical mastitis were excluded. Cows (n = 195) were tested with California Mastitis Test (CMT), and udder quarters with CMT score ≥3 (scale 1-5) were milk sampled for bacteriological analysis. To allow further sub-analysis of the results, the stage of lactation, parity, milk production, production type, udder hygiene, and cow breed were recorded. Results indicate that 86.2 % (n = 168) of the tested cows had SCM in one or more quarters. The most common bacteriological outcome was infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.7 %), followed by negative growth (24.9 %) and streptococci (16.2 %); all of which (n = 34) were sensitive to penicillin. Of the tested staphylococci (n = 17), the majority (58.9 %) were positive for penicillinase production. Factors with significant impact on the prevalence of SCM at cow level were the stage of lactation, parity, and production type. The results suggest that the prevalence of SCM in Uganda is substantially higher than reported in previous studies and in other comparable developing countries. This implies that SCM deserves more attention and that improvement in dairy cow husbandry in terms of hygiene and management is necessary.

  14. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

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    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  15. Treatment outcomes of new tuberculosis patients hospitalized in Kampala, Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

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    Bruce J Kirenga

    Full Text Available In most resource limited settings, new tuberculosis (TB patients are usually treated as outpatients. We sought to investigate the reasons for hospitalisation and the predictors of poor treatment outcomes and mortality in a cohort of hospitalized new TB patients in Kampala, Uganda.Ninety-six new TB patients hospitalised between 2003 and 2006 were enrolled and followed for two years. Thirty two were HIV-uninfected and 64 were HIV-infected. Among the HIV-uninfected, the commonest reasons for hospitalization were low Karnofsky score (47% and need for diagnostic evaluation (25%. HIV-infected patients were commonly hospitalized due to low Karnofsky score (72%, concurrent illness (16% and diagnostic evaluation (14%. Eleven HIV uninfected patients died (mortality rate 19.7 per 100 person-years while 41 deaths occurred among the HIV-infected patients (mortality rate 46.9 per 100 person years. In all patients an unsuccessful treatment outcome (treatment failure, death during the treatment period or an unknown outcome was associated with duration of TB symptoms, with the odds of an unsuccessful outcome decreasing with increasing duration. Among HIV-infected patients, an unsuccessful treatment outcome was also associated with male sex (P = 0.004 and age (P = 0.034. Low Karnofsky score (aHR = 8.93, 95% CI 1.88 - 42.40, P = 0.001 was the only factor significantly associated with mortality among the HIV-uninfected. Mortality among the HIV-infected was associated with the composite variable of CD4 and ART use, with patients with baseline CD4 below 200 cells/µL who were not on ART at a greater risk of death than those who were on ART, and low Karnofsky score (aHR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.02 - 4.01, P = 0.045.Poor health status is a common cause of hospitalisation for new TB patients. Mortality in this study was very high and associated with advanced HIV Disease and no use of ART.

  16. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences.Methods: We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N¼457 of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-incenter for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration.Results: The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR¼2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62 and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53 were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reportinghunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33, any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92 and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82 were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization.Conclusion: The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In

  17. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization.

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    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Niwagaba, Charles B; Buwule, Joseph; Babu, Mohammed; Medlicott, Kate; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2014-11-01

    Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might contribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization's 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming sanitation safety planning approach.

  18. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization

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    Samuel Fuhrimann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might con- tribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming san- itation safety planning approach.

  19. The determination of an optimal waste management scenario for Kampala, Uganda

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    Oyoo, R.; Leemans, R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the environment in the city of Kampala is deteriorating. The city needs a novel waste management approach to improve the environmental quality in its heterogeneous settlement patterns. Earlier, an integrated urban waste flow model (IUWFM) was applied to project the future waste flows

  20. HIV subtype is not associated with dementia among individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Redd, Andrew D.; Manucci, Jordyn; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wendel, Sarah K.; Porcella, Stephen F; Martens, Craig; Bruno, Daniel; Skolasky, Richard L.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a common neurological manifestation of HIV infection. A previous study suggested that HIV dementia may be more common among patients with subtype D virus than among those with subtype A virus among HIV+ individuals with advanced immunosuppression. We conducted a study to evaluate the frequency of HIV dementia, and the association of HIV dementia with HIV subtype and compartmentalization among HIV+ individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression (CD4 lymphocyte count >150 cells/μL and < 250 cells/μL). Methods The study enrolled 117 antiretroviral naïve HIV+ individuals in Kampala, Uganda. HIV+ individuals received neurological, neuropsychological testing, and functional assessments, and gag and gp41 regions were subtyped. Subjects were considered infected with a specific subtype if both regions analyzed were from the same subtype. Results 41% of the HIV+ individuals had HIV dementia (mean CD4 lymphocyte count= 233 cells/μL). 67 individuals had subtype A, 25 individuals had subtype D, 24 individuals were classified as A/D recombinants, and one individual had subtype C. There was no difference in the frequency of HIV dementia when stratified by HIV subtype A and D and no association with compartmentalization between the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Conclusions These results suggest that HIV dementia is common in HIV+ individuals in Uganda. There was no association between HIV subtype and dementia among HIV+ individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression. Future studies should be performed to confirm these results. PMID:24515303

  1. Sexual, Reproductive Health Needs, and Rights of Young People in Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Kamara, Joseph K.; Georgeou, Nichole; Kamanga, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks, especially those living in urban slums. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with comprehensive categories of sexual and reproductive health, including sexual behaviours; sexual education and access to contraceptive services; family planning; prevention of STDs; sexual consent as a right; gender based violence; as well as HIV testing, counselling, disclosure and support. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and was carried out in July 2014 in Makindye and Nakawa Divisions of Kampala City, Uganda. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala’s urban slums. Results Sixty two percent of participants reported having ever had sex and the mean age of sexual debut was 16 years (95%CI: 15.6, 16.4 years, range: 5–23 years). The odds of reporting ever having had sexual intercourse were higher among respondents living alone (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.35, 5.61; psexual partners in the last 12 months preceding the survey averaged 1.8 partners (95%CI: 1.7, 1.9; range 1–4) with 18.1% reporting an age gap of 10 years or older. More than three quarters (80.6%) of sexually active participants reported that their first sexual encounter was consensual, suggesting that most young people are choosing when they make their sexual debut. Low prevalence of willing first sexual intercourse was associated with younger age (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.90, psexual intercourse was significantly higher among women for persuasion (13.2% vs. 2.4%, psexual abuse emerged from the data with 34.3% affirming that it was alright for a boy to force a girl to have sex if he had feelings for her; 73.3% affirming that it was common for strangers and relatives to force young females to have sexual intercourse with them without consent; 26.3% indicating that it was sometimes justifiable for a boy to hit his girlfriend, as long as

  2. Microbial and chemical contamination of water, sediment and soil in the Nakivubo wetland area in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Stalder, Michelle; Winkler, Mirko S; Niwagaba, Charles B; Babu, Mohammed; Masaba, Godfrey; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Halage, Abdullah A; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2015-07-01

    The reuse of domestic and industrial wastewater in urban settings of the developing world may harm the health of people through direct contact or via contaminated urban agricultural products and drinking water. We assessed chemical and microbial pollutants in 23 sentinel sites along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda. Water samples were examined for bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) and helminth eggs. Physico-chemical parameters were determined. Water, sediment and soil samples and edible plants (yams and sugar cane) were tested for heavy metals. Water samples derived from the Nakivubo wetland showed mean concentrations of TTCs of 2.9 × 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Mean E. coli was 9.9 × 10(4) CFU/100 mL. Hookworm eggs were found in 13.5% of the water samples. Mean concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were 21.5, 3.3 and 0.14 mg/L, respectively. In soil samples, we found a mean lead (Pb) concentration of 132.7 mg/L. In yams, concentrations of Cd, chromium (Cr) and Pb were 4.4, 4.0 and 0.2 mg/L, while the respective concentrations in sugar cane were 8.4, 4.3 and 0.2 mg/L. TTCs and E. coli in the water, Pb in soil, and Cd, Cr and Pb in the plants were above national thresholds. We conclude that there is considerable environmental pollution in the Nakivubo wetland and the Lake Victoria ecosystem in Kampala. Our findings have important public health implications, and we suggest that a system of sentinel surveillance is being implemented that, in turn, can guide adequate responses.

  3. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health.

  4. Prevalence and type of drug-drug interactions involving antiretrovirals in patients attending a specialist outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda

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    K Seden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scale-up of HIV services in countries such as Uganda has resulted in a rapid increase in facilities offering antiretrovirals (ARVs and an increase in healthcare workers trained to deliver care. Consequently, evaluating medication safety is increasingly important in these settings. Data from developed countries suggest that drug-drug interactions (DDIs involving ARVs are common, occurring at rates of 14–58%. Few data are available from low resource settings, however a study of 996 Kenyan patients found that 33.5% were at risk of clinically significant DDIs. We evaluated the prevalence and type of ARV DDIs and the patients most at risk in an African outpatient setting. A random sample of patients taking current ARVs and accessing care at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala was selected from the clinic database. The most recent prescription for each patient was screened for DDIs using www.hiv-druginteractions.org. Clinical significance of DDIs was assessed by two of us using a previously developed technique evaluating: likelihood of interaction, therapeutic index of affected drug and severity of potential adverse effect. From 1000 consecutive patients 99.6% were taking≥1 co-medication alongside their ARV regimen (mean 1.89. 24.5% had≥1 potential DDI, with a total of 335 DDIs observed. Of these, 255 DDIs were considered clinically significant, affecting 18.8% of patients. Only 0.3% of DDIs involved a contraindicated combination. There was a higher rate of potential DDIs observed in patients taking TB treatment (p=0.0047, who were WHO stage 3 or 4 (p=0.001, or patients taking ≥2 co-medications alongside ARVs (p<0.0001 (Fishers exact test. Patient age, gender, CD4 count and weight did not affect risk for DDIs. Co-medications commonly associated with potential DDIs were antibiotics (6.2% of 1000 patients, anthelminthics (4.6% and antifungals (3.5%. Potential DDIs involving ARVs occur at similar rates in resource

  5. Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: users' satisfaction and determinant factors.

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    Tumwebaze, Innocent Kamara; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Niwagaba, Charles; Luthi, Christoph; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a key preventive measure against sanitary-related gastro-enteric diseases such as diarrhoea. We assessed the access to sanitation facilities and users' satisfaction in 50 randomly selected slums of Kampala through a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010. A total of 1500 household respondents were interviewed. Sixty-eight per cent of the respondents used shared toilets, 20% private, 11% public toilets and less than 1% reported using flying toilets or practising open defecation. More than half of the respondents (51.7%) were not satisfied with their sanitation facilities. Determinants for satisfaction with the facilities used included the nature and type of toilet facilities used, their cleanliness, and the number of families sharing them. The study findings showed that slum dwellers had high access to sanitation facilities. However, most of them were shared and majority of the respondents were not satisfied with their facilities, primarily due to cleanliness and over demand.

  6. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  7. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of mobile phone ownership and usage among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda.

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    Swahn, Monica H; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-08-01

    The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14-24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this

  8. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  9. Prevalence of African swine fever viral antigens in slaughter pigs at Nalukolongo abattoir, Kampala, Uganda

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    P. Sajjakambwe,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The underdevelopment of the African pig industry is widely attributed to African swine fever (ASF. Outbreaks of the disease occur in different parts of Uganda almost annually although cases are rarely confirmed. We conducted an abattoir based survey of ASF associated lymph node lesions to establish the status of the disease in apparently healthy pigs. Highly suspicious lesions were subjected to immunohistochemistry for viral antigen detection. Most lymph nodes with follicular necrosis, parenchymal haemorrhage and lymphoid depletion were positive to ASF antigens. Up to 22 (0.1% of the 258 pigs from which samples were collected were positive to ASF viral antigens. We conclude that domestic pigs in Uganda can act as reservoirs of the disease i.e. sustenance of the disease in pig populations may not be entirely dependent on the sylvatic cycle.

  10. Perceptions of epilepsy among first-year medical students at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Bigelow, Jeffrey; Berrett, Sawyer; Kimuli, Ivan; Katabira, Elly

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is associated with stigma throughout the world, which leads to poor treatment of people with epilepsy (PWE). In Uganda, there are more than 75,000 PWE and a large treatment gap. This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding epilepsy among first-year medical students at Mulago Hospital. A 22-question survey was developed based on the previous studies of Birbeck et al.'s regarding the stigma of epilepsy in Zambia. This was administered to first-year medical students (96 respondents) at Mulago Hospital in Uganda. More than 80% said that they would not allow their children to marry PWE. Most respondents believed that epilepsy was a mental illness, and many believed that PWE cannot have normal intelligence. Students reported that there was a negative perception and negative treatment of PWE in the community. Some students believed that epilepsy was caused by supernatural causes and was contagious. These misperceptions must be identified and corrected among medical students and other healthcare providers to allow for fair treatment of PWE; this should be incorporated into medical school curriculums in Uganda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shared toilet users' collective cleaning and determinant factors in Kampala slums, Uganda.

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    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-12-12

    Dirty shared toilets are a health risk to users in urban slum settlements. For health and non-health benefits among users of shared toilets to be guaranteed, their cleanliness is important. The objective of this study was to investigate the cleanliness situation of shared toilets in Kampala's slums and the psychological and social dilemma factors influencing users' cleaning behaviour and commitment by using the risks, attitudes, norms, ability and self-regulation (RANAS) model and factors derived from the social dilemma theory. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three slums of Kampala between December 2012 and January 2013. Data were collected from 424 household respondents that were primarily using shared toilets. Semi-structured questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews were used in data collection. Linear regression was done for the multivariate analysis to test for the association between respondent cleaning behaviour and a combination of RANAS and social dilemma predictors. Out of 424 respondents interviewed, 44.3% reported cleaning the shared toilet daily, 34.4% cleaned once or several times a week, 1.4% cleaned every second week, 5.4% cleaned once or several times a month and 14.4% did not participate in cleaning. The main RANAS factors significantly associated with respondents' cleaning behaviour were: attitudinal affective belief associated with cleaning a shared toilet (β = -0.13, P = 0.00) and self-regulating factors, such as coping planning (β = 0.42, P = 0.00), commitment (β = 0.24, P = 0.00), and remembering (β = 0.10, P = 0.01). For social dilemma factors, only the social motive factor was statistically significant (β = 0.15, P = 0.00). The R square for the linear model on factors influencing cleaning behaviour was 0.77 and R square for factors influencing cleaning commitment was 0.70. The RANAS factors provide a more robust understanding of shared toilet users' cleaning behaviour

  12. Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples (a population at high risk for HIV transmission attending a research clinic in Kampala, Uganda on perceptions and attitudes about medical circumcision for male children for HIV prevention. Correlates of willingness to circumcise male children were assessed using generalized estimating equations methods. RESULTS: 318 HIV serodiscordant couples were interviewed, 51.3% in which the female partner was HIV uninfected. Most couples were married and cohabiting, and almost 50% had at least one uncircumcised male child of ≤18 years of age. Overall, 90.2% of male partners and 94.6% of female partners expressed interest in medical circumcision for their male children for reduction of future risk for HIV infection, including 79.9% of men and 87.6% of women who had an uncircumcised male child. Among both men and women, those who were knowledgeable that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.34 and 1.14 and those who had discussed the HIV prevention effects of medical circumcision with their partner (APR 1.08 and 1.07 were significantly (p≤0.05 more likely to be interested in male child circumcision for HIV prevention. Among men, those who were circumcised (APR 1.09, p = 0.004 and those who were HIV seropositive (APR 1.09, p = 0.03 were also more likely to be interested in child circumcision for HIV prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of men and women in Ugandan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant partnerships were willing to have their male children circumcised for eventual HIV prevention benefits. Engaging both parents may increase interest in medical male circumcision for HIV prevention.

  13. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda

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    Byarugaba Justus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria. Methods In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria. Results Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005, cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01 and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment. Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1 cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p Conclusion Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence.

  14. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

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    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  15. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with surgical site infections at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Jeremiah Seni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is progressively increasing globally with significant regional variation. Understanding the Staphylococcus aureus lineages is crucial in controlling nosocomial infections. Recent studies on S. aureus in Uganda have revealed an escalating burden of MRSA. However, the S. aureus genotypes circulating among patients are not known. Here, we report S. aureus lineages circulating in patients with surgical site infections (SSI at Mulago National hospital, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 314 patients with SSI at Mulago National Hospital was conducted from September 2011 to April 2012. Pus swabs from the patients' SSI were processed using standard microbiological procedures. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA were identified using phenotypic tests and confirmed by PCR-detection of the nuc and mecA genes, respectively. SCCmec genotypes were determined among MRSA isolates using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, to determine lineages, spa sequence based-genotyping was performed on all S. aureus isolates. RESULTS: Of the 314 patients with SSI, S. aureus accounted for 20.4% (64/314, of which 37.5% (24/64 were MRSA. The predominant SCCmec types were type V (33.3%, 8/24 and type I (16.7%, 4/24. The predominant spa lineages were t645 (17.2%, 11/64 and t4353 (15.6%, 10/64, and these were found to be clonally circulating in all the surgical wards. On the other hand, lineages t064, t355, and t4609 were confined to the obstetrics and gynecology wards. A new spa type (t10277 was identified from MSSA isolate. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, cancer and inducible clindamycin resistance remained as independent predictors of MRSA-SSI. CONCLUSION: SCCmec types I and V are the most prevalent MRSA mecA types from the patients' SSI. The predominant spa lineages (t645 and t4353 are clonally circulating in all the surgical wards, calling for

  16. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Josephine A Afema

    Full Text Available In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95% while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be

  17. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Afema, Josephine A; Byarugaba, Denis K; Shah, Devendra H; Atukwase, Esther; Nambi, Maria; Sischo, William M

    2016-01-01

    In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95%) while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be used to control

  18. Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in Kampala Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

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    Babirye, Juliet N; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Makumbi, Frederick; Fadnes, Lars T; Wamani, Henry; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Nuwaha, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually emphasized in estimating population immunity. In addition to examining timeliness of the recommended Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI) vaccines, this paper identifies predictors of untimely vaccination among children aged 10 to 23 months in Kampala. In addition to the household survey interview questions, additional data sources for variables included data collection of child's weight and length. Vaccination dates were obtained from child health cards. Timeliness of vaccinations were assessed with Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis for each vaccine based on the following time ranges (lowest-highest target age): BCG (birth-8 weeks), polio 0 (birth-4 weeks), three polio and three pentavalent vaccines (4 weeks-2 months; 8 weeks-4 months; 12 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccine (38 weeks-12 months). Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with vaccination timeliness. About half of 821 children received all vaccines within the recommended time ranges (45.6%; 95% CI 39.8-51.2). Timely receipt of vaccinations was lowest for measles (67.5%; 95% CI 60.5-73.8) and highest for BCG vaccine (92.7%: 95% CI 88.1-95.6). For measles, 10.7% (95% CI 6.8-16.4) of the vaccinations were administered earlier than the recommended time. Vaccinations that were not received within the recommended age ranges were associated with increasing number of children per woman (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR); 1.84, 95% CI 1.29-2.64), non-delivery at health facilities (AHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.46), being unmarried (AHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94) or being in the lowest wealth quintile (AHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72). Strategies to improve vaccination practices among the poorest, single, multiparous women and among mothers who do not deliver at health facilities are necessary to improve

  19. Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in Kampala Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

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    Juliet N Babirye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually emphasized in estimating population immunity. In addition to examining timeliness of the recommended Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI vaccines, this paper identifies predictors of untimely vaccination among children aged 10 to 23 months in Kampala. METHODS: In addition to the household survey interview questions, additional data sources for variables included data collection of child's weight and length. Vaccination dates were obtained from child health cards. Timeliness of vaccinations were assessed with Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis for each vaccine based on the following time ranges (lowest-highest target age: BCG (birth-8 weeks, polio 0 (birth-4 weeks, three polio and three pentavalent vaccines (4 weeks-2 months; 8 weeks-4 months; 12 weeks-6 months and measles vaccine (38 weeks-12 months. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with vaccination timeliness. RESULTS: About half of 821 children received all vaccines within the recommended time ranges (45.6%; 95% CI 39.8-51.2. Timely receipt of vaccinations was lowest for measles (67.5%; 95% CI 60.5-73.8 and highest for BCG vaccine (92.7%: 95% CI 88.1-95.6. For measles, 10.7% (95% CI 6.8-16.4 of the vaccinations were administered earlier than the recommended time. Vaccinations that were not received within the recommended age ranges were associated with increasing number of children per woman (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR; 1.84, 95% CI 1.29-2.64, non-delivery at health facilities (AHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.46, being unmarried (AHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94 or being in the lowest wealth quintile (AHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve vaccination practices among the poorest, single, multiparous women and among mothers who do not deliver at

  20. Domestic violence as risk factor for unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

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    Kaye, Dan K; Mirembe, Florence M; Bantebya, Grace; Johansson, Annika; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2006-01-01

    To compare pregnancy intention and domestic violence among women with induced and spontaneous abortion. Case-control study in Mulago Hospital, Uganda, from September 2003 to June 2004 of 942 women seeking post-abortion care. Direct inquiry, records review and clinical examination identified 333 with induced abortion (cases) and 609 with spontaneous abortion (controls), who were compared regarding socio-demographic characteristics, contraceptive use, domicile (rural or urban, nuclear or extended families), pregnancy intention, household decision-making and domestic violence. Data was analysed with EPI-INFO and STATA, using Student t-test and analysis of variance for continuous and chi-square for categorical variables. Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounding and interaction at the 95% confidence level. Cases significantly differed from controls as they were younger or more often single; had lower parity and education, less household decision-making and fewer living children. They were similar to controls (P > 0.05) regarding employment, spouse's age, years spent in marital relationship and domicile. Cases more frequently (P abortion among women seeking post-abortion care.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS and other important predictors of maternal mortality in Mulago Hospital Complex Kampala Uganda

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    Khainza Betty

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with severe maternal morbidity are at high risk of dying. Quality and prompt management and sometimes luck have been suggested to reduce on the risk of dying. The objective of the study was to identify the direct and indirect causes of severe maternal morbidity, predictors of progression from severe maternal morbidity to maternal mortality in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods This was a longitudinal follow up study at the Mulago hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Participants were 499 with severe maternal morbidity admitted in Mulago hospital between 15th November 2001 and 30th November 2002 were identified, recruited and followed up until discharge or death. Potential prognostic factors were HIV status and CD4 cell counts, socio demographic characteristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric history and intra- partum and postnatal care. Results Severe pre eclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labour and ruptured uterus, severe post partum haemorrhage, severe abruptio and placenta praevia, puerperal sepsis, post abortal sepsis and severe anaemia were the causes for the hospitalization of 499 mothers. The mortality incidence rate was 8% (n = 39, maternal mortality ratio of 7815/100,000 live births and the ratio of severe maternal morbidity to mortality was 12.8:1. The independent predictors of maternal mortality were HIV/AIDS (OR 5.1 95% CI 2-12.8, non attendance of antenatal care (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-9.2, non use of oxytocics (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.7, lack of essential drugs (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-11.3 and non availability of blood for transfusion (OR 53.7, 95% CI (15.7-183.9 and delivery of amale baby (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.1. Conclusion The predictors of progression from severe maternal morbidity to mortalitywere: residing far from hospital, low socio economic status, non attendance of antenatal care, poor intrapartum care, and HIV/AIDS. There is need to improve on the

  2. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

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    King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  3. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  4. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Morof, Diane F; Sami, Samira; Mangeni, Maria; Blanton, Curtis; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-based violence and mental health outcomes among a population of female urban refugees and asylum seekers. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, a study team interviewed a stratified random sample of female refugees and asylum seekers aged 15-59 years from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia. Questionnaires were used to collect information about recent and lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the 500 women selected, 117 (23.4%) completed interviews. The weighted lifetime prevalences of experiencing any (physical and/or sexual) violence, physical violence, and sexual violence were 77.5% (95% CI 66.6-88.4), 76.2% (95% CI 65.2-87.2), and 63.3% (95% CI 51.2-75.4), respectively. Lifetime history of physical violence was associated with PTSD symptoms (Prefugees in Kampala are high. Additional services and increased availability of psychosocial programs for refugees are needed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda

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    Eisler Mark C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.

  6. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

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    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  7. Comparison of environmental performance for different waste management scenarios in East Africa: The case of Kampala City, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.; Leemans, R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste flows management in East African cities has become an environmental and public health concerns to the city authorities and the general public. We assessed the environmental impacts of waste recycling in Kampala City, for four designed waste management scenarios, namely: (1) Scenario S1 re

  8. High Prevalence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gonorrhea Among Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda (2008–2009)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandepitte, Judith; Hughes, Peter; Matovu, Godfrey; Bukenya, Justine; Grosskurth, Heiner; Lewis, David A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDRecent antimicrobial resistance data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae are lacking in Uganda, where, until 2010, ciprofloxacin was the nationally recommended first-line treatment of presumptive gonorrhea...

  9. units in Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-15

    Jun 15, 2008 ... Conclusion: Prevalence of alcohol problems was high and detection rate of alcohol related problems was low in this ... causes 3.2% of deaths (1.8 million people) and 4.0% of Disability .... among 35.6% of men versus 22.4% of women and alcohol ... differences among the different education groups.

  10. Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.

  11. First things first: effectiveness and scalability of a basic prehospital trauma care program for lay first-responders in Kampala, Uganda.

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    Sudha Jayaraman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that in the absence of a formal emergency system, lay people face a heavy burden of injuries in Kampala, Uganda, and we demonstrated the feasibility of a basic prehospital trauma course for lay people. This study tests the effectiveness of this course and estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness of scaling up this training. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For six months, we prospectively followed 307 trainees (police, taxi drivers, and community leaders who completed a one-day basic prehospital trauma care program in 2008. Cross-sectional surveys and fund of knowledge tests were used to measure their frequency of skill and supply use, reasons for not providing aid, perceived utility of the course and kit, confidence in using skills, and knowledge of first-aid. We then estimated the cost-effectiveness of scaling up the program. At six months, 188 (62% of the trainees were followed up. Their knowledge retention remained high or increased. The mean correct score on a basic fund of knowledge test was 92%, up from 86% after initial training (n = 146 pairs, p = 0.0016. 97% of participants had used at least one skill from the course: most commonly haemorrhage control, recovery position and lifting/moving and 96% had used at least one first-aid item. Lack of knowledge was less of a barrier and trainees were significantly more confident in providing first-aid. Based on cost estimates from the World Health Organization, local injury data, and modelling from previous studies, the projected cost of scaling up this program was $0.12 per capita or $25-75 per life year saved. Key limitations of the study include small sample size, possible reporter bias, preliminary local validation of study instruments, and an indirect estimate of mortality reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Lay first-responders effectively retained knowledge on prehospital trauma care and confidently used their first-aid skills and supplies for at least six months. The costs of

  12. Good adherence to HAART and improved survival in a community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programme: the experience of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO, Kampala, Uganda

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    Kalyango Joan N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART may result in treatment failure and death. Most reports of the effect of adherence to HAART on mortality come from studies where special efforts are made to provide HAART under ideal conditions. However, there are few reports of the impact of non-adherence to HAART on mortality from community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programmes in developing countries. We therefore conducted a study to assess the effect of adherence to HAART on survival in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO community HAART programme in Kampala, Uganda. Methods The study was a retrospective cohort of 897 patients who initiated HAART at TASO clinic, Kampala, between May 2004 and December 2006. A total of 7,856 adherence assessments were performed on the data. Adherence was assessed using a combination of self-report and pill count methods. Patients who took ≤ 95% of their regimens were classified as non-adherent. The data was stratified at a CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. Kaplan Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used in the analysis. Results A total of 701 (78.2% patients had a mean adherence to ART of > 95%. The crude death rate was 12.2 deaths per 100 patient-years, with a rate of 42.5 deaths per 100 patient-years for non-adherent patients and 6.1 deaths per 100 patient-years for adherent patients. Non-adherence to ART was significantly associated with mortality. Patients with a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3 had a higher mortality (HR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.22–5.56 compared to patients with a CD4 count equal to or greater than 50 cells/mm3 (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.79–2.38. Conclusion Our study showed that good adherence and improved survival are feasible in community HIV/AIDS programmes such as that of TASO, Uganda. However, there is need to support community HAART programmes to overcome the challenges of funding to provide sustainable supplies particularly of

  13. Determinants of clinician knowledge on aging and HIV/AIDS: a survey of practitioners and policy makers in Kampala District, Uganda.

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    Ekwaro A Obuku

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using Stata 11.2 software. RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7% were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27-34 and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%-79.4%. Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%-44% compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%-67.7%. Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI: clinician age (30-39 years; 3.28∶1.65-9.75, number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14-0.86 and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11-0.83. Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment.

  14. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% (n = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% (n = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% (n = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% (n = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% (n = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent (n = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% (n = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality establishments in

  15. Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

    Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural

  16. The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the role of parents in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Johanna; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Tillgren, Per; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2009-06-01

    This qualitative study explores how young Ugandans perceive and experience the role of parents in preventing the spread of HIV among youths. Data were gathered from semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 16 in-school youths, ages 18-20, residing in Kampala. A key finding is that the youths perceived parenting styles as influencing HIV prevention among youths. The participants identified several harmful consequences from a lack of parental guidance or inadequate parenting and they discussed the gains of parental support in terms of assisting HIV prevention among youths. The participants expressed the idea that parents can importantly contribute to preventing the spread of HIV among youths by supporting their own adolescent children and discussing topics like sex, relationships, and HIV in an age-appropriate way. However, the participants also felt that Ugandan parents in general are unable to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from exposure to HIV. The in-school youths felt that parents are unsupportive in terms of HIV prevention among youths by way of fear of talking about sex, parents' lack of time to engage with their children, and authoritarian or indulgent parenting. The participants also described how parents treat girls and boys differently; however, no significant association was found between how girls and boys conceptualised parents' roles.

  17. ‘SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda

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    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods: Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results: SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion: This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research

  18. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration.

  19. 'SASA! is the medicine that treats violence'. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change

  20. Human rights dimensions of food, health and care in children's homes in Kampala, Uganda - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Line Erikstad; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Eide, Wenche Barth

    2016-03-18

    More than 14 % of Ugandan children are orphaned and many live in children's homes. Ugandan authorities have targeted adolescent girls as a priority group for nutrition interventions as safeguarding nutritional health before pregnancy can reduce the chance of passing on malnutrition to the offspring and thus future generations. Ugandan authorities have obligations under international human rights law to progressively realise the rights to adequate food, health and care for all Ugandan children. Two objectives guided this study in children's homes: (a) To examine female adolescent residents' experiences, attitudes and views regarding: (i) eating patterns and food, (ii) health conditions, and (iii) care practices; and (b) to consider if the conditions in the homes comply with human rights standards and principles for the promotion of the rights to adequate food, health and care. A human rights-based approach guided the planning and conduct of this study. Five children's homes in Kampala were included where focus group discussions were held with girls aged 12-14 and 15-17 years. These discussions were analysed through a phenomenological approach. The conditions of food, health and care as experienced by the girls, were compared with international standards for the realisation of the human rights to adequate food, health and care. Food, health and care conditions varied greatly across the five homes. In some of these the girls consumed only one meal per day and had no access to clean drinking water, soap, toilet paper and sanitary napkins. The realisation of the right to adequate food for the girls was not met in three homes, the realisation of the right to health was not met in two homes, and the realisation of the right to care was not met in one home. In three of the selected children's homes human rights standards for food, health or care were not met. Care in the children's homes was an important contributing factor for whether standards for the rights to adequate

  1. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  2. Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel

    2013-03-01

    In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time.

  3. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Katende; Agatha, Tukamuhebwa; Nankumbi, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess female university students' knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE) practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified. . We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a period of two months (1 April 2013 to 30 May 2013). . Our study revealed a high awareness of breast cancer (98.0%) and BSE practices (76.5%) among female students. Over half the students (61.3%) had an intermediate level of knowledge about risk factors related to breast cancer and the signs and symptoms of the disease. Skills related to BSE practices were found to be low (43.6%). The majority (56.9%) of students received information about breast cancer via mass media. . Pre- post-education intervention studies need to be conducted to evaluate the intervention outcomes related to breast cancer knowledge and BSE practices among female students in Uganda.

  4. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katende Godfrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess female university students’ knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified.  Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a period of two months (1 April 2013 to 30 May 2013.  Results: Our study revealed a high awareness of breast cancer (98.0% and BSE practices (76.5% among female students. Over half the students (61.3% had an intermediate level of knowledge about risk factors related to breast cancer and the signs and symptoms of the disease. Skills related to BSE practices were found to be low (43.6%. The majority (56.9% of students received information about breast cancer via mass media.  Conclusion: Pre- post-education intervention studies need to be conducted to evaluate the intervention outcomes related to breast cancer knowledge and BSE practices among female students in Uganda.

  5. Primary effusion lymphoma associated with Human Herpes Virus-8 and Epstein Barr virus in an HIV-infected woman from Kampala, Uganda: a case report

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    Osuwat Lawrence O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma. Case presentation A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions. Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL. Conclusions A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of

  6. Risk of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in People with Different Exposures to Wastewater and Fecal Sludge in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Halage, Abdulla A.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Medlicott, Kate; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-01-01

    Background There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people with different exposures to wastewater and fecal sludge in Kampala, Uganda. Methodology A cross-sectional survey was carried out in September and October 2013, enrolling 915 adults from five distinct population groups: workers maintaining wastewater facilities; workers managing fecal sludge; urban farmers; slum dwellers at risk of flooding; and slum dwellers without risk of flooding. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz method and a formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine self-reported signs and symptoms, and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections. Univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and hygiene behaviors, were conducted to estimate the risk of infection with intestinal parasites and self-reported health outcomes, stratified by population group. Principal Findings The highest point-prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was found in urban farmers (75.9%), whereas lowest point-prevalence was found in workers managing fecal sludge (35.8%). Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (27.8%). In urban farmers, the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 15% and above. For all investigated parasites, we found significantly higher odds of infection among urban farmers compared to the other groups (adjusted odds ratios ranging between 1.6 and 12.9). In general, female participants had significantly lower odds of infection with soil-transmitted helminths and S. mansoni

  7. Risk of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in People with Different Exposures to Wastewater and Fecal Sludge in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Samuel Fuhrimann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people with different exposures to wastewater and fecal sludge in Kampala, Uganda.A cross-sectional survey was carried out in September and October 2013, enrolling 915 adults from five distinct population groups: workers maintaining wastewater facilities; workers managing fecal sludge; urban farmers; slum dwellers at risk of flooding; and slum dwellers without risk of flooding. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz method and a formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine self-reported signs and symptoms, and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections. Univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and hygiene behaviors, were conducted to estimate the risk of infection with intestinal parasites and self-reported health outcomes, stratified by population group.The highest point-prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was found in urban farmers (75.9%, whereas lowest point-prevalence was found in workers managing fecal sludge (35.8%. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (27.8%. In urban farmers, the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 15% and above. For all investigated parasites, we found significantly higher odds of infection among urban farmers compared to the other groups (adjusted odds ratios ranging between 1.6 and 12.9. In general, female participants had significantly lower odds of infection with soil-transmitted helminths and S. mansoni compared to males. Higher

  8. Effectiveness of the standard WHO recommended retreatment regimen (category II for tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

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    Edward C Jones-López

    2011-03-01

    recommended regimen for retreatment TB in Uganda yields an unacceptable proportion of unsuccessful outcomes. There is a need to evaluate new treatment strategies in these patients.

  9. The Ugandan Youth Quality of Life index: assessing the relevance of incorporating perceived importance into the quality of life measure and factors associated with the quality of life among youth in slum areas of Kampala, Uganda

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    Andre M. N. Renzaho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: While quality of life (QoL has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. Design: Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala. The QoL questionnaire included 36 questions divided into a two-part scale: 18 questions rated for satisfaction (Part 1 and 18 other questions rated on importance (Part 2. The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N=310 and the other for the confirmatorty factor analysis (CFA; N=353. The effect of demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors on QoL was assessed using linear regressions. Results: The EFA yielded three factors: living conditions and lifestyle (seven items, α=0.84, social relationships (five items, α=0.86, and personal independence (five items, α=0.76. In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: Comparative Fit Index=0.95, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.06, and p of Close Fit >0.05. The model incorporating perceived importance had lower Akaike Information Criteria and Bayesian Information Criteria values than the unweighted model, thereby providing very strong support to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings when measuring QoL in Uganda. Poor QoL was associated with poor educational attainment, drug and substance misuse, and family disruption. Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is a relationship between QoL and lifestyle and

  10. Using Formative Research to Design a Behavior Change Strategy to Increase the Use of Improved Cookstoves in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie L. Martin; Jennifer K. Arney; Lisa M. Mueller; Edward Kumakech; Fiona Walugembe; Emmanuel Mugisha

    2013-01-01

    Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction ...

  11. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a board game on patients' knowledge uptake of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyama, Jane N; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Robertson, Gavin; Newell, Kevin; Sempa, Joseph B; Kambugu, Andrew; Manabe, Yuka C; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-03-01

    As the number of HIV infections continues to rise, the search for effective health education strategies must intensify. A new educational board game was developed to increase HIV peoples' attention and knowledge to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) information. The object of this study was to assess the effect of this educational board game on the uptake of knowledge. A randomized controlled trial where patients attending the Infectious Diseases Clinic, Kampala, Uganda were randomized to either play the board game (intervention arm) or to attend a health talk (standard of care arm). Participants' knowledge was assessed before and after the education sessions through a questionnaire. One hundred eighty HIV-positive participants were enrolled, 90 for each study arm. The pretest scores were similar for each arm. There was a statistically significant increase in uptake of knowledge of HIV and STIs in both study arms. Compared with patients in the standard of care arm, participants randomized to the intervention arm had higher uptake of knowledge (4.7 points, 95% confidence interval: 3.9 to 5.4) than the controls (1.5 points, 95% confidence interval: 0.9 to 2.1) with a difference in knowledge uptake between arms of 3.2 points (P board game to the health talk as education method. The educational game significantly resulted in higher uptake of knowledge of HIV and STIs. Further evaluation of the impact of this educational game on behavioral change in the short and long term is warranted.

  12. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. Discussion This is one of few

  13. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

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    Abramsky Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members; past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females; community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence; and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males. 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved

  14. Using Formative Research to Design a Behavior Change Strategy to Increase the Use of Improved Cookstoves in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework—opportunity, ability, and motivation—was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  15. Using formative research to design a behavior change strategy to increase the use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Arney, Jennifer K; Mueller, Lisa M; Kumakech, Edward; Walugembe, Fiona; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-12-10

    Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD) stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework--opportunity, ability, and motivation--was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  16. A large and persistent outbreak of typhoid fever caused by consuming contaminated water and street-vended beverages: Kampala, Uganda, January - June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Bulage, Lilian; Nsubuga, Fred; Pande, Gerald; Oguttu, David Were; Mafigiri, Richardson; Kihembo, Christine; Kwesiga, Benon; Masiira, Ben; Okullo, Allen Eva; Kajumbula, Henry; Matovu, Joseph; Makumbi, Issa; Wetaka, Milton; Kasozi, Sam; Kyazze, Simon; Dahlke, Melissa; Hughes, Peter; Sendagala, Juliet Nsimire; Musenero, Monica; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Hill, Vincent R; Mintz, Eric; Routh, Janell; Gómez, Gerardo; Bicknese, Amelia; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-01-05

    On 6 February 2015, Kampala city authorities alerted the Ugandan Ministry of Health of a "strange disease" that killed one person and sickened dozens. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the nature of the disease, mode of transmission, and risk factors to inform timely and effective control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of fever (≥37.5 °C) for more than 3 days with abdominal pain, headache, negative malaria test or failed anti-malaria treatment, and at least 2 of the following: diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, constipation, fatigue. A probable case was defined as a suspected case with a positive TUBEX® TF test. A confirmed case had blood culture yielding Salmonella Typhi. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures of 33 suspected case-patients and 78 controls, and tested water and juice samples. From 17 February-12 June, we identified 10,230 suspected, 1038 probable, and 51 confirmed cases. Approximately 22.58% (7/31) of case-patients and 2.56% (2/78) of controls drank water sold in small plastic bags (ORM-H = 8.90; 95%CI = 1.60-49.00); 54.54% (18/33) of case-patients and 19.23% (15/78) of controls consumed locally-made drinks (ORM-H = 4.60; 95%CI: 1.90-11.00). All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Water and juice samples exhibited evidence of fecal contamination. Contaminated water and street-vended beverages were likely vehicles of this outbreak. At our recommendation authorities closed unsafe water sources and supplied safe water to affected areas.

  17. Prevalence and type of drug–drug interactions involving ART in patients attending a specialist HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seden, K.; Merry, C.; Hewson, R.; Siccardi, M.; Lamorde, M.; Byakika-Kibwika, P.; Laker, E.; Parkes-Ratanshi, R.; Back, D. J.; Khoo, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Scale-up of HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa has rapidly increased, necessitating evaluation of medication safety in these settings. Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) involving antiretrovirals (ARVs) in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly characterized. We evaluated the prevalence and type of ARV DDIs in Ugandan outpatients and identified the patients most at risk. Methods A total of 2000 consecutive patients receiving ARVs at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala were studied. The most recent prescription for each patient was screened for clinically significant DDIs using www.hiv-druginteractions.org. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for DDIs. A screening tool was developed using significant risk factors and tested in a further 500 patients. Results Clinically significant DDIs were observed in 374 (18.7%) patients, with a total of 514 DDIs observed. Only 0.2% of DDIs involved a contraindicated combination. Comedications commonly associated with DDIs were antibiotics (4.8% of 2000 patients), anthelmintics (2.2%) and antifungals (3.5%). Patient age, gender, CD4 count and weight did not affect risk of DDIs. In multivariable analysis, the patient factors that independently increased risk of DDIs were two or more comedications (P < 0.0001), a PI-containing ARV regimen (P < 0.0001), use of an anti-infective (P < 0.0001) and WHO clinical stage 3–4 (P = 0.04). A scoring system based on having at least two of these risk factors identified between 75% and 90% of DDIs in a validation cohort. Conclusions Significant ARV DDIs occur at similar rates in resource-limited settings and developed countries; however, the comedications frequently causing DDIs differ. Development of tools that are relevant to particular settings should be a priority to assist with prevention and management of DDIs. PMID:26286575

  18. High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindan, Christina P; Anglemyer, Andrew; Hladik, Wolfgang; Barker, Joseph; Lubwama, George; Rutherford, George; Ssenkusu, John; Opio, Alex; Campbell, James

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated motorcycle taxi ('boda-boda') drivers in Kampala for the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit a cross-sectional sample of boda-boda drivers. We collected data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. Men were tested for HIV, syphilis serology using Rapid Plasma Reagin and enzyme immunoassay, and Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using urine polymerase chain reaction. We recruited 683 men. Median age was 26 years; 59.4% were single. The prevalence of HIV was 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-10.0), of positive syphilis serology was 6.1% (95% CI 4.3-8.1), of Chlamydia was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-2.0), and of gonorrhoea was 1.2% (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Many men (67.8%) had both casual and regular partners, sex with other men (8.7%), and commercial sex (33.1%). Factors associated with having HIV included reporting a genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] =2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), drinking alcohol during last sex (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7), having 4-6 lifetime partners (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8), and having one's last female partner be >24 years of age (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6). Independent predictors of HIV included age ≥31 (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.8, 95% CI 1.5-48.5), having 4-6 partners (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.0-5.1), and self-report of a genital ulcer (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Only 39.2% of men were circumcised, and 36.9% had been HIV tested in the past. Male boda-boda drivers have a higher prevalence of HIV than the general population, and low frequency of preventive behaviours, such as circumcision and HIV testing. Targeted and intensified interventions for this group are warranted. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis targeted to high-risk serodiscordant couples as a bridge to sustained ART use in Kampala, Uganda

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    Roger Ying

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART for treating HIV-positive persons, HIV incidence remains elevated among those at high risk such as persons in serodiscordant partnerships. Antiretrovirals taken by HIV-negative persons as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has the potential to avert infections in individuals in serodiscordant partnerships. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of implementing time-limited PrEP as a short-term bridge during the first six months of ART for the HIV-positive partner to prevent HIV transmission compared to increasing ART coverage is crucial to informing policy-makers considering PrEP implementation. Methods: To estimate the real world delivery costs of PrEP, we conducted micro-costing and time and motion analyses in an open-label prospective study of PrEP and ART delivery targeted to high-risk serodiscordant couples in Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project. The cost (in USD, in 2012 of PrEP and ART for serodiscordant couples was assessed, with and without research components, in the study setting. Using Ministry of Health costs, the cost of PrEP and ART provision within a government programme was estimated, as was the cost of providing PrEP in addition to ART. We parameterized an HIV transmission model to estimate the health and economic impacts of 1 PrEP and ART targeted to high-risk serodiscordant couples in the context of current ART use and 2 increasing ART coverage to 55% of HIV-positive persons with CD4 ≤500 cells/µL without PrEP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs per HIV infection and disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted were calculated over 10 years. Results: The annual cost of PrEP and ART delivery for serodiscordant couples was $1058 per couple in the study setting and $453 in the government setting. The portion of the programme cost due to PrEP was $408 and $92 per couple per year in the study and government settings, respectively. Over 10 years, a

  20. Severe malnutrition with and without HIV-1 infection in hospitalised children in Kampala, Uganda: differences in clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ cell counts

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    Downing Robert

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts of severely malnourished children in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods The study was conducted in the paediatric wards of Mulago hospital, which is Uganda's national referral and teaching hospital. We studied 315 severely malnourished children (presence of oedema and/or weight-for-height: z-score + and CD8+ cells were measured by the flow cytometry and HIV serology was confirmed by Enzyme linked Immunoassay for children >18 months of age, and RNA PCR was performed for those ≤18 months. Complete blood count, including differential counts, was determined using a Beckman Coulter counter. Results Among the 315 children, 119 (38% were female; the median age of these children was 17 months (Interquartile range 12–24 months, and no difference was observed in the HIV status with regard to gender or age. The children showed a high prevalence of infections: pneumonia (68%, diarrhoea (38%, urinary tract infection (26% and bacteraemia (18%, with no significant difference with regard to the HIV status (HIV-positive versus HIV-negative children. However, the HIV-positive children were more likely to have persistent diarrhoea than the HIV-uninfected severely malnourished children (odds ratio (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2–3.6. When compared with the HIV-negative children, the HIV-positive children showed a significantly lower median white blood cell count (10700 versus 8700 and lymphocyte count (4033 versus 2687. The CD4+ cell percentages were more likely to be lower in children with non-oedematous malnutrition than in those with oedematous malnutrition even after controlling for the HIV infection. The novel observation of this study is that the CD4+ percentages in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative children without oedema were lower that those in children with oedema. These

  1. Chikungunya in Uganda: Sometimes the Hoof Beats Really Are Zebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Project, Kampala, Uganda 4 Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA 5 Nakasero Blood Bank , Kampala, Uganda 6 Walter Reed Army...disease emerging in Latin America and the Caribbean prompting WHO to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (World Health...cycle likely involves the urban mosquito, Aedes aegypti and humans. In the Caribbean and the Americas , the transmission cycle probably involves

  2. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container pr

  3. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas, e

  4. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas, e

  5. DE NÜREMBERG A KAMPALA, VÍA ROMA

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    Luis Ernesto Orozco Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO En la presente comunicación se ocupa del proceso de la criminalización de la agresión y su concreción como norma consuetudinaria y convencional en Derecho Internacional. Así mismo, se analizan los pros y contras de la tipificación del crimen de agresión hecha en la Conferencia de Kampala, Uganda, efectuada del 31 de mayo al 11 de junio de 2010. Esta Conferencia de Revisión de Kampala marca un hito particularmente en el devenir del Derecho internacional general y el Derecho internacional penal convencional (de Roma, pues, en ella se llega —por consenso— a la definición del crimen de agresión, lo que marca el fin de un proceso muy largo que comienza formalmente con los juicios de Nüremberg, pero que reconoce su génesis en el periodo de entreguerras en el siglo pasado. Palavras- chave: Guerras de agresión, criminalización de la guerra, crimen de agresión, responsabilidad penal internacional del individuo, conferencia de kampala. FROM NUREMBERG TO KAMPALA VIA ROME ABSTRACT This communication deals with the process of criminalization of aggression and it was established as customary law and conventional international law. It also discusses the pros and cons of the definition of the crime of aggression made ​​at the Conference in Kampala, Uganda, held from May 31 to June 11, 2010. This Review Conference is a milestone Kampala particularly in the evolution of general international law and conventional international criminal law (Rome, then it is reached by consensus-a-definition of the crime of aggression, marking the end of a long process formally begins with the Nüremberg trials, but recognizes its genesis in the interwar period in the last century. Key-words: War of aggression, war criminalization, crime of aggression, international criminal responsibility of the individual conference of kampala.

  6. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo Swamp Uganda: processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Nakivubo swamp is located in Uganda, near its capital Kampala, and has been receiving wastewater from Kampala for over 30 years. This swamp consists of a floating root mat co-dominated by the sedges Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Tbe partially treated wastewater mostly flows

  7. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo Swamp Uganda: processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Nakivubo swamp is located in Uganda, near its capital Kampala, and has been receiving wastewater from Kampala for over 30 years. This swamp consists of a floating root mat co-dominated by the sedges Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Tbe partially treated wastewater mostly flows beneat

  8. Transnational connections of health professionals: medicoscapes and assisted reproduction in Ghana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörbst, V.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Based on our comparative fieldwork in two private fertility clinics in Accra (Ghana) and Kampala (Uganda), we explore the transnational mobility of providers involved in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and analyze how resulting transnational networks influence the realization a

  9. Uganda: Perfection of Post-Conflict Stability or Ticking Time Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    usual reports. Ms. Anna Kreuss, a German freelance analyst, believes that local militias, formed in response to the huge problem of ghost soldiers... freelance journalist and PhD student), personal interview by authors, Kampala, Uganda, March 24, 2015. 16 Akuma and Achan interview. 17 Ejoyi... freelance journalist and PhD student). Interview by authors. Personal interview. Kampala, Uganda. March 24, 2015. Mapenduzi, Ojara Martin

  10. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants i

  11. Beyond the Gallery: Interactions between Audiences, Artists, and Their Art through the Kampala Art Tour 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagawa, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    When one walks into an art gallery in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, one sees a predominantly non-Ugandan audience. Visitors to homes of Ugandans, even those wealthy enough to afford art, find typically bare walls. This begs broader questions: (1) What is it about the education and presentation of contemporary art that excludes local…

  12. Beyond the Gallery: Interactions between Audiences, Artists, and Their Art through the Kampala Art Tour 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagawa, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    When one walks into an art gallery in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, one sees a predominantly non-Ugandan audience. Visitors to homes of Ugandans, even those wealthy enough to afford art, find typically bare walls. This begs broader questions: (1) What is it about the education and presentation of contemporary art that excludes local…

  13. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public Health... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of... and Regulations and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations...

  14. 15 CFR 9.11 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 9.11 Section 9.11... FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.11 Annual report. The Secretary will prepare an annual report of activities under the program, including an evaluation of...

  15. Procurement Practices and Supply Chain Performance of SMEs in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eyaa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to examine the relationship between the components of procurement practices which are purchasing risk taking, purchasing knowledge and skills and strategic purchasing and supply chain performance of SMEs in Kampala District in Uganda. The motivation for the study was the fact that SMEs suffer poor supply chain performance and there was need to identify the extent to which unprofessional practices like procurement practices, explain supply chain performance. Findings revealed that the components explained 19.4% of the variance in supply chain performance, purchasing risk taking was a significant predictor of supply chain performance while purchasing knowledge and skills and strategic purchasing were not. These findings raise implications for SME managers, owners and policy makers which have to be addressed if the competitiveness of SMEs in Uganda is to be enhanced in light of increased global competition.

  16. The Post 9/11 English Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    An English teacher offers his thoughts on what they could learn about their role in the post 9/11-world and suggests reflecting on the events of the incident as professionals. The 9/11 Commission Report defines an important role for education and recommends US funding to improve public education, vocational education, and halving adult illiteracy…

  17. 9/11 and Global Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    In the past ten years since 9/11, terrorism has become a growing threat to .international security, and to people's lives and property. Increasing incidents of terrorism have underlined the fundamental structural flaws in the international system,

  18. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo Swamp Uganda: processes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Nakivubo swamp is located in Uganda, near its capital Kampala, and has been receiving wastewater from Kampala for over 30 years. This swamp consists of a floating root mat co-dominated by the sedges Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Tbe partially treated wastewater mostly flows beneath the floating mat into Lake Victoria via the Murchison Bay. Papyrus has a loose floating root mat which facilitates vertical mixing bebfl/een the interstitial mat water and the free water column b...

  19. Blogging 9/11 and Memory Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Paganoni

    2011-09-01

    This article highlights a few of the salient discursive and linguistic patterns that recur in the 9/11 narratives that have multiplied online on several dedicated websites and investigates the evolution of 9/11 cultural memory practices, torn between the discourse of the unrepresentable and the imperative to remember. It claims that blogging 9/11, immediately after the attacks and over the years, well illustrates how the logic of memory and its interpretation of the past follow different criteria from history writing. It shows how memorialization practices, dictated by the fear of forgetting the vanishing present, contribute to that excess of memory that lies at the core of the instability and mutual competition of sources retrieved on the Internet and that might ultimately lead to a rethinking of what is the contribution of collective memory to historiography.

  20. Uptake of community-based, self-collected HPV testing vs. visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in Kampala, Uganda: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Erin; Pedersen, Heather N; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Mwesigwa, David; Singer, Joel; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2015-10-01

    To compare two cervical cancer screening methods: community-based self-collection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Pilot randomised controlled trial of 500 women aged 30-65 in the community of Kisenyi, Uganda. Women randomised to self-collection-based HR-HPV testing provided a cervico-vaginal swab for HR-HPV, and results were provided by phone after laboratory testing. Women who tested HPV positive were referred for VIA at the local health unit. Women randomised to VIA underwent screening at the local health unit, where women who tested positive with VIA were provided cryotherapy at time of screening, as per local standard of care. Women were referred for colposcopy when indicated. Outcome measures were uptake of screening, HR-HPV prevalence, VIA result and treatment rates. In the HR-HPV arm, 248 of 250 (p < 0.01) women provided samples, while in the VIA arm, 121 of 250 (48.4%) women attended screening. Among the 73 of 248 HR-HPV-positive women, 45.2% (N = 33) attended VIA screening for follow-up, 21.2% (N = 7) of whom screened positive; five received treatment and two were missing clinical follow-up records. Of the 121 women in the VIA arm who attended screening, 13.2% (N = 16) screened positive; seven received cryotherapy, three refused treatment, five were referred to colposcopy; and one woman had suspected cervical cancer and received treatment after confirmatory testing. This pilot study demonstrated trial feasibility and willingness of the women to participate and be randomised successfully into the two arms. Self-collection-based cervical cancer screening had a higher uptake than VIA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Postdisaster Psychological Intervention since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Patricia J.; Brymer, Melissa J.; Bonanno, George A.

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of research and experience after 9/11 has led to the development of evidence-based and evidence-informed guidelines and strategies to support the design and implementation of public mental health programs after terrorism and disaster. This article reviews advances that have been made in a variety of areas, including development of…

  2. Commemorating 9/11 in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National September 11 Memorial & Museum will be officially dedicated this September on the 10th anniversary of the attacks of 2001. It provides educational resources that explore the ongoing impact of the September 11th attacks and the ways that volunteerism and art aid in healing, recovery, and rebuilding. The 9/11 Memorial Museum, to be…

  3. The Post-9/11 Risk Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ann H.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to place the post-9/11 risk agenda for colleges and universities in historical perspective by offering a refresher on some of the most serious perennial risks for U.S. higher education. Offers an eight-point road map of how to enhance boards' risk management efforts. (EV)

  4. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  5. Aesthetic Appreciation, Ethics, and 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Aretoulakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous critical articles on what really happened on the otherwise beautiful morning of 11 September 2001. Beyond doubt, the bulk of the critical responses to the terrorist attacks focused on the ethical and humanitarian, or rather the unethical and inhumane implications of the atrocious act, leaving no room for any philosophical reflection on the potential assessment or reception of the event from the perspective of art and aesthetics. The few years that have gone by since 2001 have provided us with some a sense of emotional detachment from the horror of that day, a detachment that may have awakened our aesthetic and artistic instincts with regard to the attacks themselves as well as their visual representation. Chronological distance renders an unprejudiced and independent stance more possible now than ever. It also allows us to reconsider our initial politically correct and ethically justified repulsion of the efforts made by a few artists to aestheticize 9/11. Such repulsion, however, was associated with the delusion that by denouncing aesthetics we were really securing the prevalence of politics, morality and ethical responsibility in a terror-afflicted society. My point in this paper is that there is a need for aesthetic appreciation when contemplating a violent event such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks. What is more, appreciation of the beautiful, even in case of a 9/11, seems necessary because it is a key to establishing an ethical stance towards terror, life, and art. It should be stressed that independent aesthetic experience is not important in itself but is a means of cultivating an authentic moral and ethical judgment.

  6. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134 of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590. Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590, 13.7% (n = 81 reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81 and 22.5% (n = 18 among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4, being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0, and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5. Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  7. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  8. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nu

  9. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cranes also feed in a grassy valley close to the landfill site. Most of ... larly in the vicinity of the associated power lines, and (ii) the size and behaviour of the species in question .... The state of the art in raptor electrocution research: a global ...

  10. 12 CFR 9.11 - Investment of fiduciary funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of fiduciary funds. 9.11 Section 9.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.11 Investment of fiduciary funds. A national bank shall invest funds of...

  11. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  12. Livelihoods strategies of urban refugees in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Macchiavello

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Some 15,000 refugees – escapees from wars in Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia – live in the Ugandan capital, Kampala, without UNHCR assistance.Rejecting residence in rural camps, they have chosen an environment in which they can use their skills to achieve self-sufficiency and dignity.

  13. How human brucellosis incidence in urban Kampala can be reduced most efficiently? A stochastic risk assessment of informally-marketed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2010-12-01

    In Kampala, Uganda, studies have shown a significant incidence of human brucellosis. A stochastic risk assessment involving two field surveys (cattle farms and milk shops) and a medical record survey was conducted to assess the risk of human brucellosis infection through consumption of informally marketed raw milk potentially infected with Brucella abortus in Kampala and to identify the best control options. In the cattle farm survey, sera of 425 cows in 177 herds in the Kampala economic zone were sampled and tested for brucellosis using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA). Farmers were interviewed for dairy information. In the milk shop surveys, 135 milk sellers in the urban areas were interviewed and 117 milk samples were collected and tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA). A medical record survey was conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital for serological test results. A risk model was developed synthesizing data from these three surveys. Possible control options were prepared based on the model and the reduction of risk was simulated for each scenario. Overall, 12.6% (6.8-18.9: 90%CI) of informally marketed milk in urban Kampala was contaminated with B.abortus at purchase and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 5.8 (90% CI: 5.3-6.2) per 10,000 people. The best control option would be the construction of a milk boiling centre either in Mbarara, the largest source of milk, or in peri-urban Kampala and to ensure that milk traders always sell milk to the boiling centre; 90% success in enforcing these two options would reduce risk by 47.4% (21.6-70.1: 90%CI) and 82.0% (71.0-89.0: 90%CI), respectively. This study quantifies the risk of human brucellosis infection through informally marketed milk and estimates the incidence rate in Kampala for the first time; risk-based mitigation strategies are outlined to assist in developing policy.

  14. 78 FR 34250 - Post-9/11 GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 65 RIN 0790-AI43 Post-9/11 GI Bill AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... responsibilities, and prescribes procedures for carrying out the Post-9/11 GI Bill. It establishes policy for the... procedures for carrying out the Post-9/11 GI Bill, as codified in 38 U.S.C. chapter 33. It establishes policy...

  15. The Transformation of International Politics since 9/11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2011-01-01

    The strategic legacy of 9/11 will outlive the Korean and Vietnam Wars and the two Gulf Wars because they triggered only quantitative rather than qualitative transformations in the international strategic landscape. The 9/11 disaster sparked the Afghan and Iraq Wars and the global "war on terror," which as yet have no end in sight.

  16. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  17. The burden of cholera in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. METHODS: The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. RESULTS: Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61-182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81% occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4-44 weeks. DISCUSSION: There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high

  18. Disaster Doctor From 9/11 to Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: The Investigator Disaster Doctor From 9/11 to Katrina Past Issues / ... Sherry National Library of Medicine Scientist Helps Identify Disaster Victims, Eases Grieving Dr. Stephen Sherry will never ...

  19. Empty sky : 9/11 and performing regenerative violence

    OpenAIRE

    Genna, Raimondo

    2010-01-01

    "Empty Sky: 9/11 and Performing Regenerative Violence" explores theatrical depictions of violence and trauma following the events of 11 September 2001 and their relationships to American myth and identity. In the aftermath of the terrorist attack of 9/11, many in the media, from politicians and pundits to journalists and fictional characters in popular television, discussed the epistemological rupture of the event, stating that the world had changed forever and that everything was now differe...

  20. Muslims in Pre- and Post-9/11 Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims have never ceased to be important for the West and have been depicted in vilifying and stereotypical manners in western literature and films. However, after the tragic event of 9/11, a dramatic change has been observed in the world’s focus towards Muslims. Although stereotypes and discriminatory actions were nothing new to Muslims, the post-9/11 backlash was absolutely terrible and heartbreaking. People have started to consider Muslims either terrorists or sympathetic to terrorists, and they have been suspected and distrusted. Lots of books, articles and films have depicted Muslims in a derogatory and extreme manner. Pre-9/11 Hollywood movies True Lies and The Siege explicitly show the stereotypical attitude of the West to Muslims while post-9/11 novels like The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Once in a Promised Land by Laila Halaby depict the plight and predicament of Muslims in America. The article aims to depict the stereotypical, vilifying and antagonistic attitudes of the West to Arabs and Muslims in both pre- and post- 9/11 era. It also aims to prove that the depiction is highly motivated by the media, western authorities and the West’s desire for social, cultural and political dominance over the East. Keywords: Orientalism, Others, Terrorism, Media

  1. Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, J.

    2013-01-01

    'Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11' is anchored in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in America and their cultural legacies, most prominently in the forms of cultural resistance. By investigating a multimedia assemblage of creative objects - hip hop album, TV sit-com, best

  2. Reconciling Hierarchical and Edge Organizations: 9-11 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Requirements Specification for Multi-Agent Systems. In International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (pp. 0387-0387). IEEE Computer Society . Galbraith, J.R...Grant, T.J. (2006). Measuring the Potential Benefits of NCW: 9/11 as case study. In Alberts, D.S. (Ed.), Proceedings, 11 th International Command...C2: • 2 PhD students (cultural influences; eCommerce to support CMI) – Offensive cyber operations: • Integrating kinetic & cyber ops

  3. CBRN Terrorism Obsession Prior to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Security Council NSS National Security Strategy OSINT Open-Source Intelligence PDD Presidential Decision Directive SCT Studies in Conflict and...intelligence ( OSINT ). During the Congressional Joint Inquiry on the intelligence community prior to 9/11, Senator Mike Dewine called a Library of...Congress (LOC) report OSINT . He states, "We must remember that open-source information was used to warn investigators in 1999 that al-Qaeda terrorists

  4. Definitions of Urban Poverty by Lay Persons in Uganda and its Implications for Effective Anti-poverty Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the definitions of poverty among urban lay persons (employed and unemployed) accessing the Kampala City Council Authority public gardens and among Sheraton Uganda Hotel employees and trainees. For purposes of this paper responses to the semi-structured question, ‘how would you define poverty ?’ were analysed using the thematic approach of Boyatsis (1998). Two distinct main categories of definitions were obtained from the respondents, that is t...

  5. Impact of mycobacterial culture among HIV-infected adults with presumed TB in Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Semitala, FC; Chaisson, LH; den Boon, S.; Walter, N.; Cattamanchi, A.; Awor, M.; Katende,J.; Huang, L.; Joloba, M; Albert, H.; Kamya, MR; Davis, JL

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of new tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic strategies in resource-constrained settings is challenging. We measured the impact of solid and liquid mycobacterial cultures on treatment practices for patients undergoing TB evaluation in Kampala, Uganda.We enrolled consecutive smear-negative, human immunodeficiency virus positive adults with cough of ⩾2 weeks from September 2009 to April 2010. Laboratory technicians performed mycobacterial cultures on solid and liquid media. We compared em...

  6. Brote de Fiebre Hemorrágica por el virus del Ébola en Uganda Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak due to Ebola virus in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MªC. Aríñez Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.

  7. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  8. How human brucellosis incidence in urban Kampala can be reduced most efficiently? A stochastic risk assessment of informally-marketed milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Makita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Kampala, Uganda, studies have shown a significant incidence of human brucellosis. A stochastic risk assessment involving two field surveys (cattle farms and milk shops and a medical record survey was conducted to assess the risk of human brucellosis infection through consumption of informally marketed raw milk potentially infected with Brucella abortus in Kampala and to identify the best control options. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the cattle farm survey, sera of 425 cows in 177 herds in the Kampala economic zone were sampled and tested for brucellosis using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA. Farmers were interviewed for dairy information. In the milk shop surveys, 135 milk sellers in the urban areas were interviewed and 117 milk samples were collected and tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA. A medical record survey was conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital for serological test results. A risk model was developed synthesizing data from these three surveys. Possible control options were prepared based on the model and the reduction of risk was simulated for each scenario. Overall, 12.6% (6.8-18.9: 90%CI of informally marketed milk in urban Kampala was contaminated with B.abortus at purchase and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 5.8 (90% CI: 5.3-6.2 per 10,000 people. The best control option would be the construction of a milk boiling centre either in Mbarara, the largest source of milk, or in peri-urban Kampala and to ensure that milk traders always sell milk to the boiling centre; 90% success in enforcing these two options would reduce risk by 47.4% (21.6-70.1: 90%CI and 82.0% (71.0-89.0: 90%CI, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study quantifies the risk of human brucellosis infection through informally marketed milk and estimates the incidence rate in Kampala for the first time; risk-based mitigation strategies are outlined to assist in

  9. 9/11 as Avant-Garde Art?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Schechner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Can the attacks of 9/11 be considered an avant-garde artistic event? This article aims to discuss, from the point of view of the intentionality of the act and of its reception, the performative character of that historical fact. To carry forward this intent, it presents a historical overview of avant-garde art, and discusses some of the historical and cultural conditions that supposedly operated as triggers of such an event. The text also focuses on the spectacular character of the event and the conditions for its appreciation in a society greatly delimited by the media.

  10. Uganda pioneers ALVAC -- and informed consent. Vaccine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H; Nsubuga, L

    1997-02-01

    Pasteur Merieux, a French pharmaceutical company, has developed a promising new experimental vaccine against AIDS. The vaccine, ALVAC VCP205, contains live, genetically engineered canaripox virus carrying several small fragments of HIV. Canaripox virus causes disease among canary birds, but not in humans. ALVAC VCP205 has already been tested on more than 100 volunteers in the US and France who have shown no ill effects. Clinical trials will start in Uganda in early 1997, at which point 40 young male volunteers in Kampala will be administered the vaccine. The volunteers are soldiers of the Ugandan army. Possibly continuing until 2005, the trials will assess the safety of ALVAC VCP205 and, if successful, lead to much larger trials involving thousands of Ugandans in 1998. Only then will scientists know whether the vaccine can protect humans against HIV infection. The need for a vaccine, the Uganda trial, and concerns over whether trial subjects are truly volunteers are discussed. There is also concern over whether the vaccine will be affordable in Uganda if it is shown to be effective and whether it will be appropriate for use by Ugandans at risk of HIV infection. ALVAC VCP205 is designed to provide the greatest level of protection against HIV-1 subtype B, the dominant strain of HIV in Europe and the US. In Uganda, strains A and D predominate.

  11. Driving deaths and injuries post-9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Amber BackwellInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaObjectives: In the days immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11, thousands of Americans chose to drive rather than to fly. We analyzed highway accident data to determine whether or not the number of fatalities and injuries following 9/11 differed from those in the same time period in 2000 and 2002.Methods: Motor crash data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System were analyzed to determine the numbers and rates of fatalities and injuries nationally and in selected states for the 20 days after September 11, in each of 2000, 2001, and 2002.Results: While the fatality rate did not change appreciably, the number of less severe injuries was statistically higher in 2001 than in 2000, both nationally and in New York State.Conclusions: The fear of terror attacks may have compelled Americans to drive instead of fly. They were thus exposed to the heightened risk of injury and death posed by driving. The need for public health to manage risk perception and communication is thus heightened in an era of global fear and terrorism.Keywords: public health, traffic, injuries, epidemiology

  12. Post-9/11: Making Islam an American Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores several key events in the last 12 years that led to periods of heightened suspicion about Islam and Muslims in the United States. It provides a brief overview of the rise of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment known as “Islamophobia”, and it investigates claims that American Muslims cannot be trusted to be loyal to the United States because of their religion. This research examines American Muslim perspectives on national security discourse regarding terrorism and radicalization, both domestic and foreign, after 9/11. The article argues that it is important to highlight developments, both progressive and conservative, in Muslim communities in the United States over the last 12 years that belie suspicions of widespread anti-American sentiment among Muslims or questions about the loyalty of American Muslims. The article concludes with a discussion of important shifts from a Muslim identity politics that disassociated from American identity and ‘American exceptionalism’ to a position of integration and cultural assimilation.

  13. Normas de reparto aplicadas para simplificar los procesos de adquisición y uso de suelo urbano de la mayoría de las personas con bajos ingresos. Proyecto de normas de reparto en la ciudad de Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Tukwasiibwe, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Este documento es el resultado de un proyecto de colaboración entre el Instituto Tilburg para el Estudio Interdisciplinario de Sistemas para la Resolución de Conflictos en materia de Derecho Civil [Tilburg Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies in Civil Law and Conflict Resolution Systems] (TISCO), la Universidad de Tilburg en los Países Bajos y elInstituto para la Investigación y el Desarrollo en África [Institute for Research and Development In Africa] (IRDA) en Kampala, Uganda. Los objeti...

  14. Helicobacter pylori and cancer among adults in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Marilyn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data from Africa on infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are sparse. Therefore, as part of an epidemiological study of cancer in Uganda, we investigated the prevalence and determinants of antibodies against H. pylori among 854 people with different cancer types and benign tumours. Patients were recruited from hospitals in Kampala, Uganda, interviewed about various demographic and lifestyle factors and tested for antibodies against H. pylori. In all patients combined, excluding those with stomach cancer (which has been associated with H. pylori infection, the prevalence of antibodies was 87% (723/833 overall, but declined with increasing age (p = 0.02 and was lower among people who were HIV seropositive compared to seronegative (p H. pylori antibodies (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence intervals 0.2–2.9, p = 0.7; estimated using all other patients as controls, with adjustment for age, sex and HIV serostatus. No other cancer site or type was significantly associated with anti-H. pylori antibodies. The prevalence of H. pylori reported here is broadly in accord with results from other developing countries, although the determinants of infection and its' role in the aetiology of gastric cancer in Uganda remain unclear.

  15. Around Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The UK is donating US$800,000 to Uganda to reduce the death rate in the western region; the number of cases of malaria there has soared because of unusually severe rains. The health ministry is recommending self-medication with drugs purchased from licensed drug shops and pharmacies (there have been cases of fake or substandard chloroquine tablets and injectable solutions). Cholera is a problem in most of the country, but patients seem reluctant to go to the hospital, even though adequate supplies of drugs are available. Because of the Rift Valley Fever outbreak in Kenya, the health ministry is monitoring movements of people in the border area and conducting a mass screening for the disease. The Mulago National Referral Hospital is receiving US$35 million to improve wards and utilities and to build a new drug quality control laboratory. A training hospital which will provide palliative care for patients with AIDS has opened recently; it is a collaborative project with Mildmay Hospital in the UK. During its regional scientific conference in Masaka, members of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa and Central Africa offered free services to patients in Masaka and Rakai districts. According to the Minister of State for Gender and Community Development, fewer Ugandan women are being circumcised; the rate has dropped by 56% since 1990, due to the efforts of government and women's groups. However, other forms of violence against women remain a problem; the Family Protection Unit of the Ugandan police list 400 reported cases of wife beating, 150 cases of rape, and 250 cases of "defilement of school girls." Police intend to work with teachers to decrease the rising rate of sexual crimes in school. Police also say 90% of street children sniff solvents.

  16. BETWEEN WOMEN'S RIGHTS AND MEN'S AUTHORITY: MASCULINITY AND SHIFTING DISCOURSES OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN URBAN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrod, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Across the African continent, women's rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women's rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda-one that accommodates some aspects of women's rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity.

  17. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  18. Solanum (Solanaceae in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the 41 species, subspecies and cultivar groups in the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae that occur in Uganda, about 30 are indigenous. In Uganda several members of the genus are utilised as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Some members are notorious weeds. A key to the species and descriptions of all Solanum species occurring in Uganda are provided.

  19. Correlates of suicide ideation and attempt among youth living in the slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Yao, Huang

    2012-02-01

    While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14-24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457) were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23-4.52), parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16-3.77), trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09-3.51), sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20-4.89), loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12-6.40) and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53-4.23) were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11-3.76), sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30-7.87), and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25-3.79) were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  20. Correlates of Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Kasirye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14–24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457 were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23–4.52, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16–3.77, trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09–3.51, sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20–4.89, loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12–6.40 and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53–4.23 were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11–3.76, sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30–7.87, and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25–3.79 were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  1. More support for mothers: a qualitative study on factors affecting immunisation behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamani Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were held with those in charge of community mobilisation for immunisation, fathers and mothers. Data was analysed using content analysis. Results Influences on the mother's immunisation behaviour ranged from the non-supportive role of male partners sometimes resulting into intimate partner violence, lack of presentable clothing which made mothers vulnerable to bullying, inconvenient schedules and time constraints, to suspicion against immunisation such as vaccines cause physical disability and/or death. Conclusions Immunisation programmes should position themselves to address social contexts. A community programme that empowers women economically and helps men recognise the role of women in decision making for child health is needed. Increasing male involvement and knowledge of immunisation concepts among caretakers could improve immunisation.

  2. Chronic Sorrow: Lived Experiences of Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients in Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Grief is a central experience by people diagnosed with mental illness, families, and friends. Chronic sorrow is defined as pervasive sadness and/or other emotional reactions commonly associated with grief that is permanent, periodic and potentially progressive in nature. It is viewed as a normal reaction to loss that may be to a single event or ongoing. During the experience of chronic sorrow, people feel emotional commotion, discomfort, & hopelessness. It may progress to pathological grief o...

  3. Religion and Displacement in Africa: Compassion and Sacrifice in Congolese Churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the role of religion in contexts of displacement. The article looks at the role churches and church leaders play in the lives of refugees and more particularly the assistance that these actors provide. The analytical approach is to take into consideration both religious idea...... to refugees, how this is conceptualised as well as the practices in a perspective that includes the intersection between religious ideas (compassion and sacrifice) and ideas around social relationships, gift-giving and reciprocity....

  4. Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.

    2012-01-01

     Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private secto

  5. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal pathogens in a wastewater system in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Stalder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    strains of norovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic E. coli, pathogenic Salmonella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides were used to estimate annual incidence of gastrointestinal illness and the resulting disease burden. The QMRA estimated a total of 59,493 disease episodes per...

  6. Shared toilet users’ collective cleaning and determinant factors in Kampala slums, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Background Dirty shared toilets are a health risk to users in urban slum settlements. For health and non-health benefits among users of shared toilets to be guaranteed, their cleanliness is important. The objective of this study was to investigate the cleanliness situation of shared toilets in Kampala’s slums and the psychological and social dilemma factors influencing users’ cleaning behaviour and commitment by using the risks, attitudes, norms, ability and self-regulation (RANAS) model and ...

  7. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bulafu, Collins Edward; Baranga, Deborah; Mucunguzi, Patrick; Telford,Richard; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2013-01-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 fores...

  8. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, B.J.; Ssengooba, W.; Muwonge, C.; Nakiyingi, L.; Kyaligonza, S.; Kasozi, S.; Mugabe, F.; Boeree, M.J.; Joloba, M.; Okwera, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the ot

  9. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal pathogens in a wastewater system in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Stalder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    the drainage system or managing faecal sludge (sanitation workers); (iv) urban farmers; and (v) swimmers in Lake Victoria. The QMRA was based on measured concentrations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Ascaris spp. eggs in wastewater samples. Published ratios between measured organism and pathogenic...... strains of norovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic E. coli, pathogenic Salmonella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides were used to estimate annual incidence of gastrointestinal illness and the resulting disease burden. The QMRA estimated a total of 59,493 disease episodes per...

  10. Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.

    2012-01-01

     Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private

  11. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    tourism , financial services, information and communications technology, renewable energy. and manufacturing. The group’s operations span 28 countries on...845.938.0804 APPENDIX 1: Entrepreneur Network Survey Demographic Data: 1. Age 2. Sex 3. Marital Status 4. Annual Revenue 5. Sector 6. Political

  12. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    boundaries created by Britain combined a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures . These cultural differences hindered...Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 At Outbox, we were hosted by Richard Zulu , the general manager. Outbox

  13. Factors associated with asthma among under-fives in Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Ostergaard, Marianne S; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital...

  14. Higher Education Benefits for Post-9/11 Military Service Members and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-17

    AND SUBTITLE Higher Education Benefits for Post-9/11 Military Service Members and Veterans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Testimony Higher Education Benefits for Post-9/11 Military Service Members...Jennie W. Wenger1 The RAND Corporation Higher Education Benefits for Post-9/11 Military Service Members and Veterans2 Before the Committees on

  15. insurgents in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... of Uganda enacted an Amnesty Act in 2000, and to date more than ten thousand ..... Amnesty Certificate, and then in theory, a package.20 In the case of former .... [H]uman rights obligations are contracted on an international level.

  16. Transactions after 9/11: the banal face of the preemptive strike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoore, L.; de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the deployment of transactions data of many kinds has become the banal face of the war on terror's preemptive strike. Because the failure to predict and prevent 9/11 is partly thought to be a failure to 'connect the dots' of available intelligence, post 9/11 policies seek to r

  17. 76 FR 65112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and export markets. However, the compensation benefits... Part 104 RIN 1105-AB39 James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 AGENCY: Department of... regulations implementing the amendments made by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010...

  18. From a Post-Traumatic Culture toward the Cultural Trauma of Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabarouti, Roya; Mani, ManiMangai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the impact of the terroristic attacks of September 11, 2001 on American culture has been the prominent subject of various discussions. This has led to a large body of theoretical and experimental works known as "post-9/11", which provides evidence for what Smelser's believes to be the cultural trauma of 9/11. This…

  19. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  20. Road traffic incidents in Uganda: a systematic review of a five-year trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Munanura, Kasiima Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Over the years, Uganda has been one of the low and middle-income countries bearing the heaviest burden of road traffic incidents (RTI). Since the proclamation of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020, a number of measures have been taken to reduce the burden. However, they ought to be premised on existing evidence-based research; therefore, the present review ventures to report the most recent five-year trend of RTI in Uganda. Methods: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Data Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was employed. Using a thematic analysis, the articles were grouped into: trauma etiology, trauma care, mortality, cost, trauma registry and communication, intervention and treatment for final analysis. Results: Of the nineteen articles that were identified to be relevant to the study, the etiology of RTI was inevitably observed to be an important cause of injuries in Uganda. The risk factors cut across: the crash type, injury physiology, cause, victims, setting, age, economic status, and gender. All studies that were reviewed have advanced varying recommendations aimed at responding to the trend of RTIs in Uganda, of which some are in tandem with the five pillars of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020. Conclusions: Peripheral measures of the burden of RTIs in Uganda were undertaken within a five-year timeframe (2011-2015) of implementing the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety. The measures however, ought to be scaled-up on robust evidence based research available from all the concerned stakeholders beyond Kampala or central region to other parts of Uganda. PMID:28039687

  1. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization.

  2. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda...... that the agricultural and livelihood choices women make are subject to the constraints they face and the policy alternatives available to them. As such it highlights certain policy considerations affecting food insecurity for low-income women in urban and peri-urban Kampala and makes certain key recommendations....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...

  3. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nancy S; Mathur, Sanyukta; Kiguli, Sarah; Makani, Julie; Fashakin, Victoria; LaRussa, Philip; Lyimo, Magdalena; Abrams, Elaine J; Mulumba, Lukia; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Family, Community, and Health System Considerations for Reducing the Burden of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Uganda Through Newborn Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Green MD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with high mortality for children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn sickle screening program and enhanced capacity for SCD treatment are under development to reduce disease burden in Uganda and elsewhere in the region. Based on an international stakeholder meeting and a family-directed conference on SCD in Kampala in 2015, and interviews with parents, multinational experts, and other key informants, we describe health care, community, and family perspectives in support of these initiatives. Key stakeholder meetings, discussions, and interviews were held to understand perspectives of public health and multinational leadership, patients and families, as well as national progress, resource needs, medical and social barriers to program success, and resources leveraged from HIV/AIDS. Partnering with program leadership, professionals, patients and families, multinational stakeholders, and leveraging resources from existing programs are needed for building successful programs in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6 – 36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumo Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6–36 months old children and their caretakers. Methods Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997 and the DDE index (FDI 1992. Results The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95, 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 – 6.34 and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95. Conclusion Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6–36 months, including health care workers’ information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda.

  6. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  7. Child Health. Makerere Medical School, P.O. Box 7072. Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-01

    Jul 1, 2002 ... 330, only 67(20.3%) did not go back to the vaccination centre after witnessing the ..... follow-up action in Kampala. Bull World Health. 1992; ... opportunities and inappropriately timed immunisation. /. Trop. Peadiat. 1991; 31: ...

  8. Disorientation and Disillusionment in Post-9/11 Poetry: A Thematic Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the immediate responses that emerged in American poetry after the terrorist attacks on 11 September, 2001. The aim of the paper is not to summarize the tragic events of 9/11, but to show how poets reacted to the terrorist attacks. In response to 9/11, a great deal of poetry emerged that expresses the poetic and completely personal, intimate side of the crisis, and many printed publications appeared in which poets addressed 9/11. Although one can find a range of features in American poetry after the attacks, there are notable similarities among the poetry being produced. The post-9/11 poetry can be divided into thematic clusters. This paper is, however, limited to responses that deal only with feelings of disorientation, loss and despair after 9/11. Furthermore, the paper presents poetic reactions that involve a sense of disillusionment and the idea that everything changed after the attacks. Each thematic cluster offers examples of 9/11 poetry that are interpreted with the help of close reading.

  9. The Terror Attacks of 9/11 and Suicides in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the effect of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terror attacks on suicide rates remain inconclusive. Reportedly, even people located far from the attack site have considerable potential for personalizing the events that occurred on 9/11. Durkheim's theory states that suicides decrease during wartime; thus, a decline in suicides might have been expected after 9/11. We conducted a time series analysis of 164,136 officially recorded suicides in Germany between 1995 and 2009 using the algorithm introduced by Box and Jenkins. Compared with the average death rate, we observed no relevant change in the suicide rate of either sex after 9/11. Our estimates of an excess of suicides approached the null effect value on and within a 7-day period after 9/11, which also held when subsamples of deaths in urban or rural settings were examined. No evidence of Durkheim's theory attributable to the 9/11attacks was found in this sample. PMID:27082561

  10. The Terror Attacks of 9/11 and Suicides in Germany: A Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Data on the effect of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terror attacks on suicide rates remain inconclusive. Reportedly, even people located far from the attack site have considerable potential for personalizing the events that occurred on 9/11. Durkheim's theory states that suicides decrease during wartime; thus, a decline in suicides might have been expected after 9/11. We conducted a time series analysis of 164,136 officially recorded suicides in Germany between 1995 and 2009 using the algorithm introduced by Box and Jenkins. Compared with the average death rate, we observed no relevant change in the suicide rate of either sex after 9/11. Our estimates of an excess of suicides approached the null effect value on and within a 7-day period after 9/11, which also held when subsamples of deaths in urban or rural settings were examined. No evidence of Durkheim's theory attributable to the 9/11attacks was found in this sample.

  11. Impact of mycobacterial culture among HIV-infected adults with presumed TB in Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semitala, F C; Chaisson, L H; den Boon, S; Walter, N; Cattamanchi, A; Awor, M; Katende, J; Huang, L; Joloba, M; Albert, H; Kamya, M R; Davis, J L

    2015-06-21

    Implementation of new tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic strategies in resource-constrained settings is challenging. We measured the impact of solid and liquid mycobacterial cultures on treatment practices for patients undergoing TB evaluation in Kampala, Uganda. We enrolled consecutive smear-negative, human immunodeficiency virus positive adults with cough of ⩾2 weeks from September 2009 to April 2010. Laboratory technicians performed mycobacterial cultures on solid and liquid media. We compared empiric treatment decisions with solid and liquid culture in terms of diagnostic yield and time to results, and assessed impact on patient management. Of 200 patients enrolled, 26 (13%) had culture-confirmed TB: 22 (85%) on solid culture alone, 2 (8%) on liquid culture alone, and 2 (8%) on both solid and liquid culture. Thirty-four patients received empiric anti-tuberculosis treatment, but only 10 (29%) were culture-positive. Median time to a positive result on solid culture was 92 days (interquartile range [IQR] 69-148) compared to 106 days (IQR 66-157) for liquid culture. No patients initiated treatment following a positive result on liquid culture. The introduction of mycobacterial culture did not influence care for patients undergoing evaluation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. Attention to contextual factors surrounding implementation is needed to ensure the effective introduction of new testing strategies in low-income countries.

  12. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda.

  13. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  14. From a Post-traumatic Culture toward the Cultural Trauma of Post-9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Jabarouti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the impact of the terroristic attacks of September 11, 2001 on American culture has been the prominent subject of various discussions. This has led to a large body of theoretical and experimental works known as ‘post-9/11’, which provides evidence for what Smelser’s believes to be the cultural trauma of 9/11. This study sets out to present a review of post 9/11 literature, with the perspective of cultural trauma as suggested by Neil J. Smelser, to provide a comprehensive understanding of this collective experience. This analysis highlights the role of the historical background and socio-cultural context in the establishment of cultural trauma. It also indicates the social agents and cultural elements that contributed to the embeddedness and spread of this phenomenon among the Americans. Finally, it indicates the most prominent collective response of the Americans, and as its consequences.

  15. Richard Gray, After the Fall: American Literature Since 9/11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Tseti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available “If there was one thing writers agreed about in response to 9/11, it was the failure of language; the terrorist attacks made the tools of their trade seem absurd.” While repeating the common catchphrase of the majority of studies on literary production after 9/11, the powerful opening sentence of After the Fall also signals the book’s insightful differentiation and shift of focus from previous attempts at addressing the subject and immediately brings to the fore what, for Gray, is mostly at s...

  16. Transactions after 9/11: the banal face of the preemptive strike

    OpenAIRE

    Amoore, L.; Goede, M. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the deployment of transactions data of many kinds has become the banal face of the war on terror's preemptive strike. Because the failure to predict and prevent 9/11 is partly thought to be a failure to 'connect the dots' of available intelligence, post 9/11 policies seek to register, mine and connect ever more 'dots', or association rules, in the form of credit card transactions, travel data, supermarket purchases and so on. We argue that it is in these ordinary transa...

  17. American Multiculturalism after 9/11: Transatlantic Perspectives, by Derek Rubin and Jaap Verheul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysavgi Papagianni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The prohibition of the islamic burqa in European countries can be seen as a symptom of a return to nationalism, in itself a reaction to the growing fear of a possible Muslim increase exacerbated after 9/11 in America, the Fortuyn and Van Gogh murders in Netherlands and the terrorist attacks in Spain and England. Thus, despite the undeniable progress that multiculturalists have made in both Europe and America in our days events like 9/11 –or at least the manipulation of them by conservative po...

  18. An Event “Like a Movie”? Hollywood and 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickli, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Footage of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 provoked a wide spectrum of viewers to state that what they were witnessing was “like a movie.” In a first part, this essay discusses the salience of such a simile by comparing the aesthetics and content of 9/11-footage to the one of Hollywood disaster films. In a second part, Hollywood’s immediate reactions as well as its recent movie representations of 9/11 are analyzed.

  19. 75 FR 66193 - Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... AFFAIRS Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums AGENCY: Department of Veterans... GI Bill tuition and fee in-State maximum rates for the 2010- 2011 academic year. The Post-9/11 GI... amounts payable for training pursued under the Post-9/11 GI Bill after July 31, 2010, and before August 1...

  20. 77 FR 76169 - Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AFFAIRS Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill AGENCY: Department... of the increase in the Post-9/11 GI Bill maximum tuition and fee amounts payable and the increase in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: For the 2011-2012 academic year, the Post-9/ 11 GI Bill allowed VA to pay the actual...

  1. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in any...

  2. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any...

  3. Laramie in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    No matter how disturbing, it is common to hear "that's so gay" or "you're such a fag" echoing through the halls of a high school, but when the high school is an international school in Uganda, those words have a newfound potency. As an American teacher working abroad, the author often struggled over her responsibility for the…

  4. The Karimojong from Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133,...

  5. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  6. Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377) was put in place to amend title 38, United States Code, to improve educational assistance for veterans who served in the Armed Forces after September 11, 2001, and for other purposes. The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Short…

  7. From trauma victim to terrorist: redefining superheroes in Post-9/11 Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.; Berninger, M.; Ecke, J.; Haberkorn, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I use trauma theory to identify and discuss post-9/11 film adaptation of graphic novels as trauma narratives. I argue, for example, that since the first major recognition of the graphic novel as a legitimate form of literature in the late 1980s, trauma has played an important part in t

  8. Report of the Summer School of Pitch, Music & Associated Pathologies (Lyon, July 9-11, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pfeifer; R. Asano; V. Attina; M. d’Errico; N. El Boghdady; G. Estivalet; L. Grön; D. Guillemard; H.J. Kang; A. Luckmann; F. Mina; S. Tabibi; J. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The summer school on Pitch, Music and Associated Pathologies was held for 2½ days, July 9-11, 2014, at the Valpré conference center in Lyon. Fifty-five researchers and students from universities and research institutions from 11 countries participated in it. The summer school was organized in 2 larg

  9. Social Justice Issues and Music Education in the Post 9/11 United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to examine the impact of historical sociopolitical events on music education, particularly post 9/11 with the intent of establishing a context for social justice issues; and second, how we might examine the broad implications to further music education research focusing on social justice. Issues of…

  10. The First 109 Minutes: 9/11 and the U.S. Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    crash it into the Eiffel Tower.322 Ramzi Yousef was alleged to have ties to the Armed Islamic Group, and Philippine investigators reportedly found a...accessed Jan 31, 2011]; “Hijackings in History,” article from the Syracuse Herald Journal, Dec 26, 1994; History Commons 9/11 timeline, “Profile: Eiffel

  11. Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

  12. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  13. Engaging "Apolitical" Adolescents: Analyzing the Popularity and Educational Potential of Dystopian Literature Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Although dystopian novels have been prevalent under the young adult banner for decades, their abundance and popularity post-9/11 is noteworthy. The 21st century has found academics and laypersons alike discussing the supposed political apathy of young adults and teenagers of the Millennial Generation. However, despite this common complaint--and…

  14. Boycott or Buycott? Malay Middle-Class Consumption Post-9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11. I shall show how this issue evokes a wide range of contestations and paradoxes in the everyday lives of suburban Malay Muslim middle-class families. Most of all, the boycott confronts divergent Malay middle-class groups with the problem of how to translate intentionality...

  15. The Talk of the Town: 9/11, the Lost Image, and the Machiavellian Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Fleming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A “lost” 9/11 photograph re-surfaced publicly in 2005/2006 and triggered some revealing debate in the United States about what 9/11 images “should” show. The paper unpacks the image and some key responses to it in order to describe a contemporary “Machiavellian moment” in which civic humanist ideals turn out to deny a reality that the image briefly hinted at, a reality recovered in the paper via discussion of a YouTube commentary thread concerned with a 9/11 “tribute” mashup video derived from comic books. Contrasting the latter with “proper” debate in The New Yorker and elsewhere, the paper argues for the necessity of hearing a different conversation that is discernibly “out there”. The result of doing so will be a better understanding of the materialization of affect in images and speech acts. It is argued that this will help us better grasp the nature of the “hot cognitions” that focus around a major event such as 9/11 and the ways in which those are mediated.

  16. The Aesthetics of Remembering 9/11: Towards a Transnational Typology of Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Gessner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A decade after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, all three sites of violent impact have seen the dedication of national memorials to the victims. Hundreds of memorials have appeared in less likely places in the United States and around the world. This article offers an analysis of international 9/11 memorials along the lines of Michael Rothberg, as “a complementary centrifugal mapping that charts the outward movement of American power.” It traces well-established memorial aesthetics, such as walls and statues, in a selection of 9/11 memorials located in the United States, Ireland, Spain, Germany, Italy, and Israel. Richard Gray’s hypothesis, that no fundamental change occurred in American prose writing, the works rather “assimilate the unfamiliar into familiar structures,” lends itself to examine 9/11 memorial aesthetics. In fact, despite the proclaimed sense of historical rupture, we do not witness great innovations of memorial design but a continuation of known patterns: modernist minimalism augmented by figural representations.

  17. Report of the Summer School of Pitch, Music & Associated Pathologies (Lyon, July 9-11, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, J.; Asano, R.; Attina, V.; d’Errico, M.; El Boghdady, N.; Estivalet, G.; Grön, L.; Guillemard, D.; Kang, H.J.; Luckmann, A.; Mina, F.; Tabibi, S.; Viswanathan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The summer school on Pitch, Music and Associated Pathologies was held for 2½ days, July 9-11, 2014, at the Valpré conference center in Lyon. Fifty-five researchers and students from universities and research institutions from 11 countries participated in it. The summer school was organized in 2 larg

  18. Engaging "Apolitical" Adolescents: Analyzing the Popularity and Educational Potential of Dystopian Literature Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Although dystopian novels have been prevalent under the young adult banner for decades, their abundance and popularity post-9/11 is noteworthy. The 21st century has found academics and laypersons alike discussing the supposed political apathy of young adults and teenagers of the Millennial Generation. However, despite this common complaint--and…

  19. Mapping Gravitational and Magnetic Fields with Children 9-11: Relevance, Difficulties and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradamante, F.; Viennot, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation centered on a guided conceptual path concerning magnetic and gravitational fields, proposed for children aged 9-11. The goal is to appreciate to what extent the idea of "mapping" two fields of interaction is accessible and fruitful for children of that age. The conceptual target is to link magnetic and…

  20. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an…

  1. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an extensive…

  2. Engagement in Trauma-Specific CBT for Youth Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Gopalan, Geetha; Olin, Serene; McKay, Mary M.; Marcus, Sue M.; Radigan, Marleen; Chung, Michelle; Legerski, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Treatment participation was examined among youth enrolled in an evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for trauma following the 9/11 World Trade Center disaster. Staff at nine agencies serving a predominantly low-income, ethnically diverse population were trained to deliver CBT and structured engagement strategies. A total of 445 youth…

  3. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  4. Compelling Memory: 9/11 and the Work of Mourning in Mike Binder's Reign over Me

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeren, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that the American commemoration of 9/11 has been dominantly conducted in a compelling, spectacularized manner. The obligation to remember is accompanied by an expectation that this memory will be put on display in the form of emotional expression and/or memory objects.

  5. Post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Mayris P; Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Hall, Charles B; Jaber, Nadia; Weiden, Michael D; Matteson, Eric L; Prezant, David J

    2017-06-07

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure. We calculated incidence of sarcoidosis diagnosed from 9/12/2001 to 9/11/2015, and generated expected sex- and age-specific rates based on REP rates. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) based on REP rates, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Two sensitivity analyses limited cases to those with intra-thoracic symptoms or biopsy confirmation. We identified 68 post-9/11 cases in the FDNY cohort. Overall, FDNY rates were significantly higher than expected rates (SIR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2, 3.6). Including only symptomatic cases, the SIR decreased (SIR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.0), but remained significantly elevated. SIRs ranged from 2.7 (95% CI = 2.0, 3.5) in the lower WTC exposure group to 4.2 (95% CI = 1.9, 8.0) in the most highly exposed. We found excess incident post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed workers. Continued surveillance, particularly of those most highly exposed, is necessary to identify those with sarcoidosis and to follow them for possible adverse effects including functional impairments and organ damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.

  7. 9.11之后的美国学校公民教育%American Civic Education after 9/11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平

    2007-01-01

    美国学校的公民教育历史悠久,且深入人心.在9.11事件之后,美国学校公民教育的特点主要表现为:深化爱国主义的内涵,寻求国民身份共识;联邦与州政府通过立法、立项,加强对学校公民教育的管理与支持;学校注重围绕公民知识、公民技能、公民气质,进行综合培养与训练.

  8. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  9. Implementation of Patient-Centered Education for Chronic-Disease Management in Uganda: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Rabin, Tracy; Canavan, Maureen E; Nassali, Faith; Kirchhoff, Phillip; Kalyesubula, Robert; Coca, Steven; Rastegar, Asghar; Knauf, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The majority of non-communicable disease related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Patient-centered care is an essential component of chronic disease management in high income settings. To examine feasibility of implementation of a validated patient-centered education tool among patients with heart failure in Uganda. Mixed-methods, prospective cohort. A private and public cardiology clinic in Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Adults with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. PocketDoktor Educational Booklets with patient-centered health education. The primary outcomes were the change in Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13), as well as the acceptability of the PocketDoktor intervention, and feasibility of implementing patient-centered education in outpatient clinical settings. Secondary outcomes included the change in satisfaction with overall clinical care and doctor-patient communication. A total of 105 participants were enrolled at two different clinics: the Mulago Outpatient Department (public) and the Uganda Heart Institute (private). 93 participants completed follow up at 3 months and were included in analysis. The primary analysis showed improved patient activation measure scores regarding disease-specific knowledge, treatment options and prevention of exacerbations among both groups (mean change 0.94 [SD = 1.01], 1.02 [SD = 1.15], and 0.92 [SD = 0.89] among private paying patients and 1.98 [SD = 0.98], 1.93 [SD = 1.02], and 1.45 [SD = 1.02] among public paying patients, peducation can improve confidence in self-management as well as satisfaction with doctor-patient communication and overall care in Uganda. Our results show that printed booklets are locally appropriate, highly acceptable and feasible to implement in an LMIC outpatient setting across socioeconomic groups.

  10. Structure of the spatial periphery of the isotopes {sup 9,11}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan-lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaya, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The cross sections for the (t, p) reactions on the lithium isotopes {sup 9,11}Li were calculated within a theoretical approach based on employing integral equations of the four-body problem in the Alt—Grassberger-Sandhas formalism and the multiparticle shell model. This made it possible to determine the wave functions for the relative motion of various clusters and the nuclear core and to calculate, on their basis, the root-mean-square radii of nuclei of the isotopes {sup 9,11}Li and the spatial structure of their neutron periphery. It is shown that the {sup 9}Li nucleus has virtually no neutron halo. The {sup 11}Li nucleus is a Borromean halo nucleus. The two-neutron periphery of this nucleus manifests itself in both spatial configurations, a dineutron and a cigar one, the respective root-mean-square radii being large (about 6.5 to 6.9 fm)

  11. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  12. Bankruptcy Through Other Means: The Government’s Overreaction to 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    on WTC and Pentagon 10 months, 30 days Figure 1: Timeline of Al Qaeda Attacks5 Was America truly at war, or had American interests simply been...to come, the casual civilian observer accepted the collective attitude that the 9/11 attack was simply too bold and destructive for America to...incorrectly assessed weapons of mass destruction were being stockpiled in Iraq. These incorrect assessments led to the decision to pursue regime change in

  13. Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Volume VII - 2011, 10 Years After: The 9/11 Essays

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. 10 Years After: the 9/11 Essays. Homeland Security Affairs (...

  14. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  15. Human trafficking and U.S. government responses post- 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    DeCeoursty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis examines the effectiveness of U.S. government anti-human trafficking efforts in the post- 9/11 environment. The body of human trafficking literature has revealed four common themes: human agency, labor rights, the sex industry, and crime control. The thesis examines five federal departments that were selected based on their relative experience, expertise, and operational mandates. Open source statistical data and other infor...

  16. The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...the MGIB-AD for Post-9/11 GI Bill benefits is entitled to maintain the MGIB- AD supplemental educational assistance (“ kicker ”) for a critical skill.32...32 38 C.F.R. § 21.9650. Each military branch may provide a College Fund/ Kicker at recruitment, which increases the

  17. Pinnisterols A–C, New 9,11-Secosterols from a Gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new 9,11-secosterols, pinnisterols A–C (1–3, were isolated from a gorgonian coral Pinnigorgia sp., collected off the waters of Taiwan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The new sterols 1 and 3 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils, and sterol 1 was found to show moderate cytotoxicity in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs.

  18. The Long and Winding Road: Post-9/11 Intelligence Reforms a Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    with the surge in hiring of young analysts who are particularly adept at networking, collaborating, and sharing information comes a workforce that...is the significant level of hiring that took place in the post-9/11 intelligence surge , leading to a significantly younger workforce of intelligence...1947 and the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 are exhibits A and B in this regard. Big, set-in-their-ways intelligence institutions are like glaciers

  19. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  20. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to reporting...

  1. Community and Home-Based Care HIV Service Delivery Model in the Context of Paediatric HIV Management and Contributing to Health Systems Strengthening in a Resource-Limited Setting (Uganda): Operational Research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the Tukula Fenna Project (TFP) that was set up at the Home Care Department of St. Raphael of St Francis Hospital (Nsambya Hospital) in Kampala, Uganda. In 2003, Associazione Casa Accoglienza alla vita “Padre Angelo” (ACAVPA) or “HOUSE FOR LIFE, Father Angelo” and other Italian partners; in particular, PENTA Foundation and University of Padova, Department of paediatrics collectively signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Nsambya Hospital. The aim of the MoU was t...

  2. Factors affecting dairy production in peri-urban areas of Kampala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of small holder dairy farms in the peri-urban areas of Kampala are increasing. This could be .... in the families. The household had an average of 8 people. ... labour intensive needing cheap family labour that is readily available.

  3. Numerical algorithms in chemistry: algebraic methods. [Workshop, August 9-11, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, C.; Shavitt, I. (eds.)

    1978-08-09

    The National Resource for Computation in Chemistry was established to make information on existing and developing computational methodologies available to all segments of the chemistry community, to make state-of-the-art computation facilities accessible to the chemistry community, and to foster research and development of new computational methods for application to chemical problems. Attention was directed to algebraic methods because of their continuing importance in chemical applications. This volume contains digests of the contributions to the workshop of August 9--11, 1978. Presentations were given on eigenvalue problems, linear systems of equations, and integral transformations. One of the papers in this volume was abstracted and indexed separately. (RWR)

  4. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger

  5. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  6. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  7. The UNDP spends $2m. on grass-roots income-generation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A $2 million UNDP project designed to provide assistance to those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is having problems finding its target population in Uganda. Staff cannot rely on many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), so money is being directly channeled to villages via local leaders, who weed out the undeserving. Internationally, most funds are directed at prevention, education, and prediction of the social and economic impacts of the epidemic. However, the impact at the national, local, and family levels has gone unaddressed. The approach has been charitable, rather than sustainable. The aims of the project are as follows: 1) establishment of income generation programs for orphans, widows, low income survivors, and communities with large numbers of patients with AIDS; and 2) establishment of skills and resources in local groups to implement and manage the projects. 90 microprojects are currently funded in 20 of 39 Ugandan districts. Funds are channelled through the HIV/AIDS Grassroots Initiative Support Fund. The steering committee includes representatives of the Uganda AIDS Commission and the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. In an effort to rehabilitate prostitutes in Kampala, $6000 was loaned to 21 women and 15 orphans to buy cooking and sewing equipment. Other income generation programs include carpentry and agricultural projects and piggeries. The project time has been extended by 18 months and funds have increased from $700,000 to $2,000,000.

  8. The Oprahfication of 9/11: September 11, the war in Iraq, and The Oprah Winfrey show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Cotten, T.T.; Springer, K.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses how The Oprah Winfrey Show presented the aftermath of 9/11 and the pending war in Iraq in its episodes. It shows that in "The Oprahfication of 9/11," the show’s discourse on terrorism and war "transform[ed] possible feelings of fear, anger, anxiety, and grief into acts of Amer

  9. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  10. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  11. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  12. Post-9/11 Arab and Muslim American Community College Students: Ethno-Religious Enclaves and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Diane S.

    2009-01-01

    Apart from the widescale media attention that Arabs and Muslims have received in the United States and abroad since 9/11, these two target populations have been largely unexamined at both the two-year and four-year college levels. This study represents a pioneering effort in investigating whether the post-9/11 backlash against Arabs and Muslims…

  13. BETWEEN WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND MEN’S AUTHORITY: MASCULINITY AND SHIFTING DISCOURSES OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN URBAN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrod, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Across the African continent, women’s rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women’s rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda—one that accommodates some aspects of women’s rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity. PMID:19862350

  14. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  15. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia Mayanja

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance.We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12 using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed.Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8% of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.94 and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30-2.92. The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education.Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment.

  16. Who do you know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Environment of Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Social Networks and Entrepreneurship . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28: 1–22. doi: 10.1111/1540-8520.00029 Lin, N. and Dumin, M. (1986...entrepreneur lives and operates. In order to develop this model, we have adapted a technique used in sociology to measure social capital called the Position...Generator (Lin & Dumin, 1986; Lin et Al, 2001). This technique circumvents the massive effort of mapping an individual’s social network before

  17. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and domes

  18. Kitchen Practices Used in Handling Broiler Chickens and Survival of Campylobacter spp. on Cutting Surfaces in Kampala, Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irene Wanyenya; Charles Muyanja; George William Nasinyama

    2004-01-01

    .... The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 106 CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards...

  19. Kitchen practices used in handling broiler chickens and survival of Campylobacter spp. on cutting surfaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyenya, Irene; Muyanja, Charles; Nasinyama, George William

    2004-09-01

    Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods.

  20. Post-9/11 Discourses Of Threat And Constructions Of Terror In The Age Of Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Bloodsworth-Lugo

    2011-09-01

    In the present paper, we argue that the post-9/11 language of “us versus them” (“Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists” [Bush 2001], delivered to the American public and international community to garner consent in the wake of the September 11, 2001 events, and transformed into public policy for the remainder of the G.W. Bush presidency, provided a lens through which Americans would continue to construct and perceive the world beyond the Bush administration.  Ideology surrounding “the War on Terror,” in particular, has either been resisted or co-opted and deployed by social agents in the aftermath of September 11, 2001.  We claim that in the age of Obama, Bush-generated discourse and ideology has been activated to continue and advance policies and practices aimed at identifying and containing “terrorist” threats.

  1. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  2. The 9/11 Decade: Social Imaginary and Healing Virtual Community Fracture

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    Charles A. Hays

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial events of 9/11 broke upon the awareness of people who turned first to traditional media for information, then to their networks of distant others when traditional media could not meet their needs. This study looks at two online community groups on Usenet. Though other technologies have supplanted Usenet to some degree, it provided a vibrant means of asynchronously connecting people interested in online discussion. As community members expressed their shock and horror, they also acted out the process of repairing the radical fracture to their virtual communal identity. The process by which they enacted this repair embodies a social imaginary, and is generally called “community repair”. This study finds that the process of community repair is very much driven by the culture inherent in the sodality represented by the participants to each newsgroup, reflecting the values that participants have communally agreed to hold valuable.

  3. Auditory-motor learning during speech production in 9-11-year-old children.

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    Douglas M Shiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9-11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that 9-11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories.

  4. Attention orientation in parents exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M; Mandell, Donald J; Musa, George J; Britton, Jennifer C; Sankin, Lindsey S; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Hoven, Christina W

    2011-05-15

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions.

  5. Attention Orientation in Parents Exposed to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M.; Mandell, Donald J.; Musa, George J.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Sankin, Lindsey S.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions. PMID:20970198

  6. Prevalence of RhD variants among blood donors at Gulu Regional Blood Bank, Gulu, Northern Uganda

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    Ojok P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycarp Ojok,1,2 Caesar Oyet,1 Fred Webbo,1,3 Bashir Mwambi,1 Ivan M Taremwa1 1Institute of Allied Health Sciences, International Health Sciences University, Kampala, 2Gulu Regional Blood Bank, Gulu, 3Lancet Laboratories, Kampala, Uganda Aim/objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RhD variant ­phenotypes among voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBDs at Gulu Regional Blood Bank (GRBB, Northern Uganda. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which the first 4.0 mL of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood samples were collected from VNRBDs and typed for their ABO and RhD blood group status using IgM and IgG monoclonal typing antisera, respectively. Blood samples that tested as RhD negative were further investigated for RhD variant phenotypes using indirect antihuman globulin hemagglutination technique. Results: We assayed 138 RhD-negative blood samples obtained from VNRBDs. Of these, 66.7% (n=92 were males. Their median age was 24.4 years (range, 14–33 years. Majority of the participants were of ABO blood group O (62.8%, n=86, followed by A (19.7%, n=27, then B (13.9%, n=19 and least AB (3.6%, n=6. The prevalence of RhD variant phenotypes was 0.7% (n=1; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–0.9. There was no statistical association of RhD variant phenotypes with donor gender, tribe and their ABO blood groups. Conclusion: This study has revealed a high prevalence of RhD variant among blood donors at GRBB in Northern Uganda. It further highlights a potential risk of alloimmunization, as the present blood typing practices do not identify RhD variant phenotypes. Keywords: Rh blood group, D variants, D antigen, weak D, partial D, Uganda 

  7. Pediatric Neurosurgical Outcomes Following a Neurosurgery Health System Intervention at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anthony T; Haglund, Michael M; Lim, Stephanie; Mukasa, John; Muhumuza, Michael; Kiryabwire, Joel; Ssenyonjo, Hussein; Smith, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric neurosurgical cases have been identified as an important target for impacting health disparities in Uganda, with over 50% of the population being less than 15 years of age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Duke-Mulago collaboration on pediatric neurosurgical outcomes in Mulago National Referral Hospital. We performed retrospective analysis of all pediatric neurosurgical cases who presented at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, to examine overall, preprogram (2005-2007), and postprogram (2008-2013) outcomes. We analyzed mortality, presurgical infections, postsurgical infections, length of stay, types of procedures, and significant predictors of mortality. Data on neurosurgical cases was collected from surgical logbooks, patient charts, and Mulago National Referral Hospital's yearly death registry. Of 820 pediatric neurosurgical cases, outcome data were complete for 374 children. Among children who died within 30 days of a surgical procedure, the largest group was less than a year old (45%). Postinitiation of the Duke-Mulago collaboration, we identified an overall increase in procedures, with the greatest increase in cases with complex diagnoses. Although children ages 6-18 years of age were 6.66 times more likely to die than their younger counterparts preprogram, age was no longer a predictive variable postprogram. When comparing pre- and postprogram outcomes, mortality among pediatric patients within 30 days after a neurosurgical procedure increased from 4.3% to 10.0%, mortality after 30 days increased slightly from 4.9% to 5.0%, presurgical infections decreased by 4.6%, and postsurgery infections decreased slightly by 0.7%. Our data show the provision of more complex neurological procedures does not necessitate improved outcomes. Rather, combining these higher-level procedures with essential pre- and postoperative care and continued efforts in health system strengthening for pediatric neurosurgical

  8. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, .... Uganda Peoples Defence Forces (UPDF), the Police and Local Defense .... on-going, northern Uganda is only included in the Rural Finance Service ...

  9. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda.

  10. Treating AIDS: dilemmas of unequal access in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, S R; Whyte, M A; Meinert, L; Kyaddondo, B

    2004-05-01

    The price of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Uganda has fallen dramatically in recent years and more people are under treatment. By mid-2003 it was estimated that 10 000 people were taking ARVs. Drawing on participant observation, qualitative interviews, work with key informants and document reviews, we seek to map out the channels through which ARVs are being made available to people and to describe and assess the social implications of the present system of distribution. Four channels of access to ARV medicines were common in mid-2003: (i) Medicines were provided free in structured research and treatment programmes funded by donors, but only to those who lived in a defined catchment area and met inclusion criteria. (ii) Gazetted treatment centres provided drugs on a fee-for-service basis; these urban-based institutions account for the largest number of drugs dispensed. (iii) Private practitioners, mainly based in Kampala, provided discrete treatment for those who could afford it. (iv) Finally, medicines were 'facilitated' along informal networks, supplying friends and relatives on a less regular basis, sometimes for free, sometimes for cash. However, access to ARVs remains highly uneven. We argue that cheaper drugs make possible different kinds of access, different qualities of care, and a growing awareness of inequity. Because the price of drugs has fallen drastically, middle-class families now have the possibility of buying them. But this requires tough prioritising and many cannot follow the regimen regularly. Health workers must consider whether patients will be able to purchase the drugs or not. In a kind of popular social pharmacy, people assess who can and should and does get access to ARVs. Further research should examine the whole range of ARV access channels in different countries and the associated patterns of social differentiation and exclusions.

  11. Delayed elective surgery in a major teaching hospital in Uganda

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    Kajja I

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Isaac Kajja,1 Cees Th Smit Sibinga21Department of Orthopedics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2ID Consulting for International Development of Transfusion Medicine (IDTM, Groningen, The NetherlandsBackground: A number of factors come into play in determining the timing of an elective surgical intervention, particularly in the developing world. The present study explores the factors that contribute to the timing of elective surgery and patients' opinions on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Methods: We followed adult patients with delayed elective surgical interventions (n=204. The causes for the delay and, particularly, the influence of blood shortage on the timing of the procedure were noted. Patients' perceptions on their quality of life as they waited for surgery were also noted.Results: We were able to establish a cause for delayed elective surgery in 133 patients. Shortage of operating space was the leading cause of surgery delay in 44 patients, while blood shortage followed closely in 40 patients. The higher the amount of blood ordered for use in the perioperative time, the longer the delay to surgery (P=0.001. Patients waiting for surgery had a low opinion of their in-hospital quality of life. Here, the key indicators included the threat of losing a job, limited family time, and an increase in day-to-day living costs.Conclusion: Blood shortage is the second most common cause of the delayed performance of elective surgical interventions in our institution. The patients have a low opinion on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Keywords: blood shortage, delayed elective surgery, quality of life

  12. Rebirth of the Nouveau Roman: 9/11 as a Crisis of Confidence in American Literary Aesthetics

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    Daniel Davis Wood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that 9/11 created a crisis of confidence amongst writers of American fiction by problematizing literary realism’s claims to verisimiltude and so undermining it as a plausible and credible mode of fiction. Surveying the post-9/11 debate over the merits and shortcomings of realism, this article suggests that the unlikely beneficiary of this crisis of confidence has been the contemporary nouveau roman, a mode of fiction that originates from within the literary traditions of continental Europe. The emergence of writers, publishers, reviewers, and readers attracted to the nouveau roman as a mode of literature in opposition to realism—and engaged in its production, evaluation, promotion, and dissemination—seems to signify a widespread dissatisfaction with the predominant American literary response to the crisis of 9/11. Providing a brief history of the emergence of this post-9/11 institutional support for the nouveau roman, this article contends that the nouveau roman requires a place in literary histories of post-9/11 American fiction even if it does not explicitly address the subject of 9/11 itself.

  13. Characterization of a balanced reciprocal translocation, rcp(9;11)(q27;q11) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, L; De Giovanni, A; Molteni, L; Denis, C; Eggen, A; Parma, P

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of a phenotypically normal young bull from Marchigiana breed revealed the presence of an abnormal karyotype. The observation of longer and smaller chromosomes than BTA1 and BTA29, respectively in all metaphases suggested the presence of a reciprocal translocation. RBG-banding confirmed this hypothesis revealing the involvement of BTA9 and BTA11. FISH analyses using cattle-specific BAC clones (474A12 and 293G09 for BTA9; 035D03 for BTA11) identified rcp(9;11)(q27;q11) in the two regions affected. Moreover analyses performed on both parents established the 'de novo' origin of the anomaly. Comparison with human homologue sequences (HSA6q24.3-->q25.3 for BTA9q27 and HSA2q11.1-->q12.1 for BTA11q11) revealed that both breakpoint regions are gene rich as up to date at least 200 genes have been localized in these regions. Thus, further analyses are required to identify the sequences disrupted by the breakpoints and to verify their consequences on rcp carrier phenotype. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Beyond 9/11: Poetics of Transcultural Agency in Contemporary Ethnic American Poetry

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    Mavy Elhayawi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a post-postmodern world void of exclusive identities, limited localities or hindering cultural borders, and in a period of rapid globalization, massive flows of transmigration, and increasing creation of multinationals, the future of mankind should be envisioned as a shared mission accomplished only through negotiation and reconciliation of contradictory cultural experiences. Yet, moving beyond the entrenched boundaries of national space and overcoming the American-third world mutual hatred and distrust – engrained after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and America’s war on terrorism – still requires a considerable leap of imagination. Investigating such alternative imagination – which transgresses the narrow borders of place, time and identity, recognizes the dramatic change in the politics of place, understands how there has been both merged and emerged in the characterization of here, views the future as a transcultural treaty that needs to be peacefully negotiated, accepts the limitless boundaries of self-consciousness, and perceives the potentials inherent in the complex interaction and interruption of the other – is the main aim of this paper.

  15. “Temperate and Nearly Cloudless”: The 9/11 Commission Report as Postmodern Pastiche

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    Alan Nadel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available “Tuesday, September 11, 2001 dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States”. Thus begins Chapter One of the 9/11 Commission Report, a chapter that bears the title, “‘We have Some Planes’”. As with all good pop fiction, the reader awaits to see what this quote means, although we know already that it will mark a crucial moment, one that renders the innocuous urgent, or gives meaning to a startling chaos of coincidence. Pop culture has taught us the formula well: Everything looks fine; high school kids sip pop and dance in front of the juke box; Ole Doc Jones is mowin’ the lawn while Mrs. Jones makes lemonade. BUT strange noises have been heard in the cellar; no one can find the cat; Mr. Grundy insists he saw flashing lights last night, but no one believes him because Mrs. Grundy says he’s been acting strange ever since she flushed his Viagra; mysteriously, all the clocks in Indianapolis have started running fast or slow by exactly 24 hours. Then we hear the message on the police radio: “we’ve got some planes…as large as football fields hovering over every Wall-Mart in the nation”. At last someone will believe the geeky newspaper boy and his big brother’s girlfriend, who knew all along he was on to something. Let’s hope it’s not too late.

  16. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  17. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  18. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda's Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Braniff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Al-Qaeda has suffered a number of setbacks, but has also successfully spawned an expansionist global jihadist movement that will survive the death of Osama bin Laden. This article describes how the multifaceted threat posed by global jihadism has evolved over the last decade. It first recounts some of the more salient examples of Al-Qaeda’s post-9/11 strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations, and then offers a balance sheet of Al-Qaeda’s contemporary strengths and weaknesses. Al-Qaeda continues to enable the violence of others, orient that violence towards the United States and its allies in a distributed game of attrition warfare, and foster a dichotomous “us versus them” narrative between the Muslim world and the rest of the international community. Despite this overarching consistency, Al-Qaeda shepherds a different phenomenon than it did ten years ago. The aggregation of the movement’s strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations has fundamentally changed the nature of the jihadist threat to the West. This evolved threat is not inherently more dangerous, as counterterrorism efforts today focus on and disrupt capability earlier and more consistently than prior to September 2001. This multifaceted global jihad will, however, continue to produce greater numbers of attacks in more locations, from a more diverse cadre of individuals spanning a wider ideological spectrum.   

  19. The dilemma of the failed state thesis in post-9/11 world affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schoeman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The 9/11 terrorist attacks shifted the emphasis of failed states as just a regional humanitarian problem to one that could present a global security threat. In this regard US policymakers, especially, identified failed states as possible terrorist threats. However, this renewed attention to the study of state failure has exposed a number of theoretical weaknesses in this body of literature. The latter could mainly be ascribed to the way in which US policy makers have often used generalised definitions of failed states and then applied it to states that are perceived as threats. Another problem is the fact that government sponsored research institutes and think tanks are operating independently from university academics. This situation has caused theoretical confusion as conditions in failed states are often interpreted differently resulting in the development of a number of opposing theories, definitions and confusing classification models. The body of literature is further accused of endorsing a “Weberian” definition (ideal type of the state against which degrees of “failure” in non-complying states are measured. This article will investigate the extent of these theoretical weaknesses and expose the dangers of following an approach that seem to misinterpret the political realities of developing states (often regarded as failed – this despite having an extensive popular following. It will further focus on possible alternative approaches – or the formulation of ideas that are better suited and relevant to the often unique internal political, social and economic dynamics of unstable states.

  20. HIV Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Teachers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Bazeyo, William; Tanga, Erasmus Otolok

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34) compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97). Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59). Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58). Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote individual

  1. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  2. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Methods: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). Results: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Conclusions: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could

  3. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention

  4. French Fiction, Empathy, and the Utopian Potential of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gauthier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In From Solidarity to Schisms , Cara Cilano conceptualizes September 11 as a moment “characterized by unfathomable vulnerability and the possibility of a better future.” She argues the event, while traumatic, might have served as an impetus to reconfigure American self-perceptions and thoughts about its place in the world. Instead, she contends, the United States squandered the utopian potential of this moment. Cilano remains optimistic, however, because she sees European fictional discourse on 9/11 as emblematic of a desire for a melding of divergent perspectives. Their critique aims to keep America’s sense of itself unbalanced, thus providing fuel for self-reflection, analysis, and, most important, renewal. Taking the measure of current Franco-American relations, this essay tests the validity of this contention by examining works of French fiction published in the five years after the attacks. Four of these texts—Christian Garcin’s La jubilation des hasards , Didier Goupil’s Le jour de mon retour sur terre , Luc Lang’s 11 septembre, mon amour , and Frédéric Beigbeder’s Windows on the World —will be the focus of this essay. Are they being written to take advantage of the cosmopolitan potential of the moment, or grasping the opportunity to criticize a (weakened nation, and thereby expressing uniquely French concerns? The essay contemplates the extent to which self-interest and questions of identity—personal, political, national—interfere with empathy, thus posing a considerable challenge to the utopian dream of a cosmopolitan world.

  5. Creep damage and expected creep life for welded 9-11% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 (Finland)]. E-mail: Pertti.Auerkari@vtt.fi; Holmstroem, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 (Finland); Veivo, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 (Finland); Salonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    The damage mechanisms affecting engineering steels at high-temperatures include creep cavitation and cracking that can form the path for final failure in susceptible locations such as welds. The evolution of observed damage is widely used in condition monitoring, timing of inspections and support of life management. However, the damage evolution is material dependent, and requires confirmation from inspection data. For most low-alloy steels, compilations of inspection data have been applied to establish guidelines for this purpose. Useful experience of the in-service damage is less easily available from newer steels, and infrequently reported from e.g. the 9-11% chromium (Cr) steels that are used in hot steam lines of power plants. However, even then the expected damage evolution can be characterised by using high tensile multi-axiality for damage acceleration. This approach is also useful for ductile steels with relatively slow development of creep cavitation in conventional creep testing. The inspection experience shows very modest creep cavitation in the conventional 11% Cr steel X20CrMoV11-1 even after long-term service. This is of particular interest also because early creep failures have been reported from steam systems made of P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1). The differences between these steels appear to be largely related to the extent precipitation hardening is utilized in providing creep strength. With more efficient precipitation hardening, P91 and other new high chromium steels are more susceptible than X20 to deviations in e.g. heat treatments.

  6. Career intentions of final year medical students in Uganda after graduating: the burden of brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Samuel; Mukunya, David; Nakitende, Joyce; Nambasa, Stella; Nampogo, Adrian; Kalyesubula, Robert; Katamba, Achilles; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    Uganda has severe shortage of human resources for health despite the heavy disease burden. The country has one of the highest fertility, and population growth rates in the world and is in dire need of trained health workers. The current doctor: patient ratio of 1:15000 is inadequate and this is further constrained by trained health workers leaving the country while others abandon the health sector. The aim of the study was to determine the career intentions of the final year medical students to leave the county and health field after graduating and the associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 251 final year medical students from Makerere, Mbarara, Gulu and Kampala International Universities. We enrolled all the eligible final year medical students. The study was conducted using face-to-face questionnaires in each university. We determined the demographics, reasons for leaving the country and health sector and the intended destinations of medical students who planned to leave the country. Data was entered in Epidata then exported and analyzed in stata 12. Of the 251 students enrolled in the study, 28(11.2 %) wanted to leave the health sector, with Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) having the highest percentage, 16.7 % and Kampala International University (KIU) the least, 7.7 %. Of the 28 who intended to leave the health sector, 82.1 % wanted to join the business sector, 10.7 % agriculture, and 7.1 % politics. Reasons given for the intent to leave were; lack of equipment and supplies in hospitals, over whelming patient numbers, very risky working environment, low payment to doctors, and political reasons. Overall, 112 (44.6 %) of the participants wanted to leave the country with 30.3 % intending to migrate to United States of America (USA), 11.9 % to United Kingdom (UK), 11.0 % to South Africa among others. Some of the reasons given were; doctors are paid a high salary abroad, safe working environment, and desire to continue

  7. Change and Continuity in the Representation of British Muslims Before and After 9/11: The UK Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Poole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 9/11 is often marked out as a significant event in the current political and historical context in that it signalled a discernable shift to a new politics categorised in specific “Western” countries by the “war on terror”. Through an examination of British press representation of British Muslims over a 15 year period I show how this represents a continuation of processes that became more visible following 9/11. Starting in the period prior to 9/11, I argue that, despite an overall negativity within the British press, there was some negotiation of these spaces due to the various affiliations and allegiances of different groups who had an investment in specific constructions of “Britain” at particular moments. However, this resulted in the predominance of a “cultural clash” framework as Muslims became the focus of anxieties of living in an increasingly globalised world. Whilst these discursive debates have continued to dominate post-9/11, I examine the emergence of a security framework previously associated with world news. The aim is to provide an overview of patterns of coverage that might tell us something about the impact of various political events, most notably 9/11, on coverage. Other significant moments include the Iraq War, 2003 and the London bombings on July 7, 2007.

  8. Whole blood interferon-gamma responses to mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in young household contacts of persons with tuberculosis in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Lewinsohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to immunologic immaturity, IFN-gamma-producing T cell responses may be decreased in young children compared to adults, thus we hypothesized that IFN-gamma responses to mycobacterial antigens in household contacts exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb would be impaired in young children relative to adults. The objective of this study was to compare whole blood IFN-gamma production in response to mycobacterial antigens between children and adults in Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied household contacts of persons with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB enrolled in a cohort study conducted in Kampala, Uganda. Whole blood IFN-gamma production in response to Mtb culture-filtrate antigens was measured by ELISA and compared between infants ( or =15 years old, n = 528. We evaluated the relationship between IFN-gamma responses and the tuberculin skin test (TST, and between IFN-gamma responses and epidemiologic factors that reflect exposure to Mtb, and the effect of prior BCG vaccination on IFN-gamma responses. Young household contacts demonstrated robust IFN-gamma responses comparable to those of adults that were associated with TST and known risk factors for infection. There was no effect of prior BCG immunization on the IFN-gamma response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Young children in a TB endemic setting can mount robust IFN-gamma responses generally comparable to those of adults, and as in adults, these responses correlated with the TST and known epidemiologic risk factors for Mtb infection.

  9. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event.

  10. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinobe, J.R., E-mail: joel.kinobe@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Gebresenbet, G. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Niwagaba, C.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  11. Science Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssempala, Fredrick

    High school students in Uganda perform poorly in science subjects despite the Ugandan government's efforts to train science teachers and build modern science laboratories in many public high schools. The poor performance of students in science subjects has been largely blamed on the inability by many science teachers to teach science through Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) to motivate the students to learn science. However, there have been no empirical studies done to establish the factors that influence science teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Uganda. Most of the published research on IBI has been conducted in developed countries, where the prevailing contexts are very different from the contexts in developing countries such as Uganda. Additionally, few studies have explored how professional development (PD) training workshops on inquiry and nature of science (NOS) affect chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. My purpose in this multi-case exploratory qualitative study was to explore the effect of a PD workshop on inquiry and NOS on chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Kampala city public schools in Uganda. I also explored the relationship between chemistry teachers' NOS understanding and the nature of IBI implemented in their classrooms and the internal and external factors that influence teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. I used a purposive sampling procedure to identify two schools of similar standards from which I selected eight willing chemistry teachers (four from each school) to participate in the study. Half of the teachers (those from School A) attended the PD workshop on inquiry and NOS for six days, while the control group (those from School B) did not. I collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and document analysis. I analyzed these data by structural, conceptual and theoretical coding approach. I established that all the participating chemistry

  12. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  13. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  14. HIV transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals: stress and coping in the aftermath of 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Carol S Dawson; Ress, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Using case studies, this article discusses a nursing approach for working with HIV-positive clients who have experienced stress as the result of the 9/11 attack on the United States. The stress and coping framework developed by Lazarus and Folkman is used to guide nursing care.

  15. The Post-9/11 GI Bill: Insights from Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Educational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Geri L.; Boland, Elizabeth A.; Dudgeon, Brian; Johnson, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Because the Post-9/11 GI Bill was implemented in August of 2009, increasing numbers of veterans returning from the Global War on Terror (GWT) have drawn on Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) educational benefits. Based on the findings of a mixed-methods study, quantitative and qualitative survey responses from veterans enrolled at a major…

  16. Syndrome, Symptom, Trauma-chains in Post-9/11 Novels: Safran Foer, Ken Kalfus and Don DeLillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    Perhaps Slavoj Zizek's famous or notorious exhortation ‘Enjoy Your Symptom!' set forth in a 1992 book of that title, containing his Lacanian analyses of Hollywood film, should more properly, esp. post 9/11, be formulated ‘enjoy your syndrome!' Certainly a whole new batch of trauma literature...

  17. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  18. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  19. High IGSF4 expression in pediatric M5 acute myeloid leukemia with t(9;11)(p22;q23)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Jenny E.; Coenen, Eva A.; Balgobind, Brian V.; Stary, Jan; Baruchel, Andre; de Haas, Valerie; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Danen-van Oorschot, Astrid A.; den Boer, Monique L.; Marschalek, Rolf; Meyer, Claus; Pieters, Rob; Zwaan, C. Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged acute monoblastic leukemia with t(9;11)(p22;q23) has a favorable outcome compared with other MLL-rearranged AML. The biologic background for this difference remains unknown. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles (GEPs; Affymetrix HGU133 + 2

  20. Immediate versus delayed postpartum use of levonorgestrel contraceptive implants: a randomized controlled trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah; Kakaire, Othman; Kayiga, Herbert; Lester, Felicia; Sokoloff, Abby; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Dehlendorf, Christine; Steinauer, Jody

    2017-06-10

    Use of long-acting, highly effective contraception has the potential to improve women's ability to avoid short interpregnancy intervals, which are associated with an increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, and preterm delivery. In Uganda, contraceptive implants are not routinely available during the immediate postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of women using levonorgestrel contraceptive implants at 6 months after delivery in women randomized to immediate or delayed insertion. This was a randomized controlled trial among women in Kampala, Uganda. Women who desired contraceptive implants were randomly assigned to insertion of a 2-rod contraceptive implant system containing 75 mg of levonorgestrel immediately following delivery (within 5 days of delivery and before discharge from the hospital) or delayed insertion (6 weeks postpartum). The primary outcome was implant utilization at 6 months postpartum. From June to October 2015, 205 women were randomized, 103 to the immediate group and 102 to the delayed group. Ninety-three percent completed the 6 month follow-up visit. At 6 months, implant use was higher in the immediate group compared with the delayed group (97% vs 68%; P < .001), as was the use of any highly effective contraceptive (98% vs 81%; P = .001). Women in the immediate group were more satisfied with the timing of implant placement. If given the choice, 81% of women in the immediate group and 63% of women in the delayed group would choose the same timing of placement again (P = .01). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Offering women the option of initiating contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period has the potential to increase contraceptive utilization, decrease unwanted pregnancies, prevent short interpregnancy intervals, and help women achieve their reproductive goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reach and cost-effectiveness of the PrePex device for safe male circumcision in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Duffy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Modelling, supported by the USAID Health Policy Initiative and UNAIDS, performed in 2011, indicated that Uganda would need to perform 4.2 million medical male circumcisions (MMCs to reach 80% prevalence. Since 2010 Uganda has completed 380,000 circumcisions, and has set a national target of 1 million for 2013. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative reach and cost-effectiveness of PrePex compared to the current surgical SMC method and to determine the effect that this might have in helping to achieve the Uganda national SMC targets. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive cost-analysis study conducted at International Hospital Kampala over ten weeks from August to October 2012. Data collected during the performance of 625 circumcisions using PrePex was compared to data previously collected from 10,000 circumcisions using a surgical circumcision method at the same site. Ethical approval was obtained. RESULTS: The moderate adverse events (AE ratio when using the PrePex device was 2% and no severe adverse events were encountered, which is comparable to the surgical method, thus the AE rate has no effect on the reach or cost-effectiveness of PrePex. The unit cost to perform one circumcision using PrePex is $30.55, 35% ($7.90 higher than the current surgical method, but the PrePex method improves operator efficiency by 60%, meaning that a team can perform 24 completed circumcisions compared to 15 by the surgical method. The cost-effectiveness of PrePex, comparing the cost of performing circumcisions to the future cost savings of potentially averted HIV infections, is just 2% less than the current surgical method, at a device cost price of $20. CONCLUSION: PrePex is a viable SMC tool for scale-up with unrivalled potential for superior reach, however national targets can only be met with effective demand creation and availability of trained human resource.

  2. Bedside practice of blood transfusion in a large teaching hospital in Uganda: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaf J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse transfusion reactions can cause morbidity and death to patients who receive a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion practice in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda is analyzed to see if and when these practices play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients. Materials and Methods: An observational study on three wards of Mulago Hospital. Physicians, paramedics, nurses, medical students and nurse students were observed using two questionnaires. For comparison, a limited observational study was performed in the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG in Groningen, The Netherlands. Results: In Mulago Hospital guidelines for blood transfusion practice were not easily available. Medical staff members work on individual professional levels. Students perform poorly due to inconsistency in their supervision. Documentation of blood transfusion in patient files is scarce. There is no immediate bedside observation, so transfusion reactions and obstructions in the blood transfusion flow are not observed. Conclusion: The poor blood transfusion practice is likely to play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients who receive a blood transfusion. There is a need for a blood transfusion policy and current practical guidelines.

  3. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinobe, J R; Gebresenbet, G; Niwagaba, C B; Vinnerås, B

    2015-08-01

    The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying market opportunities for Smallholder farmers in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    products. This paper reports the findings of a study to assess the market demand in Kampala for the agricultural products ... and has demand for products in all segments. The ...... great disadvantage because of the difficulty they have in.

  5. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  6. “All that Howling Space”: “9/11” and the Aesthetic of Noise in Contemporary American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sykes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reappraises representations of “9/11” within a longer history of noise in the American novel. Consumed by the noise of the present, driven by the desire to speak loudly, and convinced of the importance of traumatic “event” both to the present moment and to the lives of future generations, novels of the political “now” are often afflicted by what Jacques Derrida refers to as “archive fever”, a phenomenon that is characterized by an eagerness to dispose of the present into the past and to imagine how the contemporary world will be remembered by future generations (Derrida 1998, 68. In this way, this article argues that “9/11” fictions by Don DeLillo, John Updike, Jonathan Safran Foer, Jess Walter, and Amy Waldman are best understood as ideologically inflected narratives that emphasise the noise of contemporary culture, associating the present with the singular noise of “9/11” and thus limiting how novelists write a history of their contemporary moment.

  7. 9.11 Terror Attacks' Impact On The Global Air Transportation Industry And The Global Economy%"9.11"事件对航空运输业及世界经济的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青

    2001-01-01

    @@ "911"在美国是常用的紧急求助电话号码,然而2001年的"9.11"却成为美国乃至世界历史上沉痛的一天.国际恐怖主义分子在这一天,以装满燃油的民航客机为"武器",在美国本土制造了震惊世界的恐怖袭击事件.

  8. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development.

  9. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing

  10. Pentagon 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    simple function like unbuttoning each section of my blouse to get some relief from the heat. We would later discover that the blast had shifted the...carte blanche , purchasing agents culled from county offices secured a wide range of supplies-fencing, boots, bottles, hoses, airpacks, cranes, gloves

  11. The Effect of School-Based Exercise Practices of 9-11 Year Old Girls Students on Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…

  12. Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the country is constrained by inadequate financial and human resource ... INTRODUCTION of clonal coffee material in Uganda's agricultural ... provision of improved health services. ... given to molecular and genetic aspects of.

  13. Uganda elanikud tarbivad enim alkoholi / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas

  14. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    qualities of an interpreter, job motivation, monthly salary ... All the respondents were full time employees of the Uganda ... effective tool for managing ecotourism and conservation. ... required for interpretation is communication both verbally.

  15. Media and Mental Health in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in ... and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. ..... of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.

  16. dense sweetpotato varieties to farmers in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda is among the African countries reported to be at high risk of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) ... nurseries the plants of which are individually screened for reaction to SPVD, Alternaria blight, ... breeding and delivering a bio-fortified crop.

  17. Towards Introducing Space Science in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguma, S.; Ayikoru, J.

    This paper discusses the strategies and importance of introducing space science in Uganda. It proposes that Mbarara University, as a new university focusing on science and technology, would be ideally situated to spearhead the introduction of space science in Uganda. It is our expectation that this will have a spin-off effect to other higher institutions of learning and that consequently space science will become fully incorporated into the national teaching curriculum for all schools in Uganda. Based on the fact that the Government has a deliberate policy of popularizing science and technology to accelerate national economic development, the introduction of space science in the school system is to be enhanced by these efforts. We have charted the way forward for space science in Uganda and outlined the conceptual framework illustrating the spin-off effect into the education system.

  18. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  19. Cervical cancer screening and treatment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Nakisige

    2017-05-01

    Training of health professionals, ongoing construction of new radiotherapy bunkers, and opening of regional centers are all geared towards improving cervical cancer care in Uganda. The Uganda Cancer Institute Bill establishes the Institute as a semi-autonomous agency mandated to undertake and coordinate the prevention and treatment of cancer. Its implementation will be a milestone in cervical cancer prevention and control. However, execution will require political will and an increase in domestic and international investment.

  20. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Egypt and Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Egyptian-Chinese Friendship Association(ECFA) and the Uganda-China Friendship Association(UCFA),a goodwill delegation led by Wang Mingyi,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Henan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Egypt and Uganda from November 3 to 14,2006.

  1. 9,11-Secosteroids and polyhydroxylated steroids from two South China Sea soft corals Sarcophyton trocheliophorum and Sinularia flexibilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ting; Liu, Hai-Li; Yao, Li-Gong; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2014-12-01

    A new 9,11-secosteroid, 25(26)-dehydrosarcomilasterol (1), two new polyhydroxylated steroids, 7α-hydroxy-crassarosterol A (2) and 11-acetoxy-7α-hydroxy-crassarosterol A (3), together with three known related ones (4-6), were isolated from the South China Sea soft corals Sarcophyton trocheliophorum and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of the new steroids were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, comparison with the literature data and chemical correlation. Compound 2 exhibited a moderate protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 33.05μM. Compounds 1-3 showed weak in vitro cytotoxicities against the tumor cell lines K562 and HL-60.

  2. Risk Technologies and the Securitization of Post-9/11 Citizenship: The Case of National ID Cards in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walby

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of 11 September 2001 on Washington and New York continue to influence how governments manage im/migration, citizenship, and national security. One of the more contentious national security responses to the events of 9/11 in Canada has been the drive to introduce a biometric national identification card. In this paper, we argue that the drive for a Canadian national ID card is bound up in ideological processes which threaten to exacerbate, rather than to alleviate, state insecurities pertaining to risk, citizenship, and border (in security. We maintain that ‘proof of status’ surveillance technologies, such as biometrically-encoded ID cards, lead to the ‘securitization’ of citizenship, and we conclude that ID cards threaten to destabilize the modern spatializations of sovereignty that they are purported to uphold under the guise of national security.

  3. Sex inequality, high transport costs, and exposed clinic location: reasons for loss to follow-up of clients under prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in eastern Uganda – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubega M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhamadi Lubega,1–4 Ibrahim A Musenze,3 Gukiina Joshua,2 George Dhafa,2 Rose Badaza,3 Christopher J Bakwesegha,3 Steven J Reynolds41District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, Iganga, Uganda; 2Research Institute, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Busoga University, Iganga, Uganda; 4National Institutes of Health/NIAID-ICER American Embassy, Kampala, UgandaBackground: In Iganga, Uganda, 45% of women who tested HIV-positive during antenatal care between 2007 and 2010 were lost to follow-up (LTFU. We explored reasons for LTFU during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT from a client perspective in eastern Uganda, where antiretroviral therapy (ART awareness is presumably high.Methods: Seven key informant interviews and 20 in-depth interviews, including both clients who had been retained under PMTCT care and those LTFU during PMTCT were held. Ten focus-group discussions involving a total of 112 participants were also conducted with caretakers/relatives of the PMTCT clients. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.Results: Our findings indicate that LTFU during PMTCT in eastern Uganda was due to sex inequality, high transport costs to access the services, inadequate posttest counseling, lack of HIV status disclosure, and the isolated/exposed location of the ART clinic, which robs the clients of their privacy.Conclusion: There is a need for approaches that empower women with social capital, knowledge, and skills to influence health-seeking practices. There is also a need to train low-ranking staff and take PMTCT services closer to the clients at the lower-level units to make them affordable and accessible to rural clients. Posttest counseling should be improved to enable PMTCT clients to appreciate the importance of PMTCT services through increasing the number of staff in antenatal care to match the client numbers for improved quality. The counseling should emphasize HIV status disclosure to

  4. Summary sensory workshop Uganda, 21 - 25 November 2005, Uganda Fisheries Laboratory in Entebbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) has requested The Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) to organize a sensory workshop in Uganda. ICEIDA is establishing a fisheries laboratory in Uganda in cooperation with the Ugandan government. One of the tasks within this proj

  5. Xenic Cultivation and Genotyping of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoeba from Public Water Supply Sources in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsus Sente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on waterborne parasites from natural environment and domestic water sources in Uganda are very scarce and unpublished. Water dwelling free-living amoebae (FLA of the genus Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria are often responsible for causing morbidities and mortalities in individuals with recent contact with contaminated water, but their presence in Uganda’s public water supply sources is not known. We cultivated and genotyped FLA from natural and domestic water from Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA and Kampala (KLA. The cultivated parasites were observed microscopically and recorded. The overall prevalence of FLA in QEPA (Acanthamoeba spp., 35%; Hartmannella spp., 18.9%; Naegleria spp., 13.5% and KLA (Acanthamoeba spp., 28.3%; Naegleria spp., 16.6%; Hartmannella spp., 23.1% were not significantly different. The highest prevalence across water sources in QEPA and KLA was observed for Acanthamoeba spp., followed by Hartmannella spp., and Naegleria spp. Overall FLA mean (±SE and mean (±SE across water sources were highest for Acanthamoeba spp. compared to other FLA but were not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Analysis of the FLA sequences produced 1 Cercomonas, 1 Nuclearia, 1 Bodomorpha, 2 Hartmannella, 5 Echinamoeba, and 7 Acanthamoeba partial sequences, indicating a muliplicity of water contaminants that need to be controlled by proper water treatment.

  6. The enigmatic nodding syndrome outbreak in northern Uganda: an analysis of the disease burden and national response strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogratius, Mwaka Amos; David, Kitara Lagoro; Christopher, Orach Garimoi

    2016-04-01

    To date, the cause of nodding syndrome (NS) remains unknown; however, efforts continue to establish risk factors and optimal symptomatic treatments. We documented the burden and national response strategies including involvement of key stakeholders in the management of the NS epidemic in order to inform future interventions against epidemics of undetermined aetiology. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with selected leaders in the affected districts and at the Ministry of Health, and through review of documents. We participated in and analysed the proceedings of the first international scientific conference on NS held in Kampala in August 2012. We then analysed the chronology of the NS notification and the steps undertaken in the response plan. Over 3000 children have been affected by NS in northern Uganda; with an estimated case fatality of 6.7%. The first cases of NS were reported in 1997 in internally displaced people's camps in Kitgum district; however, response efforts by the Ministry of Health and partners towards understanding the disorder and establish management only commenced in 2009. Key strategies in response to the NS epidemic have included formation of a national and district task forces, development of training manual on NS and training of primary healthcare professionals on case diagnosis and clinical management, establishment of treatment and rehabilitation centres, surveillance and promotion of researches to further inform management of the syndrome.

  7. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  8. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  9. A metagenomic analysis displays the diverse microbial community of a vermicomposting system in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Lalander, Cecilia; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process using earthworms to efficiently and at low cost process large volumes of organic waste. It has been suggested to not only increase soil fertility but also increase biomass of beneficial bacteria while reducing harmful bacteria. The aim of this study was to set up a strategy to investigate and characterise the viral as well as the bacterial composition of a vermicomposting system. Material and methods The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda, and was fed with 80% cattle manure and 20% food waste. On Day 172, the compost was terminated and compost samples were collected from three layers of the unit: the top, the middle and the bottom layer. A metagenomic approach was then applied to characterise the viral and bacterial composition of the vermicomposting system. Results and discussion A high abundance and diversity of bacteria were identified. Proteobacteria was the largest phyla in the compost (mainly Alpha-, Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria), constituting almost 65% of the bacterial reads in the data sets. DNA samples from several possible pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spp, were detected in the vermicompost, suggesting that there might still be harmful bacteria in the vermicast. Phages constituted the main viral group; apart from phages, mainly insect viruses were identified. The only animal or human virus identified was kobuvirus. In summary, metagenomic analysis was shown to be an efficient technology to characterise the microbial composition of vermicast. The data from this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbes present in this kind of composting system and can help determine measures necessary for safe manure handling. PMID:27834174

  10. A metagenomic analysis displays the diverse microbial community of a vermicomposting system in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lie Blomström

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process using earthworms to efficiently and at low cost process large volumes of organic waste. It has been suggested to not only increase soil fertility but also increase biomass of beneficial bacteria while reducing harmful bacteria. The aim of this study was to set up a strategy to investigate and characterise the viral as well as the bacterial composition of a vermicomposting system. Material and methods: The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda, and was fed with 80% cattle manure and 20% food waste. On Day 172, the compost was terminated and compost samples were collected from three layers of the unit: the top, the middle and the bottom layer. A metagenomic approach was then applied to characterise the viral and bacterial composition of the vermicomposting system. Results and discussion: A high abundance and diversity of bacteria were identified. Proteobacteria was the largest phyla in the compost (mainly Alpha-, Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria, constituting almost 65% of the bacterial reads in the data sets. DNA samples from several possible pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spp, were detected in the vermicompost, suggesting that there might still be harmful bacteria in the vermicast. Phages constituted the main viral group; apart from phages, mainly insect viruses were identified. The only animal or human virus identified was kobuvirus. In summary, metagenomic analysis was shown to be an efficient technology to characterise the microbial composition of vermicast. The data from this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbes present in this kind of composting system and can help determine measures necessary for safe manure handling.

  11. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  12. Food insecurity as a barrier to sustained antiretroviral therapy adherence in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is emerging as an important barrier to antiretroviral (ARV adherence in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, but little is known about the mechanisms through which food insecurity leads to ARV non-adherence and treatment interruptions. METHODOLOGY: We conducted in-depth, open-ended interviews with 47 individuals (30 women, 17 men living with HIV/AIDS recruited from AIDS treatment programs in Mbarara and Kampala, Uganda to understand how food insecurity interferes with ARV therapy regimens. Interviews were transcribed, coded for key themes, and analyzed using grounded theory. FINDINGS: Food insecurity was common and an important barrier to accessing medical care and ARV adherence. Five mechanisms emerged for how food insecurity can contribute to ARV non-adherence and treatment interruptions or to postponing ARV initiation: 1 ARVs increased appetite and led to intolerable hunger in the absence of food; 2 Side effects of ARVs were exacerbated in the absence of food; 3 Participants believed they should skip doses or not start on ARVs at all if they could not afford the added nutritional burden; 4 Competing demands between costs of food and medical expenses led people either to default from treatment, or to give up food and wages to get medications; 5 While working for food for long days in the fields, participants sometimes forgot medication doses. Despite these obstacles, many participants still reported high ARV adherence and exceptional motivation to continue therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While reports from sub-Saharan Africa show excellent adherence to ARVs, concerns remain that these successes are not sustainable in the presence of widespread poverty and food insecurity. We provide further evidence on how food insecurity can compromise sustained ARV therapy in a resource-limited setting. Addressing food insecurity as part of emerging ARV treatment programs is critical for their long-term success.

  13. Oral antimicrobial rinse to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination among tuberculosis suspects in Uganda: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kalema

    Full Text Available Contamination by bacterial or fungal organisms reduces the effectiveness of mycobacterial culture for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. We evaluated the effect of an anti-microbial and an anti-fungal oral rinse prior to expectoration on culture-contamination rates.We enrolled a consecutive random sample of adults with cough for ≥ 2 weeks and suspected TB admitted to Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda between October 2008 and June 2009. We randomly assigned patients to oral rinse (60 seconds with chlorhexidine followed by 60 seconds with nystatin vs. no oral rinse prior to initial sputum collection. Uganda National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory technicians blinded to the method of sputum collection (with or without oral rinse processed all sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct Ziehl-Neelsen and mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein-Jensen media.Of 220 patients enrolled, 177 (80% were HIV-seropositive (median CD4-count 37 cells/uL, IQR 13-171 cells/uL. Baseline characteristics were similar between patients in the oral-rinse (N = 110 and no oral-rinse (N = 110 groups. The proportion of contaminated cultures was significantly lower in the oral-rinse group compared to the no oral-rinse group (4% vs. 15%, risk difference -11%, 95% CI -18 to -3%, p = 0.005. Oral rinse significantly reduced the proportion of contaminated cultures among HIV-infected patients (3% vs. 18%, risk difference -14%, 95% CI -23 to -6%, p = 0.002 but not HIV-uninfected (6% vs. 4%, risk difference 2%, 95% CI -12 to +15%, p = 0.81 patients. However, the proportion of smear-positive specimens (25% vs. 35%, p = 0.10 and culture-positive specimens (48% vs. 56%, p = 0.24 were lower in the oral-rinse compared to the no oral-rinse group, although the differences were not statistically significant.Oral rinse prior to sputum expectoration is a promising strategy to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination in areas with high HIV prevalence, if strategies can be devised to

  14. Proposed Legislative Changes to the Post-9/11 GI Bill: Potential Implications for Veterans and Colleges. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    As the Post-9/11 Veterans Education Assistance Act (popularly known as the Post-9/11 GI Bill or Chapter 33) begins its second academic year of operation, changes loom on the horizon. While this is no surprise to those who know the history of the original GI Bill, some of the changes will have considerable impact not only on veteran students, but…

  15. Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.

  16. 9/11 e il terrore: un adattamento grafico di Sid Jacobson e Ernie Colόn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bruna Mancini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The graphic report published in 2006 by Sid Jacobson and Ernie Coln, an adaptation from The 9/11 Report  by the National Commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States, was dedicated “to the memory of those who lost their lives”, hoping that it could help to better understand what happened that day and in the years leading up to it. Thus, using the rhetoric of terror as a guideline, memory seems to be the central aim of a book which longs to be “accessible to all”, in particular, to a new set of readers who could be interested in graphic narration. “Our goal (… was not only to inform our fellow citizens about history but also to energize and engage them on behalf of reform and change, to make our country safer and more secure”,  so reads the Forward to Jacobson and Coln’s work. But is it true?

  17. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  18. Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Discussions revealed that pregnant adolescents faced domestic physical violence. Furthermore .... pregnant adolescents' health care seeking, partner relations, perception of ... tings were held at the end of each day to ensure good quality data and discuss ... One may have a very harsh parent, myself 1 have a very.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia among severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyella Jacinta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptococcal infection is a common opportunistic infection among severely immunosuppressed HIV patients and is associated with high mortality. Positive cryptococcal antigenemia is an independent predictor of cryptococcal meningitis and death in patients with severe immunosuppression. We evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia among patients with CD4 counts of 100 cells/mm3 or less in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Screening of a targeted group of HIV patients may enable early detection of cryptococcal infection and intervention before initiating antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia may be used subsequently in resource-limited settings in screening for cryptococcal infection, and this data may also inform policy for HIV care. Methods In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients aged 18 years and older with CD4 counts of up to 100 cells/mm3 were enrolled between December 2009 and March 2010. Data on socio-demographics, physical examinations and laboratory tests were collected. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results We enrolled 367 participants and the median CD4 count was 23 (IQR 9-51 cells/mm3. Sixty-nine (19% of the 367 participants had cryptococcal antigenemia. Twenty-four patients (6.5% had cryptococcal meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and three had isolated cryptococcal antigenemia. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia included: low body mass index of 15.4 kg/m2 or less (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-1.0, a CD4+ T cell count of less than 50 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI1.2-6.1, neck pain (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.6, recent diagnosis of HIV infection (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.6, and meningeal signs (AOR = 7.9; 95% CI 2.9-22.1. However, at sub-analysis of asymptomatic patients, absence of neck pain (AOR = 0.5, photophobia (AOR = 0.5 and

  20. New light on Chinese enterprises in Africa: Findings from a recent survey of Chinese firms in Kampala, the capital of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); W. Warmerdam (Ward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In this paper five issues will be analyzed. In the first place that no separation is made between providing Chinese aid, developing trade relations with China and starting investment activities in Africa. Secondly, is it true that the Chinese government helps Chinese entrepreneu

  1. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available...

  2. Innovative Demand Creation for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Targeting a High Impact Male Population: A Pilot Study Engaging Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Bbaale, Denis S.; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Kigozi, Joanita; Muganzi, Alex M.; Coutinho, Alex G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circumcision has been shown to be an effective method of HIV prevention; however, only 28% of Ugandan men aged 15–49 years are circumcised. There is a paucity of data on the role of intimate partners in generating demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of a partner-focused intervention targeting males >25 years. Methods: Among pregnant women in their third trimester attending antenatal care we evaluated the impact of a pilot behavior change intervention on VMMC through a quasi-experimental approach. We observed VMMC numbers among spouses of women as per standard practice (comparison phase), and after introducing a behavioral change communication package (intervention phase). Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of VMMC uptake between comparison and intervention phases. We used qualitative methods to evaluate the casual chain using a thematic approach. Results: Of the 601 women studied, 90% articulated the health benefits of VMMC and 99% expressed interest in their spouse getting circumcised. Women's knowledge was not increased by the intervention. Four men were circumcised in the comparison and 7 in the intervention phase. The intervention was not associated with higher odds of circumcision (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI: 0.3 to 6.0, P = 0.65). We interviewed 117 individuals overall with the main enablers for VMMC being: free VMMC, transport reimbursement, and health benefits. Deterrents included misconceptions, lost wages and fear of pain. Most of the uncircumcised men interviewed reported interest in VMMC. Conclusions: Our pilot intervention had no significant impact on increasing VMMC demand. The study demonstrated the feasibility of pregnant women engaging their spouses to discuss VMMC. PMID:27404008

  3. New Light on Chinese enterprises in Africa: Findings from a recent survey of Chinese Firms in Kampala, the capital of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Warmerdam (Ward); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper five issues will be analyzed. In the first place that no separation is made between providing Chinese aid, developing trade relations with China and starting investment activities in Africa. Secondly, is it true that the Chinese government helps Chinese entrepreneurs to get

  4. Uganda does what it can for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Uganda is a fertile, but poor, predominately rural country that was a British protectorate from 1894 until 1962. Uganda made significant achievements in the delivery of health care and education until the rule of Idi Amin (1971-79), when the country was plunged into chaos. The current Ugandan president enjoys broad-based support and has responded to the health care crisis by creating a national system of Resistance Councils using traditional networks to monitor local health developments. The health priorities for women in Uganda include improving maternal-child health; combating AIDS, rape, and sexual abuse; increasing use of family planning; understanding and working to change the cultural context that shapes reproductive health and sex behavior (such as "sugar daddies," older men who entice sex from young girls with presents and money); and expanding women's rights so that they can improve their health.

  5. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753

  6. Hollywood adaptations of comic books in a post-9/11 context: the economic and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Dupont

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la sortie de Jaws (Steven Spielberg, 1975 puis celle de Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977, l’industrie hollywoodienne s’est surtout concentrée sur la production de blockbusters essentiellement destinés à un jeune public. L’article va d’abord montrer qu’adapter à l’écran les aventures de super-héros américains est une formule très intéressante pour Hollywood car ces aventures semblent faites pour devenir des blockbusters. L’article va ensuite montrer que ces adaptations rencontrent également un certain succès car le contexte s’y prête ; les super-héros, tels qu’ils sont présentés, intéressent en effet les spectateurs dans un contexte post-11 septembre que l’on ne peut ignorer.With the release of Jaws (Steven Spielberg, 1975 and then Star Wars (George Lucas, 1977, blockbusters have dominated Hollywood’s way of doing business while they have confirmed the importance of the young audience. The paper will first show that adapting comic books is ideal for the film industry as comic books perfectly fit the blockbusters’ formula. All this explains why American studios have successfully adapted (and/or distributed many comic books over the past few years. But the paper will also underline that adapting comic books would however be fruitless if the context was not right for their characters. The paper will thus question the timing of these adaptations, and more precisely it will try to show that if comic book superheroes have an important audience in cinemas, it is probably because they are also in tune with the post-9/11 American mood.

  7. Interpreting 9/11: The Role of Language and Narrative in the Construction of “American” Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Tallman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the attacks on September 11, 2001 (that killed approximately three thousand people the United States began waging war abroad, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and permanently displacing millions of innocent people. The interpretation of 9/11 as an act of war by the U.S. government and the mainstream news media provided the pretext for military aggression, legitimating war and militarization—on the basis of “national security”. This produced conditions for the heroic-narrative of the savior-nation to emerge, expressing itself in the United States’ “War on Terror”. The idea of the “War on Terror” was introduced in the aftermath of a lingering national trauma—in many ways generated by the government and the mainstream news media. Its repetition allowed it to become physically embodied in the human brain, and thereby, orienting people toward nationalism and the use of violence. This study places identity at the center of the problem, arguing that “American” identity is dependent upon the existence of an enemy- other (negative identity. Drawing upon discoveries in cognitive science and neuroscience permits one to appreciate the role of language and narrative in the construction of identity and the implications it has for both war and peace. Combining this research with a philosophical and religious analysis of the United States captures a trend in the actions, thought, and beliefs that help form the “American” self and its relationship to violence.

  8. Comorbidity of 9/11-related PTSD and depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 years postdisaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity.

  9. The revelation(s of Asher Levi: An iconographic literacy event as a tool for the exploration of fragmented selves in new literacies studies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Staples

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the dynamics of an iconographic literacy event that functions as a tool for explorations of literacy practices and fragmented selves, particularly in relationship to the literate lives of marginalized individuals in the post 9/11 era. The author examines what happened when a group of 10 African American women in an urban area employed new literacies in the teaching/learning spaces of their personal lives (i.e. individual homes, familiar eateries, communicative digital technologies to explore and respond to stories in post 9/11 popular culture narratives. The study employed ethnographic methods (interviews, journaling, email and instant message writing and critical observations with members of the inquiry over the course of two years. The author investigated critically the meeting of biography, fiction and autoethnography as a literacy event used to couch the literacies and fragmented selves of these women in the post 9/11 era. Findings regarding the nature of their post 9/11 literacies, as expressed through fragmented selves, are shared, along with implications for new literacies research and teaching. Findings show that the women’s post 9/11 literacies include a range and variation of critical sensibilities that include, but are not limited to, multiple levels of sociolinguistic integration, sociocultural criticality and heightened awarenesses.

  10. The revelation(s of Asher Levi: An iconographic literacy event as a tool for the exploration of fragmented selves in new literacies studies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Staples

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the dynamics of an iconographic literacy event that functions as a tool for explorations of literacy practices and fragmented selves, particularly in relationship to the literate lives of marginalized individuals in the post 9/11 era. The author examines what happened when a group of 10 African American women in an urban area employed new literacies in the teaching/learning spaces of their personal lives (i.e. individual homes, familiar eateries, communicative digital technologies to explore and respond to stories in post 9/11 popular culture narratives. The study employed ethnographic methods (interviews, journaling, email and instant message writing and critical observations with members of the inquiry over the course of two years. The author investigated critically the meeting of biography, fiction and autoethnography as a literacy event used to couch the literacies and fragmented selves of these women in the post 9/11 era. Findings regarding the nature of their post 9/11 literacies, as expressed through fragmented selves, are shared, along with implications for new literacies research and teaching. Findings show that the women’s post 9/11 literacies include a range and variation of critical sensibilities that include, but are not limited to, multiple levels of sociolinguistic integration, sociocultural criticality and heightened awarenesses.

  11. The Mental Health Consequences of Disaster-Related Loss: Findings from Primary Care One Year After the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gross, Raz; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Blanco, Carlos; Manetti-Cusa, Julián; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the long-term psychiatric consequences, pain interference in daily activities, work loss, and functional impairment associated with 9/11-related loss among low-income, minority primary care patients in New York City. A systematic sample of 929 adult patients completed a survey that included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Approximately one-quarter of the sample reported knowing someone who was killed in the attacks of 9/11, and these patients were sociodemographically similar to the rest of the sample. Compared to patients who had not experienced 9/11-related loss, patients who experienced loss were roughly twice as likely (OR = 1.97, 95%; CI = 1.40, 2.77) to screen positive for at least one mental disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD; 29.2%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 19.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). After controlling for pre-9/11 trauma, 9/11-related loss was significantly related to extreme pain interference, work loss, and functional impairment. The results suggest that disaster-related mental health care in this clinical population should emphasize evidence-based treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:19152283

  12. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  13. Effects of Arab American Discrimination Post 9/11 in the Contexts of the Workplace and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraiseh, Isra

    2012-01-01

    of their ethnicity, is vital. I will also summarize several articles that discuss earnings of Arab Americans post 9/11, and what factors played a role in determining these earnings.

  14. Experiences from Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2006. (ISSN 0850-3907) ... in turn induced new approaches designed to counteract the perceived .... BINP alone hosts about half of the world's population of the ..... Fortunately, the current national law review may include the Uganda Wildlife.

  15. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  16. Tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A survey on the tomato late blight situation and current practices for disease management was carried out in Uganda using an informal structured questionnaire approach. Ten districts from different agroclimatic zones were selected for the survey. Phytophthora infestans isolates from tomatoes were ob

  17. Cyber Crime in Uganda : Myth or Reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushabe, Florence; Baryamureeba, Venansius; Ardil, C

    2005-01-01

    There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no fo

  18. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Uganda And Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.

  19. Technology, production and partnership innovation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Musaazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.

  20. Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…

  1. SB6.0: The 6th International meeting on Synthetic Biology, July 9-11, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Linda J. [BioBricks Foundation

    2015-04-23

    The Synthetic Biology conference series (SBx.0) is the preeminent academic meeting in synthetic biology. Organized by the BioBricks Foundation, the SBx.0 conference series brings together leading researchers, students, industry executives, and policy makers from around the world to share, consider, debate, and plan efforts to make biology easier to engineer. Historically held every two years, the SBx.0 conferences are held in alternating locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia to encourage global participation and collaboration so that the ramifications of synthetic biology research and development are most likely to be safe ethical, and beneficial. On 9-11 July 2013, the 6th installment of the synthetic biology conference series (SB6.0) was held on the campus of Imperial College London (http://sb6.biobricks.org). The SB6.0 conference was attended by over 700 people, and many more were able to participate via video digital conference (http://sb6.biobricks.org/digital-conference/). Over the course of three days, the SB6.0 conference agenda included plenary sessions, workshops, and poster presentations covering topics ranging from the infrastructure needs arising when “Systematic Engineering Meets Biological Complexity” and design-led considerations for “Connecting People and Technologies” to discussions on “Engineering Biology for New Materials,” “Assessing Risk and Managing Biocontainment,” and “New Directions for Energy and Sustainability.” The $10,150 grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0010233) to the BioBricks Foundation was used to provide partial reimbursement for the travel expenses of leading researchers from the United States to speak at the SB6.0 conference. A total of $9,450 was used to reimburse U.S. speakers for actual expenses related to the SB6.0 conference, including airfare (economy or coach only), ground transportation, hotel, and registration fees. In addition, $700 of the grant was used to offset

  2. Strategies for sustainable land management and poverty reduction in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    "The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil erosion and depletion of soil nutrients, is widespread in Uganda and contributes to declining productivity, which in turn increases poverty. The report has four major objectives: (1) to examine the causes of land degradation in Uganda; (2) to identify the determ...

  3. Transforming the U.S. Immigration System After 9/11: The Impact of Organizational Change and Collaboration in the Context of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    file), November 5, 1987, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (1851 - 2004), A1. 22 Roberto Suro , Special to The New York Times, “False Migrant Claims...and Border Security: The 9/11 Commission Staff Report on Terrorist Travel. March 14, 2005. Suro . Roberto. Special to The New York Times. “False

  4. 9/11-Related Experiences and Tasks of Landfill and Barge Workers: Qualitative Analysis from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cone James E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have documented the experiences of individuals who participated in the recovery and cleanup efforts at the World Trade Center Recovery Operation at Fresh Kills Landfill, on debris loading piers, and on transport barges after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of workers and volunteers from the World Trade Center Health Registry. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the narratives. Results Twenty workers and volunteers were interviewed. They described the transport of debris to the Landfill via barges, the tasks and responsibilities associated with their post-9/11 work at the Landfill, and their reflections on their post-9/11 experiences. Tasks included sorting through debris, recovering human remains, searching for evidence from the terrorist attacks, and providing food and counseling services. Exposures mentioned included dust, fumes, and odors. Eight years after the World Trade Center disaster, workers expressed frustration about poor risk communication during recovery and cleanup work. Though proud of their contributions in the months after 9/11, some participants were concerned about long-term health outcomes. Conclusions This qualitative study provided unique insight into the experiences, exposures, and concerns of understudied groups of 9/11 recovery and cleanup workers. The findings are being used to inform the development of subsequent World Trade Center Health Registry exposure and health assessments.

  5. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (12th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2016, which was organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016. The Mobile Learning 2016 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  6. "Fahrenheit 9-11," Need for Closure and the Priming of Affective Ambivalence: An Assessment of Intra-Affective Structures by Party Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, R. Lance; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends priming research in political communication by focusing on an alternative political information source (i.e., Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9-11), affect rather than cognitions, and the existence of intra-affective ambivalence. In addition, two moderator variables are analyzed: political party identification and need for closure.…

  7. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  8. Crisis leadership of the Bush Presidency : advisory capacity and presidential performance in the acute stages of the 9/11 and Katrina Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hart, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072685387; Tindall, K.; Brown, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the presidential advisory system during the 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina crises in order to explain the marked differences in presidential crisis leadership performance during the acute phase of both crises. It first presents a conceptual framework for the

  9. 后“9·11”小说述评%A Review of the Post-9/11 Novels of Britain and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维倩; 李顺春

    2014-01-01

    当今众多小说家以“9·11”事件为背景或题材进行创作,形成21世纪文学中一个独特的文学群类,即后“9·11”小说。此类小说从书写“9·11”事件及其带给人类的集体或个体悲剧性体验、创伤后心理、精神危机等问题,刻画“9·11”事件之后蔓延整个西方世界的焦虑与恐惧,谱写21世纪以来人类面对生存危机之全景图。%Many American and British novelists begin to write about the 9/11 event, thus forming a unique literary genre in the 21st century English literature: the Post-9/11 Novel. These novels deal with the 9/11 event from differ-ent angles, and collective or individual tragic experience and post-traumatic psychology and spiritual crises caused by the event, and the novels also characterize the anxiety and fear spreading all over the western world after the 9/11 event, all of which are written about the panorama of human trauma in the 20th century.

  10. A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Boutwell, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

  11. A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Barnes

    Full Text Available On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028 in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052 and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031 in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350. This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

  12. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...... to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more...

  13. University students and the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in Uganda: the Crane survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, George W; Anglemyer, Andrew; Bagenda, Danstan; Muyonga, Michael; Lindan, Christina P; Barker, Joseph L; Johnston, Lisa; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous reports have found that university students in Africa comprise a sexually active population, although the prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections (STI) has not been measured. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of students from five large universities in Kampala, Uganda, using respondent-driven sampling. We asked students to complete behavioral questionnaires and provide biological samples to test for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis. We enrolled 649 students and obtained interpretable data from 640. Around 50% of the respondents were male, and the mean age was 22 years. An estimated 0.8% (95% CI 0.0-2.0) of male students had Chlamydia infection, approximately 4.3% (95% CI 2.0-7.0) had syphilis, 0.4% (95% CI 0.0-0.9) had HIV, and none had gonorrhea. An estimated 32.6% (95% CI 22.4-40.8) of women had bacterial vaginosis, 2.5% (95% CI 0.7-6.3) had Chlamydia infection, 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-3.6) had syphilis, 1.0% (95% CI 0.0-2.4) had gonorrhea, 0.9% (95% CI 0.0-4.2) had trichomoniasis, and 0.9% (95% CI 0.0-1.8) had HIV. We found no significant risk factors for HIV or other STI among males. We also found that not using a condom during the latest sexual intercourse was significantly associated with HIV infection, other STI, or bacterial vaginosis (OR 2.16; 95% 1.26-3.78) among females. We conclude that while university students are sexually active and there is substantial risk for syphilis, there is little evidence of substantially increased HIV risk among them.

  14. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  15. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success.

  16. Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Existing evidence on the impact of education on agricultural productivity in Africa is mixed, with estimates usually insignificant although sometimes large. Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda gives an estimate of the impact of household primary schooling on crop production comparable to the developing country average. In addition, the primary schooling of neighbouring farm workers appears to raise crop production and these external returns exceed the in...

  17. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  18. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  19. Media and mental health in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, F; Ssebunnya, J; Kizza, D; Ndyanabangi, S

    2010-05-01

    The media is largely regarded as an important stakeholder in health service delivery, with a great influence on public attitudes. However, little is known about its interest in mental health and the guiding factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues. This article describes the importance accorded to mental health by the media and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from six prominent media houses as part of the situational analysis of the mental health system in Uganda. Data was analyzed using Nvivo 7 qualitative data analysis software. The media was found to be interested and actively involved in health initiatives, but with little attention devoted to mental health. Coverage and interest in mental health was noted to be mainly dependent on the individual journalists' interests, and mostly for personal reasons. Low interest was largely attributed to mental health being perceived as a non-priority area, and the fact that mental illness is not a major contributor to mortality. Media coverage and reporting is guided by prioritization of the Health Department. The media in Uganda is an important stakeholder in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  20. 9/11, Hyperreality, and the Global Body Politic: Frédéric Beigbeder’s Windows on the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the success of Frédéric Beigbeder's Windows on the World is due to Beigbeder's use of the seemingly contradictory genres of autofiction and hyperrealism in the depiction of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. By positioning himself in the text alongside his fictionalized American counterpoint, Beigbeder configures 9/11 as a lived-body experience that models the ways in which the post-9/11 subject was formed within specific political, cultural, and national conditions. The effect of the novel’s hyperrealism is such that Beigbeder simultaneously posits and deconstructs the notion of national identity within the greater contexts of postmodernism and globalization.

  1. Increased mortality among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy: survival differences between sexes explained by late initiation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanters S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Steve Kanters,1,3 Margaret Nansubuga,2 Daniel Mwehire,2 Mary Odiit,2 Margaret Kasirye,2 William Musoke,2 Eric Druyts,3 Sanni Yaya,3 Anna Funk,3 Nathan Ford,4,5 Edward J Mills3,61Faculty of Health Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, 2Mildmay Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; 5Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa; 6Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USABackground: We aimed to assess the relationship between gender and survival among adult patients newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Uganda. We also specifically examined the role of antenatal services in favoring women's access to HIV care.Methods: From an observational cohort study, we assessed survival and used logistic regression and differences in means to compare men and women who did not access care through antenatal services. Differences were assessed on measures of disease progression (WHO stage and CD4 count and demographic (age, marital status, and education, behavioral (sexual activity, disclosure to partner, and testing, and clinical variables (hepatitis B and C, syphilis, malaria, and anemia. A mediational analysis that considered gender as the initial variable, time to death as the outcome, initial CD4 count as the mediator, and age as a covariate was performed using an accelerated failure time model with a Weibull distribution.Results: Between 2004 and 2011, a total of 4775 patients initiated ART, and after exclusions 4537 (93.2% were included in analysis. Men initiating ART were more likely to have a WHO disease stage III or IV (odds ratio: 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–1.66, and lower CD4 cell counts compared to women (median baseline CD4 124 cells/mm3, interquartile range [IQR]: 43–205

  2. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial fertilisers was ha~pered by their high cost ... of plant nutrients in Uganda came into light between 1903 ai1d 1924 during .... and would not be stimulated to heavy vegetative growth, as was the ...

  3. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  4. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007. This situation can be averted by effectively promoting the involvement of the engine of economic growth, the SMEs in national and international businesses. The international involvement of SMEs requires accurate and adequate access to relevant business information. Based on that, a study was conducted to assess the problems SMEs face in accessing business information in Uganda. The study using a descriptive design with survey research techniques among others examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in northern Uganda and established whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information. The paper reports on among others the proposed strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs . The paper concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs.

  5. Transitional justice and gender in Uganda: Making peace, failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of normal political business. The peace process in Uganda. The formal peace negotiation process to address Northern Uganda's conflict began in 2006 after ... Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) who collected ... Building skills of women: The coalition built the knowledge and skills of identified.

  6. Luther and the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-26

    May 26, 2016 ... Finally, the Lutheran Church of Uganda refers to the body of Lutherans in Uganda. .... lightning, smoke and the burning mountain, even those who claim to be righteous .... of what happened with the unfaithful Cain and Esau, and how God .... Law stay away from committing sin because the Law threatens to ...

  7. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  8. Wasted Lessons of 9/11: How the Bush Administration Has Ignored the Law and Squandered its Opportunities to Make Our Country Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    a skyscraper in downtown Tampa, Florida.24 Although the student pilot acted alone and had no known connections with terrorist groups, he had...time of rising energy costs. The Bush Administration has failed to establish baseline training for frontline transportation workers, a prerequisite...Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-53) mandates the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to issue a concept of

  9. VA Benefits: Increasing Outreach and Measuring Outcomes Would Improve the Post-9/11 GI Bill On-the-Job Training and Apprenticeship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    reported using broader outreach methods, such as radio or television advertisements or social media, to raise awareness of the programs. Some state...seminars 11 Radio or television advertisements 2 Source: GAO analysis of SAA survey data from the 44 states that oversee Post-9/11 OJT and...additional information. Connect with GAO on Facebook , Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts

  10. United States Land Border Security Policy: The National Security Implications of 9/11 on the "Nation of Immigrants" and Free Trade in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    ways to reduce wait time.86 The maquiladora auto industry in Mexico lost close to U.S. $10,000/day in the weeks after 9/11.87... maquiladoras . Maquiladoras work almost exclusively on the just-in-time concept, whereby costs are minimized via not using warehouses and through bypassing...Sony spokesman Dan Sherman predicts the following: It’s not going to take long for companies to start doing the math and to see that [ maquiladoras are

  11. Transforming the U.S. immigration system after 9/11 the impact of organizational change and collaboration in the context of homeland security

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, David

    2008-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The terrorist attacks on 9/11 led to a fundamental reorganization of the U.S. immigration structure. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was abolished in 2003 and its missions were transferred into three distinct components within DHS: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and Customs and Border Protection (CBP). This thesis focuses on the perceptions of USCIS employees on organizational change and collab...

  12. “This Was the World Now”: Don DeLillo’s Falling Man as the Literary Memorial to the 9/11 Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaj Tomaš

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When the news broke out that the military successfully neutralized the most wanted terrorists since the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, there was a wave of excitement, thrill, tears and patriotic riots in front of the White House. The Washington Post reports several thousands of young Americans rushing to the fence of the White House, in a spontaneous display of jubilation, dancing and cheering ‘USA!’. Not long passed before there were T-Shirts celebrating Bin Laden’s death being sold. President Obama addressed the nation, claiming that justice has been served. Relief flooded through the American world, even in the euphoric moment, as if they have been searching for some crumb of comfort, or partial closure ever since that awful morning of 9/11. The emotional and psychological wounds of the 9/11 tragedy become thus more evident, from ten years ago, when the image of the great world in its image crushed so profoundly that it become something new, an unknown and fearful of the so-called post-9/11, or – the world of after.

  13. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704

  14. ’n Noodkreet om God se regverdiging of ’n wraakroep om selfgelding? Martelaars aan die voet van die altaar (Op. 6:9-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. du Rand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cry of distress for justice or a vindictive call for vengeance? The martyrs under the altar (Rev. 6:9-11 The essential question to be answered in this article arises from the martyrs’ cry in Revelation 6:9-11. Is the cry to be interpreted as a justification of God’s judgement or as a cry for vengeance by the suffering martyrs? In other words, is it about God’s disposition in the history of Christianity or about the revengeful self-satisfaction of the martyrs? Both these views have been proposed by exegetes and this has led to confusing theological viewpoints. These exegetical preferences determine further dogmatic and ethical implications. The question may also be asked whether it is at all fitting for Christians to urge God to take revenge on their fellows. In almost all the commentaries on Revelation 6:9-11 the exegetes have neglected the theological implications of their exegetical choices concerning these texts. Newer research on the psychological and socio-cultural situation of the first historical receivers of Revelation, as well as the issue of martyrdom in the early church, help an exegete to gain new insights into an old exegetical problem. Decisive exegetical results also serve as key motifs in the unfolding of the dramatic narrative and theological message in the further chapters of Revelation.

  15. Combined measurement of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cserti-Gazdewich Christine M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 is a cytoadhesion molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 have previously been reported with increased malaria disease severity. However, studies have not yet examined both sICAM-1 concentrations and monocyte ICAM-1 expression in the same cohort of patients. To better understand the relationship of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 measurements in malaria, both monocyte ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 concentration were measured in children with P. falciparum infection exhibiting a spectrum of clinical severity. Methods Samples were analysed from 160 children, aged 0.5 to 10.8 years, with documented P. falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. The patients belonged to one of three pre-study defined groups: uncomplicated malaria (UM, severe non-fatal malaria (SM-s, and fatal malaria (SM-f. Subset analysis was done on those with cerebral malaria (CM or severe malaria anaemia (SMA. Monocyte ICAM-1 was measured by flow cytometry. sICAM-1 was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results Both sICAM-1 and monocyte cell-surface ICAM-1 followed a log-normal distribution. Median sICAM-1 concentrations increased with greater severity-of-illness: 279 ng/mL (UM, 462 ng/mL (SM-s, and 586 ng/mL (SM-f, p Conclusion In this cohort of children with P. falciparum malaria, sICAM-1 levels were associated with severity-of-illness. Patients with UM had higher monocyte ICAM-1 expression consistent with a role for monocyte ICAM-1 in immune clearance during non-severe malaria. Among the subsets of patients with either SMA or CM, monocyte ICAM-1 levels were higher in CM, consistent with the role of ICAM-1 as a marker of cytoadhesion. Categories of disease in pediatric malaria may exhibit specific combinations of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 expression.

  16. The Brightest Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn: Securing the Largest Samples of z=9-11 galaxies for JWST by leveraging the HST archive with Spitzer/IRAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Trenti, Michele; Calvi, Valentina; Bernard, Stephanie; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Coe, Dan; Holwerda, Benne; Bradley, Larry; Mason, Charlotte; Schmidt, Kasper; Illingworth, Garth

    2015-10-01

    Hubble's WFC3 has been a game changer for studying early galaxy formation in the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. Reliable samples of sources up to z~10, which can be discovered only from space, are now constraining the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function into the epoch of reionization. Despite these efforts, the size of the highest redshift galaxy samples (z >9 and especially z > 10) is still very small, particularly at high luminosities (L > L*). To deliver transformational results, much larger numbers of bright z > 9 galaxies are needed both to map out the bright end of the luminosity/mass function and for spectroscopic follow-up (with JWST and otherwise). One especially efficient way of expanding current samples is (1) to leverage the huge amounts of pure-parallel data available with HST to identify large numbers of candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies and (2) to follow up each candidate with shallow Spitzer/IRAC observations to distinguish the bona- fide z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies from z ~ 2 old, dusty galaxies. For this program we are requesting shallow Spitzer/IRAC follow-up of 20 candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies we have identified from 130 WFC3/IR pointings obtained from more than 4 separate HST programs with no existing IRAC coverage. Based on our previous CANDELS/GOODS searches, we expect to confirm 5 to 10 sources as L > L* galaxies at z >= 9. Our results will be used to constrain the bright end of the LF at z >= 9, to provide targets for Keck spectroscopy to constrain the ionization state of the z > 8 universe, and to furnish JWST with bright targets for spectroscopic follow-up studies.

  17. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  18. Framing Islam as a Threat: The Use of Islam by Some U.S. Conservatives as a Platform for Cultural Politics in the Decade after 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Belt, David Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Why, in the aftermath of 9/11, did a segment of U.S. security experts, political elite, media and other institutions classify not just al-Qaeda but the entire religion of Islam as a security threat, thereby countering the prevailing professional consensus and White House policy that maintained a distinction between terrorism and Islam? Why did this oppositional threat narrative on Islam expand and even degenerate into warning about the �[BULLET]Islamization�[BULLET] of America by its tiny p...

  19. Working toward resilience: a retrospective report of actions taken in support of a New York school crisis team following 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendall; Luna, Joanne M Tortorici

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective report details external support rendered to a Lower Manhattan school crisis team following the 9/11/01 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center This analysis occasions an opportunity for consideration of working assumptions, the formative use of data to plan support actions, and the subsequent emergence of a collaborative approach to post-disaster team support in school settings. The nature of assessment and nature of subsequent service delivery illustrates a community resilience-based approach to school crisis management. Recommendations for such work are based upon mixed qualitative and quantitative data gathered from on-scene team members as part of the ongoing support effort.

  20. Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen M Arabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1 review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2 examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3 review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4 discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5 review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.

  1. Consequences of 9/11 and the war on terror on children's and young adult's mental health: a systematic review of the past 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cecile; Jamil, Uzma; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Boudjarane, Meriem

    2015-04-01

    This mixed method systematic review appraises the individual, familial and systemic effect of 9/11 and the war on terror for majority and minority children and youth in North America. The results highlight the broad social consequences of the socio-political transformations associated with the terror context, which cannot be understood only through a trauma focus analysis. The social stereotypes transformed youth experiences of belonging and exclusion. The difference between the consequences for majority and minority youth suggests the need for a broader appraisal of this societal context to support the development of prevention and intervention intersectorial programs.

  2. A dental experience with the Abayudaya community in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    If anyone told me four months ago that I would be taking out teeth and caring about the future of dental health in Uganda, the land of Idi Amin and Raid on Entebbe, I'd have told them they were crazy. I was going to Kenya for Operation Smile; a string of events led me to Samson Wamani, Medical Director for the Abayudaya community in Uganda, and helped me realize there's a huge difference between dental care here in the U.S., and what it is for fellow Jews of Uganda.

  3. Review of indigenous knowledge in Uganda: Implications for its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabuti, John R.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda.

  4. Awaiting Cyber 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    understanding the definition of the cyber domain. Cyberspace is a manmade domain created by information technologies. It is composed of radio waves ...in powerplants and factories around the world.23 More complex than any virus ever seen, Stuxnet was designed to attack industrial systems referred

  5. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I is constitutively expressed and involved in IFN-gamma-stimulated CXCL9-11 production in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shogo; Ishiguro, Yoh; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Mori, Fumiaki; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Yoshida, Hidemi; Ota, Ken; Sakuraba, Hirotake; Yamagata, Kazufumi; Sato, Yuki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Haga, Toshihiro; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Satoh, Kei

    2009-03-24

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a member of the DExH/D family proteins, and plays an important role in antiviral response via interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and type 1 IFN. In this study, the roles of RIG-I in the epithelial cells in the cross-talk between type 2 IFN and inducible chemokines production are high-lighted. The results showed that RIG-I was constitutively expressed in normal surface epithelia lining the colonic mucosa. RIG-I was constitutively expressed in the epithelial cell lines HT-29, and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha enhanced the RIG-I expression in a dose-dependent manner. IFN-gamma was shown to stimulate CXCL9-11 production, and RNA interference against RIG-I resulted in significant decrease of IFN-gamma-induced CXCL9-11 productions. These results suggest that RIG-I play an important role in the cross-talk between inflammatory cytokines and immune cell trafficking. In conclusion, RIG-I might regulate the gut barrier function in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following media exposure to tragic events: impact of 9/11 on children at risk for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Henin, Aude; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Pollack, Mark H; Biederman, Joseph; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2007-01-01

    With the extensive media coverage on September 11, 2001, adults and children indirectly witnessed the terrorist attacks leading to the deaths of almost 3,000 people. An ongoing longitudinal study provided the opportunity to examine pre-event characteristics and the impact of this media exposure. We assessed symptoms of PTSD in 166 children and 84 mothers who had no direct exposure to the 9/11 attacks. The sample included children who had parents with or without anxiety and mood disorders, and who had been assessed for the presence or absence of temperamental behavioral inhibition (BI). We found a 5.4 percent rate of symptomatic PTSD in response to 9/11 in children and 1.2 percent in their mothers. Children's identification with victims of the attack, and for younger children, the amount of television viewing predicted increased risk of PTSD symptoms. Parental depression was associated with higher symptoms, and pre-event levels of family support was associated with a lower risk for PTSD symptoms. BI in children was also linked to lower rates of PTSD symptoms, suggesting that a cautious and fearful approach to novelty may offer protection against exposure to media-based traumatic images. Media viewing of tragic events is sufficient to produce PTSD symptoms in vulnerable populations such as children. Given the links between PTSD symptoms and viewing habits, parental monitoring of media exposure may be important for younger children.

  7. can volunteer community health workers in rural Uganda provide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common ... proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. ...... Clinical management of acute diarrhoea:.

  8. Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: is Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are there lessons to learn for other countries or is Uganda unique? ... risk behaviour has decreased and analysis of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) rates ... However, where they were built on by distinctive HIV policies, HIV prevention has ...

  9. Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda. ... suitability of the knowledge and values offered in African universities has been a matter ... It was found that material, social/ public, personal and religious values are transmitted to ...

  10. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHOEBE

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... InUganda, earlier mosquito studies from forests including. Zika focused ..... from Turdus pelios and Culex annulioris from Sus scrofa. For both ... species in the genus Coquillettidia have been reported to .... adults and pupae.

  11. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda. ... Then English as a medium of instruction would be gradually extended to Science, Geography, Art, ... The role of the other 'minority' indigenous languages must also not be ...

  12. Quality of midwifery care in Soroti District, Uganda | Kaye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of midwifery care in Soroti District, Uganda. ... Objectives: To determine the quality of care provided by midwives in Soroti district; and specifically, to identify training needs, gaps in ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 9, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an indication of water quality ... Agronomic, pests and economic factors influencing sustainability of .... Factors affecting the sustainability of tick-borne disease control in Uganda and ...

  14. genetic analysis of resistance to rice bacterial blight in uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... in Uganda and as part of strategies to develop resistant cultivars, it is ... However, the cost-effective way to control this ... the pathogen continue to evolve and overcome ..... Changes in race frequency of.

  15. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : USI has improved iodine intake in Uganda. ... have low iodine consumption, while others such as Luwero now have iodine excess. ... Recommendation : The national set standard of household salt iodine of 100ppm be revised.

  16. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda Highlands. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land ...

  17. Experiences of orphan care in Amach, Uganda: assessing policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... Experiences of orphan care in Amach, Uganda: assessing policy implications .... in local concepts, institutions and practices with relevance in an .... Data analysis: The qualitative data was analysed using the conceptual ...

  18. Outcome of patients undergoing open heart surgery at the Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training of the superspecialties abroad is largely limited to observation with little or no opportunity ... Results: A total of 124 patients underwent open heart surgery during the study period. ..... The experience at the Uganda heart institute shows.

  19. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  20. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  1. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson,Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  2. Economic viabilty of fishing enterprises on Lake Victoria, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wegoye, J.; Kaidhiwa, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fishing in Uganda are largely developed into comericially oriented activity as a result of the fish export trade that started in the late 1980's. Despite this rapid commercialization,poverty level among fishing communities have remained relatively high thus raising concerns about the profitability of fishing. An analysis of the costs, earnings and profitability of the various fishing enterprises in Uganda was undertaken to address this concern.

  3. A Scoping Study of the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Shinyekwa, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at mapping out the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda with a view to identify areas for further research in a systematic and more detailed way. The economic and social upgrading/downgrading conceptual framework to guide the Capturing the Gains research agenda was used in this process. The paper briefly presents the mobile phone domains, emphasising the relevant parts for Uganda, which include; software development, sales and marketing, mobile service provision and end...

  4. Burden of Placental Malaria among Pregnant Women Who Use or Do Not Use Intermittent Preventive Treatment at Mulago Hospital, Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okot Odongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33 of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33 of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp.

  5. 全球化背景下后9.11时期英国伦敦掠影——解读麦克尤恩小说《星期六》%A Post-9.11 Glimpse of London under a Globalised Context——From McEwan's Saturday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓琴

    2012-01-01

    英国作家伊恩·麦克尤恩的小说《星期六》,讲述了后9.11时期家住伦敦市中心的神经外科医生贝罗安在2003年2月15日星期六这一天的经历.在全球化背景下的今天,贝罗安的经历具有典型的代表性,它表明了个人生活与国际局势密不可分,也折射了9.11事件对西方民众生活、心理造成的影响以及由此引发的人们生活方式和生活态度的改变.

  6. Maternal education and childbirth care in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bbaale E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGlobally, over 500,000 females die of complications relatedto pregnancy and childbirth each year, and of these, over99% of deaths occur in developing countries such asUganda. Utilisation of modern and professional care duringdelivery is important in lowering maternal mortality. Thispaper sets out to investigate the factors associated with theutilisation of modern and professional childbirth care so asto inform policy makers on the pertinent factors that needto be influenced by policy.MethodA nationally representative Uganda Demographic andHealth Survey (UDHS (2006 was used. Sampling was donein two stages. In the first stage 321 clusters were selectedfrom a list of clusters sampled in the 2005/06 UgandaNational Household Survey (UNHS, 17 clusters from the2002 Census frame from Karamoja, and 30 internallydisplaced camps (IDPs. In the second stage, the householdsin each cluster were selected as per the UNHS listing. Inaddition an additional 20 households were randomlyselected in each cluster. Questionnaires were used duringdata collection. During the analysis, a maximum likelihoodprobit technique was employed. Prior to this, a bivariateapproach was used to generate average percentages ofmothers using the childbirth care services by backgroundcharacteristics.ResultsIt is found that maternal education is the strongestpredictor, especially at post-secondary level (highestmarginal effect of 33% and p<0.01, associated with theutilisation of childbirth care. Whereas partner’s education atall levels is important, maternal education is observed toexert a much stronger association. Other factorssignificantly associated with the utilisation of professionalchildbirth care include community infrastructure,occupation, location, and regional differences, wealthstatus, religion, and age cohorts.ConclusionThese findings suggest that whereas all levels of educationare important, the effects of post-secondary education aremore pronounced. Therefore

  7. Motor development profile in 9-11 year-old children from the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas State, presenting low school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may present motor development delays that can influence their learning process, hence the need for specific assessment for the early detection of such delays in an attempt to resolve or mitigate possible future damage. Objective: Profile of motor development in children aged 9-11 years old presenting low academic achievement in the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas state. Methodology: An exploratory, descriptive, transversal study which uses the Motor Development Scale (MDS to analyze the main components of performance. Evaluations were carried out with 43 children of both genders. Results: The children assessed presented motor profiles ranging from “normal” to “far below average”, corroborating the findings in the literature. Conclusions: The results obtained are in agreement with the literature, showing a close relation between motor development and low school performance, emphasizing the importance of psychomotor intervention for the maturation of more complex motor patterns.

  8. From Independence Day to Land of Plenty: Screening American Patriotism from German Émigré Perspectives before and after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Independence Day and Land of Plenty are two tropes referring to the basis of American national identity: the Declaration of Independence with its guarantee of equal and inalienable rights and the promise of an inexhaustible abundance of resources. Independence Day and Land of Plenty are also two American feature films directed by German émigrés, the first being a science fiction blockbuster from 1996 by Roland Emmerich, the second an independent road movie from 2003 by Wim Wenders. Both films confront the issue of American patriotism albeit from different angles and at different times. Independence Day wholeheartedly embraces the American founding myths and translates them into a science fiction scenario. Wenders manoeuvres into an artistic space producing what I call patriotism of dissent. The films engage in a kind of dialectic dialogue on American patriotism. This article takes a close look at émigré perspectives on American patriotism before and after 9/11. By turning to the four patterns which political theorist Samuel P. Huntington identified as possible responses to the discrepancy between principles and practices of American democracy, I will analyse Independence Day as a filmic strategy to deny democratic gaps and Land of Plenty as a representative example of a moralistic reaction to democratic gaps. In the discourse of screening American patriotism from German émigré perspectives before and after 9/11, the work of Emmerich and Wenders exemplifies the spectrum of approaches to negotiate the fantasy of, desire for, and experience of American culture in the medium of film.

  9. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  10. Strecker degradation of phenylalanine initiated by 2,4-decadienal or methyl 13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoate in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2007-02-21

    The reaction of 2,4-decadienal and methyl 13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoate with phenylalanine was studied to determine if alkadienals and ketodienes are able to produce the Strecker-type degradation of amino acids to the corresponding Strecker aldehydes. When reactions were carried out at 180 degrees C, both carbonyl compounds degraded phenylalanine to phenylacetaldehyde, among other compounds. The yield of the phenylacetaldehyde produced depended on the reaction pH and increased linearly with both the amount of the lipid and the reaction time. The yield of this conversion was approximately 8% when starting from decadienal and approximately 6% when starting from methyl 13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoate, and the reaction rate was lower for the ketone than for the aldehyde. Simultaneous to these reactions, the lipid was converted into pyrrole, pyridine, or aldehyde derivatives as a result of several competitive reactions. In particular, 9-14% of the decadienal was converted into hexanal under the assayed conditions. All these reactions are suggested to be produced as a consequence of the oxidation of the alkadienal or the ketodiene to the corresponding epoxyalkenal or unsaturated epoxyketone, which were identified in the reaction mixtures by GC-MS. All these results suggest that alkadienals and ketodienes, which are quantitatively important secondary lipid oxidation products, can degrade amino acids to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes. Therefore, under appropriate conditions, these products are not final products of the lipid oxidation and can participate in carbonyl-amine reactions analogously to other lipid oxidation products with two oxygenated functions.

  11. Patient satisfaction, feasibility and reliability of satisfaction questionnaire among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in urban Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katamba Achilles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comprehensive understanding of the barriers to and facilitators of poor tuberculosis (TB treatment outcome is still lacking; posing a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. Assessment of patient satisfaction in TB programs would contribute to the understanding of gaps in healthcare delivery and the specific needs of individual patients. However, tools for assessing patient satisfaction are lacking. Objective To establish patient satisfaction, the feasibility and reliability of a questionnaire for healthcare service satisfaction and a questionnaire for satisfaction with information received about TB medicines among adult TB patients attending public and private program clinics in Kampala, Uganda. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 133 patients of known HIV status and confirmed pulmonary TB receiving care at the public and private hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. Participants were enrolled based on length of TB treatment as follows: starting therapy, completed two months of therapy, and completed eight months of therapy. A translated and standardized 13-item patient healthcare service satisfaction questionnaire (PS-13 and the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS tool were administered by trained interviewers. Factor analysis was used to systematically group the PS-13 questionnaire into three factors of technical quality of care, responsiveness to patient preference, and management of patient preference satisfaction subscales. The SIMS tool was analyzed with two subscales of information about the action and usage of medication and the potential problems with medication. Results Of the 133 participants, 35% (46/133 were starting, 33% (44/133 had completed two months, and 32% (43/133 had completed eight months of TB therapy. The male to female and public to private hospital ratios in the study population were 1:1. The PS-13 and the SIMS tools were highly acceptable and easily administered

  12. Second generation plant health clinics in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel;

    standards and procedures were in place and followed up on. Many of the observed clinic weaknesses were products of missing coordination, follow up and communication. The sustainability of plant clinics is still uncertain. Funds are limited and skilled human resources to man the clinics have yet to reach......The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of plant clinics in Uganda and to identify system factors that are conducive or constraining to clinic performance. Our analytical framework was derived from the health system model of World Health Organisation (WHO), designed...... their leading role. A mismatch between institutional mandates/authority and allocated resources limited the scope of the actions both at district and national level. The plant clinics risk ‘falling between the two chairs’ of extension and pest and disease control. Finding a solid institutional base...

  13. The Elections in Uganda, February 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gibb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 February, Uganda conducted presidential and parliamentary elections. Incumbent president Yoweri Museveni of the National Resistance Movement (NRM won the multiparty contest for a third consecutive time. If his reign as the NRM leader during Uganda’s stint as a one-party state is counted, the February elections marked the beginning of Museveni’s fifth overall term as president. The NRM continues to dominate parliament, having won a super-majority of the contested seats. Opposition members who competed for both the presidential seat and a seat in parliament contested the results of the election, and the primary opposition candidate Kizza Besigye was placed under house arrest. International observers questioned the integrity of the results, specifically in rural areas that were poorly monitored, and opposition strongholds in urban centres suffered logistical problems. The elections reconfirmed the strength of the NRM following years of political infighting.

  14. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  15. Clinical and radiographic factors do not accurately diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected inpatients in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucian Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive HIV-infected inpatients with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Trained medical officers prospectively collected data on standard symptoms and signs of systemic respiratory illness, and two radiologists interpreted chest radiographs in a standardized fashion. We calculated positive- and negative-likelihood ratios of these factors for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (defined when mycobacterial cultures of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. We used both conventional and novel regression techniques to develop multivariable prediction models for pulmonary tuberculosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 202 enrolled HIV-infected adults with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, 72 (36% had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. No single factor, including respiratory symptoms, physical findings, CD4+ T-cell count, or chest radiographic abnormalities, substantially increased or decreased the likelihood of pulmonary tuberculosis. After exhaustive testing, we were also unable to identify any combination of factors which reliably predicted bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical and radiographic criteria did not help diagnose smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients with unexplained cough in a low-income setting. Enhanced diagnostic

  16. Perceptions and acceptability of mHealth interventions for improving patient care at a community-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help

  17. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

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    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub

  18. SOCIAL FRANCHISING IN CONTEXT OF MARKETING LONG-TERM AND REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTIVES (LARCS IN UGANDA: ANALYSIS OF PACE SOCIAL FRANCHISE MODEL

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    Simon SENSALIRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda is TFR is among the world’s highest at six children per woman, and contributes to the rising rate of poverty and maternal and infant mortality across the country. A social franchise model was adopted in Uganda to market and scale up contraceptive prevalence through the private sector. In 2008 PACE launched the Women’s Health Project, a core component of their reproductive health strategy to increase access to and demand for affordable, quality long‐term Family Planning (FP services, through the setup of a network of private healthcare providers, branded as “ProFam” social franchise health facilities. The program expanded and included services aimed to offer and improve reproductive health services, limiting births through increased use of IUDs and implants as well change negative perceptions to FP. Until 2014, this network consisted of 189 private facilities spread out in 56 districts, following a business model of social franchising. Methods: The multifaceted effect of the social franchise intervention under PACE was then measured through a longitudinal cross sectional survey on perceptions towards Long-Term and Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs use among the target population through a cross-sectional studies over two periods. The studies covered 53 districts hosting 194 privately owned health facilities branded Profam. Multi-stage cluster sampling approaches was used to draw a representative sample of women of reproductive age group. However, for Kampala (capital city, given its population size, the catchment area was restricted to a parish/Ward. Findings: There is an evident rise in current use of FP methods among WRA. Availability of LARCs particularly IUCDs significantly increased over the two time periods. Use of FP services among WRA is a socially sanctioned behavior/practice. There was reported increase in social support for FP services. There were high levels of correct knowledge about FP services and

  19. Three consecutive (1993, 1995, 1997) surveys of food intake, nutritional attitudes and knowledge, and lifestyle in 1000 French children, aged 9-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Rolland-Cachera, M-F

    2007-06-01

    the lifestyle of children in developed societies is susceptible to rapid changes and these may affect the nutritional status of children. Reduced physical activity and changes in diet have been proposed as contributing factors to the growth in childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to assess trends in the food-related behaviour and markers of activity/inactivity in French 9-11 year old children. Three successive surveys (1993, 1995, 1997) were carried out in samples of 1,000 French children, aged 9-11 years. Socio-demographic, anthropometric and food-related parameters were obtained for each child, using standardized questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. previous-day reports of food intake by the child revealed a strong persistence of the traditional French meal structure. Breakfast was eaten by 97% of children. Over the three surveys, an increasing percentage of reported breakfasts contained at least one dairy food, one cereal food, and one fruit or juice (from 11% to 17%). Almost all children had lunch, which occurred at the school cafeteria for one-third of the subjects. The afternoon snack, a traditional meal for French children, was consumed by 86-88% of the samples. Almost all children had dinner (99%), most often at home and in the company of all family members (73-87%). Lunches and dinners were composed of several courses presented in succession, as is usual in France. The foods most preferred by the children were often rich in sugar and/or fat (fried potatoes, ice cream, nut spread, chocolate, cake, etc). The children could list 'healthy foods'competently. They also demonstrated knowledge of terms used in nutrition (e.g. calories, fats) and were aware of possible links between intake of certain substances and disease. In families of higher socio-economic strata (income, education of parents) more time was devoted to sports by the children. Over the three surveys, linear trends indicated more exercise time per week and

  20. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

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    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  1. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

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    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of quality business information is crucial in attaining long-term and sustainable economic growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It is established that SMEs in northern Uganda operate in a business environment that is characterized by fragmented and incomplete information. It is a situation where an awareness of markets, technology, policies, regulations and finance is limited because businesses fail to receive timely business information. This article reports a portion of the results of a larger study using a descriptive design with survey research and other techniques. The study examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in the region and attempted to establish whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information as should be expected. The study’s respondents included the SMEs, information providers and business policy makers with the response rate of 87.3%; 72% and 85% respectively. The article proposes strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs. It concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs

  2. Evaluation of 'see-see and treat' strategy and role of HIV on cervical cancer prevention in Uganda

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    Sandin Sven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is scant information on whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositivity has an influence on the outcome of treatment of precancerous cervical lesions using cryotherapy. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities detectable by visual inspection and cervical lesions diagnosed by colposcopy according to HIV serostatus and described the outcomes of cryotherapy treatment. Methods Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and Lugol's iodine (VILI in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy. Results Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75% returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5% women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL, 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer. Of the 608 women, 103 (16% were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4. Conclusions Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid

  3. Development of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 and serovar 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Lacouture, Sonia; Jacques, Mario; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Two real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 (highly related serovars with similar virulence potential) and serovar 2, respectively. The specificity of these assays was verified on a collection of 294 strains, which included all 16 reference A. pleuropneumoniae strains (including serovars 5a and 5b), 263 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated between 1992 and 2009 in different countries, and 15 bacterial strains other than A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection levels of both qPCR tests were evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA from reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 2, and the detection limit for both assays was 50 fg per assay. The analytical sensitivities of the qPCR tests were also estimated by using pure cultures and tonsils experimentally spiked with A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection threshold was 2.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 2.9 × 10(5) CFU/0.1 g of tonsil, respectively, for both assays. These specific and sensitive tests can be used for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories to control porcine pleuropneumonia.

  4. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) exhibits tissue selective anabolic activity: effects on muscle, bone, adiposity, hemoglobin, and prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; McCoy, Sean C; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Hance, John M; Cannady, Darryl F; VanPelt, Tisha D; Sanchez, Joshua; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2011-04-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) now under development can protect against muscle and bone loss without causing prostate growth or polycythemia. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone), a potent testosterone analog, may have SARM-like actions because, unlike testosterone, trenbolone does not undergo tissue-specific 5α-reduction to form more potent androgens. We tested the hypothesis that trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) might prevent orchiectomy-induced losses in muscle and bone and visceral fat accumulation without increasing prostate mass or resulting in adverse hemoglobin elevations. Male F344 rats aged 3 mo underwent orchiectomy or remained intact and were administered graded doses of TREN, supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate, or vehicle for 29 days. In both intact and orchiectomized animals, all TREN doses and supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate augmented androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle mass by 35-40% above shams (P ≤ 0.001) and produced a dose-dependent partial protection against orchiectomy-induced total and trabecular bone mineral density losses (P testosterone-enanthate and high-dose TREN elevated prostate mass by 84 and 68%, respectively (P muscle and partial protection against orchiectomy-induced bone loss and visceral fat accumulation. Our findings indicate that TREN has advantages over supraphysiological testosterone and supports the need for future preclinical studies examining the viability of TREN as an option for androgen replacement therapy.

  5. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

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    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  6. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  7. Identifying Social Service Needs of Muslims Living in a Post 9/11 Era: The Role of Community-Based Organizations

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    Micheal L. Shier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study the investigators sought to better understand the ways in which service provider organizations (n=19 working with Muslim service providers have adapted to the changing social and political contexts in a post-9/11 era in New York City, and how this changing environment has affected the types of services that Muslims need. Service providers described two general ways in which services were adapted: 1 they have sought to address limits in service delivery programs that were a result of emerging sociopolitical dynamics (such as increasing discrimination through adaptations to existing programs or through the development of new initiatives, programs, and organizations; and 2 they have adapted programs and services to meet the emerging sociocultural demands (such as changing attitudes towards help-seeking, and presenting problems of services users of the Muslim population. The study illustrated the role of service provider organizations in adapting existing services, or creating new services, in response to a changing sociopolitical context. Social work education must focus attention on how social workers can adapt and create organizations that are responsive to the changing needs of service users. More curriculum content is necessary on the intra- and inter-organizational context of direct social work practice, with particular attention to innovation and adaptation within and between human service organizations.

  8. 轻拢慢捻抹复挑——从"9.11"看如何治疗企业员工心理创伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    2001-01-01

    @@ 作为专门为企业员工提供心理健康咨询的Magellan行为健康公司的高级副总裁,比尔·巴尔对在"9.11"恐怖袭击事件发生后不久便接到求助电话一点儿也不感到惊奇.因为巴尔所管理的团队为全美3000多家企业提供咨询服务,其中包括约100家500大企业.现代社会的快节奏、强竞争,使得企业员工的心理状态经常失衡,再加上家庭、婚姻、子女、人际交往等方方面面带来的压力,企业健康咨询业务日渐红火,更不用说碰上纽约世贸大楼遭恐怖分子袭击、造成数千人伤亡这样空前绝后的灾难性事件了.

  9. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  10. Representing 9/11: Alejandro González Iñárritu’s short film in 11'09"01: September 11

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    Marie-Christine CLEMENTE

    2011-09-01

    mesure, être lu comme une mise en scène du retour du trauma des attentats du 11 septembre.In his 11'9"01: September 11 short film, Alejandro González Iñárritu responds to the oversaturated broadcast of the burning Twin Towers that characterises 9/11 by confronting his audience with a black screen that is haunted by sounds recorded around the world on September 11th, 2001. Two minutes into the film a first image finally appears on the screen and the viewer can glimpse the footage of a person falling down the Twin Towers. Similar flashes soon sporadically burst through the black screen and, as these visions have an extremely fleeting quality to them, room is left for the viewer to wonder whether he truly saw ‘jumpers’. Ungraspable by essence, the viewing of Iñarritu’s short film can be likened to a traumatic experience, which Cathy Caruth defines as ‘an event that … is experienced too soon, too unexpectedly, to be fully known and is therefore not available to consciousness until it imposes itself again, repeatedly, in the nightmares and repetitive actions of the survivor’ – the flashes of the ‘jumpers’ that pervade the short film bearing undeniable similarities to the return of the trauma.The paper shows how Iñárritu’s short film attempts to represent the unrepresentable dimension of 9/11. Stressing the fact that the film uses images of the ‘jumpers’ that were widely censored by the media in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, it analyses how the director transcends the sphere of representation by deconstructing the viewers’ habitual cinematic experience. As he explores the limits of sight and sound, Iñárritu produces an extremely unsettling viewing experience for his audience who is forced to adopt a type of perception that verges on the traumatic experience and his film can, to a certain extent, be read as staging the return of the trauma of the 9/11 attacks.

  11. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda.......Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...

  12. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

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    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  13. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  14. Low isoniazid and rifampicin concentrations in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Uganda

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    Christine Sekaggya Wiltshire

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited data available on exposure to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs in this region. Peloquin has described reference ranges [1] however some studies have demonstrated that patients actually achieve concentrations below these ranges [2]. There is limited data about exposure to anti-TB drugs in the HIV/TB co-infected population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective is to describe the concentration of anti-TB drug levels in a well characterized prospective cohort of adult patients starting treatment for pulmonary TB. Methods: This study is an ongoing study carried out in the TB/HIV integrated clinic at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda. Sputum culture and microscopy was done for all patients. We performed pharmacokinetic blood sampling of anti-TB drugs for 1 hour, 2 hours and 4 hours post dose at 2 weeks, 8 weeks and 24 weeks after initiation of anti-TB treatment using ultraviolet high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC. We described the maximum concentration (Cmax of isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E and pyrazinamide (Z and compare them with the values observed by Peloquin et al. referenced in other studies. Results: We started 113 HIV infected adults on a fixed dose combination of HREZ. The median age of our population was 33 years, of which 52% were male with a median BMI of 19 kg/m2 and a median CD4 cell count of 142 cells/µL. In 90% of the participants, the diagnosis of TB was based on microscopy and or cultures. The boxplot graph shows the median Cmax and IQR of H and R. Levels of H were found to be below the reference ranges (3–6 µg/mL in 54/77(70.1%, 38/59(64.4% and 15/24(62.5% participants at weeks 2, 8 and 24. Rif levels were also found to be below the reference ranges (8–24 µg/mL in 41/66(62.1%, 26/48(54.2% and 8/10(8% participants at weeks 2, 8 and 24, respectively. The mean Cmax of E and Z were within the reference range at week 2 and 8; mean Cmax of 3.2±SD2.1 µg/mL and 4

  15. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

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    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  16. Wound healing activity of ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid isolated from Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balekar, Neelam; Nakpheng, Titpawan; Katkam, Nadpi Gangadhar; Srichana, Teerapol

    2012-10-15

    Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine in the Caribbean and Central America for stubborn wounds, sores, swelling, arthritic painful joints. The present study was carried out to derive bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of W. trilobata (L.) leaves that could influence wound healing. W. trilobata leaves extract were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The five fractions (WEA1-A, B, C, D, and E) obtained were tested for antimicrobial activity. Out of the five fractions only the fraction (WEA1-B) containing ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC value of 15.62μg/ml against S. aureus and 7.81μg/ml against S. epidermidis. It was then further assessed for its possible activity on fibroblasts by measuring their percentage cell viability and on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. WEA1-B (2.5-0.08μg/ml) produced an increase in the percentage viability of mouse fibroblast L929 cells from 97 to 117% and protection of the fibroblast L929 cells against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (94-80%). The present study provides some scientific evidence for the traditional use of W. trilobata in the management of wound healing due to a combination of antimicrobial, stimulation of fibroblast growth and protection of the cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, all of which could play some role in its effect on tissue repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Improve the Absolute Accuracy of Ozone Intensities in the 9-11 μm Region via Mw/ir Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O_3) is crucial for studies of air quality, human and crop health, and radiative forcing. Spectroscopic remote sensing techniques have been extensively employed to investigate ozone globally and regionally. Infrared intensities of ≤1% accuracy are desired by the remote sensing community. The accuracy of the current state-of-the-art infrared ozone intensities is on the order of 4-10%, resulting in ad hoc intensity scaling factors for consistent atmospheric retrievals. The large uncertainties on the infrared ozone intensities arise from the fact that pure ozone is very difficult to generate and sustain in the laboratory. Best estimates have employed IR/UV cross beam experiments to determine the accurate O_3 volume mixing ratio of the sample through its standard cross section value at 254 nm. This presentation reports our effort to improve the absolute accuracy of ozone intensities in the 9-11 μm region via a transfer of the precision of the rotational dipole moment onto the infrared measurement (MW/IR). Our approach was to use MW/IR cross beam experiments and determine the O_3 mixing ratio through alternately measuring pure rotation ozone lines from 692 to 779 GHz. The uncertainty of these pure rotation line intensities is better than 0.1%. The sample cell was a slow flow cross cell and the total pressure inside the sample cell was maintained constant through a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) flow control. Five infrared O_3 spectra were obtained, with a path length of 3.74 m, pressures ranging from 30 to 120 mTorr, and mixing ratio ranging from 0.5 to 0.9. A multi spectrum fitting technique was employed to fit all the FTS spectra simultaneously. The results show that we can determine intensities of the 9.6μm band with absolute accuracy better than 4%.

  18. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9-11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Data were collected from 4752 children (9-11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents' education level, weight, and height. Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23-2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21-10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33-0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33-0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33-0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19-0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31-0.96). Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to

  19. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  20. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  1. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  2. The Distribution and Conservation Status of Otters in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranga J.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of otters in Uganda was carried from 1986 onwards, together with other mammals. The information presented here was re-checked in the last three years. All three African otters are found in Uganda: the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis. the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis and the swamp otter or Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congica. The first two are widely distributed throughout the country with the exception of the dry North eastern region. The swamp otter has a limited distribution in the country and reaches its most easterly extension in western Uganda. Although otters are still relatively common in most of their traditional habitats, they are under pressure from hunters, fishermen, land developers and general habitat destruction. Digging up the stream bed, swamp drainage and destruction of natural vegetation has produced silting, lowered the water table and adversely affected otters in addition to other aquatic biota. The wetland, ecosystem, and therefore otter habitat, are under-represented in Uganda national parks (Baranga 1990. That leaves most of the otters numerically out of the strict conservation areas and thus exposed to potential danger. Suggestions to improve the conservation status of Ugandan otters are made in a more detailed article which will be published as part of the proceedings of the Sixth International Otter Symposium.

  3. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos

  4. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the

  5. Microfinance, rural livelihoods, and women's empowerment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines in what ways and to what extent microfinance services facilitate the empowerment of married rural women in Nebbi district, northwestern Uganda. In particular, it examines the gender relations inherent in the livelihood practices of the community, the changes in well-being (if any

  6. Mis ikkagi teeb Eestist Uganda? / Marja-Liisa Alop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alop, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada

  7. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented

  8. Predictive mapping of prospectivity for orogenic gold in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, Stephanie; Woldai, T.; Carranza, E.J.M; van Ruitenbeek, F.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Integration of enhanced regional geo-datasets has facilitated new geological interpretation and modelling of prospectivity for orogenic gold in southwestern Uganda. The geo-datasets include historical geological maps, geological field data, digital terrain models, Landsat TM data and airborne geophy

  9. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual…

  10. Weather variability and food consumption : Evidence from rural Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lazzaroni (Sara); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the impact of weather variations on food consumption in rural Uganda. The paper relies on two-period panel data (2005/06-2009/10) combined with data on rainfall, number of rainy days and maximum and minimum temperatures. We find that higher temperatures have an advers

  11. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  12. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the dev

  13. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented i

  14. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented i

  15. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  16. Professional integrity of teachers in Uganda : Practical action strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wabule, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The study analyses the problem of professional integrity of teachers in Uganda and explores solutions. It analyses the difficult conditions under which Ugandan teachers work, reports on the professional dilemmas that they face, and on the serious issues of failings of professional integrity. The

  17. Finance and Demand for Skill : Evidence from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Homanen, M.; Uras, Burak

    2016-01-01

    We explore the empirical interaction between firm growth, financing constraints and job creation. Using a novel small business survey from Uganda, we find that the extent to which small businesses expand skilled employment as their sales and profits increase depends significantly on access to extern

  18. Abolition of user fees: the Uganda paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Mugisha, Frederick; Kirunga, Christine; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2011-11-01

    Inadequate health financing is one of the major challenges health systems in low-income countries currently face. Health financing reforms are being implemented with an increasing interest in policies that abolish user fees. Data from three nationally representative surveys conducted in Uganda in 1999/2000, 2002/03 and 2005/06 were used to investigate the impact of user fee abolition on the attainment of universal coverage objectives. An increase in illness reporting was noted over the three surveys, especially among the poorer quintiles. An increase in utilization was registered in the period immediately following the abolition of user fees and was most pronounced in the poorest quintile. Overall, there was an increase in utilization in both public and private health care delivery sectors, but only at clinic and health centre level, not at hospitals. Our study shows important changes in health-care-seeking behaviour. In 2002/03, the poorest population quintile started using government health centres more often than private clinics whereas in 1999/2000 private clinics were the main source of health care. The richest quintile has increasingly used private clinics. Overall, it appears that the private sector remains a significant source of health care. Following abolition of user fees, we note an increase in the use of lower levels of care with subsequent reductions in use of hospitals. Total annual average expenditures on health per household remained fairly stable between the 1999/2000 and 2002/03 surveys. There was, however, an increase of US$21 in expenditure between the 2002/03 and 2005/06 surveys. Abolition of user fees improved access to health services and efficiency in utilization. On the negative side is the fact that financial protection is yet to be achieved. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains high and mainly affects the poorer population quintiles. A dual system seems to have emerged where wealthier population groups are switching to the private sector.

  19. Cytoprotection of Human Endothelial Cells Against Oxidative Stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of Systems Biology to Understand the Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-03

    oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action Xinyu Wang a,n, James A. Bynumb,c, Solomon Stavchansky...enzyme. To further improve this cytoprotective effect, we studied a synthetic triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole ...2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Post-stroke depression among stroke survivors attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    Mother Kevin Post graduate Medical School, Uganda Martyr's University, Nsambya Hospital, P. O. Box 5498. Kampala, Uganda. 2. .... assess the physical disability among the subjects23. ..... women with PSD in this study could be attributed to.

  1. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel,Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Background Uganda?s banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2?3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to ...

  2. After the Post-9/11 GI Bill: A Profile of Military Service Members and Veterans Enrolled in Undergraduate and Graduate Education. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-435

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Bentz, Alexander; Dekker, Remmert; Paslov, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Post-9/11 GI Bill took effect on August 1, 2009, increasing the education benefits available to military service members who served after September 10, 2001. A previous National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) study used national data collected in 2007-08 to profile military undergraduate and graduate students who received benefits…

  3. Using the behavioural perspective to explain the current state of horizontal collaborative purchasing the public sector in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhwezi, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The paper is part of the Doctoral research on horizontal collaborative purchasing in developing countries, and particularly in Uganda. The overall goals of the Doctoral research are tounderstand behavioural aspects in horizontal purchasing collaboration in developing countries (Uganda) an

  4. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  5. Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philbert Clouds

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to previous reports which indicated no transmission of schistosomiasis at altitude >1,400 m above sea level in Uganda, in this study it has been established that schistosomiasis transmission can take place at an altitude range of 1487–1682 m above sea level in western Uganda. Methods An epidemiological survey of intestinal schistosomiasis was carried out in school children staying around 13 high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. Stool samples were collected and then processed with the Kato-Katz technique using 42 mg templates. Thereafter schistosome eggs were counted under a microscope and eggs per gram (epg of stool calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information on risk factors. Results 36.7% of the pupils studied used crater lakes as the main source of domestic water and the crater lakes studied were at altitude ranging from 1487–1682 m above sea level. 84.6% of the crater lakes studied were infective with over 50% of the users infected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 27.8% (103/370 with stool egg load ranging from 24–6048 per gram of stool. 84.3%( 312 had light infections (400 egg/gm of stool. Prevalence was highest in the age group 12–14 years (49.5% and geometric mean intensity was highest in the age group 9–11 years (238 epg. The prevalence and geometric mean intensity of infection among girls was lower (26%; 290 epg compared to that of boys (29.6%; 463 epg (t = 4.383, p Conclusion and recommendations The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could

  6. 席瓦和她的第三世界生态女性主义--"9.11"事件后发出的不同声音%Siva and Her Eco-feminism of the Thir World-Different Voices Raised After the "9.11" Incident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰冰; 刘兵

    2002-01-01

    正如女性主义的其他流派一样,生态女性主义也包容了许多彼此观点有很大差异的各种理论.其中,印度学者范达娜@席瓦(VANDANA SHIVA)作为第三世界为数不多的代表之一,颇为引人注目.本文试以席瓦在"9.11"事件后发表的4篇文章"上帝保佑世界""团结起来反对一切形式的恐怖主义""恐怖主义的生态""如同类相食的恐怖主义"为例,介绍其主要思想,并简要分析她与其他(主要是欧美发达国家的白人中产阶级)生态女性主义者的异同.

  7. Perceptions and viewpoints on proceedings of the Fifteenth Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union Debate on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Development, 25–27 July 2010, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out of 358000 maternal deaths that occurred globally in 2008, 57.8% occurred in continental Africa. Africa had a maternal mortality ratio of 590 compared to 14 in developed regions, 68 in Latin America and Caribbean, and 190 in Asia. This article reflects on the discussions held during the Fifteenth Assembly of the Heads of State and Government of the African Union on the reasons why the maternal mortality ratio is so high in Africa and what can be done to reduce it. Methods Methods employed included panel and open public discussions among the Heads of State and Government of the African Union. The article uses the WHO health systems strengthening framework, which consists of six pillars (information systems, leadership and governance, health workforce, financing, and medical products, vaccines and technologies, and health services to describe the proceedings of the discussions. Discussion The high maternal mortality ratios in countries were attributed to weak national health information systems; leadership and governance challenges related to poverty, health illiteracy, poor transport networks and communications infrastructure, risky cultural practices, armed conflicts and domestic violence, dearth of women empowerment; inadequate levels of skilled birth attendants; inadequate domestic and external funding; stock-outs of consumable inputs; and limited coverage of maternal and child health interventions. In order to accelerate progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, the Heads of State and Government recommended that countries should make maternal deaths notifiable and institutionalize maternal death audits; develop, fund and implement policies and strategies geared at improving maternal, newborn and child health; accelerate inter-sectoral action to address the broad health determinants; increase the number of skilled birth attendants; fulfil commitment to allocate at least 15% of the national budget to the health sector and allocate adequate resources to prevent stock-outs of essential medicines and reproductive health commodities; leverage health promotion approaches to raise national awareness; and ensure that there is a health centre within a radius of four kilometres equipped to provide good quality integrated maternal, newborn and child health services. Conclusions There was consensus among the discussants that there was urgent need to speed up actions for strengthening health systems to improve coverage of maternal, newborn and child health services; and to address broad determinants of women, newborn and children’s health for sustained improvements in health and other development goals.

  8. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

  9. The Role of Astronomy in Development: The Case of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurua, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Science and technology play a key role in economic development; and Universities have a direct stake in this process. A knowledge-based economy requires scientific and technological expertise that is strongly influenced by the strength of training in science and technology. However, in Uganda not many students opt for science subject at higher levels, and subsequently in the University. Therefore, there is need to encourage and motivate students to study science subjects in order for this to be successful. This can be achieved through introduction of stimulating subjects such as astronomy in the university curriculum. Astronomy is considered as the most appealing subject and an excellent tool for conveying scientific knowledge to young students. In this paper, the role that astronomy has played to motivate and interest students to study physics in Mbarara University of Science and Technology, in Uganda, is discussed.

  10. Participatory Indicators of Success of Community Forestry Programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, a large diversity of community initiated forest management systems have evolved recently in response to severe degradation of forests and grazing land and biomass shortages. Forestry professional, forest user group and farmers were organized in June 2004 to develop commonly agreed indicators of the performance of Community Forestry Program in Uganda. Indicators, such as access to fuel wood, incidence of forest fire and amount of community funds raised through the sale offorest products are commonly agreed at local level. Women participation in forestry related meetings and taste of drinking water in the watershed area are also important. Equitable benefit sharing by the community forest users serves as an indicator of better access to forest products. Socio-economic changes such as women participation in forest related decision-making, income generated from community forests, and equity of benefits from community forests also, reflect the program success.

  11. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  12. Enhancing sustainable construction in the building sector in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kibwami, N; Tutesigensi, A

    2016-01-01

    To further the sustainability agenda of the building sector, recent research and practice suggest that integrating embodied carbon (EC) in the sustainability assessment of buildings is necessary. This paper presents an investigation to assess whether the consideration of EC in the development approval process (DAP) could enhance sustainable construction (SC). A recent proposal for integrating the assessment of EC in the DAP of building projects in Uganda was used. Structured interviews were u...

  13. Finance and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We explore the empirical interaction between firm growth, financing constraints and job creation. Using a novel small business survey from Uganda, we find that the extent to which small businesses expand skilled employment as their sales and profits increase depends significantly on access to external funding. The results are robust to the inclusion of various firm level controls, region and sector fixed effects. We address reverse causality concerns by providing empirical evidence using plan...

  14. Pre-Colonial political centralization and contemporary development in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The importance of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development has become an important .eld of study within development economics in recent years. In particular Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) suggest that pre-colonial political centralization has had an impact on con- temporary levels of development within Africa at the country level. We test the Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) hypothesis at the sub-national level with evidence from Uganda. Using a variety of datasets we obtain results w...

  15. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Background Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help i...

  16. Agglomeration, migration, and regional growth: A CGE analysis for Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    "Uganda has experienced rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade but has failed to significantly improve incomes in its northern regions where prolonged conflict has hindered growth. We consider three strategies to close this regional divide: (1) develop a north-south corridor to encourage regional trade, (2) accelerate growth in the southern capital city and encourage north-south migration, and (3) improve agricultural productivity in rural areas. We examine these str...

  17. Pilot randomized trial of therapeutic hypothermia with serial cranial ultrasound and 18-22 month follow-up for neonatal encephalopathy in a low resource hospital setting in uganda: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now convincing evidence that in industrialized countries therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy increases survival with normal neurological function. However, the greatest burden of perinatal asphyxia falls in low and mid-resource settings where it is unclear whether therapeutic hypothermia is safe and effective. Aims Under the UCL Uganda Women's Health Initiative, a pilot randomized controlled trial in infants with perinatal asphyxia was set up in the special care baby unit in Mulago Hospital, a large public hospital with ~20,000 births in Kampala, Uganda to determine: (i The feasibility of achieving consent, neurological assessment, randomization and whole body cooling to a core temperature 33-34°C using water bottles (ii The temperature profile of encephalopathic infants with standard care (iii The pattern, severity and evolution of brain tissue injury as seen on cranial ultrasound and relation with outcome (iv The feasibility of neurodevelopmental follow-up at 18-22 months of age Methods/Design Ethical approval was obtained from Makerere University and Mulago Hospital. All infants were in-born. Parental consent for entry into the trial was obtained. Thirty-six infants were randomized either to standard care plus cooling (target rectal temperature of 33-34°C for 72 hrs, started within 3 h of birth or standard care alone. All other aspects of management were the same. Cooling was performed using water bottles filled with tepid tap water (25°C. Rectal, axillary, ambient and surface water bottle temperatures were monitored continuously for the first 80 h. Encephalopathy scoring was performed on days 1-4, a structured, scorable neurological examination and head circumference were performed on days 7 and 17. Cranial ultrasound was performed on days 1, 3 and 7 and scored. Griffiths developmental quotient, head circumference, neurological examination and assessment of gross motor function were

  18. Environmental Regulation in Uganda: Successes and Challenges - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Echookit Akellol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of environmental regulatory framework in Uganda was initiated by the national environment action planning process in 1990, as a realization that environment needed special focus. As a result of the said process environmental policy and law were developed. The 1995 constitutional of the Republic of Uganda was among the first ever such constitution in the East African region to deliberately enshrine the right to a decent environment and to provide for sustainable development, in addition to the principle that natural resources are held in trust for the people and should be responsibly managed for their benefit. Following the constitution, a number of environment legislations were enacted and others were revised to take into account environmental cardinal principles and considerations, including embedding in them environmental regulatory provisions. Hence, in addition to the framework of National Environment Act, a number of environment sect oral legislation exists and environmental management is spread throughout the respective institutions responsible for aspects of the environment. It is therefore safe to say that Uganda has developed a lot of legislation on the environment but the challenge remains that of developing more regulations under the relevant parent Acts, effective monitoring and enforcement.

  19. Improved charcoal production methods using the casamance kiln in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nturanabo, F. (Makerere Univ., Kampala (Uganda), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering), e-mail: mpazi@tech.mak.ac.ug; Tumuhimbise, J. (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, Kampala (Uganda))

    2010-07-01

    Uganda's energy mix depicts heavy reliance on biomass for most of the country's energy needs. Woodfuel is the major source of energy for heating, cooking and lighting. According to the Uganda Energy Balance 2008, biomass resources account for 91,5 % of Uganda's net energy supply. Consumption of wood has been rising at the same rate as the country's population (3,6 % per year as of 2008). The solution to check the rampant deforestation and environmental degradation that result from over-exploitation of the forest resources lies in harvesting the wood sustainably by using more efficient methods. The purpose of this research was to promote use of the casamance kiln as an efficient and environment-friendly charcoal production method. The study aimed at establishing a simpler version of casamance that involves minimal capital investment for low-income producers to adopt easily. The results show that the casamance kiln is easy to operate, takes a shorter cycle time and produces higher quality charcoal. Its efficiency of yield was in the range of 24-28 %, compared to the traditional earth mound whose range was 12-16 %. A 20 m3 casamance kiln operating at 28 % efficiency for 30 weeks a year can save 85 tonnes of wood. (orig.)

  20. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.