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  1. 1952 Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami was generated by a magnitude 9.0 (Mw) earthquake on Kamchatka where it caused severe damage. The tsunami then struck Midway (3,000 kilometers away), the...

  2. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied.

  3. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  4. Most recent fall deposits of Ksudach Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

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    Bursik, M.; Melekestsev, I. V.; Brajtseva, O. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three of four Plinian eruptions from Ksudach Volcano are among the four largest explosive eruptions in southern Kamchatka during the past 2000 years. The earliest of the eruptions was voluminous and was accompanied by an ignimbrite and the fifth and most recent Cddera collapse event at Ksudach. The isopach pattern is consistent with a column height of 23 km. The three more recent and smaller eruptions were from the Shtyubel' Cone, within the fifth caldera. Using isopach and grain size isopleth patterns, column heights ranged from >10 to 22 kin. Although the oldest eruption may have produced a large acidity peak in the Greenland ice, the three Shtyubel' events may not be related to major acid deposition. Thus it is possible that few if any of the uncorrelated acidity peaks of the past 2000 years in Greenland ice cores result from eruptions in southern Kamchatka.

  5. Kamchatka

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2005-01-01

    Photo prise de : http://cine.ciudad.com.ar/kamchatkalapelicula/castellano/fotos/fotos.htm « La péninsule du Kamchatka est située à l’extrême frontière orientale de la Fédération de Russie, au nord du Japon et au Sud-Ouest de l’Alaska. Celle-ci s’étire sur 1500 km du nord au sud et 470 km dans sa plus grande largeur entre les latitudes 50°51’N (hauteur de Bruxelles) et 64°50’N». Qu’est-ce que tout cela a à voir avec le déchaînement de la dictature argentine ? En 1976 une famille porteña se voi...

  6. Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Photo prise de : http://cine.ciudad.com.ar/kamchatkalapelicula/castellano/fotos/fotos.htm « La péninsule du Kamchatka est située à l’extrême frontière orientale de la Fédération de Russie, au nord du Japon et au Sud-Ouest de l’Alaska. Celle-ci s’étire sur 1500 km du nord au sud et 470 km dans sa plus grande largeur entre les latitudes 50°51’N (hauteur de Bruxelles et 64°50’N». Qu’est-ce que tout cela a à voir avec le déchaînement de la dictature argentine ? En 1976 une famille porteña se voi...

  7. Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendea, Ionel Florin; Ponomareva, Vera; Bourgeois, Joanne; Zubrow, Ezra B. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Ponkratova, Irina; Harmsen, Hans; Korosec, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) - Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.

  8. Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, Svetlana L; Kurath, Gael; Bochkova, Elena V

    2007-03-29

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10,000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other watersheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by sequence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean.

  9. The First Result of the Precursors Observation in Karymshina Observatory (Kamchatka, Russia) for Moderate Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, E.; Uyeda, S.; Nagao, T.; Molchanov, O.; Hattori, K.; Lutikov, A.; Gladyshev, V.; Schekotov, A.; Chebrov, V.

    2001-12-01

    In 1999 the complex geophysical observatory was created in Kamchatka, Russia under mutual Russian-Japanese scientific project. The main purpose of this project is to investigate electromagnetic and other phenomena in connection with earthquakes. The observatory is sited in the place without any sources of industrial noise. The seismic waveforms, acoustic emission, telluric currents, magnetic pulsation and chemical composition of underground water are measured continuously. The measurements of three components of ground displacement velocity is realized by seismometer in the frequency band 0.5-40 Hz with sensitivity threshold 10-8 m/s and dynamic range of 90 dB. Triaxial induction magnetometer measures geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range 0.003-30 Hz with sensitivity threshold 20 pT/Hz1/2 at frequency 0.01 Hz and 0.02 pT/Hz1/2 at frequencies higher than 10 Hz. Dynamic range of the magnetometer is 90 dB. Measurements of NS and EW components of telluric currents with maximum distance between electrodes of about 500 m are carried out. The acoustic emission receiver (high-frequency seismometer) based on mechanical pendulum with ceramic transducer is installed in 30 m borehole. The output signals are filtered by 4 filters with central frequencies equal to 30, 160, 500 and 1000 Hz. In the same borehole was installed high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) piezoceramic sensor with very narrow band around 30 Hz and sensitivity threshold 10-12 m. The chemical components Cl, HCO3, SO4, Na, K, Ca, H3BO3, H4SiO4, gases CH4, N2, O2, CO2, Ar, He, H2 and hydrocarbonates C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6, C4H10, C4H10i are analysed in a few wells nearby the observatory. The atmospheric pressure, direction and velocity of the wind, humidity, precipitation, air and ground temperature are measured using meteorological station installed at observatory. Since June 2000 CGO Karymshina has started regular simultaneous monitoring of the above-mentioned parameters. Processing and analysis of the

  10. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  11. The influence of volcanic activity on suspended sediment yield of rivers (Kamchatka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksina, Ludmila

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka is specific region of suspended sediment yield formation. This fact is particularly connected with active volcanism in the territory. The influence of volcanism on suspended sediment yield characteristics was studied in various time scales - into-diurnal, seasonal and long-term ones. The study of spatial variability of these characteristics reveals the maximum values characterize river basins in zones of strong impact of volcanic eruptions, especially, rivers draining slopes and flanks of active volcanoes. Into-diurnal fluctuations were studied for rivers in volcanic areas. They are characterized by synchronous changes of water flow and turbidity. It's determined by weak erosion-preventive capacity of friable volcanic deposits and big slopes of channels (2.5 - 6.0 %). The maximum of water flow and turbidity is observed at the period between 12 and 6 pm. The air temperature reaches its maximum by that time, and consequently, the intensity of snow melting is also maximum one. The maximum of turbidity advances diurnal maximum of water flow a little, and it's connected with the features of flood wave moving and consecutive maximums of slopes, turbidity, velocity, water flow, and capacity of stream during flush. Into-diurnal fluctuations are determined by complicated and little-studied processes of mass transfer between stream and channel deposits. These processes are connected with into-diurnal changes of stream capacity and water transfer between channel and underflow. As the result water regime is pulsating. Rivers under the influence of volcanic eruptions transport the main amount of sediments during floods which usually occur in summer-autumn period (in the absence of extreme floods in winter-spring period during volcanic eruptions). Combination of maximum snow supply, significant precipitation in warm part of the year and weak erosion-preventive capacity of friable volcanic deposits on volcanoes slopes is the reason of the most intense erosion in this

  12. Testing and Adapting a Daytime Four Band Satellite Ash Detection Algorithm for Eruptions in Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrup-Henriksen, G.; Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanic ash is detectable from satellite remote sensing due to the differences in spectral signatures compared to meteorological clouds. Recently a new global daytime ash detection algorithm was developed at University of Madison, Wisconsin. The algorithm is based on four spectral bands with the central wavelengths 0.65, 3.75, 11 and 12 micrometers that are common on weather satellite sensors including MODIS, AVHRR, GOES and MTSAT. The initial development of the algorithm was primarily based on MODIS data with global coverage. We have tested it using three years of AVHRR data in Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. All the AVHRR data have been manually analyzed and recorded into an observational database during the daily monitoring performed by the remote sensing group at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). By taking the manual observations as accurate we were able to examine the accuracy of the four-channel algorithm for daytime data. The results were also compared to the current automated ash alarm used by AVO, based on the reverse absorption technique, also known as the split window method, with a threshold of -1.7K. This comparison indicates that the four- banded technique has a higher sensitivity to volcanic ash, but a greater number of false alarms. The algorithm was modified to achieve a false alarm rate comparable to current ash alarm while still maintaining increased sensitivity.

  13. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Vasily D.; Neill, Owen K.; Izbekov, Pavel E.; Plechov, Pavel Yu.

    2013-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments were performed on andesites from the catastrophic 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, to determine pre-eruptive magma storage conditions. Fifteen experiments were conducted under water-saturated conditions, with oxygen fugacity equal to the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer, at temperatures between 775 and 1100 °C and pressures between 50 and 200 MPa. Simultaneous amphibole and plagioclase crystallization is reproduced at ≤ 850 °C and ≥ 200 MPa. The simultaneous crystallization temperature range of the plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide assemblage increases with decreasing pressure, from 840 to 940 °C at 150 MPa to 940-1020 °C at 50 MPa. Melt inclusion compositions in plagioclase phenocrysts and matrix glass match experimental melt compositions reproduced at 50-100 MPa and ≤ 50 MPa, respectively. Presence of the silica phase in groundmass and mature amphibole breakdown rims suggests that magma has been stored at ca. 3 km depth prior to the final ascent for at least 40 days. Syn-eruptive ascent led to decompression-driven crystallization, which caused a temperature increase from 850-900 °C to 950-1000 °C.

  14. Constraining recent Shiveluch volcano eruptions (Kamchatka, Russia by means of dendrochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solomina

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (N 56°38´, E 161°19´; elevation: active dome ~2500 m, summit of Old Shiveluch 3283 m is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. The eruptions of Shiveluch commonly result in major environmental damage caused by debris avalanches, hot pyroclastic flows, tephra falls and lahars. Constraining these events in time and space is important for the understanding and prediction of these natural hazards. The last major eruption of Shiveluch occurred in 2005; earlier ones, dated by instrumental, historical, 14C and tephrochronological methods, occurred in the last millennium around AD 1030, 1430, 1650, 1739, 1790–1810, 1854, 1879–1883, 1897–1898, 1905, 1927–1929, 1944–1950, and 1964. A lava dome has been growing in the 1964 crater since 1980, occasionally producing tephra falls and pyroclastic flows. Several Shiveluch eruptions (~AD 1050, 1650, 1854, 1964 may have been climatically effective and are probably recorded in the Greenland ice cores.

    Previously, most dates for eruptions before AD 1854 were obtained by tephrochronology and constrained by radiocarbon dating with an accuracy of several decades or centuries. In this paper we report tree-ring dates for a recent pyroclastic flow in Baidarnaia valley. Though the wood buried in these deposits is carbonized, fragile and poorly preserved, we were able to measure ring-width using standard tree-ring equipment or photographs and to cross-date these samples against the regional Kamchatka larch ring-width chronology. The dates of the outer rings indicate the date of the eruptions. In the Baidarnaia valley the eruption occurred shortly after AD 1756, but not later than AD 1758. This date coincides with the decrease of ring-width in trees growing near Shiveluch volcano in 1758–1763 in comparison with the control "non-volcanic" chronology. The pyroclastic flow in Kamenskaia valley, although similar in appearance to the one in Baidarnaia valley, definitively

  15. Holocene pollen record from Lake Sokoch, interior Kamchatka (Russia), and its paleobotanical and paleoclimatic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, Veronika; Dirksen, Oleg; van den Bogaard, Christel; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    A pollen record, obtained from sediments of Lake Sokoch in mountain interior of the Kamchatka Peninsula, covers the last ca. 9600 years (all ages are given in calibrated years BP). Variations in local components, including pollen, spores and non-pollen palynomorphs, and related changes in sedimentation document the lake development from initially seepage and shallow basin to deeper lake during the mid Holocene and then to the hydrologically open system during the late Holocene. The studies of volcanic ashes from the lake sediment core show their complex depositional histories. Lake Sokoch occupies a former proglacial basin between two terminal moraines of the LGM time. The undated basal part of record before ca. 9600 year BP, however, does not reflect properly cold conditions. At that time, although shrublands and tundra dominated, stone birch and white birch forests have already settled in surroundings; the presence of alder woodland indicates wet and maritime-like climate. The subsequent forest advance suggesting warmer conditions was interrupted by the ca. 8000-7600 year BP spell of cooler climate. The following culmination of warmth is bracketed by the evidence of the first maximal forest extent between ca. 7400 and 5100 year BP. During that time, dramatic retreat of alder forest suggests a turn from maritime-like to more continental climate conditions. The cool and wet pulse after ca. 5100 year BP was pronounced as forests retreat while shrublands, meadows and bogs extended. An expansion of white birch forest since ca. 3500 year BP reflected the onset of drier climate, strengthening continentality and seasonal contrast. The second maximum of forests dominated by both stone and white birches occurred between ca. 2200 and 1700 year BP and indicated warming in association with relatively dry and increasingly continental climate. The following period was wetter and cooler, and minor outbreak of alder forest around ca. 1500 year BP suggests a short-term return of

  16. Assessment of geomorphic risks and attractiveness to recreational systems: a case of Nalychevo Nature Park (Kamchatka, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, I.; Bredikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Attractiveness of relief, diversity and rareness were always the basic features of overall recreational attractiveness of a territory. Mountainous regions with high geomorphic diversity served as model for first recreation and tourism researches. The above features often favoured sustainability of touristic system. Unique relief forms are commonly referred to natural sites. They differ from the others in structure or have some morphological and morphometric characteristics not found in other forms of the earth's surface. Such monuments form the main natural functional kernel for a recreation system which is created and exists around them. In general, functions of geomorphological sites in recreation can be divided into socio-cultural and economic. Socio-cultural function is the principal function of recreation. It responds to the cultural or spiritual needs of people such as the knowledge in the broader sense, knowledge of the world and their place in it. The economic function is to create consumer demand for goods and services, and sometimes an entire economy sector. Natural sites are particularly vulnerable to dangerous occurrence of endogenous and exogenous processes as guarantee of environmental stability is an essential condition for a proper system functioning. This requires a comprehensive study of relief dynamics, monitoring and forecasting its evolution in recreation areas. Nowadays educational and environmental tourism in Russia develop rapidly. The unique tectonic position of Kamchatka Peninsula (the active geodynamic area dedicated to the subduction zone) formed a variety of landscapes, attracting visitors from all over the world. Recreational development of this region is slow due to remoteness and poor transport accessibility. However, there are 3 state federal reserves and one federal wildlife sanctuary, 4 natural parks of regional significance, 23 nature preserves of regional significance, and 105 natural monuments officially marked in this region

  17. Geochemistry of the Koshelev Volcano-Hydrothermal System, Southern Kamchatka, Russia

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    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.

    2015-12-01

    Koshelev is the southernmost volcano of the Kamchatkan volcanic front where magmatic plumbing systems of the Kamchatkan subduction zone cross a thick layer of the oil-gas-bearing Neogene sedimentary strata of Western Kamchatka. The volcanic massive hosts a powerful hydrothermal system, which has been drilled in early 1980s. Deep wells tapped a hot (ca. 300ºC) saline solution (up to 40 g/L of Cl), whereas the upper part of the system is a typical steam cap with temperature close to 240ºC. Two hydrothermal fields of the volcano (Upper and Lower) discharge saturated or super-heated (up to 150ºC) steam and are characterized by numerous hot pools and low flow-rate springs of steam-heated waters enriched in boron and ammonia. There is also a small lateral group of warm Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 springs (40ºC). We report here our data and review the literature geochemical data on the chemical and isotopic composition of waters and hydrothermal vapours of the Koshelev system. Data on the gas composition include He and C isotopes, as well as the chemical and isotopic composition of light hydrocarbons. Water geochemistry includes literature data on water isotopes of the deep brine and trace elements and REE of steam-heated waters. A conceptual model of the system is presented and discussed.

  18. The Magma-Hydrothermal System at Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kiryukhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the kinds of volcanoes that ring the Pacific plate and nearby hydrothermal systems? A typical geometry for stratovolcanoes and dome complexes is summit fumaroles and hydrothermal manifestations on and beyond their flanks. Analogous subsurface mineralization is porphyry copper deposits flanked by shallow Cu-As-Au acid-sulfate deposits and base metal veins. Possible reasons for this association are (1 upward and outward flow of magmatic gas and heat from the volcano’s conduit and magma reservoir, mixing with meteoric water; (2 dikes extending from or feeding towards the volcano that extend laterally well beyond the surface edifice, heating a broad region; or (3 peripheral hot intrusions that are remnants of previous volcanic episodes, unrelated to current volcanism. These hypotheses are testable through a Mutnovsky Scientific Drilling Project (MSDP that was discussed in a workshop during the last week of September 2006 at a key example, the Mutnovsky Volcano of Kamchatka. Hypothesis (1 was regarded as the most likely. It is also the most attractive since it could lead to a new understanding of themagma-hydrothermal connection and motivate global geothermal exploration of andesitic arc volcanoes.

  19. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of lahar activity and triggers: Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaorni, E.; Stoffel, M.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.; Seynova, I.; Sorg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Lahars are highly concentrated, water-saturated volcanic hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows containing pyroclastic material and are a characteristic mass movement process on volcanic slopes. On Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation), lahars are widespread and may affect remote settlements. Historical records of past lahar occurrences are generally sparse and mostly limited to events which damaged infrastructure on the slopes or at the foot of volcanoes. In this study, we present a tree-ring-based reconstruction of spatiotemporal patterns of past lahar activity at Shiveluch volcano. Using increment cores and cross sections from 126 Larix cajanderi trees, we document 34 events covering the period AD 1729-2012. Analyses of the seasonality of damage in trees reveal that 95% of all lahars occurred between October and May and thus point to the predominant role of the sudden melt of the snow cover by volcanic material. These observations suggest that most lahars were likely syn-eruptive and that lahar activity is largely restricted to periods of volcanic activity. By contrast, rainfall events do not seem to play a significant role in lahar triggering.

  20. Characteristics of a crater glacier at Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, as revealed by the physical properties of ice cores and borehole thermometry

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Murav'yev, Yaroslav D.; Kameda,Takao; Nishio,Fumihiko; Toyama, Yoko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Ovsyannikov, Alexander A.; Salamatin, Andrey N.; YAMAGATA, Kotaro

    2001-01-01

    A glacier at the summit of Ushkovskyvolcano, Kamchatka peninsula, Russia, was studied in order to obtain information about the physical characteristics of a glacier that fills a volcanic crater. The glacier has a gentle surface and a concave basal profile with a maximum measured depth of 240 m at site K2. The annual accumulation rate was 0.54 m a-1 w.e., and the 10 m depth temperature was -15.8°C. A 211.70 m long ice core drilled at K2 indicates that (1) the site is categorized as a percolati...

  1. Gas flux measurements of episodic bimodal eruptive activity at Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka, Russia)

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    Arellano, S.; Galle, B.; Melnikov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanoes of intermediate magmatic composition commonly exhibit episodes of intermittent gas and ash emission of variable duration. Due to the multiple conditions present at each system, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the observed activity, and without key measurements at hand, a definite understanding of the situation might not be singled out. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Central Kamchatka, has presented a remarkably stable pattern of bimodal eruption since a few weeks after its violent reactivation in 1996. Periods of quasi-periodic explosive emissions with typical recurrence intervals of 3-10 min are alternated with episodes of semi-continuous discharge which intensity has a typical modulation at a frequency of 1 Hz. Geophysical studies at Karymsky have identified the main visual, seismic and acoustic features of these two eruption modalities. From these observations, the time scales of the processes have been defined and relevant models have been formulated, according to which the two modes are controlled by the rheological properties of an intruding gas-saturated magma batch and a shallow gas-depleted magma plug. Explosions are explained as the consequence of the formation of temporary sealing, overpressure buildup and vent clearance. Clearly, direct measurements of the gas emission rate are the key parameter to test such models. In this work, we report on the results of a field campaign for SO2 gas measurements carried out at Karymsky during 10-14 September 2011. We deployed 2 NOVAC-type, scanning DOAS systems as well as 1 rapid wide-Field of View mini-DOAS plume tracker. With this setup, we derived time-resolved SO2 flux, plume height, direction and speed, and detected pulses of increasing emission with high temporal resolution. We observed phases of explosive and quiescent degassing with variable amounts of ash emission and detected intensity changes of the associated acoustic signals. The repose time intervals between these

  2. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  3. Historical and paleo-tsunami deposits on Kamchatka, Russia: long-term chronologies and long-distance correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Pinegina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the eastern coast of Kamchatka, at a number of localities, we have identified and attempted to assign ages to deposits of both historic and prehistoric (paleo- tsunamis. These deposits are dated and correlated using tephrochronology from Holocene marker tephra and local volcanic ash layers. Because the historical record of earthquakes and tsunamis on Kamchatka is so short, these investigations can make important contributions to evaluating tsunami hazards. Moreover, because even the historical record is spotty, our work helps add to and evaluate tsunami catalogues for Kamchatka. Furthermore, tsunami deposits provide a proxy record for large earthquakes and thus are important paleoseismological tools. The combined, preserved record of tsunami deposits and of numerous marker tephra on Kamchatka offers an unprecedented opportunity to study tsunami frequency. Using combined stratigraphic sections, we can examine both the average frequency of events for each locality, and also changes in frequency through time. Moreover, using key marker tephra as time lines, we can compare tsunami frequency and intensity records along the Kamchatka subduction zone. Preliminary results suggest real variations in frequency on a millennial time scale, with the period from about 0 to 1000 A.D. being particularly active at some localities.

  4. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Steklite, KAl(SO4)2: A finding at the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, validating its status as a mineral species and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashko, M. N.; Pekov, I. V.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Chernyatyeva, A. P.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Zadov, A. E.; Zelensky, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Steklite KAl(SO4)2 has been found in sublimates of the Yadovitaya (Poisonous) fumarole at the second cinder cone of the northern breach of the Great Fissure Tolbachik Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Steklite was approved as a valid mineral species by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Mineral Classification of the International Mineralogical Association on June 2, 2011 (IMA no. 2011-041). The name steklite is left for this mineral, as it was named by Chesnokov et al. (1995) for its technogenic analog from a burnt dump of coal mine no. 47 at Kopeisk, the Southern Urals, Russia. It is named after the Russian word steklo, meaning glass, in allusion to the visual similarity of its lamellae to thin glass platelets. At Tolbachik, steklite is associated with alumoklyuchevskite, langbeinite, euchlorine, fedotovite, chalcocyanite, hematite, and lyonsite. It occurs as hexagonal or irregular-shaped lamellar crystals with the major form {001} reaching 30 μm in thickness and 0.2 mm (occasionally up to 1 mm) in width. The crystals are frequently split. They are combined into openwork aggregates or thin crusts up to 1.5 × 2.5 cm in area. Steklite is transparent and colorless, with vitreous luster. The cleavage is perfect, parallel to (001). The mineral is brittle. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5. D calc is 2.797 g/cm3. Steklite is optically uniaxial, (-), ω = 1.546(2), ɛ = 1.533(3). The chemical composition (wt %, electron-microprobe data) is as follows: 0.09 Na2O, 18.12 K2O, 0.08 CaO, 0.03 MnO, 2.02 Fe2O3, 18.18 Al2O3, 61.80 SO3. The total is 100.37. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of eight O atoms is: (K0.997Na0.008Ca0.004)Σ1.009(Al0.925Fe{0.066/3+}Mg0.003Mn0.001)Σ0.995S2.01O8. Steklite is trigonal, space group P321, a = 4.7281(3), c = 7.9936(5) Å, V = 154.76(17)Å3, Z =1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 8.02-34[001], 4.085-11[100], 3.649-100[011, 101], 2

  6. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova

    2014-01-01

    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute (www.ipgg.sbras.ru/ru/institute/structure/geophysics/natural-fields). GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at http://maps.nrcgit.ru/geoterm. In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  7. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  8. Explosive eruptions at Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) from 2000-2009: warning system, prediction and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyukov, S.

    2010-12-01

    for population centers, were released to the Kamchatka Branch of the Russian Advisory Council. The copies of these documents were sent to participants of the KVERT (Kamchatka Volcano Eruption Response Team) project, uniting scientists Alaska Volcano Observatory, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and KBGS. One explosive eruption was missed and only one false prediction (due to incorrect data) was made during this time period. Seismic precursors of sixteen explosive eruptions of Bezymianny were investigated using seismic data from both Bezymianny and nearby Kluchevskoy Volcano to improve risk assessment. It was determined that the successful prediction of a Bezymianny eruption depends strongly on the activity at Kluchevskoy.

  9. Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012-13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Edwards, Benjamin; Volynets, Anna; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    We present a broad overview of the 2012-13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in the central Kamchatka Peninsula. The eruption lasted more than nine months and produced approximately 0.55 km3 DRE (volume recalculated to a density of 2.8 g/cm3) of basaltic trachyandesite magma. The 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik is one of the most voluminous historical eruptions of mafic magma at subduction related volcanoes globally, and it is the second largest at Kamchatka. The eruption was preceded by five months of elevated seismicity and ground inflation, both of which peaked a day before the eruption commenced on 27 November 2012. The batch of high-Al magma ascended from depths of 5-10 km; its apical part contained 54-55 wt.% SiO2, and the main body 52-53 wt.% SiO2. The eruption started by the opening of a 6 km-long radial fissure on the southwestern slope of the volcano that fed multi-vent phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive activity, as well as intensive effusion of lava with an initial discharge of > 440 m3/s. After 10 days the eruption continued only at the lower part of the fissure, where explosive and effusive activity of Hawaiian-Strombolian type occurred from a lava pond in the crater of the main growing scoria cone. The discharge rate for the nine month long, effusion-dominated eruption gradually declined from 140 to 18 m3/s and formed a compound lava field with a total area of ~ 36 km2; the effusive activity evolved from high-discharge channel-fed 'a'a lavas to dominantly low-discharge tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. On 23 August, the effusion of lava ceased and the intra-crater lava pond drained. Weak Strombolian-type explosions continued for several more days on the crater bottom until the end of the eruption around 5 September 2013. Based on a broad array of new data collected during this eruption, we develop a model for the magma storage and transport system of Plosky Tolbachik that links the storage zones of the two main genetically related magma

  10. Multilocus sequence analysis of Thermoanaerobacter isolates reveals recombining, but differentiated, populations from geothermal springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isaac D.; Varghese, Litty B.; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wiegel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Thermal environments have island-like characteristics and provide a unique opportunity to study population structure and diversity patterns of microbial taxa inhabiting these sites. Strains having ≥98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the obligately anaerobic Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis were isolated from seven geothermal springs, separated by up to 1600 m, within the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russian Far East). The intraspecies variation and spatial patterns of diversity for this taxon were assessed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 106 strains. Analysis of eight protein-coding loci (gyrB, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, recG, rplB, and rpoB) revealed that all loci were polymorphic and that nucleotide substitutions were mostly synonymous. There were 148 variable nucleotide sites across 8003 bp concatenates of the protein-coding loci. While pairwise FST values indicated a small but significant level of genetic differentiation between most subpopulations, there was a negligible relationship between genetic divergence and spatial separation. Strains with the same allelic profile were only isolated from the same hot spring, occasionally from consecutive years, and single locus variant (SLV) sequence types were usually derived from the same spring. While recombination occurred, there was an “epidemic” population structure in which a particular T. uzonensis sequence type rose in frequency relative to the rest of the population. These results demonstrate spatial diversity patterns for an anaerobic bacterial species in a relative small geographic location and reinforce the view that terrestrial geothermal springs are excellent places to look for biogeographic diversity patterns regardless of the involved distances. PMID:23801987

  11. Chlorine and fluorine partition coefficients and abundances in sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Kamchatka, Russia): Implications for melt generation and volatile recycling processes in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, A.; Koga, K. T.; Shimizu, N.; Kendrick, M. A.; Ionov, D. A.; Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    We report chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) abundances in minerals, interstitial glasses, and melt inclusions in 12 andesite-hosted, spinel harzburgite xenoliths and crosscutting pyroxenite veins exhumed from the sub-arc lithospheric mantle beneath Avacha volcano in the Kamchatka Arc (NE Russia). The data are used to calculate equilibrium mineral-melt partition coefficients (D mineral / melt) for Cl and F relevant to subduction-zone processes and unravel the history of volatile depletion and enrichment mechanisms in an arc setting. Chlorine is ∼100 times more incompatible in pyroxenes (DClmineral/melt = 0.005-0.008 [±0.002-0.003]) than F (DFmineral/melt = 0.50-0.57 [±0.21-0.24]), which indicates that partial melting of mantle sources leads to strong depletions in Cl relative to F in the residues. The data set in this study suggests a strong control of melt composition on DCl,Fpyroxene/melt, in particular H2O contents and Al/(Al + Si), which is in line with recent experiments. Fluorine is compatible in Ca-amphibole in the 'wet' sub-arc mantle (DFamphibole/melt = 3.5-3.7 [±1.5]) but not Cl (DClamphibole/melt = 0.03-0.05 [±0.01-0.03]), indicating that amphibole may fractionate F from Cl in the mantle wedge. The inter-mineral partition coefficients for Cl and F in this study are consistent amongst different harzburgite samples, whether they contain glass or not. In particular, disseminated amphibole hosts much of the Cl and F bulk rock budgets of spinel harzburgites (DClamphibole/pyroxene up to 14 and DFamphibole/pyroxene up to 40). Chlorine and fluorine are variably enriched (up to 1500 ppm Cl and 750 ppm F) in the parental arc picrite and boninite melts of primitive pyroxenite veins (and related melt inclusions) crosscutting spinel harzburgites. Based on the data in this study, the main inferences on the behaviour of Cl and F during melting and metasomatic processes in the sub-arc mantle are as follow: (i) Melting models show that most depleted mantle protoliths

  12. Assessing the Altitude and Dispersion of Volcanic Plumes Using MISR Multi-angle Imaging from Space: Sixteen Years of Volcanic Activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Verity J. B.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent a significant source of atmospheric aerosols and can display local, regional and global effects, impacting earth systems and human populations. In order to assess the relative impacts of these events, accurate plume injection altitude measurements are needed. In this work, volcanic plumes generated from seven Kamchatka Peninsula volcanoes (Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Bezymianny, Tolbachik, Kizimen, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky), were identified using over 16 years of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MISR) measurements. Eighty-eight volcanic plumes were observed by MISR, capturing 3-25% of reported events at individual volcanoes. Retrievals were most successful where high intensity events persisted over a period of weeks to months. Compared with existing ground and airborne observations, and alternative satellite-based reports compiled by the Global Volcanism Program (GVP), MISR plume height retrievals showed general consistency; the comparison reports appear to be skewed towards the region of highest concentration observed in MISR-constrained vertical plume extent. The report observations display less discrepancy with MISR toward the end of the analysis period, with improvements in the suborbital data likely the result of the deployment of new instrumentation. Conversely, the general consistency of MISR plume heights with conventionally reported observations supports the use of MISR in the ongoing assessment of volcanic activity globally, especially where other types of volcanic plume observations are unavailable. Differences between the northern (Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Bezymianny and Tolbachik) and southern (Kizimen, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) volcanoes broadly correspond to the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD) and Eastern Volcanic Front (EVF), respectively, geological sub-regions of Kamchatka distinguished by varying magma composition. For example, by comparison with reanalysis-model simulations of local meteorological conditions

  13. Subfossil chironomids from Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nazarova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid head capsules from surface sediments in Kamchatka reflect a rich and diverse fauna. We observed a relatively high abundance of head capsules from the subfamily Diamesinae. An unknown morphotype of Tanytarsini, 'Tanytarsini type klein', was found in the lake sediments of two lakes from Central and southern Kamchatka.

  14. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. δ18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic

  15. Viruses in acidic geothermal environments of the Kamchatka Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bize, Ariane; Peng, Xu; Prokofeva, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Screening for viruses in samples taken from acidic hot springs of Kamchatka (Russia) revealed a collection of morphotypes, including linear, spherical and complex fusiform shapes, which show partial similarity to those found in acidic geothermal environments in other geographical locations. One...

  16. Geochemistry and Microbiology of Hot Springs in Kamchatka,Russia%俄罗斯勘察加半岛热泉的地球化学和微生物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵为东; Christopher S. Romanek; Gary Mills; Juergen Wiegel; 张传伦

    2005-01-01

    Kamchatka is one of the most active regions of volcanism in the world because it is located in the transitional zone where the Eurasian plate, North American plate and Pacific plates meet. As a result, Kamchatka has numerous hydrothermal systems, which constantly release geothermal gases and fluids out to the earth surface. Geothermal gases such as N2 and CO2 may prevail in the outflows but H2, CH4 and H2S occur frequently. Hot spring waters in Kamchatka may have multiple origins including meteoric and magmatic water. The temperature of these hot springs ranges from ~20 ℃ to greater than 90 ℃. Water chemistry also varies dramatically with pH ranging from 3.1 to 9.8. Hydrothermal fluids are sodium chloride water dominant and may contain various dissolved constituents including K+, H3BO3, H4SiO4, Ca2+, and SO42-. Volcanic ore-formation prevails in the high thermal activity regions in Kamchatka and precipitates may be dominated by silica crusts, sulfur and Hg-Sb-As-FeS deposits. Oils are also generated in the region and dominated by n-alkanes.More than 24 novel thermophilic microorganisms have been isolated from hot springs in Kamchatka. Most of these isolates are heterotrophs; however, autotrophs may be equally abundant depending on the spring conditions. Collectively, these organisms may play important roles in biogeochemical cycling of carbon, sulfur and iron in the hydrothermal system. Culture-independent approaches and quantitative methods are now employed to enhance our understanding of the ecology and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in Kamchatka hot springs.%勘察加半岛位于欧洲板块、北美板块和太平洋板块交汇的过渡带上,是世界火山活动最活跃的地区之一.其众多的热液系统不断的向地表释放地热气体和流体.以N2和CO2为主的地热气体也经常含有高浓度的H2,CH4和H2S.大气水和熔岩水构成了勘察加热泉水的主要源,水体温度从20 ℃到>90 ℃不等.水化学性质

  17. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  18. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  19. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  20. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of a multiproxy, multisite, palaeoecological study of Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka, Far East Russia, details of which are presented elsewhere in the volume. We summarise the results of the analyses of pollen, diatom, chironomid, and testate amoebae assemblages, together with stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon, and sediment characteristics from the sediments of five lakes and a peat succession on a latitudinal gradient of the Kamchatka Peninsula, to infer environmental change and establish the major climate forcers and climatic teleconnections. There are synchronous shifts in the assemblage composition of most of the biota and across most sites at 6.5-6.2 ka BP, 5.2 ka BP, 4.0 ka BP, and 3.5 ka BP, suggesting a response to strong regional climate forcing at these times. These dates correspond to the warmest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) (6.5-6.2 ka BP), the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling (5.2 ka BP), the coolest and wettest part of the Neoglacial (4.0 ka BP), and a switch to warmer and drier conditions at 3.5 ka BP. Our results provide evidence for the penetration and domination of different air masses at different periods during the Holocene. Cool and dry periods in winter (e.g., at 6.0 ka BP) were driven by a relatively weak pressure gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low, whereas cool, wet periods in winter (e.g., the Neoglacial and during the LIA) developed when these two systems increased in strength. Warm, dry, continental periods in summer (e.g., at 2.5 ka BP) were driven by a weakening of the Siberian High. We find that the timing of the HTM in Kamchatka is later than in the Eurasian arctic but similar to northern Europe and the sub-arctic part of eastern Siberia. This progressive onset of the HTM was due to the effects of postglacial ice-sheet decay that modulated the routes of westerly storm tracks in Eurasia. A major ecosystem driver was the Siberian dwarf pine Pinus

  1. Holocene Lake Records on Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Bernhard; Biskaborn, Boris; Chapligin, Bernhard; Dirksen, Oleg; Dirksen, Veronika; Hoff, Ulrike; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa

    2014-05-01

    The availibility of terrestrial records of Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes in eastern Siberia still is quite limited, compared to other regions on the northern hemisphere. In particular, the Kamchatka Peninsula as an important climate-sensitive region is very underrepresented. Situated at the border of northeastern Eurasia, the maritime-influenced terrestrial setting of Kamchatka offers the potential to pinpoint connections of environmental changes between the periglacial and highly continental landmasses of eastern Siberia and the sub-Arctic Pacific Ocean and Sea of Okhotsk. The study region lies at the eastern end-loop of the global thermohaline ocean conveyor belt and is strongly affected by atmospheric teleconnections. Volcanic, tectonic, and glacial processes overprint palaeoenvironmental changes in addition to primary climate forcing. In order to widen our understanding of plaeoclimate dynamics on Kamchatka, sediment cores from different lake systems and peat sections were recovered and analysed by a multi-proxy approach, using sedimentological and geochemical data as well as fossil bioindicators, such as diatoms, pollen, and chironomids. Chronostratigraphy of the studied records was achieved through radiocarbon dating and tephrostratigraphy. Sediment cores with complete Holocene sedimentary sequences were retrieved from Lake Sokoch, an up to six metre deep lake of proglacial origin, situated at the treeline in the Ganalsky Ridge of southern central Kamchatka (53°15,13'N, 157°45.49' E, 495 m a.s.l.). Lacustrine sediment records of mid- to late Holocene age were also recovered from the up to 30 m deep Two-Yurts Lake, which occupies a former proglacial basin at the eastern flank of the Central Kamchatka Mountain Chain, the Sredinny Ridge (56°49.6'N, 160°06.9'E, 275 m a.s.l.). In addition to sediment coring in the open and deep Two-Yurts Lake, sediment records were also recovered from peat sections and small isolated forest lakes to compare

  2. The Regulation of the Security of Electronic Information in Lithuania and Russia: the Comparative Aspects

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    Darius Štitilis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with such offences as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Therefore, the legal regulation of cybercrime is one of the most relevant problems in the world, including Lithuania and our neighbouring country, Russia. So far cybercrime analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. We have not succeeded in finding a comparison between the regulatory practices of cybercrime in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania in any of the references.The main goal of the thesis paper is to analyse and to compare the electronic information security legal framework of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania.The article consists of two parts. The first part deals with the comparative aspect of strategic documents—the program governing electronic information protection in Lithuania and the Russian Federation.The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of electronic information protection legislative, legal framework Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation. It was found that at the moment in both countries there is a strategic document which defines the planned state policy in this area, but the lack of a Lithuanian Law which can fully and consistently regulate social relations in relation to electronic information security.Several different approaches have been used in the research. The authors have used a comparative method to investigate the Lithuanian and Russian legal framework for the security of electronic information. Empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the security of electronic information in Lithuania and Russia. Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation have been analysed. Having analysed the official

  3. The Regulation of the Security of Electronic Information in Lithuania and Russia: the Comparative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with such offences as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Therefore, the legal regulation of cybercrime is one of the most relevant problems in the world, including Lithuania and our neighbouring country, Russia. So far cybercrime analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. We have not succeeded in finding a comparison between the regulatory practices of cybercrime in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania in any of the references. The main goal of the thesis paper is to analyse and to compare the electronic information security legal framework of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania. The article consists of two parts. The first part deals with the comparative aspect of strategic documents—the program governing electronic information protection in Lithuania and the Russian Federation. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of electronic information protection legislative, legal framework Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation. It was found that at the moment in both countries there is a strategic document which defines the planned state policy in this area, but the lack of a Lithuanian Law which can fully and consistently regulate social relations in relation to electronic information security. Several different approaches have been used in the research. The authors have used a comparative method to investigate the Lithuanian and Russian legal framework for the security of electronic information. Empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the security of electronic information in Lithuania and Russia. Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation have been analysed. Having analysed the official

  4. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  5. Modeling study of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryukhin, A.V. [Institute of Volcanology, Kamchatsky (Russian Federation); Yampolsky, V.A. [Kamchatskburgeotermia State Enterprise, Elizovo (Russian Federation)

    2004-08-01

    Exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field started in 1966 with a 5 MW{sub e} power plant. A hydrogeological model of the Pauzhetsky field has been developed based on an integrated analysis of data on lithological units, temperature, pressure, production zones and natural discharge distributions. A one-layer 'well by well' model with specified vertical heat and mass exchange conditions has been used to represent the main features of the production reservoir. Numerical model development was based on the TOUGH2 code [Pruess, 1991. TOUGH2 - A General Purpose Numerical Simulator for Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, Berkeley, CA; Pruess et al., 1999. TOUGH2 User's Guide, Version 2.0, Report LBNL-43134, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA] coupled with tables generated by the HOLA wellbore simulator [Aunzo et al., 1991. Wellbore Models GWELL, GWNACL, and HOLA, Users Guide, Draft, 81 pp.]. Lahey Fortran-90 compiler and computer graphical packages (Didger-3, Surfer-8, Grapher-3) were also used to model the development process. The modeling study of the natural-state conditions was targeted on a temperature distribution match to estimate the natural high-temperature upflow parameters: the mass flow-rate was estimated at 220 kg/s with enthalpy of 830-920 kJ/kg. The modeling study for the 1964-2000 exploitation period of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was targeted at matching the transient reservoir pressure and flowing enthalpies of the production wells. The modeling study of exploitation confirmed that 'double porosity' in the reservoir, with a 10-20% active volume of 'fractures', and a thermo-mechanical response to reinjection (including changes in porosity due to compressibility and expansivity), were the key parameters of the model. The calibrated model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was used to forecast reservoir behavior under different exploitation scenarios for the central part of the field. The basic scenario assumes that the wellhead pressures of the eight exploitation wells and the injection rates of the three reinjection wells are maintained at the same conditions as of December 2000. In the base case, the model predicts a 12% decline in steam production rate (at 2.7 bar) during the next 30 years, even as the steam supply for the 5 MW{sub e} power plant is maintained. The modeling study confirmed that 30-60 kg/s is an optimal reinjection rate. An increase in the exploitation load has no significant effect on steam production from the central section of the Pauzhetsky field during the 30-year exploitation period; load doubling (eight additional exploitation wells) leads to a mere 16-27% increase in steam production. (author)

  6. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  7. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, John; Gordeev, Evgenii; Izbekov, Pavel; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan

    The Kamchatka Peninsula and contiguous North Pacific Rim is among the most active regions in the world. Kamchatka itself contains 29 active volcanoes, 4 now in a state of semi-continuous eruption, and I has experienced 14 magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes since accurate recording began in 1962. At its heart is the uniquely acute subduction cusp where the Kamchatka and Aleutian Arcs and Emperor Seamount Chain meet. Volcanism and Subduction covers coupled magmatism and tectonics in this spectacular region, where the torn North Pacific slab dives into hot mantle. Senior Russian and American authors grapple with the dynamics of the cusp with perspectives from the west and east of it, respectively, while careful tephrostratigraphy yields a remarkably precise record of behavior of storied volcanoes such as Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch. Towards the south, Japanese researchers elucidate subduction earthquake processes with unprecedented geodetic resolution. Looking eastward, new insights on caldera formation, monitoring, and magma ascent are presented for the Aleutians. This is one of the first books of its kind printed in the English language. Students and scientists beginning research in the region will find in this book a useful context and introduction to the region's scientific leaders. Others who wish to apply lessons learned in the North Pacific to their areas of interest will find the volume a valuable reference.

  8. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  9. Defining Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lijiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Russia is a state stretching over the Eurasian land mass and with a mixture of both East and West cultures. During the historical process of its shaping, particularly sea changes took place, Russian leaders and the elites as well have always asked the following questions about the definition and orientation of their country: "Who am I?" "How to do?" and "Where to?" At present, Russia finds itself in a critical stage of social transition and adjustment of international status. "What country is Russia like?" "What image should Russia show on the international arena?" "What is its strategic trend?" These questions would directly affect the development of Russia.

  10. Iridium anomaly in the Cretaceous section of the Eastern Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Dmitry; Savelyeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    The origin of iridium anomalies is widely discussed with regard to massive fauna and flora extinction at several geologic boundaries. Two hypotheses are most popular, cosmogenic and volcanogenic. Anomalies of iridium are known at many stratigraphic levels, both at the geologic series borders and within geologic series. Our studies revealed increased content of iridium in a section of Cretaceous oceanic deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). The investigated section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) includes interbedded jaspers and siliceous limestones overlaying pillow-basalts. These deposits belong to the Smagin Formation of the Albian-Cenomanian age. In the middle and upper parts of the section two beds of black carbonaceous rocks with sapropelic organic matter were observed. Their formation marked likely episodes of oxygen depletion of oceanic intermediate water (oceanic anoxic events). Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous beds in a number of major and trace elements (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, K2O, P2O5, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, REE, U, Au, Pt etc.) in comparison with associating jaspers and limestones. There are likely different sources which contributed to the enrichment. It is possible however to correlate the excess of Al, Ti, Zr, Nb with volcanogenic admixture, which is absent in limestones and jaspers. A possible source of the volcanogenic material was local volcanism as suggested by the close association of the investigated section with volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas and hyaloclastites). The basalts of the Smagin Formation were previously proposed to originate during Cretaceous activity of the Hawaiian mantle plume (Portnyagin et al., Geology, 2008). Neutron activation analysis indicated increased up to 9 ppb concentration of Ir at the bottom of the lower carbonaceous bed (inorganic part of the sample was analyzed comprising 46% of the bulk rock). In other samples Ir content was below

  11. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  12. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  13. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

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    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  14. RECREATION MONITORING OF RESOURCE CONDITIONS IN THE KRONOTSKY STATE NATURAL BIOSPHERE PRESERVE (KAMCHATKA: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT

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    Anna Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

  15. Geophysical Observatory in Kamchatka region for monitoring of phenomena connected with seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uyeda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of some geophysical parameters in association with seismicity has been carried out since last year at the Japan-Russian Complex Geophysical Observatory in the Kamchatka region. This observatory was organized in connection with the ISTC project in Russia and was motivated by the results of the FRONTIER/RIKEN and FRONTIER/NASDA research projects in Japan. The main purpose of the observations is to investigate the electromagnetic and acoustic phenomena induced by the lithosphere processes (especially by seismic activity. The seismicity of the Kamchatka area is analyzed and a description of the observatory equipment is presented. At present, the activity of the observatory includes the seismic (frequency range ∆F = 0.5 – 40 Hz and meteorological recordings, together with seismo-acoustic (∆F = 30 – 1000 Hz and electromagnetic observations: three-component magnetic ULF variations ( ∆F = 0.003 – 30 Hz, three-component electric potential variations ( ∆F 1.0 Hz, and VLF transmitter’s signal perturbations ( ∆F ~ 10 – 40 kHz.

  16. A full holocene tephrochronology for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region: Applications from Kamchatka to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim; Pendea, I. Florin; Zelenin, Egor; Bourgeois, Joanne; Pinegina, Tatiana; Kozhurin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    Geochemically fingerprinted widespread tephra layers serve as excellent marker horizons which can directly link and synchronize disparate sedimentary archives and be used for dating various deposits related to climate shifts, faulting events, tsunami, and human occupation. In addition, tephras represent records of explosive volcanic activity and permit assessment of regional ashfall hazard. In this paper we report a detailed Holocene tephrochronological model developed for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region of eastern Kamchatka (NW Pacific) based on ∼2800 new electron microprobe analyses of single glass shards from tephra samples collected in the area as well as on previously published data. Tephra ages are modeled based on a compilation of 223 14C dates, including published dates for Shiveluch proximal tephra sequence and regional marker tephras; new AMS 14C dates; and modeled calibrated ages from the Krutoberegovo key site. The main source volcanoes for tephra in the region are Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi located 60-100 km to the west. In addition, local tephra sequences contain two tephras from the Plosky volcanic massif and three regional marker tephras from Ksudach and Avachinsky volcanoes located in the Eastern volcanic front of Kamchatka. This tephrochronological framework contributes to the combined history of environmental change, tectonic events, and volcanic impact in the study area and farther afield. This study is another step in the construction of the Kamchatka-wide Holocene tephrochronological framework under the same methodological umbrella. Our dataset provides a research reference for tephra and cryptotephra studies in the northwest Pacific, the Bering Sea, and North America.

  17. PARAMETERS OF KAMCHATKA SEISMICITY IN 2008

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    Vadim A. Saltykov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes seismicity of Kamchatka for the period of 2008 and presents 2D distribution of background seismicity parameters calculated from data published in the Regional Catalogue of Kamchatka Earthquakes. Parameters under study are total released seismic energy, seismic activity A10, slope of recurrence graph γ, parameters of RTL, ΔS and Z-function methods, and clustering of earthquakes. Estimations of seismicity are obtained for a region bordered by latitude 50.5–56.5N, longitude 156E–167E, with depths to 300 km. Earthquakes of energy classes not less than 8.5 as per the Fedotov’s classification are considered. The total seismic energy released in 2008 is estimated. According to a function of annual seismic energy distribution, an amount of seismic energy released in 2008 was close to the median level (Fig. 1. Over 2/3 of the total amount of seismic energy released in 2008 resulted from three largest earthquakes (МW ≥ 5.9. About 5 percent of the total number of seismic events are comprised of grouped earthquakes, i.e. aftershocks and swarms. A schematic map of the largest earthquakes (МW ≥ 5.9 and grouped seismic events which occurred in 2008 is given in Fig. 2; their parameters are listed in Table 1. Grouped earthquakes are excluded from the catalogue. A map showing epicenters of independent earthquakes is given in Fig. 3. The slope of recurrence graph γ and seismic activity A10 is based on the Gutenberg-Richter law stating the fundamental property of seismic process. The recurrence graph slope is calculated from continuous exponential distribution of earthquakes by energy classes. Using γ is conditioned by observations that in some cases the slope of the recurrence graph decreases prior to a large earthquake. Activity A10 is calculated from the number of earthquakes N and recurrence graph slope γ. Average slopes of recurrence graph γ and seismic activity A10 for the area under study in 2008 are calculated; our

  18. Understanding controls on cirque floor altitudes: Insights from Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    Glacial cirques reflect former regions of glacier initiation, and are therefore used as indicators of past climate. One specific way in which palaeoclimatic information is obtained from cirques is by analysing their elevations, on the assumption that cirque floor altitudes are a proxy for climatically controlled equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during former periods of small scale (cirque-type) glaciation. However, specific controls on cirque altitudes are rarely assessed, and the validity of using cirque floor altitudes as a source of palaeoclimatic information remains open to question. In order to address this, here we analyse the distribution of 3520 ice-free cirques on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia), and assess various controls on their floor altitudes. In addition, we analyse controls on the mid-altitudes of 503 modern glaciers, currently identifiable on the peninsula, and make comparisons with the cirque altitude data. The main study findings are that cirque floor altitudes increase steeply inland from the Pacific, suggesting that moisture availability (i.e., proximity to the coastline) played a key role in regulating the altitudes at which former (cirque-forming) glaciers were able to initiate. Other factors, such as latitude, aspect, topography, geology, and neo-tectonics seem to have played a limited (but not insignificant) role in regulating cirque floor altitudes, though south-facing cirques are typically higher than their north-facing equivalents, potentially reflecting the impact of prevailing wind directions (from the SSE) and/or variations in solar radiation on the altitudes at which former glaciers were able to initiate. Trends in glacier and cirque altitudes across the peninsula are typically comparable (i.e., values typically rise from both the north and south, inland from the Pacific coastline, and where glaciers/cirques are south-facing), yet the relationship with latitude is stronger for modern glaciers, and the relationship with

  19. The Kamchatka-Aleutian Collision Zone: Mother of All Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Kamchatka subduction zone represents a key to the understanding of volcanism, tectonics and mantle dynamics. The termination of the Pacific plate in the northern part of the Kamchatka slab is the prime location to investigate the cusp-ward shoaling of seismicity, the volumetrically spectacular production of magma with unusual geochemical signatures and slab edge ablation associated with mantle flow around the leading edge of the plate. In addition, the Kamchatka subduction zone is further complicated by the subduction of the aseismic ridge, the Meiji Seamounts. The three-dimensional structural configuration of the subducting pacific slab, the Komandorsky basin and the volcanic arc all suggest that absence of Pacific slab north of latitude. Tomographic analyses show a deep low velocity zone below Kliuchevskoi Volcano, suggesting a deep source near the crust-mantle interface. The intense volcanic production rates of the northern part of the Kamchatka Arc indicate that a prolific source feeds the surface expression of the cusp. Extensive heating at the exposed slab edge provides a source of heat for the Kliuchevskoi group. In this presentation I will review the critical observations and conclusions regarding cusp dynamics in Kamchatka and the Pacific Rim.

  20. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet

  1. June 03, 2007 Natural Disaster in the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, E. I.; Pinegina, T. K.; Droznin, V. A.; Dvigalo, V. N.; Melekestsev, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    The famous Valley of Geysers along with active volcanoes appears to be a beautiful visiting card of Kamchatka. It is well known in Russia and other countries as the most popular tourist place. Annually it is visited by thousands of Russian and foreign tourists. The Valley of Geysers is the most potentially hazardous area in Kamchatka because of intense development of landslides, avalanches and frequent mudflows occurring within its boundaries. June 03, 2007 landslide, followed by a mudflow, resulted in a north - west faced horse-shoe amphitheater consisting of two adjacent circuses. The height of north-eastern sub-vertical wall is 150 m with a length 800 m; the length of a flatly inclined bottom 400 - 600 m. Initially estimated volume of collapse and avalanche made up 8-15 millions cubic meters. Avalanching and formation of a dam at the Geysernaya River caused completion of some geysers and open thermal water discharge at sites blocked off by the avalanche and a dammed lake. However beyond the boundaries of the avalanche and the lake, the geysers are still operating. It is likely that some geysers could be brought back if water level in the lake decreases. Possibly new geysers could appear. Based on results of routine survey we estimated specific areas that nowadays pose a hazard as well as a possibility of new avalanches and landslides that may occur in the future. Estimation and forecast of new avalanches and landslides require continuous observations to be performed in the Valley of Geysers to monitor deformation and seismic processes.

  2. Russia report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  3. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  4. Satellite thermal monitoring of the 2010 - 2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano (Kamchatka) using MIROVA hot-spot detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimetti, Francesco; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    After 81 years of rest, the Holocenic stratovolcano of Kizimen (Kamchatka, Russia) began a new eruptive phase on December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a year-long seismic unrest and fumarole activity, and persisted for 3 years showing a transition from explosive to effusive style. The initial explosive phase caused the partial disruption of the volcano summit and was followed by the effusion of andesitic lava flow along the eastern side of the edifice. Here we used an automatic hot-spot detection system named MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), in order to track the thermal evolution of the eruption and to understand the eruptive dynamic. MIROVA is based on the analysis IR images acquired by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and is able to provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP, in Watt) time series in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Each image with a thermal alert has been classified, distinguishing different quality level of the data based on cloud cover, viewing geometry and coherence with the VRP trend. The analysis of VRP variation show different thermal phases that have been correlated with independent observations of KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team). Finally, we show that the relation between total thermal energy radiated (VRE, in Joule) and erupted lava volume is consistent with the typical radiant density of an intermediate-silicic lava flow (Coppola et al., 2013).

  5. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  6. International Studies of Hazardous Groundwater/Surface Water Exchange in the Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami Affected Areas of Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Titov, V. V.; Verstraeten, I. M.; Pinegina, T. K.; Tsadikovsky, E. I.; Heilweil, V. M.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    During the US-Russia Geohazards Workshop held July 17-19, 2012 in Moscow, Russia the international research effort was asked to identify cooperative actions for disaster risk reduction, focusing on extreme geophysical events. As a part of this recommendation the PIRE project was developed to understand, quantify, forecast and protect the coastal zone aquifers and inland water resources of Kamchatka (Russia) and its ecosystems affected by the November 4, 1952 Kamchatka tsunami (Khalatyrka Beach near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) and the January 2, 1996 Karymskiy volcano eruption and the lake tsunami. This project brings together teams from U.S. universities and research institutions located in Russia. The research consortium was briefed on recent technical developments and will utilize samples secured via major international volcanic and tsunami programs for the purpose of advancing the study of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected coastal areas and inland lakes of Kamchatka. We plan to accomplish this project by developing and applying the next generation of field sampling, remote sensing, laboratory techniques and mathematical tools to study groundwater-surface water interaction processes and SGD. We will develop a field and modeling approach to define SGD environment, key controls, and influence of volcano eruption and tsunami, which will provide a framework for making recommendations to combat contamination. This is valuable for politicians, water resource managers and decision-makers and for the volcano eruption and tsunami affected region water supply and water quality of Kamchatka. Data mining and results of our field work will be compiled for spatial modeling by Geo-Information System (GIS) using 3-D Earth Systems Visualization Lab. The field and model results will be communicated to interested stakeholders via an interactive web site. This will allow computation of SGD spatial patterns. In addition, thanks to the

  7. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  8. Rapid glacial retreat on the Kamchatka Peninsula during the early 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Colleen M.; Barr, Iestyn D.; Mullan, Donal; Ruffell, Alastair

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring glacier fluctuations provides insights into changing glacial environments and recent climate change. The availability of satellite imagery offers the opportunity to view these changes for remote and inaccessible regions. Gaining an understanding of the ongoing changes in such regions is vital if a complete picture of glacial fluctuations globally is to be established. Here, satellite imagery (Landsat 7, 8 and ASTER) is used to conduct a multi-annual remote sensing survey of glacier fluctuations on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia) over the 2000-2014 period. Glacier margins were digitised manually and reveal that, in 2000, the peninsula was occupied by 673 glaciers, with a total glacier surface area of 775.7 ± 27.9 km2. By 2014, the number of glaciers had increased to 738 (reflecting the fragmentation of larger glaciers), but their surface area had decreased to 592.9 ± 20.4 km2. This represents a ˜ 24 % decline in total glacier surface area between 2000 and 2014 and a notable acceleration in the rate of area loss since the late 20th century. Analysis of possible controls indicates that these glacier fluctuations were likely governed by variations in climate (particularly rising summer temperatures), though the response of individual glaciers was modulated by other (non-climatic) factors, principally glacier size, local shading and debris cover.

  9. Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Kublanov, Ilya V; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Osburn, Magdalena R; Novikov, Andrei A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Perevalova, Anna A

    2016-01-21

    An obligately anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, organoheterotrophic archaeon, strain 1633T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). Cells were regular cocci, 0.5-0.9 μm in diameter, with one flagellum. The temperature range for growth was 80-95°C, with an optimum at 84°C. Strain 1633T grew on yeast extract, beef extract, peptone, cellulose and cellobiose. No growth was detected on other sugars or carbohydrates, organic acids, or under autotrophic conditions. The only detected growth products were CO2, acetate, and H2. Growth rate was stimulated by elemental sulfur, which was reduced to hydrogen sulfide. In silico calculated G+C content of strain 1633T genomic DNA was 55.64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain 1633T together with the non-validly published "Thermogladius shockii" strain WB1 in a separate genus-level cluster within the Desulfurococcaceae family. ANI results revealed 75.72% identity between 1633T and WB1. Based on these results we propose a novel genus and species, for which the name Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain 1633T=DSM 22663T=VKM B-2946T) is proposed.

  10. Monitoring recreational impacts in wilderness of Kamchatka (on example of Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anya V. Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment and monitoring program that was designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in a wilderness in Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application to a case study conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (Kamchatka peninsula,...

  11. Moscow, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. First evidence of the Oceanic Anoxic Events in Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Olga; Palechek, Tatiana; Savelyev, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    They are a few stratigraphical levels corresponding to OAEs in the deep-water drilling sites in the Pacific ocean. Discoveries of ОАЕs evidences in fold-thrust belt of Pacific are important for correlation of Pacific ocean sections with well investigated sections of Europe. We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplancton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two thin beds enriched by organic carbon. The thickness of the beds is about 2 cm and 5 cm. Such carbon-rich beds were also found in several other exposures. Near the carbonaceous beds jaspers and limestones lose red and pink colours and become gray and black (on the weathered surface almost white). The content of the mineral matter in the carbon-rich beds amounts 27-75%. It consists of biogenic silica and clay minerals (likely altered hyaloclactites). Carbonaceous beds contain pyrite, barite, phosphates in the form of pellets and fish bone detritus. Mo/Mn ratio in the mineral matter of carbon-rich beds corresponds to euxinic conditions. Total organic carbon contents change from 18 to 53%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the organic carbon originated from marine (sapropelic) organic matter. In studied section the curve of d13C (analyzed in limestones) is characterized by a clearly expressed positive shift at the level of the lower carbonaceous bed. Below it and in the overlapping stratum of siliceous limestone (1 cm thickness) d13C has the values of 1.9-2.1 pro mil, and above it d13C increases up to 2.5-3 pro mil. The radiolarian assemblages are dominated by

  13. Inverse modeling and forecasting for the exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, Stefan; Kiryukhin, A.V.; Asaulova, N.P.; Finsterle, S.

    2008-04-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field has been developed based on a conceptual hydrogeological model of the system. It extends over a 13.6-km2 area and includes three layers: (1) a base layer with inflow; (2) a geothermal reservoir; and (3) an upper layer with discharge and recharge/infiltration areas. Using the computer program iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 2004), the model is calibrated to a total of 13,675 calibration points, combining natural-state and 1960-2006 exploitation data. The principal model parameters identified and estimated by inverse modeling include the fracture permeability and fracture porosity of the geothermal reservoir, the initial natural upflow rate, the base-layer porosity, and the permeabilities of the infiltration zones. Heat and mass balances derived from the calibrated model helped identify the sources of the geothermal reserves in the field. With the addition of five makeup wells, simulation forecasts for the 2007-2032 period predict a sustainable average steam production of 29 kg/s, which is sufficient to maintain the generation of 6.8 MWe at the Pauzhetsky power plant.

  14. Overview of the 2012-13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Edwards, Benjamin; Volynetz, Anna; Melnikov, Dmitry; Senyukov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    On 27 November 2012 a short-lived swarm of shallow (cinder cone. While explosive activity was rather mild, initial discharge of lava was very high (up to 400 m3/s) and by the end of December 'a'a lava flows had travelled up to 17 km from the vent. SiO2 concentrations for the plagioclase-phyric lava were 54 wt.%, but then decreased to 52 wt.%. In January 2013 lava was transported through a system of lava tubes 1 km long and up to 5 m wide. From tube exit points it propagated in the form of channelized lava streams (velocities 1-3 m/s; discharge rates 30-50 m3/s); on lower slopes of the volcano it propagated mostly as 'a'a flows. Lava channels were frequently dammed by floating clinker and accretionary lava balls, which caused flooding of proximal areas by ropy/shelly/slabby pahoehoe lavas. Locally small volumes of lava were extruded through the upper surfaces and lateral levees of 'a'a lava to form very slowly inflating entrail pahoehoe lava lobes. Starting in mid-February the average intensity of the eruption gradually declined, with sporadic bursts in February and April. By May discharge rates of lava had decreased to approximately 15 m3/s and most of lava started to flow as entrail pahoehoe. By the beginning of June the volume of erupted products (dominantly lavas) reached 0.52km3. The effusion of lava continued until the end of August, when the lava lake in the crater of the active cinder cone became inactive. Weak strombolian outbursts from 1-3 small vents on the bottom of the crater continued until September 5, 2013. Total volume of the erupted products reached approximately 0.7 km3, which is ~0.3 km3 less than estimates for the total eruptive volume from the previous eruption at Tolbachik in 1975-76.

  15. The KISS Project - Exploring the magmatic system beneath Kamchatka's volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Birger-G.; Shapiro, Nikolai; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Abramenkov, Sergey; Saltykov, Vadim A.; Heit, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Gordeev, Evgeny I.; Chebrov, Victor N.

    2016-04-01

    In a joint initiative of GFZ with Russian (IPGG, IVS, KGBS) and a French partner (IPGP) a temporary seismological network has been installed around the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Central Kamchatka. The Klyuchevskoy volcanic group is an ensemble of 13 stratovolcanoes with very different compositions and eruption styles in a ~70km diameter area which produced at least 30 VEI≥2 episodes during the last 15 years. Latest activity of the highest volcano Klyuchevskoy (4754 m) was in spring 2015. The group is located right on the triple junction between Asian, Pacifc and North American plates where the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain separates the Aleutian and the Kuril-Kamchatka trenches. The complex setting presumably leads to processes like increased melting at slab edges and/or accelerated mantle flow which affect the volcanism and might be responsible for the unparalleled concentration of volcanic activity in the Klyuchevskoy group. Due to the difficult field conditions and special permitting regulations seismological investigations have been rare in Kamchatka. In this consortium we build strongly on the experience of the Kamchatkan partners for permitting and logistics. Installation was done to about 50% by helicopter. Funding was provided via a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (grant 14-47-00002) to the IVS/KBGS/IPGG, the GFZ, and the IPGP. 60 of the stations were provided by the GFZ instrument pool GIPP. Including the permanent stations operated by KGBS and temporary stations provided by the partners, the network consist of 98 stations and will record earthquakes volcanic signals and the ambient field over one year in an area of approximately 150 by 150km.

  16. Mapping resource use over a Russian landscape: an integrated look at harvesting of a non-timber forest product in central Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitztaler, Stephanie K.; Bergen, Kathleen M.

    2013-12-01

    Small-scale resource use became an important adaptive mechanism in remote logging communities in Russia at the onset of the post-Soviet period in 1991. We focused on harvesting of a non-timber forest product, lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), in the forests of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East). We employed an integrated geographical approach to make quantifiable connections between harvesting and the landscape, and to interpret these relationships in their broader contexts. Landsat TM images were used for a new classification; the resulting land-cover map was the basis for linking non-spatial data on harvesters’ gathering behaviors to spatial data within delineated lingonberry gathering sites. Several significant relationships emerged: (1) mature forests negatively affected harvesters’ initial choice to gather in a site, while young forests had a positive effect; (2) land-cover type was critical in determining how and why gathering occurred: post-disturbance young and maturing forests were significantly associated with higher gathering intensity and with the choice to market harvests; and (3) distance from gathering sites to villages and main roads also mattered: longer distances were significantly correlated to more time spent gathering and to increased marketing of harvests. We further considered our findings in light of the larger ecological and social dynamics at play in central Kamchatka. This unique study is an important starting point for conservation- and sustainable development-based work, and for additional research into the drivers of human-landscape interactions in the Russian Far East.

  17. Composition and pools of humus in natural and agrogenic soils of the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, I. V.; Purtova, L. N.; Kostenkov, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of Kamchatka soils with respect to the composition and pools of humus is discussed. Very low and low pools of humus of the fulvate type are typical of the ocherous and stratified ocherous volcanic soils of the eastern coastal zone and the Central Kamchatka Depression. Ocherous volcanic soils of the Western Kamchatka Lowland are characterized by the low and moderate pools of the humate-fulvate humus. Agrogenic soils are characterized by the higher pools of humus in the upper 20 cm in comparison with their natural analogues, which is largely related to changes in the physical properties of the soils under the impact of tillage.

  18. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  19. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  20. Changes of geoacoustic emission directivity at «Mikizha» site associated with earthquakes in Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marapulets Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate high frequency geoacoustic emission, a receiving system based on a compound vector receiver was installed in Kamchatka. It allows the authors to determine the direction of sound wave arrival. In the result of data analysis for the period from August 2008 to January 2016, it was determined that anomalies of geoacoustic emission directivity occur during the majority of the earthquakes with Ks > 9.0 in the South of Kamchatka.

  1. Evolution and genesis of volcanic rocks from Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Robertson, K.; Smith, E.; Selyangin, O.; Kiryukhin, A.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Walker, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents new geochemical data for Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the volcanic front of the southern portion of the Kamchatka arc. Field relationships show that Mutnovsky Volcano is comprised of four distinct stratocones, which have grown over that past 80 ka. The youngest center, Mutnovsky IV, has produced basalts and basaltic andesites only. The three older centers (Mutnovsky I, II, III) are dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite (60-80% by volume), but each has also produced small volumes of andesite and dacite. Across centers of all ages, Mutnovsky lavas define a tholeiitic igneous series, from 48-70% SiO2. Basalts and basaltic andesites have relatively low K2O and Na2O, and high FeO* and Al2O3 compared to volcanic rocks throughout Kamchatka. The mafic lavas are also depleted in the light rare earth elements (REEs), with chondrite-normalized La/Sm arc volcanic rocks worldwide. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) are similar for samples from all four eruptive centers, and indicate that all samples were produced by melting of a similar source mixture. No clear age-progressive changes are evident in the compositions of Mutnovsky lavas. Mass balance and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) modeling of major and rare earth elements (REEs) indicate that basaltic andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine from a parental basalt, combined with assimilation of a melt composition similar to dacite lavas present at Mutnovsky. This modeling also indicates that andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase from basaltic andesite, combined with assimilation of dacite. Dacites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II have low abundances of REEs, and do not appear to be related to mafic magmas by FC or AFC processes. These dacites are modeled as the products of dehydration partial melting at mid-crustal levels of a garnet-free, amphibole-bearing basaltic rock, which itself formed in the mid-crust by emplacement of magma that

  2. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungweon Suh

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  3. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu; Budyansky, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using Lagrangian methods we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait correlate significantly with the Near Strait inflow and Bering Strait outflow. Enhanced westward surface flow of the Alaskan Stream across the $174^\\circ$ E section in the northern North Pacific is accompanied by an increased inflow into the Bering Sea through the Near Strait. In summer, the surface flow pattern in the Kamchatka Strait is determined by passage of anticyclonic and cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The wind stress over the Bering basin in winter - spring is responsible for eddy generation in the region.

  4. Dollarization Hysteresis in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkevich Andrey

    2002-01-01

    This project aims to (1) explain the forces that lead to dollarization in Russia, (2) analyze the cost and benefits of dollarization, (3) design a policy aimed at reducing dollarization, and (4) predict the consequences of making dollarization official.

  5. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  6. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  7. Epimeria abyssalis sp. n. from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Tomikawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new deep-sea epimeriid, Epimeria abyssalis is described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, in the northwestern Pacific. This species differs from its congeners in having a short rostrum and a telson with deep and narrow Y-shaped excavation. Epimeria abyssalis is the deepest recorded Epimeria species. A key to the north Pacific species of Epimeria is provided. PMID:28174500

  8. Towards a New Russia Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Daryl Press about U.S. strategic capabilities that generated so much heat in Russia,130 The reason why hardliners in Russia pay so much at- tention...No. 1, January, 2007, pp. 1-2; Angela Stent , “Berlin’s Russia Challenge,” The National Interest, No. 88, March-April 2007, pp. 46-51. 253

  9. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  10. Singing Praise for Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  11. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  12. Terrorism Mounts in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The new year starts ominously with Moscow airport attack The year 2011 did not begin happily for Russia. On January 24,a bomb attack at Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport-the city’s largest-killed at least 35 people and injured more than 130. This tragedy shed light

  13. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  14. Microbial metabolism and the geochemistry of bioactive gases in Kamchatka and Lassen hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Robb, F. T.; Colman, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic metabolisms include several pathways that involve dissolved gases as carbon sources, energy sources, and/or waste products. In hot springs, dissolved gas concentrations are often compared with concentrations predicted based upon equilibration with free phase gases bubbling up in the same springs. This comparison guides the inference of metabolic modes in the subsurface, spring vents, and outflow channels. Supersaturation is invoked as a signal of a biogenic source for the gas, while undersaturation is interpreted to indicate microbial consumption. However, these conventional interpretations of disequilibria between dissolved and free phase gases can be misleading. They ignore the decoupling of water and free phase gas transport in terrestrial hot springs and the effects on gas solubility of thermal and pressure gradients that exist as fluids travel from depth to vent. We have surveyed two significant geothermal regions: Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), California, USA (July, 2009), and Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia (August, 2010) in past years. We collected and analyzed both free phase and dissolved gas composition from a number of hot springs in each region. We used Henry's Law to calculate apparent saturation state of the dissolved gases with respect to the free phases gases bubbling up in the springs. We then constructed a 1-D gas exchange-transport model to examine the thermodynamic drivers and potential kinetic hindrances to gas exchange and equilibration in water and gases ascending continental hot spring systems. Specifically, this model takes into account: (1) the vertical gradient in temperature and pressure, (2) interaction between the bioactive gases via water gas shift reaction, and (3) fluid transport from subsurface to vent. We have modeled several end-member transport-exchange scenarios: (1) gas and spring water co-ascend in a closed system, with instantaneous equilibration between free phase and dissolved

  15. Pyroclastic surges and flows from the 8-10 May 1997 explosive eruption of Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Voight, Barry; Belousova, Marina; Petukhin, Anatoly

    2002-07-01

    The 8-10 May 1997 eruption of Bezymianny volcano began with extrusion of a crystallized plug from the vent in the upper part of the dome. Progressive gravitational collapses of the plug caused decompression of highly crystalline magma in the upper conduit, leading at 13:12 local time on 9 May to a powerful, vertical Vulcanian explosion. The dense pyroclastic mixture collapsed in boil-over style to generate a pyroclastic surge which was focused toward the southeast by the steep-walled, 1956 horseshoe-shaped crater. This surge, with a temperature 30 km2 with deposits as much as 30 cm thick and extending 7 km from the vent. The surge deposits comprised massive to vaguely laminated, gravelly sand (Md -1.2 to 3.7φ sorting 1.2 to 3φ) of poorly vesiculated andesite (mean density 1.82 g cm-3 vesicularity 30 vol% SiO2 content 58.0 wt%). The deposits, with a volume of 5-15×106 m3, became finer grained and better sorted with distance; the maximal diameter of juvenile clasts decreased from 46 to 4 cm. The transport and deposition of the surge over a snowy landscape generated extensive lahars which traveled >30 km. Immediately following the surge, semi-vesiculated block-and-ash flows were emplaced as far as 4.7 km from the vent. Over time the juvenile lava in clasts of these flows became progressively less crystallized, apparently more silicic (59.0 to 59.9 wt% SiO2) and more vesiculated (density 1.64 to 1.12 g cm-3 vesicularity 37 to 57 vol%). At this stage the eruption showed transitional behavior, with mass divided between collapsing fountain and buoyant column. The youngest pumice-and-ash flows were accompanied by a sustained sub-Plinian eruption column 14 km high, from which platy fallout clasts were deposited ( 59.7% SiO2; density 1.09 g cm-3 vesicularity 58 vol%). The explosive activity lasted about 37 min and produced a total of 0.026 km3 dense rock equivalent of magma, with an average discharge of 1.2×104 m3 s-1. A lava flow 200 m long terminated the eruption. The evolutionary succession of different eruptive styles during the explosive eruption was caused by vertical gradients in crystallization and volatile content of the conduit magma, which produced significant changes in the properties of the erupting mixture.

  16. Modeling and observations of geyser activity in relation to catastrophic landslides-mudflows (Kronotsky nature reserve, Kamchatka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryukhin, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    This study reports and interprets observational data of geyser cycling in the Valley of Geysers and Uzon hydrothermal systems between 2007 and 2015. The monitoring of the Velikan and Bolshoy Geysers after the catastrophic landslide on 3.06.2007 (which dammed and created Podprudnoe Lake, drowning some geysers) and before a mudflow on 3.01.2014 (which destroyed the dam and almost completely drained Podprudnoe Lake) shows that the interval between eruptions (IBE) of the Bolshoy Geyser decreased from 108 to 63 min and that the IBE of the Velikan Geyser slowly declined over three years from 379 min to 335 min. The seasonal hydrological cycle of the Velikan Geyser shows an increase in the IBE during winter (average of 41 min). The dilution of the chloride deep components of the Bolshoy (- 23%) and Velikan Geysers (- 12%) is also observed. A local TOUGH2 model of the Velikan Geyser is developed. This model is used to describe the transient thermal hydrodynamic and CO2 changes in a Velikan Geyser conduit during the entire cycling process by using cyclic, time-dependent boundary mass flow conditions (major eruption discharge and sub-cyclically assigned CO2 mass flow recharge into the base of the geyser conduit and water recharge at the mid-height of the geyser conduit) and a constant mass flow of water into the geyser at depth. This model also indicates a seepage element at the conduit's top to allow pre-eruptive discharge and a buffering isothermal reservoir below to compensate for pressure declines from major eruptions at earlier times. A local TOUGH2 model is successfully calibrated against temperature observations at both the mid-height and base of the conduit of the Velikan Geyser, which shows the essential role of the above parameters in describing the functionality of the geyser. A reservoir model of shallow production geysers is also developed. This 2D model is used to describe changes in the thermal hydrodynamic state and evolving chloride concentrations in the areas of most prominent discharge, both at steady state and when perturbed by cold water injection from Podprudnoe Lake and other cold water sources (after 3.06.2007). A "well on deliverability" option is used to model the geyser discharge features in the model. The modeled increases in geyser discharge that is caused by an increase in the reservoir pressure from cold water injection reasonably matches observations of IBE decreases in the Bolshoy (~ 58%) and Velikan Geysers (~ 9%). The modeling also shows the possibility of chloride dilution in the Velikan Geyser but no dilution in the Bolshoy Geyser. The latter observation is attributed to the presence of direct cold water inflow into the Bolshoy Geyser conduit.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurococcus fermentans, a hyperthermophilic cellulolytic crenarchaeon isolated from a freshwater hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Rodriguez, Jason R; Anderson, Iain; Perevalova, Anna A; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Peters, Lin; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren; Gopalan, Venkat; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Atomi, Haruyuki; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Woyke, Tanja; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2012-10-01

    Desulfurococcus fermentans is the first known cellulolytic archaeon. This hyperthermophilic and strictly anaerobic crenarchaeon produces hydrogen from fermentation of various carbohydrates and peptides without inhibition by accumulating hydrogen. The complete genome sequence reported here suggested that D. fermentans employs membrane-bound hydrogenases and novel glycohydrolases for hydrogen production from cellulose.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Desulfurococcus fermentans, a Hyperthermophilic Cellulolytic Crenarchaeon Isolated from a Freshwater Hot Spring in Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanti, Dwi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Johnson, Eric F [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Rodriquez, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Perevalova, Anna [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Gopapan, Venkay [Ohio State University; Chan, Patricia [University of California, Santa Cruz; Atomi, Haruyuki [Kyoto University, Japan; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurococcus fermentans is the first known cellulolytic archaeon. This hyperthermophilic and strictly anaerobic crenarchaeon produces hydrogen from fermentation of various carbohydrates and peptides without inhibition by accumulating hydrogen. The complete genome sequence reported here suggested that D. fermentans employs membrane-bound hydrogenases and novel glycohydrolases for hydrogen production from cellulose.

  19. Evolutionary relationships among sympatric life history forms of Dolly Varden inhabiting the landlocked Kronotsky Lake, Kamchatka, and a neighboring anadromous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Pavlov, S.D.; Hauser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among five sympatric morphs of Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma (white, Schmidti, longhead, river, and dwarf) inhabiting landlocked Kronotsky Lake on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and an anadromous population below the barrier waterfall on the outflowing Kronotsky River. Morphological analyses indicated phenotypic differentiation corresponding to preferred habitat, the longhead (a limnetic piscivorous morph) having a fusiform body, long jaw, and short fins and the Schmidti (a benthic morph) having a robust body, small jaw, and long fins. Analysis of molecular variance among the Kronotsky Lake morphs indicated that contemporary gene flow is restricted both among morphs within locations and among locations within morphs. Gene flow from Kronotsky Lake into the anadromous population also appears to be restricted. Our findings indicate that there are two divergent evolutionary lineages, one consisting of the white, Schmidti, river, and dwarf morphs and the other of the longhead morph and the anadromous population, which suggests that Kronotsky Lake was subject to separate waves of immigration. The Kronotsky Lake Dolly Varden morphs may represent an example of ecological speciation in progress, and we present a working hypothesis for the diversification of morphs within Kronotsky Lake.

  20. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  1. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  2. Russia's Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Acomplex process characterizes the evolvement of Russia's development strategy from general and ambiguous to specific and clear. In the immediate post-independence days, former President Boris Yeltsin's zeal for wholesale leaning to and meshing with the West only ended up in the loss of initiative and national assertiveness. Since his assumption of office, President Vladimir Putin came up with a "national resurgence strategy" aimed at economic rejuvenation for recovery of the country's status as a big power by proceeding from its current post-Soviet weakened conditions. This pragmatic popular approach is generally believed to have a rosy future ahead.Even so it would still be a bumpy, uphill path, replete with challenges due to trammels of domestic opposition and resentment or obstruction from the West. In addressing these issues under international limelight, after briefly reviewing Russia's post-independence trajectory, this article will focus on President Putin's "strong national strategy" and do some crystal ball gazing for its future.

  3. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  4. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  5. Russia: Background and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 (Spring 2014), http://search.proquest.com/docview/1532990139?accountid=12702. 24 Ibid. 25 Lukas Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea...Parameters 44, no. 2 (Summer 2014), http://search.proquest.com/docview/1565829795?accountid=12702. 26 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in...changed 126 Ibid. 127 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea.” 128 Ibid. 35 with Russia

  6. Late Holocene climate and environmental changes in Kamchatka inferred from the subfossil chironomid record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; de Hoog, Verena; Hoff, Ulrike; Dirksen, Oleg; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of the Late Holocene climate in Kamchatka based on chironomid remains from a 332 cm long composite sediment core recovered from Dvuyurtochnoe Lake (Two-Yurts Lake, TYL) in central Kamchatka. The oldest recovered sediments date to about 4500 cal years BP. Chironomid head capsules from TYL reflect a rich and diverse fauna. An unknown morphotype of Tanytarsini, Tanytarsus type klein, was found in the lake sediments. Our analysis reveals four chironomid assemblage zones reflecting four different climatic periods in the Late Holocene. Between 4500 and 4000 cal years BP, the chironomid composition indicates a high lake level, well-oxygenated lake water conditions and close to modern temperatures (˜13 °C). From 4000 to 1000 cal years BP, two consecutive warm intervals were recorded, with the highest reconstructed temperature reaching 16.8 °C between 3700 and 2800 cal years BP. Cooling trend, started around 1100 cal years BP led to low temperatures during the last stage of the Holocene. Comparison with other regional studies has shown that termination of cooling at the beginning of late Holocene is relatively synchronous in central Kamchatka, South Kurile, Bering and Japanese Islands and take place around 3700 cal years BP. From ca 3700 cal years BP to the last millennium, a newly strengthened climate continentality accompanied by general warming trend with minor cool excursions led to apparent spatial heterogeneity of climatic patterns in the region. Some timing differences in climatic changes reconstructed from chironomid record of TYL sediments and late Holocene events reconstructed from other sites and other proxies might be linked to differences in local forcing mechanisms or caused by the different degree of dating precision, the different temporal resolution, and the different sensitive responses of climate proxies to the climate variations. Further high-resolution stratigraphic studies in this region are needed to understand

  7. Structural evolution of the Kamchatka - Aleutian arc junction area in the Late Mesozoic and Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Freitag, R.; Harbert, W.

    2002-05-01

    Structural, sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies have been conducted within the Kamchatka - Aleutian junction area aiming to a reconstruction of the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene. Pre-Pliocene structures of the area are comprised of 1) Achaivayam -Valaginskiy (Olyutorskiy) arc, 2) Vetlovskiy terrane, 3) Kronotskiy arc, and 4) Tyushevka basin, which goes along the boundary between Vetlovskiy and Kronotskiy units. In the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deformations within the area of study were controlled by the following processes: 1) Northward subduction of the Pacific and Kula plates underneath the Kronotskiy arc and accretion in the fore-arc wedge south of the arc from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. 2) Collision of the Achaivayam - Valaginskiy arc against Eurasia during the Early and Middle Eocene. 3) Northwest directed subduction in Proto-Kamchatka subduction zone and development of the accretionary wedge within Vetlovskiy terrane in the Middle and Late Eocene. 4) Collision of the Kronotskiy arc against Kamchatka during the Late Eocene through the Middle Miocene. We reconstruct seven structural complexes with individual structural patterns, which document different episodes of the regional deformation history. Age of the Kronotskiy arc collision is constrained by that 1) the Tyushevka foreland basin developed during the Late Eocene (?), Oligocene, Early and Middle Miocene, and 2) the foreland basin discordantly crosses syn-collisional plunging folds within the Kronotskiy arc. Syn-collisional deformations were controlled by the northwest motion of the Kronotskiy arc as part of the Pacific plate, and by the simultaneous motion of the entire northeast Eurasia margin toward the South. This caused deflection of the western segment of the Kronotskiy arc toward the south; it's rotation up to 90o counterclockwise and the subsequent bent of the arc into a large knee-like structure. The eastern portion of the

  8. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viola; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Brenke, Nils; Schwabe, Enrico; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) to the northwest Pacific Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plain, we found several kinds and sizes of plastic debris ranging from fishing nets and packaging to microplastic in the sediment of the deep-sea floor. Microplastics were ubiquitous in the smaller fractions of the box corer samples from every station from depths between 4869 and 5766 m. They were found on the abyssal plain and in the sediments of the trench slope on both sides. The amount of microplastics differed between the stations, with lowest concentration of 60 pieces per m2 and highest concentrations of more than 2000 pieces per m2. Around 75% of the microplastics (defined here as particles marine fauna (Zenkevich, 1963). Yet we can only guess how these microplastics accumulated in the deep sea of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area and what consequences the microplastic itself and its adsorbed chemicals will have on this very special and rich deep-sea fauna. But we herewith present an evaluation of the different kinds of plastic debris we found, as a documentation of human impact into the deep sea of this region of the Northwest Pacific.

  9. Triticella minini - a new ctenostome bryozoan from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischenko, Andrei V.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of ctenostome bryozoan, Triticella minini sp. nov., is described from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, based on material collected by the Russian-German deep-sea expedition KuramBio 2012. Colonies of T. minini sp. nov. were found attached to the oral spines of irregular sea urchin Echinosigra (Echinogutta) amphoraMironov, 1974 by means of rhizoid fibers that penetrated the substratum through circular borings. The specimens were examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy with phalloidin and nuclear labeling. The description of T. minini sp. nov. combines a general taxonomic description with a description of the anatomy of the muscular system. The new species differs from congeners in lacking a stolon. It has an intertentacular organ. T. minini sp. nov. is the eleventh species described in the genus TriticellaDalyell, 1848, and the first record for this genus from the northwestern Pacific. The new species is the fifth ctenostome bryozoan known to occur in 5001-5500 m depth interval worldwide, and the deepest record reported for Triticella.

  10. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  11. Biosensor development in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetilov, Anatoly N

    2007-07-01

    The review summarizes the current Russian research in the field of biological sensors for detection of carbohydrates, alcohols, medicines, enzyme inhibitors, toxicants, heavy metal ions, as well as viruses and microbial cells. Some of the presented works describe the analytical parameters of biosensors; other publications provide a basis for their development. The review covers mainly publications that have appeared over the past 10 years. As a whole, the collected material gives an idea of the main tendencies of biosensor development in Russia. The review is not meant to be comprehensive but highlights the major trends in this field in the last decade.

  12. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...... the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we...

  13. Syphilis soars in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M

    1995-07-08

    The number of adults with syphilis in Russia has increased 15-fold since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The rate in children is 20 times higher than it was 4 years ago. 126,500 cases were registered with the health ministry over the past year, while 7900 were in 1990. The number of cases in children increased from 38 in 1991 to 761 this year; most of these cases were acquired via sexual transmission. Lilia Tikhonova, the health ministry's chief specialist on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), blamed the increases on "the complete perversion of our society's morals," the rapid growth of child prostitution, the influx of homeless people and refugees into the cities, and miracle cures that are used in place of seeing a specialist. In communist Russia, patients were required to register passport details and previous sexual contacts, and future sexual contact was forbidden for a period; anyone breaking these rules faced 5 years in jail. Current law only punishes those who knowingly infect their sexual partners. Health officials in the Ukraine, where a similar increase in the number of STDs has been noted, blame black market condoms. Over the past 5 years, cheap foreign condoms have flooded the market.

  14. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  15. Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Work is devoted to the study of volcano sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The Geyser Valley is one of the most unique nature objects in Russia. There are quite large geyser fields. The valley of the river is part of the Uson-Geysernaya depression, where hydrothermal activity is very high. Besides geysers here are hot springs, mud pots and fumarols. In the late Pleistocene (about 45-35 thousand years ago) the lake was located in the site of the modern valley of the Geysernaya river, where sediments accumulated intensively. Sedimentary material came from several sources in the form of pyroclastic flows, ash falls, was supplied by permanent and temporary water streams. The total deposit thickness reached several hundred meters. In the late Pleistocene there was breakthrough of reservoir and further conditions for the lacustrine deposits formation did not arose. Later the rocks were intensively processed by thermal water. In 2007 large landslide was formed in lower part of the Geysernaya River on their left slope. Deposits of Geysernaya (Q34grn) series and Pemsovaya (Q34pmz) series were involved in landslide displacement. The headscarp was formed up to 100 m and a length of 800 m, exposing the volcano-sedimentary section of hydrothermally altered rocks - a unique opportunity for sampling and subsequent laboratory study. Thickness of lake sediments is interbedding of coarse-grain, medium-grain, fine-grain tuffites predominantly acidic composition. The study of thin sections revealed that all samples are lithoclastic and vitroclastic hydrothermally altered tuffits. Currently, the primary minerals and volcanic glass is largely replaced by clay minerals of the smectite group. Pores and cracks are made zeolites (heulandite and clinoptilolite). All this points to the low-temperature (weathered to clayey state tuffites inherit structural and textural features of the primary species. The composition also varies: increased

  16. Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for Kamchatka region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we reveal the relationships between the structure of the lithosphere, the distribution of convective flows in the upper mantle and the character of seismotectonic deformations (STD) that is especially important for regions of active continental margins. We present a comprehensive analysis of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models together with the distribution of the STD principal axes orientations for the Kamchatka region, where crustal displacements are accompanied with seismic and volcanic activity. Our previous results have shown that: the variations of the lithosphere thickness significantly affect the structure of convective flows in the upper mantle [Chervov, Chernykh, 2014]; the pattern of these flows, in turn, correlate with the distribution and the orientations of STD principal axes (for the Altai-Sayan region with surrounding areas [Bushenkova, at al., 2014]). Based on the upper mantle seismic tomography model beneath Kamchatka and adjacent regions by Koulakov et al. (2011) and taking into account the variations of the lithosphere structure, we have calculated a numerical 3D model of thermal convection in the upper mantle. Also, we have estimated the distribution of orientations of the STD principal axes. We used the focal mechanisms of 511 earthquakes occurred in the period of 1976-2015 [www.isc.ac.uk/iscbulletin/search/fmechanisms] in the Kamchatka region. These focal mechanisms were transformed to the 3D STD distributions based on the Riznichenko's method (1985). In this case, the STD was determined as an average seismic moment tensor of all earthquakes in a unit volume for the selected time. We found that the STD principal axes distribution is inherited for different depth layers along the entire eastern coast of Kamchatka. Abrupt changes in the orientation of the principal axes of elongation and shortening, and a change of the direction of their dipping are observed in area zone of 53.0- 54.50 N. This zone coincides with an

  17. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  18. Mantle temperature control on composition of arc magmas along the Central Kamchatka Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2008-07-01

    Abundant volcanism in the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD)adjacent to the Kamchatka-Aleutian Arc junction occurswhere the Pacific slab edge is subducting beneath Kamchatka.Here we summarize published data on CKD rocks and demonstratea systematic south-to-north change of their compositions frommoderately fractionated basalt-andesite tholeiitic series tohighly fractionated basalt-rhyolite calc-alkaline series includinghigh-magnesian andesites near the slab edge. Localized slabmelting at the slab edge cannot explain these regional geochemicalvariations. Instead, we propose that the thermal state of themantle wedge can be the key factor governing the compositionof CKD magmas. We integrate the results from petrology and numericmodeling to demonstrate the northward decrease of the mantlewedge temperatures beneath CKD volcanoes, which correlates withdecreasing slab dip, length of mantle columns, and magma flux.We envision two petrogenetic models, which relate the compositionof erupted magmas to the subduction parameters beneath the CKD.The first model suggests that mantle temperature governs melt-peridotiteequilibria and favors generation of andesitic primary meltsin cold mantle regions above the shallowly subducting Pacificslab edge. Alternatively, mantle temperature may control magmaticproductivity along the CKD, which decreases sharply toward theslab edge and thus allows more extensive magma fractionationdeeper in the crust and mixing of highly evolved and mantle-derivedmagmas to generate Si-rich "primitive" magmas. These resultspoint to a possible casual link between deep mantle and shallowcrustal magmatic processes. Similar effects of mantle temperatureon the composition and productivity of arc magmatism are expectedelsewhere, particularly in volcanic regions associated withsignificant slab dip variation along the arc.

  19. Volcanic-glacial interactions: GIS applications to the assessment of lahar hazards (case study of Kamchatka)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    On the Kamchatka peninsula, lahars or volcanogenic mudflows arise as a result of intensive snow melting caused by incandescent material ejected by volcanoes onto the surface. Such flows carrying volcanic ash and cinders together with lava fragments and blocks move with a speed up to 70 km/h that can result in significant destructions and even human victims. Formation of such water flows is possible during the whole year.Large-scale GIS «Hazards of lahars (volcanogenic mudflows)» has been deve...

  20. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  1. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  2. Climate change regional review: Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmina, Maria; Anderson, Kevin; Bows-Larkin, Alice

    2013-01-01

    With climate change, an increasingly important focus of scientific and policy discourse, the Russian government has aimed to position the country as one of the leaders of the global process for addressing climate change. This article reviews a breadth of literature to analyze the politico-economic situation in Russia with regard to international climate change negotiations, related domestic policies, societal attitudes, and climatic change impacts on Russia's territory. The analysis demonstra...

  3. Genetic variation among major sockeye salmon populations in Kamchatka peninsula inferred from SNP and microsatellite DNA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khrustaleva, A.M.; Limborg, Morten; Seeb, J. E.

    of the two northern Kamchatka rivers (Palana River and Pakhacha River) differed significantly from the other populations studied. We estimated the efficiency for both types of markers for individual assignment of fish taken in mixtures. Accuracy was generally higher for assignment with SNP data; however...

  4. Positive geothermal anomalies in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age offshore Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delisle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age – detected ~30 yr ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys – was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connection between a postulated mantle plume at great depth (>200 km as the source for the observed high heat flow. However, the positive heat flow anomaly – as our bathymetric data show – is closely associated with the fragmentation of the western flank of the Meiji Seamount into a horst and graben structure initiated during descent of the oceanic crust into the subduction zone offshore Kamchatka. This paper offers an alternative interpretation, which connects high heat flow primarily with natural convection of fluids in the fragmented rock mass and, as a potential additional factor, high rates of erosion, for which evidence is available from our collected bathymetric image. Given high erosion rates, warm rock material at depth rises to nearer the sea floor, where it cools and causes temporary elevated heat flow.

  5. Oceanic, island arc, and back-arc remnants into eastern Kamchatka accretionary complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchuk, A.V.; Vishnevskaya, V.S.; Izvekov, I.N. (Institute of the Lithosphere, Moscow (USSR))

    1990-06-01

    The Kamchatsky Mts. accretionary complex in the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt was studied for identification of the oceanic and suprasubduction components into accretionary wedges. That complex is divided into two tectonic units. The Lower unit is formed sedimentary and tectonic melanges containing arc-related components (Late Senonian volcaniclastics and boninitic gabbro) and oceanic fragments (Fe-Ti-tholeiites, ocean island basalts, and pelagic sediments of Valanginian to Turonian age). The Upper unit consists of ductile deformed oceanic cumulates from troctolites to Fe-Ti-gabbro, 151 to 172 Ma, which are intruded MORB-like diabases with suprasubduction characteristics, 122 to 141 Ma, and are overlain by basalts similar to latter. The Lower and Upper units are separated by a SW-dipping thrust, which is related by an ophiolitoclastic olistostrome of Late Campanian to Early Maestrichtian age. Both units are covered by Paleocene authoclastic deposits. They are all thrusted over the early Neogene island arc complex, 16 to 20 Ma. The Lower unit of the Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was originated in a shear zone between a Late Cretaceous island arc and an Early Cretaceous oceanic plate. The Upper unit represents a Jurassic oceanic remnant that formed a basement of Early Cretaceous back-arc or fore-arc basin. Both units were superposed in the latest Cretaceous. The Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was emplaced into the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt during late Neogene by collision of the early Neogene island arc.

  6. Multiproxy records of climate variability for Kamchatka for the past 400 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solomina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings, ice cores and glacial geologic histories for the past several centuries offer an opportunity to characterize climate variability and to identify the key climate parameters forcing glacier expansions. A newly developed larch ring-width chronology is presented for Kamchatka that is sensitive to past summer temperature variability. This record provides the basis to compare with other proxy records of inferred temperature and precipitation change from ice core and glacier records, and to characterize climate for the region over the past 400 years. Individual low growth years in the larch record are associated with several known and proposed volcanic events that have been observed in other proxy records from the Northern Hemisphere. Comparison of the tree-rings with an ice core record of melt feature index for Kamchatka's Ushkovsky volcano confirms a 1–3 year dating accuracy for this ice core series over the late 18th to 20th centuries. Decadal variations of low summer temperatures (tree-ring record and high annual precipitation (ice core record are broadly consistent with intervals of positive mass balance measured and estimated at several glaciers, and with moraine building, provides a basis to interpret geologic glacier records.

  7. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)

  8. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  9. Russia Cannot Be Understood By the Mind Alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ These words by the 19th-century Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev still resonate today. Russia is beyond comprehension; it can only be felt. And to do that, you have to come to Russia, see Russia, travel through Russia.

  10. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  11. Volcanic-glacial interactions: GIS applications to the assessment of lahar hazards (case study of Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. D. Muraviev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the Kamchatka peninsula, lahars or volcanogenic mudflows arise as a result of intensive snow melting caused by incandescent material ejected by volcanoes onto the surface. Such flows carrying volcanic ash and cinders together with lava fragments and blocks move with a speed up to 70 km/h that can result in significant destructions and even human victims. Formation of such water flows is possible during the whole year.Large-scale GIS «Hazards of lahars (volcanogenic mudflows» has been developed for some volcano group as well as for individual volcanoes on the peninsula in framework of the GIS «Volcanic hazard of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc». Main components of this database are the following: physic-geographical information on region of active volcanism and adjacent areas, on human settlements; data on the mudflow activity; data on distribution of the snow and ice reserves. This database is aimed at mapping of surrounding territories and estimating a hazard of lahars.For illustration the paper presents a map of the lahar hazards, results of calculations of the distances of ejects and maximal area of ejected material spreading in dependence on a character and power of an eruption. In future we plan to perform operational calculations of maximal possible volumes of such flows and areas of their spreading. The calculations will be made on the basis of the GIS «Volcanic hazard of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc».A volume of hard material carried by lahars onto slopes and down to foot of the Kluchevskaya volcanic massif is estimated on the basis of data on the snow and ice reserves on volcano slopes. On the average for many years, the snow accumulation in zones of the mudflow formations their volume often reaches 15–17 millions of cubic meters. Depending on the snowfall activity in different years this value may vary within 50% relative to the norm. Further on, calculations of maximal possible volume of such flows will be performed in a

  12. Carbon isotope curve and iridium anomaly in the Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, D. P.; Savelyeva, O. L.; Palechek, T. N.; Pokrovsky, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplankton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two beds enriched by organic carbon. The largest organic matter contents in this beds amount to 68%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the carbonaceous beds consist of marine organic matter. The accumulation of the carbonaceous beds reflects oxygen depletion in intermediate oceanic waters (ocean anoxic events, OAE). The structure of the studied section emphasizes its similarity to the contemporary deposits recovered by ODP and DSDP sites on Hess and Shatsky Rises. Two orders of rhythmicity were observed in the section. The rhythmicity of the first order (average thickness of a rhythm is 5-7 cm) is an alternation of reddish brown radiolarian jaspers and pink nannofossil limestones. The rhythmicity of the second order is characterized by an increase in thickness of the jasper or limy layer in every 4th-5th rhythm of the first order and marked by an elevation of the silica content in calcareous layers. The rhythmicity formation can be attributed to fluctuation of astronomical parameters (Milankovitch cycles) with periods of 21 and 100 kyr. The character of atmospheric circulation and ocean currents served as transmission link. The section was sampled layerwise and more than 100 samples were taken. The radiolarians were extracted from the samples of jaspers and siliceous limestones lying between carbonaceous beds. The educed radiolarian complexes allowed us to define the age of the deposits as Cenomanian. For more detailed dating of members of the section we have

  13. Relations Between Russia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Russia and Syria are closely allied with historical, spiritual, and cultural ties. Of all the great powers, Russia has had the strongest influence on Serbia. This paper will deal with the history of Serbian-Russian relations, starting with 16th century and Ivan the Terrible’s interests in Balkans. Since the 18th century, the opinion has emerged that Russia is a protector of Serbia. First, the Serbian Uprising was a great opportunity for Russia’s “entry” into the Balkan regions. After the October Revolution, relations tensed since the monarchy was opposed to communism. After World War II, relations improved, but only until 1948 when Tito and Stalin came into the direct conflict that lasted until Stalin’s death. The second half of the 20th century was marked by better relations between these two countries.

  14. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia...

  15. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  16. Cross-Correlation Earthquake Precursors in the Hydrogeochemical and Geoacoustic Signals for the Kamchatka Peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinin, G V; Polyakov, Yu S; Timashev, S F

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type of earthquake precursor based on the analysis of correlation dynamics between geophysical signals of different nature. The precursor is found using a two-parameter cross-correlation function introduced within the framework of flicker-noise spectroscopy, a general statistical physics approach to the analysis of time series. We consider an example of cross-correlation analysis for water salinity time series, an integral characteristic of the chemical composition of groundwater, and geoacoustic emissions recorded at the G-1 borehole on the Kamchatka peninsula in the time frame from 2001 to 2003, which is characterized by a sequence of three groups of significant seismic events. We found that cross-correlation precursors took place 27, 31, and 35 days ahead of the strongest earthquakes for each group of seismic events, respectively. At the same time, precursory anomalies in the signals themselves were observed only in the geoacoustic emissions for one group of earthquakes.

  17. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third...

  18. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. China Urges Russia to Honor Oil Agreements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's Premier Wen Jiabao paid a three-day official visit to Russia in late September with a mission to secure more power supply from Russia to satisfy China's booming demand for oil and gas.This is his first visit to Russia since taking office in March last year. Oil was top of the agenda in Premier Wen's trip to Moscow.

  20. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  1. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), a delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia from October 7 to 13, 2010.

  2. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  3. Gold recycling and enrichment beneath volcanoes: A case study of Tolbachik, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, Michael; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Hedenquist, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Magmas supply metals to hydrothermal ore deposits, although typical arc basalts may be unable to produce a gold-rich ore-forming fluid, as such basalts rarely exceed 5 ppb Au. Consistent with this, the occurrence of native gold of magmatic origin is extremely rare, and only a few finds of micron-sized gold particles in unaltered basalts have been documented. Surprisingly, some lava flows and scoria cones of the historic basaltic eruptions of Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka) are unusually gold-rich. Tolbachik basalts contain up to 11.6 ppb Au based on whole rock analyses, nuggets of gold (electrum) up to 900 μm in size and native gold droplets up to 200 μm, plus numerous vapor-deposited gold crystals within fumarolic incrustations and directly on surfaces of basaltic lapilli. Our results demonstrate that the gold nuggets in Tolbachik basalt are of hydrothermal origin and were physically scavenged from epithermal veins hosted by country rocks during intrusion of mafic magmas. Depending on the melt temperature and/or time span of the melt-rock interaction, gold was ejected by the erupting volcano either in the form of abraded nuggets or liquid droplets, or was fully assimilated (dissolved) into the shallow long-lived magma chamber to provide a 4-fold increase in gold content over background concentration of 2.7 ppb Au, characteristic of mafic volcanic rocks in Kamchatka. Upon the end of the eruption, the continued discharge of volcanic vapors enriched in gold deposited abundant crystals of gold on cooling lava and scoria. Similar to Tolbachik, recycling of metals from prior accumulations (ore deposits) in the shallow crust may take place in other long-lived magma reservoirs, thus upgrading the gold and other metal contents and contributing to the ore-forming potential of a magma.

  4. IMPACT OF CYCLONES OVER KAMCHATKA ON ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION IN THE IONOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov, V.V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of cyclone impact on ionosphere parameters. Ionosphere state was observed by the automatic sounding equipment applying low-orbital navigational spacecrafts in the conditions of low seismicity

  5. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  6. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  7. Russia s Putin Courts Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱多秀

    2000-01-01

    WithRussia'srelationshipwiththeUnitedStatessouring1,PresidentVladimirPutinistryingtoedgeclosertotheEuropeanUnionanduseitsgrowinginternationalclout2tooffset3Washington.BorisYeltsin,Putin'spredocessor4,mademuchofhisbackslapping5,first-name"BillandBoris"relationshipwithPresidentClinton-whichpaidoffinU.S.supportedloansandotheraid.ButtieswiththeUnitedStateshavefrayed6inrecentyearsoverissuessuchastheU.S.-ledbombingofYugoslaviaandU.S.allegations7ofRussiangovernmentcorruption.NowPutinislikelytofocusonstrengtheningt...

  8. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  9. Nikita Mikhalkov, Russia's Political Mentor

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In his political manifesto on "enlightened conservatism" film director Nikita Mikhalkov calls on Russians to submit themselves to a strong leader. Although some claim that Mikhalkov is singing Vladimir Putin's praises, in fact, he is putting himself forward as the best guide for Russia.

  10. Magmatic gas flux emissions from Gorelyi volcano, Kamchatka, and implications for volatile recycling in the NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, A.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Giudice, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Tamburello, G.; Allard, P.; Chaplygin, I.; Taran, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula, in the north-western part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire', is one of the most active volcanic realms on Earth, with 29 historically erupting volcanoes along its ~700 km-long Eastern Volcanic Belt (EVB). This notwithstanding, volatile input and output fluxes along this arc sector have remained poorly characterised until very recently. We here report on the very first assessment of volatile flux emissions from Gorelyi, a large (25 km3, 1830 m high) and most active shield-like Holocene volcano located on the southern segment of the Kamchatka EVB. By combing results from a variety of in situ and remote sensing techniques (MultiGAS, filter packs, and UV camera), we determine the bulk plume molar concentrations of major (H2O 93.5%, CO2 2.6%, SO2 2.2%, HCl 1.1%, HF 0.3%, H2 0.2%) to trace-halogens (Br, I) and trace-element volatile species, and we estimate a total gas release of ~11,000 t/day from Gorelyi during ~900°C non-eruptive degassing. Using this observation, we derive new constraints on the abundances and origins of volatiles in the subduction-modified mantle source feeding magmatism in Kamchatka.

  11. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  12. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  13. Social Media Marketing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva, Yu. A.; Zaviyalova, Zinaida Sergeevna; Агеева, Ю. А.; Завьялова, Зинаида Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on using social media for business promotion. The authors analyze and compare the SMM experience in the western countries and Russia, give examples of failed promotion. A short review of Russian social networks are given including their peculiar features, which are important to consider when planning a SMM campaign. The main problems and perspectives of Russian SMM are described in conclusion of the article. In order to present the situation and specific of use of social n...

  14. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  15. 2003 Eruption of Chikurachki Volcano, Paramushir Island, Northern Kuriles, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Girina, O. A.; Neal, C. A.; Kotenko, L.; Terentiev, N. S.; Izbekov, P.; Belousov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Ovsyannikov, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Chikurachki Volcano in the northern Kurile Islands erupted for the second time in two years in mid-April 2003. Although the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) received word of a possible eruption from residents of Paramushir Island on April 17, poor weather precluded confirmation of volcanic activity, and the exact start date is uncertain. On April 18, during routine satellite image analysis, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) detected an ash cloud from Chikurachki in GMS data and immediately notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Weather Service, and other agencies. Subsequent formal alerts were issued through aviation and meteorological channels as outlined in the Alaska Interagency Operating Plan for Volcanic Ash Episodes. Thermal infrared imagery and trajectory models suggested the initial cloud was relatively low-level (below 25,000 ft ASL), however this height was not well constrained. Over the next several months, activity at Chikurachki consisted largely of strombolian bursts producing intermittent ash clouds reaching heights of generally less than 10-13,000 ft. ASL. Ash fall was noted as far as 60 km downwind. The last confirmed eruptive activity was June 16, 2003. During the eruption, AVHRR, MODIS, and GMS satellites captured images of the ash cloud as far as 300 km generally east and southeast of the volcano in the region heavily traveled North Pacific air routes. The propagation of volcanic clouds was monitored using visual and infrared channels and included a routine split-window analysis. Weak thermal anomalies were detected in AVHRR images suggesting minimal effusive activity near the central vent. Over the course of the eruption, aviation and meteorological authorities in Russia, the U.S., and Japan issued official notices regarding the eruption and the position and estimated height of the ash plume. Impacts to aviation were minor due to the low-level and intermittent nature of the eruption. Chikurachki is a

  16. Risk and Safety in Post-Soviet Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Yearbook. Official Publication (1994). Goskomstat of Russia. Moscow. 3. Health Protection in Russia. Issue 1 (1995). Yuridicheskaya Literatura , Moscow... Literatura , Moscow. 4. Feshbach Murray (ed), Environment and Health Atlas of Russia (1995). PAIMS, Moscow. 5. State Report on the Environmental Conditions in...Disasters, and Cataclysms in Russia. Moscow: Finizdat (Russian) 4. Ecological Safety of Russia. Issue 1 (1994). Moscow: Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  17. 3D Numeric modeling of slab-plume interaction in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Portnyagin, Maxim; Manea, Marina

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic rocks located in the central segment of the Eastern Volcanic Belt of Kamchatka show a high variability, both in age as well as in the geochemical composition. Three principal groups have been identified, an older group (7-12 my) represented by rich alkaline and transitional basalts, a 7-8 my group exemplified by alkaline basalts of extreme plume type, and a younger group (3-8 my) characterized by calc-alkaline andesites and dacites rocks. Moreover, the younger group shows an adakitic signature. The magmas are assumed to originate from two principle sources: from a subduction modified Pacific MORB-type and from plume-type mantle. In this paper we study the interaction of a cold subducting slab and a hot plume by means of 3D numeric modeling integrated 30 my back in time. Our preliminary modeling results show a short episode of plume material inflowing into the mantle wedge at ~10 my consistent with the second rocks group (plume like). Also our models predict slab edge melting consistent with the youngest group.

  18. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  19. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  20. Energy Fuels Booming China-Russia Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the latest visit to Russia in mid-June this year, Chinese President Hu Jintao expressed that China is willing to strengthen cooperation with Russia and other energy-producing and energy-consuming countries to jointly safeguard the stability of world en

  1. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  2. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  3. Biogerontology in Russia: from past to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Mikhailova, Olga N

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents major steps of gerontology development in Russia. The issues of training in gerontology and geriatrics, institutional infrastructure within the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its activities have been considered therein. Some results of Russian researchers obtained during 2005-2010 have been summarized as well. Special attention is given to the prospects of gerontology in Russia.

  4. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  5. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  6. SOME RESULTS OF THE THIRD COMPLEX MULTIDISCIPLINARY EXPEDITION OF THE RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY FOR MONITORING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION IN THE KURIL-KAMCHATKA AREA OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Third complex multidisciplinary expedition of the Russian Geographic Society for monitoring of the radiation situation in the Kuril-Kamchatka area of the Pacific Oceantook place in September – October 2014. The purposes of the expedition were monitoring of the radiation situation and assessment of the impact of the accident at the nuclear power plant “Fukushima-1”on radioactive contamination of the marine environment near the Russian coasts. This paper presents results on the activity measurements of the cesium and strontium radionuclides in the hydrobionts collected during the expedition in the Seas of Japan and Okhotsk. Nine samples of the sea hydrobionts including one species of invertebrates and four species of fish have been analysed. Determination of activity concentrations of radionuclides of cesium (separately 134Cs and 137Cs were carried out by the gammaspectrometry method using a high-resolution semiconductor detector. Activity concentrations of 90Sr were quantified with a radiochemical method. The activity concentrations of 90Sr and the total activity concentrations of both cesium radioisotopes for all the samples analyzed did not exceed 1 Bq kg–1 (wet weight. This value is much lower than the safe levels of 130 Bq kg–1 (radiocesium and 100 Bq kg–1 (radiostrontium for the fish consumption inRussia. The study demonstrates that theFukushima accident has no considerable impact on radioactive contamination of the selected species of hydrobiota in Russian waters of theJapanSea andOkhotskSea.

  7. Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.; Tsyplenkov, Anatolii S.; Pietron, Jan; Chalova, Aleksandra S.; Shkolnyi, Danila I.; Jarsjö, Jerker; Maerker, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012-2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9•104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model-modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

  8. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, Maxim; Ozerov, Alexey; Kyle, Philip R.; Carr, Michael J.; Nikulin, Alex; Vidito, Christopher; Danyushevsky, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361-38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700-361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ˜3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ˜QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123-1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ˜5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ˜3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

  9. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  10. Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.; Tsyplenkov, Anatolii S.; Pietron, Jan; Chalova, Aleksandra S.; Shkolnyi, Danila I.; Jarsjö, Jerker; Maerker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012-2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9•104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model-modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

  11. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuan, E-mail: amethyst@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang Pengzhu, E-mail: pzzhang@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Management Information Systems, Antai College of Management (China); Li Xin, E-mail: xinli.is@acm.or [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Information Systems (Hong Kong); Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.edu; Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@eller.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine, E-mail: cal@eller.arizona.ed [Eller College of Management, University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Artificial Intelligence Lab (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States); Wang Xianwen, E-mail: wangxianwen2@gmail.co [Dalian University of Technology, WISE Lab (China)

    2009-11-15

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R and D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as 'Quantum dots,' 'Carbon nanotubes,' 'Atomic force microscopy,' and 'Scanning electron microscopy,' while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  12. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  13. Multiparameter monitoring of short-term earthquake precursors and its physical basis. Implementation in the Kamchatka region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulinets Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply experimental approach of the multiparameter monitoring of short-term earthquake precursors which reliability was confirmed by the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC model created recently [1]. A key element of the model is the process of Ion induced Nucleation (IIN and formation of cluster ions occurring as a result of the ionization of near surface air layer by radon emanating from the Earth's crust within the earthquake preparation zone. This process is similar to the formation of droplet’s embryos for cloud formation under action of galactic cosmic rays. The consequence of this process is the generation of a number of precursors that can be divided into two groups: a thermal and meteorological, and b electromagnetic and ionospheric. We demonstrate elements of prospective monitoring of some strong earthquakes in Kamchatka region and statistical results for the Chemical potential correction parameter for more than 10 years of observations for earthquakes with M≥6. As some experimental attempt, the data of Kamchatka volcanoes monitoring will be demonstrated.

  14. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  15. [Priest-doctors in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited.

  16. Oil Deals to Widen Trade Deficit with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The US$ 150 billion oil deal between China and Russia will expand bilateral trade and China's huge trade deficit with Russia, according to Chinese experts. China's exports to Russia may have increased rapidly in recent years but the nation is expected to see its trade deficit with Russia widen for the foreseeable future.

  17. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  18. Premissas da história do estabelecimento dos contatos entre o Brasil e a Rússia Premises of the history of the contacts establishment between Brazil and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena AZ Zhebit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O Imperador Russo e o eminente reformador da Rússia, Pedro, o Grande, "abriu" a Rússia para a Europa e, principalmente, deu aos russos a oportunidade de conhecer o mundo. Várias expedições foram lançadas para explorar novas terras. Neste contexto, surgiram alguns projetos no início do século XIX, estimulando a penetração russa na América Latina. O interesse geopolítico da coroa russa era bastante ambicioso por estabelecer comércio direto com as colônias sul-americanas a fim de facilitar o "abastecimento" da Kamchatka e da América Russa em cereais, rum e açúcar. Esse objetivo foi atingido com o dinheiro da Companhia Russo-Americana, inclusive com os investimentos dos grandes comerciantes russos – membros da Companhia.The Russian Emperor and the eminent Russian reformer Peter, the Great, "opened" Russia to Europe and, basically, gave the Russians a chance to know the world. Several expeditions were launched to discover new lands. In this context, various projects of a Latin American exploration appear at the beginning of the XIXth century, favouring Russian penetration into Latin America. The geo-political interest of the Russian Crown was ambitious enough to establish a direct trade with Southern American colonies with the aim of "contributing" to provide Kamchatka peninsula and the Russian America with grain, rum and sugar. This purpose was achieved by the money of the Russian-American Company, as well as through the investments of big Russian merchants, members of the Company.

  19. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  20. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  1. China, US, Russia Inaugurate Global Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China, the United States and Russia began on Jaunary 12 a global network for scientific research, the first of its kind in the North Hemisphere connecting major scientific centers such as Chicago, Moscow and Beijing.

  2. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  3. Elections in Russia, 1991-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Treisman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I review the main trends in voting in national elections in Russia since 1991, discuss the evidence of manipulation or falsification by the authorities, and use statistical techniques to examine the determinants of voting trends.

  4. Geochemical evolution of Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, and Gorny Zub Volcanoes, Klyuchevskaya Group (Kamchatka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana; Gordeychik, Boris; Wörner, Gerhard; Flerov, Gleb; Hartmann, Gerald; Simon, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) located in the northern part of Kamchatka has the highest magma production rate for any arc worldwide and several of its volcanoes have been studied in considerable detail [e.g. Kersting & Arculus, 1995; Pineau et al., 1999; Dorendorf et al., 2000; Ozerov, 2000; Churikova et al., 2001, 2012, 2015; Mironov et al., 2001; Portnyagin et al., 2007, 2015; Turner et al., 2007]. However, some volcanoes of the KGV including Late-Pleistocene volcanoes Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, Ostraya Zimina, Ovalnaya Zimina, and Gorny Zub were studied only on a reconnaissance basis [Timerbaeva, 1967; Ermakov, 1977] and the modern geochemical studies have not been carried out at all. Among the volcanoes of KGV these volcanoes are closest to the arc trench and may hold information on geochemical zonation with respect to across arc source variations. We present the first major and trace element data on rocks from these volcanoes as well as on their basement. All rocks are medium-calc-alkaline basaltic andesites to dacites except few low-Mg basalts from Malaya Udina volcano. Phenocrysts are mainly olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite, Hb-bearing andesites and dacites are rarely found only in subvolcanic intrusions at Bolshaya Udina volcano. Lavas are geochemically similar to the active Bezymianny volcano, however, individual variations for each volcano exist in both major and trace elements. Trace element geochemistry is typical of island arc volcanism. Compared to KGV lavas all studied rocks form very narrow trends in all major element diagrams, which almost do not overlap with the fields of other KGV volcanoes. The lavas are relatively poor in alkalis, TiO2, P2O5, FeO, Ni, Zr, and enriched in SiO2 compared to other KGV volcanics and show greater geochemical and petrological evidence of magmatic differentiation during shallow crustal processing. Basement samples of the Udinskoe plateau lavas to the east of Bolshaya Udina volcano have

  5. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct

  6. Project Management in Russia: Sociologic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Gomaleev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sociologic approach to project management allows to highlight the problems aroused by discrepancies between real management practices and ideal models; to determine basic socio-psychological barriers that impede project management in Russia; to classify real management practices on the basis of their correlation to project management; to single out basic types of projects implemented in Russian businesses; to work out practical recommendations on overcoming social barriers of developing the system of project management is Russia.

  7. NATO Needs a Comprehensive Strategy for Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    February 11, 2015: http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=59003 13 Dempsey, 2015. 14 See Vladimir Putin , “Meeting of the Valdai International...Crimea, presents an unequivocal challenge to European security. Russia’s actions are not just a stark rejection of Euro-Atlantic integration; Russia ...economic sanctions on Russia and NATO conventional military measures geared toward demonstrating readi- ness and new capabilities. NATO leaders clearly

  8. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  9. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  10. Chinese Migration to Russia as Revealed by Narratives in Chinese Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Rabogoshvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a seminal analysis of the electronic resources in the Chinese cyberspace devoted to the labour migration of Chinese people to Russia. The author focuses on the online narratives and media stories published on three types of electronic resources – government websites of the northeast provinces of the PRC, online reports by the Chinese news agencies, and postings on bulletin board systems (BBSs in order to find answers to the following research questions: 1. What is the role of Chinese migrants’ narratives circulated via different electronic resources on the Internet in the reproduction of the state-regulated imagination of Russia? 2. To what extent have different types of electronic resources (government websites, news agency websites, BBSs been used to renegotiate this imagination? The research has revealed that the websites of PRC government bodies tend to convey a rather consolidated understanding of Russia as a destination country, frequently publishing the narratives of successful migrants online. The mass media reports tend to provide regular coverage of a broader range of themes related to migration, including those related to the legal and economic vulnerability of Chinese labour migrants in Russia. The semi-anonymous and non-official character of the bulletin board system in turn has allowed its participants to make enquiries about or engage in the discussions of aspects of migration that would never be covered or described in detail by official sources such as government websites.

  11. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  12. High-Mg# andesitic lavas of the Shisheisky Complex, Northern Kamchatka: implications for primitive calc-alkaline magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J. A.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Churikova, T. G.

    2011-05-01

    Primitive arc magmatism and mantle wedge processes are investigated through a petrologic and geochemical study of high-Mg# (Mg/Mg + Fe > 0.65) basalts, basaltic andesites and andesites from the Kurile-Kamchatka subduction system. Primitive andesitic samples are from the Shisheisky Complex, a field of Quaternary-age, monogenetic cones located in the Aleutian-Kamchatka junction, north of Shiveluch Volcano, the northernmost active composite volcano in Kamchatka. The Shisheisky lavas have Mg# of 0.66-0.73 at intermediate SiO2 (54-58 wt%) with low CaO (3.0 wt%) and K2O (>1.0 wt%). Olivine phenocryst core compositions of Fo90 appear to be in equilibrium with whole-rock `melts', consistent with the sparsely phyric nature of the lavas. Compared to the Shisheisky andesites, primitive basalts from the region (Kuriles, Tolbachik, Kharchinsky) have higher CaO (>9.9 wt%) and CaO/Al2O3 (>0.60), and lower whole-rock Na2O (andesites. The absence of plagioclase phenocrysts from the primitive andesitic lavas contrasts the plagioclase-phyric basalts, indicating relatively high pre-eruptive water contents for the primitive andesitic magmas compared to basalts. Estimated temperature and water contents for primitive basaltic andesites and andesites are 984-1,143°C and 4-7 wt% H2O. For primitive basalts they are 1,149-1,227°C and 2 wt% H2O. Petrographic and mineral compositions suggest that the primitive andesitic lavas were liquids in equilibrium with mantle peridotite and were not produced by mixing between basalts and felsic crustal melts, contamination by xenocrystic olivine, or crystal fractionation of basalt. Key geochemical features of the Shisheisky primitive lavas (high Ni/MgO, Na2O, Ni/Yb and Mg# at intermediate SiO2) combined with the location of the volcanic field above the edge of the subducting Pacific Plate support a genetic model that involves melting of eclogite or pyroxenite at or near the surface of the subducting plate, followed by interaction of that melt with

  13. Early Holocene volcanism in CKD (Kamchatka) as a mechanical probe of the stress level in the crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakin, Alexander; Shaposhnikova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The last (late Pleistocene) glaciation in Kluychevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) can be considered as a large scale mechanical experiment allowing evaluation of the level of the global geodynamic stresses in the crust of North Kamchatka. KGV is located in the Central Kamchatka depression (CKD). Formation of the CKD can be connected with accretion of Kronotsky paleoarc to the Kamchatka edge c.a. 5 Mys ago. At the compression stage zone of the contact was thickened so that lower part can reach PT parameters of basalt-eclogite transition. Suggested carbonates contamination of the mantle wedge during accretion (Simakin et al., 2015) can became a source of CO2 facilitating eclogite formation. Dense eclogitic keel and trench retreat following accretion can be the driving forces of the CKD rift formation. Extension is partially accommodated (several mm/yr eastward motion) on the eastern border of CKD in the zone of the normal faulting (Kozhurin et al., 2006). And partially extension is accommodated by the formation of the series of dykes of submeridional direction marked by monogenic cones on the surface. At the last phase of the Pleistocene glaciation KGV was covered by the ice cap with 80 km diameter and above 1000 m maximum thickness on the slopes. After the fast deglaciation surface uplift has produced horizontal compression (Simakin and Muravyev, 2015; Pagli and Sigmundsson, 2008). Addition of the deglacial compression to the geodynamic extension turns s1 direction to the horizontal latitudinal one. Due to the horizontal compression areal of eruptions was expanded towards edges of the former glacier. Numerical modeling demonstrates that maximum level of the glacial stress is proportional to the ice gravity load and is estimated to be 5.8-7.5 MPa. Initially principle compressive stress due to the deglaciation was higher than geodynamic one abs(s1,glac) > abs(s1,geod). Time of the volcanism return to the basic submeridional direction marked the moment of viscous

  14. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  15. The Sustainable Trapping of Falcons – is It Possible in Russia and Other CIS Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared according on the analysis of the situation with the poaching and smuggling of falcons (Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, Saker Falcon F. cherrug and Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus in CIS countries in 2006–2015. It is carried out within the program “Struggle against poaching and smuggling” of the Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network. The total number of cases of “falcon detentions” in the CIS has 1.6 times increased for 10 years. The number of seized birds has 1.4 times increase from 538 in 1996–2005 to 737 in 2006–2015, including the number of Gyrfalcons has increased by 2.6 times (from 142 to 365, Saker Falcon – 1.1 times (from 260 to 284, Peregrine Falcon – 3.4 times (from 13 to 44. The rate of Gyrfalcon among seized birds has increased by 1.5 times, Peregrine Falcon – 2 times, and the rate of Saker Falcon has decreased by 1.5 times. The number of annual cases of “falcon detentions” has increased from 2–6 in 2006–2008 to 14–16 cases in 2014–2015, on an annual basis their dynamics is correlated with the changes in the legislation. The most effective detentions are in the Far East (Kamchatka and Chukotka, the second region of catching, where there are significantly more cases of detentions, is Altai-Sayan. The maximum number of detentions were made with the participation of MIA members (51; nearly half of the detentions were produced with FSS (23; 20 cases involved customs authorities; 11 cases – border guards. Regional bodies of Environmental Protection participated in arrest only 12 times, Rosprirodnadzor took part in three detentions. In 75 cases of 100 there were detained 155 people, including 51 locals, 13 residents from other regions of the same country, 13 foreign-born citizens and 65 foreigners. The maximum number of foreigners was detained in Siberia – 43 from 6 countries, they account for 75.4% of the total number of detainees, with 75% of foreigners – citizens of

  16. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  17. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  18. Deciphering petrogenic processes using Pb isotope ratios from time-series samples at Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, Central Kamchatka Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M.; Nelson, Bruce K.; Bachmann, Olivier; Bauer, Ann M.; Izbekov, Pavel E.

    2014-10-01

    The Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes in the Kamchatka arc erupts compositionally diverse magmas (high-Mg basalts to dacites) over small spatial scales. New high-precision Pb isotope data from modern juvenile (1956-present) erupted products and hosted enclaves and xenoliths from Bezymianny volcano reveal that Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, separated by only 9 km, undergo varying degrees of crustal processing through independent crustal columns. Lead isotope compositions of Klyuchevskoy basalts-basaltic andesites are more radiogenic than Bezymianny andesites (208Pb/204Pb = 37.850-37.903, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.468-15.480, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.249-18.278 at Bezymianny; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.907-37.949, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.478-15.487, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.289-18.305 at Klyuchevskoy). A mid-crustal xenolith with a crystallization pressure of 5.2 ± 0.6 kbars inferred from two-pyroxene geobarometry and basaltic andesite enclaves from Bezymianny record less radiogenic Pb isotope compositions than their host magmas. Hence, assimilation of such lithologies in the middle or lower crust can explain the Pb isotope data in Bezymianny andesites, although a component of magma mixing with less radiogenic mafic recharge magmas and possible mantle heterogeneity cannot be excluded. Lead isotope compositions for the Klyuchevskoy Group are less radiogenic than other arc segments (Karymsky—Eastern Volcanic Zone; Shiveluch—Northern Central Kamchatka Depression), which indicate increased lower-crustal assimilation beneath the Klyuchevskoy Group. Decadal timescale Pb isotope variations at Klyuchevskoy demonstrate rapid changes in the magnitude of assimilation at a volcanic center. Lead isotope data coupled with trace element data reflect the influence of crustal processes on magma compositions even in thin mafic volcanic arcs.

  19. Isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of Duplex-Specific Nuclease from the hepatopancreas of the Kamchatka crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Laura L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleases, which are key components of biologically diverse processes such as DNA replication, repair and recombination, antiviral defense, apoptosis and digestion, have revolutionized the field of molecular biology. Indeed many standard molecular strategies, including molecular cloning, studies of DNA-protein interactions, and analysis of nucleic acid structures, would be virtually impossible without these versatile enzymes. The discovery of nucleases with unique properties has often served as the basis for the development of modern molecular biology methods. Thus, the search for novel nucleases with potentially exploitable functions remains an important scientific undertaking. Results Using degenerative primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE procedure, we cloned the Duplex-Specific Nuclease (DSN gene from the hepatopancreas of the Kamchatka crab and determined its full primary structure. We also developed an effective method for purifying functional DSN from the crab hepatopancreas. The isolated enzyme was highly thermostable, exhibited a broad pH optimum (5.5 – 7.5 and required divalent cations for activity, with manganese and cobalt being especially effective. The enzyme was highly specific, cleaving double-stranded DNA or DNA in DNA-RNA hybrids, but not single-stranded DNA or single- or double-stranded RNA. Moreover, only DNA duplexes containing at least 9 base pairs were effectively cleaved by DSN; shorter DNA duplexes were left intact. Conclusion We describe a new DSN from Kamchatka crab hepatopancreas, determining its primary structure and developing a preparative method for its purification. We found that DSN had unique substrate specificity, cleaving only DNA duplexes longer than 8 base pairs, or DNA in DNA-RNA hybrids. Interestingly, the DSN primary structure is homologous to well-known Serratia-like non-specific nucleases structures, but the properties of DSN are distinct. The unique substrate

  20. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  1. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  2. Pre-eruption deformation and seismic anomalies in 2012 in Tolbachik volcanic zone, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim; Titkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Tolbachik volcanic zone (active volcano Plosky Tolbachik, dormant volcano Ostry Tolbachik and Tolbachik zone of cinder cones) is situated in the south part of Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes in Kamchatka. All historical fissure eruptions of Tolbachik volcanic zone (1740, 1941, 1975-76 and 2012-13) were connected with one or another activity of Plosky Tolbachik volcano. In 1941 the fissure vent was occurred during the completion of 1939-41 terminal eruption of Plosky Tolbachik. In 1975 the Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (LTFE) was forestalled by Plosky Tolbachik terminal activity of the Hawaiian type and then was accompanied by the catastrophic collapse in the crater of Plosky Tolbachik. What events took place in the vicinity of Plosky Tolbachik in 2012 before the 2012-13 fissure eruption? In contrast of the 1975-76 LTFE the eruption 2012-13 was not preceded by intensive seismic preparation. Nowadays Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes is under monitoring by 12 seismic stations, so we can investigate seismicity in details on the lower energy level then forty years ago. We analyzed seismicity of Plosky Tolbachik using regional catalogue 1999-2012. Anomalies of low-energy (M≥1.5) seismicity parameters (increase of seismicity rate and seismic energy) were discovered. This is evidence of seismic activization covered the whole Plosky Tolbachik volcano. The significance of this anomaly was estimated by distribution function of emitted seismic energy. Statistically significant transition of seismicity from background level to high and extremely high levels was revealed. It corresponds to multiple growth of earthquake number and seismic energy in 2012, July-November (five months before the eruption). The seismicity transition from background level to high level was happen in August 2012. During last three weeks before fissure eruption seismicity of analyzed seismoactive volume was on extremely high level. Earthquakes from fissure site directly appeared only on November 27

  3. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  4. Initial H2O content and conditions of parent magma origin for Gorely volcano (Southern Kamchatka) estimated by trace element thermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D. P.; Portnyagin, M. V.; Krasheninnikov, S. P.; Mironov, N. L.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The formation conditions of the parental magmas of Gorely volcano, which is located behind a volcanic front in Southern Kamchatka, have been evaluated using the modern methods of micro-element thermobarometry. These magmas contained 1.7 ± 0.8 (2σ) wt % of H2O, the majority (82%) of which has been lost from inclusions. They crystallized at 1121 ± 17°C and an oxygen fugacity of ΔQFM 1.2 ± 0.2, and could have been produced by about 11% melting of an enriched MORB source (E-DMM) at a temperature of about 1270°C, and a pressure of about 1.5 GPa. A distinctive feature of Gorely volcano, compared with frontal volcanoes of Kamchatka, is the unusually high temperature (925 ± 20°C) of formation of the subduction component corresponding to the region of existence of water-bearing melts.

  5. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  6. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  7. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2014-10-23

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40″N, 160°7'41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes.

  9. Russia and the World: 2015. IMEMO Forecast1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Dynkin; V Baranovsky; I Kobrinskaya; G Machavariani; S Afontsev; Y Mirkin; A Kuznetsov; F Voytolovsky; V Shvydko; S Utkin; V Mikheev; S Lukonin; Y Kvashnin; B Frumkin; N Toganova; V Zhuravleva

    2014-01-01

    ... (the world's third largest, inferior only to those of the United States and Russia) is non-transparent. [...]the deep inter-dependence of the global economic system is the safety catch that makes Russia and the West...

  10. Features of Russia migration policy in the 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Sergej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of Russia migration policy after the Soviet Union collapse. The analysis of the dynamics of the accommodation of refugees and internally displaced people on the territory of Russia is made.

  11. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  12. What’s Next for Russia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the United States proceeds with its missile defense plan in Eastern Europe, Russia is left with few options In May 2007, the United States launched a plan to deploy an anti-missile system in Eastern Europe, including 10 inter- ceptor missiles in Poland and a radar station in the Czech Republic. Although the system allegedly is being built to counter the threat of a ballistic missile-equipped Iran, the plan has met with vehement opposition from Russia, which insists that the system is directed against it.

  13. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M. [Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  14. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  15. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  16. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roslycky, Lada L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the Russia

  17. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  18. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ] ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia... antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...

  19. Oligarchs, megafarms and land reserves: understanding land grabbing in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to unravel the political economy of large-scale land acquisitions in post-Soviet Russia. Russia falls neither in the normal category of ‘investor’ countries, nor in the category of ‘target’ countries. Russia has large ‘land reserves’, since in the 1990s much fertile land

  20. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and...

  1. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA- 340-E and 340-H...

  2. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  3. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  4. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  5. Focus on Russia. Democratie a la Russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-15

    Russian president Vladimir Putin managed to consolidate his power in parliamentary elections in December 2007. Most likely Putin will also keep a tight control over the country's energy resources. A brief overview is given of the consequences of the Russian energy policy for the energy sector in Russia and abroad.

  6. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  7. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  8. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.

    2016-01-01

    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic speakin

  9. Russia and the Future Expansion of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    warned it could deploy its missiles in Kaliningrad to target intended missile defense sites.26 Recently, NATO expressed that it “will actively seek...lng=en&id=38752 (accessed January 21, 2011). 26 Vladimir Socor, “Russia Warns of Forward Missile Deployment in Kaliningrad Region,” Eurasia Daily

  10. Poisonings by Cardiovascular Drugs in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Brusin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most common drugs causing hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias were clonidine, CCBs, drotaverine and the veterinary drug “veratrine”. Drotaverine, clonidine and CCBs were the most common drugs causing death. Poisonings with these agents are rare in other countries. Measures to reduce the availability of drotaverine and veratrine should be taken in Russia.

  11. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  12. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  13. Kamchatka and North Kurile Volcano Explosive Eruptions in 2015 and Danger to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Melnikov, Dmitry; Manevich, Alexander; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    There are 36 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and North Kurile, and several of them are continuously active. In 2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) and two volcanoes of North Kurile (Alaid and Chikurachki) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Bezymianny, Kizimen, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes are the most dangerous for aircraft because they can produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere and the stratosphere till several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2015: on 07, 12, and 15 January, 01, 17, and 28 February, 04, 08, 16, 21-22, and 26 March, 07 and 12 April: ash plumes rose up to 7-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the different directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Ust'-Kamchatsk on 16 March, and Klyuchi on 30 October. Strong and moderate hot avalanches from the lava dome were observing more often in the second half of the year. Aviation color code of Sheveluch was Orange during the year. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Explosive-effusive eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano lasted from 01 January till 24 March. Strombolian explosive volcanic activity began from 01 January, and on 08-09 January a lava flow was detected at the Apakhonchich chute on the southeastern flank of the volcano. Vulcanian activity of the volcano began from 10 January. Ashfalls

  14. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  15. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  16. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  17. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantueva, Radzhana

    2017-04-14

    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  18. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  19. CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: THE PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. LITVYAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  20. Specifics of Cluster Policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zemtsov S.P; Pavlov P.N; Sorokina A.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of management quality survey in Russian clusters that reveals specifics of cluster support policy in Russia. We compare 22 Russian clusters, supported by the Government, using series of indicators measuring cooperation intensity of cluster participants and activity of cluster management teams. We introduce a description of the typical Russian innovative territorial cluster, based on the average values of the indicators. Our analysis revealed that international...

  1. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and Armenia. For reference, USA was 6th 59 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco -Russian Rapprochement and the Future of...policy started by Turkey, which allows Russians in for 30 days, VISA-free. 60 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco ...Shevtsova, L. “Imitation Russia,” Nov/Dec 2006, American Interest, pp. 67-77 78. Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco

  2. Land Change in Russia since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

  3. Development of Russia economy under Putin governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pernikář, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my Bachelor thesis is to describe the development of Russia economy under governance of president Vladimir Putin. Analyze the causes of recent economic development and indentify potential problems. First chapter describes the development after collapse of the Soviet union till Putin appointment. In second chapter GDP, unemployment and inflation is shown. Third chapter is oriented on foreign trade. Balance of payment, FDI and exchange rate are describes in fourth chapter. Fifth cha...

  4. Environmental management tools: international practicies for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanina, T.; Pintassilgo, P.; Matias, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the basic tools of environmental management applied by developed countries and discusses its application to Russia. The focus is on environmental management instruments such as environmental taxes, subsidies, standards, permits and also on the important role of voluntary tools. Russian practice is analyzed in terms of the current environmental management situation and the prospects of necessary legislative actions. The article refers to the formation of the basic parts...

  5. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  6. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, M.; I. Semenchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  7. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brousser, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  8. Foreword: French Language Acquisition in Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Offord

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The foreword to Vivliofika’s cluster of articles on French language acquisition in Imperial Russia mentions the scholarly project and conference out of which the cluster arises, briefly describes the UK-based project, states the importance of study of education in it, summarises a few of the main educational questions that are germane in this connection and, finally, simply introduces the contents of the cluster.

  9. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  10. Fiscal Federalism in Russia: A Canadian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some of the key instrumental components of intergovernmental fiscal relations that arise in the Russian Federation -- expenditures, revenues, transfers, borrowing, and institutional arrangements -- in comparison both to Canada’s lengthy experience with federalism and to a framework developed on the basis of previous work on fiscal federalism in a variety of transitional and developing countries. Unsurprisingly, from either of these perspectives fiscal federalism in Russia...

  11. The Nature of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-01-01

    Winston Churchill once said of Russia that it was a riddle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma. Were the British Bulldog a physicist, he might have been talking of something other than our Slavic comrades. He might have been talking about an electron. This article covers the more modern representations of the electron. A brief reminder of the…

  12. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Studying Summer Season Drought in Western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010 summer, a severe drought impacted Western Russia, including regions surrounding Moscow and Belgorod (about 700 km south of Moscow. The drought was accompanied by high temperatures. Moscow recorded 37.8°C (100°F for the first time in over 130 years of record keeping. The record heat, high humidity, dry weather, and smoke from forest fires caused increased human mortality rates in the Moscow region during the summer. The excessive heat and humidity in Western Russia were the result of atmospheric blocking from June through mid-August. The NCAR-NCEP reanalyses were used to examine blocking in the Eastern European and Western Russia sector during the spring and summer seasons from 1970 to 2012. We found that drier years were correlated with stronger and more persistent blocking during the spring and summer seasons. During these years, the Moscow region was drier in the summer and Belgorod during the spring seasons. In the Moscow region, the drier summers were correlated with transitions from El Niño to La Niña, but the opposite was true in the Belgorod region. Synoptic flow regimes were then analyzed and support the contention that dry years are associated with more blocking and El Niño transitions.

  14. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  15. Composition, volatile components, and trace elements in andesitic melts of the Kurile-Kamchatka region%俄罗斯Kurile-Kamchatka地区安山质熔体的成分、挥发分组成和微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L.Tolstykh; V.B.Naumov; A.D.Babansky

    2007-01-01

    Melt inclusions in minerals from some volcanoes of the Kurile-Kamchatka region were examined. The studied basaltic andesites and andesites were sampled from volcanoes of the Central Kamchatka depression ( Shiveluch and Bezymyannyi), Eastern Kamchatka volcanic belt (Avachinskii and Karymskii), and Iturup Island, Southern Kuriles (Kudryavyi). Basalts of the 1996 eruption of the Karymskii volcanic center and dacites of Dikii Greben' volcano, Southern Kamchatka were also studied. More than 260 melt inclusions from 31 rock samples were homogenized, and quenched glasses were analyzed using electron and ion microprobes. The compositions of melt inclusions in andesitic phenocrysts vary in silica contents from 56 to 80wt%. Al2O3 , FeO, MgO, CaO decrease and Na2O and K2O increase with increasing SiO2. Many inclusions ( about 80% ) are dacitic or rhyolitic. However, the compositions of silicic glasses ( >65wt% SiO2 ) in andesites significantly differ in TiO2 , FeO, MgO, CaO, and K2O contents from those in dacites and rhyolites. High-potassium melts (K2O 3.8 ~6.8wt% ) with various SiO2 from 51.4 to 77.2wt% were found in minerals of all volcanoes studied. This indicates a contribution of a component selectively enriched in potassium to magmas of the whole region. A great compositional diversity of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Bezymyannyi andesites suggests a complex history of plagioclase crystallization and magma evolution in the andesite formation. Melts from different volcanoes strongly vary in volatile contents. The highest H2O contents are found in the melts from Shiveluch (3.0 ~7.2wt%, 4.7wt% on average) and Avachinskii (4.7 ~4.8wt% ); while those are lower in melts of Kudryavyi (0.1 ~ 2.6wt% ), Dikii Greben' (0.4 ~ 1.8wt% ), and Bezymyannyi ( < 1wt% ). Chlorine contents are also variable. The lowest values are found in the Bezymyannyi melts (0.09wt% on average), the highest Cl contents are typical of melt inclusions in minerals from

  16. Accumulation reconstruction and water isotope analysis for 1736-1997 of an ice core from the Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka, and their relationships to North Pacific climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Shiraiwa, T.; Greve, R.; Seddik, H.; Edelmann, E.; Zwinger, T.

    2014-02-01

    An ice core was retrieved in June 1998 from the Gorshkov crater glacier at the top of the Ushkovsky volcano, in central Kamchatka. This ice core is one of only two recovered from Kamchatka so far, thus filling a gap in the regional instrumental climate network. Hydrogen isotope (δD) analyses and past accumulation reconstructions were conducted for the top 140.7 m of the core, spanning 1736-1997. Two accumulation reconstruction methods were developed and applied with the Salamatin and the Elmer/Ice firn-ice dynamics models, revealing a slightly increasing or nearly stable trend, respectively. Wavelet analysis shows that the ice core records have significant decadal and multi-decadal variabilities at different times. Around 1880 the multi-decadal variability of δD became lost and its average value increased by 6‰. The multi-decadal variability of reconstructed accumulation rates changed at around 1850. Reconstructed accumulation variations agree with ages of moraines in Kamchatka. Ice core signals were significantly correlated with North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and surface temperature (2 m temperature). δD correlates with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index after the climate regime shift in 1976/1977, but not before that. Therefore, our findings imply that the ice core record contains various information on the local, regional and large-scale climate variability in the North Pacific region. Understanding all detailed mechanisms behind the time-dependent connections between these climate patterns is challenging and requires further efforts towards multi-proxy analysis and climate modelling.

  17. Velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle at the northern group of Kamchatka volcanoes (Based on the travel time of P-waves from volcanic earthquakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavina, L. B.; Pivovarova, N. B.; Senyukov, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The results of a calculation of the P-wave ( V P ) velocity fields are presented on the basis of the method of the reversible wave and the TAU parameter characterizing the V P / V S ratio of seismic waves from the local volcanic earthquakes that occurred at the northern group of Kamchatka volcanoes in 2005-2007. The 3D velocity cross sections were constructed along the SW-NE-trending volcanic group from the Ploskii Tolbachik volcano in the southwest up to the Shiveluch volcano in the northeast. The change of velocity field in time and depth is found. The problems of relating these changes to volcanic activity is reviewed.

  18. Where Has All the Foreign Investment Gone in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Broadman, Harry G.; Recanatini, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    Since its transition to a market economy began, Russia has not attracted much foreign direct investment (FDI). Inflows of FDI into Russia are much lower than those into other transition countries in the region, adjusted for population size and similar measures. Clearly, if Russia is to grow it must increase the level of FDI inflows, which is why a good deal of policy attention has focused ...

  19. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare (1Rev)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    threat and an opportunity in this regard.  Russian military theorists generally do not use the terms cyber or cyberwarfare. Instead, they...Ukraine, Russia appeared to employ cyber as a conventional force enabler.  The Georgia and Ukraine conflicts also provided opportunities for Russia...Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del: MVD) focuses on cyber crime.14 For a brief period in the 1990s, Russia had a separate information security agency, the Federal

  20. CRFA President Chen Yuan Leads Delegation to Visit Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The year 2014 marked the 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Russia as well as establishment of the China-Russia Friendship Association(C R FA).The success ful meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President VladimirPutin in May of the year elevated the China-Russia comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership to a

  1. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES OF BUSINESS INCUBATION: THE USA, GERMANY AND RUSSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva

    2017-01-01

    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  2. FACTORS DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN FDI INFLOWS INTO AZERBAIJAN''S AND RUSSIA''S OIL SECTORS AFTER INDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Eyyubov, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the FDI inflows into Azerbaijan's and Russia's oil sectors between 1991 and 2006. It identifies the main reasons for Azerbaijan's advantage over Russia. The author first gives a brief explanation of FDI in general, then identifies the different patterns of FDI inflow into the oil sectors of both Azerbaijan and Russia, and concludes his article by pointing out the main determinants of the differences in FDI inflow into the oil sectors of these two countries.

  3. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  4. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  5. Galvanic manufacturing in the cities of Russia: potential source of ambient nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill S Golokhvast

    Full Text Available Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me, depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM. To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10-120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings.

  6. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  7. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  8. Russia's Social Transformation: Contradictions and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the political elites of Russia described for the general public a bright future based on Western values: transition from highly centralized planning economic system to market economy via shock therapy, development from highly centralized political system to "democratic system" by implementing "separation of powers," development from underdevelopment of social functions to "civil society" by fostering the middle-class in order to achieve economic prosperity, political democracy, social justice and building a strong and powerful nation in the shortest possible time.

  9. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents new calendar of immunoprophylaxis in Russia, functioning since 2008, with author’s comments to its innovations. Mass vaccination against influenza was added to other ones, presenting in calendar earlier. The age limits of vaccination against hepatitis B, rubella, and measles were enlarged, and scheme of vaccination against hepatitis B was changed. This article describes new opportunities of immunoprophylaxis, that didn’t find its place in calendar yet.Key words: children, immunoprophylaxis, vaccination calendar.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:114-120

  10. Institutional design of food quality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoguzov Eugene, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the comprehensive analysis of reforms consequences in the field of technical regulation of food quality in Russia. In the research the institutional approach is applied to discover reasons of this problem. Institutional changes have brought to the loss of food determinacy on the Russian food markets. Authors propose a way to solutions this problem mentioned by the institutional design of food quality. The institutional design based on the idea of conventional norms (social standards, the development of which is possible due to reconciling the interests of social groups.

  11. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  12. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  13. Climatic Seesaws Across The North Pacific As Revealed By High-Mountain Ice Cores Drilled At Kamchatka And Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Kanamori, S.; Matoba, S.; Benson, C. S.; Muravyev, Y. D.; Salamatin, A. N.

    2004-12-01

    We drilled ca. 210-m deep ice cores at Mt. Ushkovsky (Kamchatka: 1998), King Col of Mt. Logan (2002) and Mt. Wrangell (2004). Thanks to the high accumulation rates up to 2 m per year in these mountains, the ice cores are expected to unveil the climate and atmospheric changes in the northern North Pacific during the last several centuries. The reconstructed annual accumulation rates time-series of Mt. Ushkovsky showed, for example, decadal to interdecadal oscillations which were closely correlated to the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Comparison between the reconstructed accumulation rates between the Ushkovsky and our two ice cores from Wrangell-St. Elias mountains suggests that the PDO played an important role in determining the precipitation at both side of the northern North Pacific: positive PDO supplied high precipitation in the Pacific North America and the negative PDO did high in Kamchatka during the last two centuries. Beside the significance of the climate proxy signals, the physical properties of the ice cores and the related glaciological features at the three mountains provided unique feature of glaciers developing on high mountains with complicated topographies and high accumulation rates. It was shown that careful treatment of dynamic behavior in these high mountain glaciers are indispensable for the precise reconstruction of past accumulation time-series.

  14. Radioactive contamination of the soil-plant cover at certain locations of Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula: Assessment of the Fukushima fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovskaya, L N; Molchanova, I V; Pozolotina, V N; Zhuravlev, Yu N; Timofeeva, Ya O; Burdukovsky, M L

    2017-06-01

    The contamination densities of soil-plant cover at certain locations within the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula attributable to (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu were 500-1390 Bq m(-2), 980-2300 Bq m(-2) and 37-74 Bq m(-2), respectively. These values do not exceed average global background levels, typical for mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial distribution of radionuclides depends on the climatic conditions of the region. A positive dependence of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination densities, as well as additional (137)Cs from NPP "Fukushima" in the soil, was determined based on the sum of annual atmospheric precipitation within the study areas. No trends in the spatial distribution of Pu isotopes were observed. The (137)Cs contribution from the "Fukushima" NPP constitutes 11-300 Bq m(-2) in the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and at the Kamchatka peninsula, i.e., 1-22% of the total amount of radionuclides in the soil. The contribution of this radionuclide to the contamination of moss-lichen vegetation ranged from 7 to 42%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. Нalitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  16. [Karyological differences of the Northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma malma and the white char Salvelinus albus from the Kamchatka River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S V

    2001-03-01

    The karyotypes of northern Dolly Varden and white char, sympathrically inhabiting the Kamchatka River basin, were studied. The karyotype of Dolly Varden was stable: 2n = 78 and NF = 98 + 2, while in white char, polymorphism and mosaicism for the chromosome number were revealed: 2n = 76-79, NF = 98 + 2. Using a routine chromosome staining technique, the karyotype of white char (2n = 78) was shown to be identical to that of Dolly Varden. In both karyotypes, similar sets of marker chromosomes were present: two pairs of submetacentric (SM), one pair of submeta-subtelocentric (SM-ST), one pair of large acrocentric (A), and one pair of large sub-telocentric (ST) chromosomes. However, the karyotypes of Dolly Varden and white char differed in the number and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). In Dolly Varden, single NORs located in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes were observed. In white char, NORs were multiple and located both in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes and on the short and long arms of large ST chromosomes. The identical marker chromosomes indicate considerable phylogenetic relatedness between Dolly Varden and white char from the Kamchatka River basin. Variation in NORs provides evidence for the reproductive isolation of these chars and their species status.

  17. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  18. The results of Implementation of the Youth Policy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibanov Ardalyon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic work with the youth in Russia should focus on trying to make the new generation successful, healthy, professionally oriented, happy, educated and appreciating the history of their country. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative composition of young people in Russia can make some conclusions about the results of the ongoing concept of work with young people

  19. Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Iu. M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

  20. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  1. Russia Today : Ruslands internationale spreekbuis voor 'soft power'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    The tense current relations between Russia, Ukraine and the West are characterised by a true media war. This media war is fought in the old as well as in the new media, for example on television. One of the players in this game is the Russian English language television station Russia Today (since 2

  2. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different

  3. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  4. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different pos

  5. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roslycky, Lada L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the

  6. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  7. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  8. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  9. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  10. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  11. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  12. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  13. Initial Teacher Education in Russia: Connecting Theory, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Gafurov, Ilshat R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores initial teacher education (ITE) in Russia, its organisation and content in the light of international literature. Changes in the political, socio-economic and cultural life of Russia in recent decades have defined a completely different model of teacher education. This model has evolved through key policy documents including…

  14. Russia Update - Lower oil price will take its toll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lorié

    2015-01-01

    Russia managed to avoid a recession in 2014 as economic owes have mounted. Already feeble investments were further eroded by the US/EU sanctions. But it is the oil price decline from USD 110 to below USD 50 that is pushing Russia into a serious recession in 2015.

  15. China's Auto Exports:Gloomy Performance in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years,Russia has increasingly become a hot new destination for the fast-growing Chinese auto export.Relating data shows that,from 2006 to 2008,Russia has consecutively remained China's biggest auto export country in terms of export value.

  16. China-Russia Oil Pipeline Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited oil pipeline linking Russia's far east to China's northeast is set to start operation by the end of 2010, Zhou Jiping, Vice President of ChinaNational Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) confirmed in Beijing at a conference in late April. The pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Russia to China's northeastern city of Daqing.

  17. Beijing Elderly People’ s Art Troupe Performs in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Beijing Elderly People’s Art Troupe sent by the CPAFFC, made a performance tour of Russia from September 22 to 30, 2007. The performance tour was part of the activities held in celebration of the 58th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia within the framework of the China Year in

  18. Sino-Russia Trade,Bearing Confidence in Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Kejia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Sino-Russia Trade is invariably regarded as the focus of Harbin China Harbin International Economic and Trade Fair(HFT),and it is no exception for the 20th session.Especially great attention is paid to the impact that the economic crisis brought to Sino-Russia trade and the deals during the HFT.

  19. The Role of Offshore Jurisdictions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the interaction between offshore jurisdictions and Russia, with particular emphasis on the role played by the British Virgin Islands in structuring offshore transactions. This paper will look at popular narratives about offshore jurisdictions, including traditional arguments about round-tripping and corruption, before examining the legal rationale for the use of offshore structures in Russia. It will be argued that the use of offshore jurisdictions arose as a response to deficiencies in the Russian legal system, particularly in terms of Russian law as it relates to property rights, and the related problem of enforcing such rights. In contrast to these perceived deficiencies in the Russian legal framework, offshore jurisdictions provided a stable and modern legal environment, the use of which allowed Russian investors to gain access to Western common law principles of corporate governance, property rights and shareholder rights.

  20. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatitis Mortality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E Razvodovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatitis is a major public health problem with high associated economic costs. The incidence of pancreatitis has increased in many European countries in recent decade. Accumulated research and empirical evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the aggregate-level relation between the alcohol consumption and pancreatitis mortality rates in Russia. Method Age-standardized sex-specific male and female pancreatitis mortality data for the period 1970-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average time series analysis. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with both male and female pancreatitis mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in overall alcohol consumption would result in a 7.0% increase in the male pancreatitis mortality rate and in 2.3% increase in the female mortality rate. The results of the analysis suggest that 63.1% of all male pancreatitis deaths and 26.8% female deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. Conclusions The outcomes of this study provide indirect support for the hypothesisthat unfavorable mixture of higher overall level of alcohol consumption and binge drinking pattern is an important contributor to the pancreatitis mortality rate in Russian Federation.

  2. Russia and the European Union: Wasteful Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofei Bordachev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ince the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s potential to contribute politically and economically to the stability of the Russia–European Union Shared Neighbourhood has been systematically undervalued. The regional integration initiated by the governments of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia has created a new institutional and ideological reality. However, the increased risk of political and economic competition with the European Union threatens to split the region into separate competing blocs, potentially limiting further regional development. One of the negative factors is the long-term decline of the institutional tools that the EU can apply to sustain its presence in the region. As a consequence of previously used unilateral mechanisms, current European regional policy is ineffective. Because no prospects of membership can be offered to the countries in the Shared Neighbourhood, regulatory convergence with the EU depends increasingly on individual political regimes. This principle prevents a multilateral regional framework from emerging. The process is aggravated further by the increased role of irrational factors in EU regional policy, as opposed to security interests, since the mid 2000s. However, since the beginning of Eurasian integration, the Shared Neighbourhood has entered a new phase of political and economic development, where irrational competition can only jeopardize the strategic goals of Russia and the EU. In the long term, both actors are interested in creating a coherent regional subsystem, based on multilateral formats of regional cooperation.

  3. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small business remains relatively low, due to mistrust of banks and credit organizations in the sphere of small business. Nevertheless, it is here, according to statistics, the debt on loans is only 1.5% of the total. The article describes the features of small business lending, it analyzes the dynamics of the volume of loans granted, and the amount of debt, identifies main obstacles to obtaining loans to entrepreneurs, gives the analysis of credit conditions of small business in Russia and Germany. The problem of credit was considered from two perspectives: from the perspective of credit institutions and the banks themselves. We have developed measures to improve credit conditions, which must take into account not only credit institutions but also the state. It is necessary to provide tax incentives, encouraging the establishment and development of insurance business associations, to support the creation of specialized banks lending to small businesses, the development of cooperation of small and large banks to increase bank lending and reduce credit risks

  5. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  6. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  7. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  8. First data on magma ascent and residence times retrieved from Fe-Mg and trace element zonation in olivine phenocrysts from Kamchatka basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeychik, Boris; Churikova, Tatiana; Kronz, Andreas; Simakin, Alexander; Wörner, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Compositional zonation in olivine phenocrysts and diffusion modelling have been used in the last ten years to estimate magma residence times and the duration of magma ascent. The fundamental assumption is that mixing with newly injected magma into a reservoir triggers diffusional exchange between mafic olivine crystals and more evolved magma and that this magma mixing eventually triggers eruption. If depth of mixing is known, this translates to ascent rates of magmas to the surface. We applied this approach to a series of different arc basalt lavas from Kamchatka to constrain the rates of magma ascent and magma resident in what is one of the most active subduction zones in the world that is also dominated by an abundance of unusually mafic magmas. Our sample collection cover the principal modes of arc magmatism in Kamchatka: from different volcanic complexes (stratovolcano, dikes, summit eruptions, monogenetic cones), of different age (from Late-Pleistocene to Holocene and recent eruptions), from different magmatic regimes (long-lived volcanoes vs. monogenetic eruptions) and different major element composition (from basalt to basaltic andesite of different geochemical character including LILE enrichments). We analyzed and modelled zonation profiles for a range of elements with different diffusivities (e.g. Mg-Fe, Ca, Ni, Mn, Cr) to assess the role of variable diffusivities as a function of major and trace elements in the olivines from different P-T conditions. First data were obtained on samples from the Klyuchevskoy, Shiveluch and Tolbachik, including recent most eruption in 2012/2013. These data show that for some samples the zonation patterns are much more complex than is usually observed: high-Mg olivines at different volcanoes have very different zonation patterns, including normally, reversely zoned grains or even show highly complex repetitive zonation that indicate large compositional changes in the surrounding magma at very short time scales (years). Thus

  9. Freezing precipitation in Russia and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zavyalova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for freezing precipitation (FP, including freezing rain (FR and freezing drizzle (FZ for 8 airports in Russia and 4 in the Ukraine are studied on the basis of 10 to 20-year series of surface observations, radiosonde and objective analysis data. Statistical characteristics are presented of the FP episode durations and of occurrence frequency dependences on surface air temperature, wind direction and speed and cloud base height. From the radiosonde data, it is found that the "classical mechanism" of FP generation (for which, stratification of "warm nose" type in the cloud layer is necessary is not frequent: most of FP cases are associated with "all cold" conditions in the lower 3-km layer, that is, with negative temperatures in and below the clouds.

  10. The development of Social Pedagogy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Romm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The way social pedagogy is developing nowadays has been paved by a centuries-old tradition of social and pedagogical work, historical experience of the theoretical research on the prob- lems of interactions between the man and the environment, and experience of successful problem solution of proper socialization in educational organizations at different stages of social pedagogy (pre- soviet, soviet and modern periods. Modern state of social pedagogy is related to the issues of deter- mining the status of social pedagogy, finding the main methodology parameters, as well as the research-specific issues. This paper  also presents the characteristics of the main concepts of social pedagogy in Russia and the peculiarities of professional work done by social pedagogues.

  11. Period Fertility in Russia since 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a detailed demographic analysis of the change of period fertility that occurred since 1930, based on individual retrospective data, collected in the most recent (five percent microcensus of the Russian Federation from 1994. We assess the influence of external events on the level and distribution of (period fertility. For the years prior to 1950 our information on age specific fertility is not complete, but using fertility models acceptable estimates can be constructed. The Coale-Trussell model is particularly suited for producing detailed and robust estimates of interpretable parameters of the fertility distribution. Although none of the observed crises in Russia succeeded in exerting a decisive influence on the course of the fertility transition, political events often had profound short-term effects.

  12. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  13. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  14. Recognition of higher medical institutions in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severyanova, L; Lazarev, A

    2005-08-01

    The Russian Federation of higher medical institutions get State accreditation, if their activity conforms to criteria determined by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. Kursk State Medical University (KSMU) has a confirmed to requirement of accreditation by the Russian Federation, to conduct annually training of about 5000 students at 12 faculties. KSMU carries out pre-medical undergraduate and postgraduate training in the specialty "Doctor of medicine". For the first time in Russia KSMU was allowed to conduct a 6-year medical training with the use of English as an intermediary language by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Education. In this relation programmes of training teachers for conducting instruction with the use of an intermediary language (English) and training students Russian with the level necessary for free communication with Russian patients and staff of the clinics have been developed and realized.

  15. HIV epidemic in Russia and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Pokrovskiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV/AIDS cases attributed to sexual transmission from foreigners were published in the USSR in the mid of 80s. In the initial decade of the epidemic, the subtype B was found in men who have sex with men (MSM population and several non-B subtypes were identified in heterosexual persons. The first case of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDU was reported in 1993 and since then a specific subtype A and its recombinants invaded the intravenous drug users (IVDU populations of the region with the highest rate in Estonia, Russia and Ukraine. The concentrated HIV epidemic in IVDUs is still the main problem in the Eastern Europe; however, the rate of heterosexual transmission is increasing and many evidences of HIV prevalence rise in MSM are published. UNAIDS estimations for the number of HIV-positive persons living in the region range from 980,000 to 1,300,000 but distribution of HIV-cases is uneven and the prevalence rate of HIV infection in separate regions is over 1%. Mass seasonal labour migration from Central Asia and Caucasian republics to Russia transmits HIV to these countries. Prevention programs in the region are limited, and ART coverage is not more than 20% of the total HIV-positive population. The lack of concern about the epidemic, absence of effective national strategies and limited allocated resources are the main barriers to prevention and care in many countries. Local conflicts, rising religiosity and discrimination are adverse factors. The near-term forecast for the epidemic in the region is pessimistic and further international advocacy is needed to improve the situation.

  16. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  17. Speech by V. V. Tereshkova, President of Russia International Cooperation Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Rus-sia International Centre for Scientific and Cultural Coop-eration under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia,the Russia International Co-operation Association and the Russia-China Friendship Asso-

  18. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.

  19. Russia's energy sector between politics and business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orttung, Robert; Perovic, Jeronim; Pleines, Heiko; Schroeder, Hans-Henning (eds.)

    2008-02-15

    East-West relations are deteriorating to a level not seen since the Soviet period. Recent cover stories on Russia from The Economist (December 16, 2006) and Der Spiegel (March 5, 2007) present President Vladimir Putin as a gangster with a gasoline pump and a Soviet Commissar wielding Gazprom's massive pipeline network. These images illustrate a growing fear in the West that Russia is a threat. Russia, according to this point of view, is using energy as a weapon to rebuild its empire. This article examines to what extent Europe, which is heavily dependent on Russian oil and natural gas supplies, should worry. (orig.)

  20. China and Russia Jointly Celebrate The Joyful Occasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Galina; Kulikova

    2014-01-01

    <正>The year 2014 is memorable for both China’s history and RussiaChina relations.It is the 65th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China(PRC),the 65th anniversary of the establishment of China-Russia diplomatic relations,the 65th anniversary of the founding of the China-Russia Friendship Association(CRFA)and the60th anniversary of the establishment of the leading organization of nongovernmental diplomacy—the Chinese

  1. Late Cretaceous paleomagnetism of the East Ranges island arc complex, Kamchatka: Implications for terrane movements and kinematics of the northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Shapiro, Mikhail N.

    1997-11-01

    A Campanian-lower Paleocene island arc complex was sampled for paleomagnetic studies at 12 sites in the East Ranges tectonic zone of Kamchatka. After thermal demagnetization, a reversed polarity characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was isolated from most volcanoclastic and basaltic units as well as from lava debris from intraformational conglomerates. The fold and conglomerate tests are positive, and the ChRM in the studied rocks is likely primary. The formation-mean inclination of 66.3°±3.7° corresponds to a paleolatitude of 48.7°±5.0°N which is about 20° lower than the Late Cretaceous North American reference values. Because northward displacement of the studied terrane is indicated by the paleomagnetic data, we examine several models of intraoceanic transport with the Pacific and/or Kula plates and coastwise transport after terrane accretion, far to the south of the present-day position of Kamchatka. Our preferred interpretation is that the studied island arc complex accumulated at about 83-79 Ma; the island arc, to which the studied terrane had originally belonged, was active between this time and 65-60 Ma. According to geological data, the docking time nearly coincided with cessation of volcanic activity, and northward movement of the island arc took place simultaneously with the volcanic activity. The absolute motion of a subduction zone should have the same direction as the overriding plate; therefore, the subduction zone related to the East Ranges island arc is inferred to have moved northward with the Kula plate or with the Kula and Pacific plates, successively, consuming either the oceanic periphery of a continental plate or some unknown minor oceanic plate. This process went on until 65-55 Ma when the island arc and related subduction zone approached the continental margin and became extinct. The proposed models also place additional constraints on kinematics of the Kula-Pacific transform plate boundary.

  2. New deep-sea large free-living nematodes from macrobenthos in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (the North-Western Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The composition of deep-sea nematode assemblages of the North-Western (NW) Pacific is poorly-studied. According to the available literature data more than 700 valid species of nematodes were reported from the depth of 400 m and deeper, out of that only 6 species were registered in the NW Pacific: 2 species from the coast of the Japanese Islands and 4 from the Sea of Japan. Ecological studies of the deep-sea nematode communities of this region are scanty and represent very scarce and fragmentary information. The first recent study of free-living nematodes collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench has revealed more than 50 species of nematodes in macrobenthic samples. Families Anticomidae, Comesomatidae, Desmodoridae, Leptosomatidae, Oncholaimidae, Oxystominidae, Phanodermatidae, Siphonolaimidae and Thoracostomopsidae were the most abundant and diverse. Such taxonomic composition differs greatly from previously described meiobenthical nematode communities of NW Pacific and even World Ocean and similar to macrofaunal nematode assemblages of the Atlantic and Arctic regions. Several genera of nematodes can be considered as new records for the NW Pacific region. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov., Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov., and Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. are described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule underlying amphids, relatively small amphids, and the shape of the gubernaculum. Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule, relatively large amphids, and the absence of pigmented eye spots. Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. is similar to the type species in many measurements but may be differentiated from that by the smaller amphid, shape of spicules and gubernaculums and by large precloacal papillae with four setae.

  3. The role of financial groups in Russia's banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role of financial groups in financial crises, and then applies the lessons learnt to Russia though a detailed analysis of the ruble collapse, the GKO default and the banking crisis.

  4. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  5. Oil Policy in Russia Toward Selected New Independent States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, John

    1996-01-01

    ..., is the main focus of this thesis. Free market world oil majors and their counterparts, both in Russia and the New Independent States, have developed a number of significant alliances that have resulted in several potentially lucrative joint ventures...

  6. History of auditing in Russia. Periodization and challenges of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii N. GUZOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recent history of auditing in Russia from 1987 to the present time. This kind of research, such as any inquiry into history, calls for a well-grounded periodization. For the purposes of this study, factors were determined which influence the regulatory and methodological support of auditing; in accordance with the results of the analysis of their time intersections – the logical addition – qualitative leaps in the development of auditing in Russia were identified, which are represented as stages of its evolution. Through the application of this method, four stages in the recent history of auditing in Russia were identified: pre-history (the birth of the Russian auditing, the “wild” auditing; establishment of auditing in Russia; government regulation and licensing; self-regulation of audit activity.

  7. Can the W.T.O.Change Russia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominic Fean

    2011-01-01

    @@ If Vladimir Putin returns as planned to the presidency in 2012, he will once again face the challenge of modernizing the Russian economy.This is something both he and his seat-warmer, Dmitri Medvedev, have failed to achieve during three consecutive presidential terms.A meeting of the working group on Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization is expected to end 18 years of negotiations by finalizing terms of membership for Russia, the largest economy outside of the trade body.Even Georgia, which fought a war with Russia in 2008, is now onboard.Once the few remaining issues are overcome, Russia should become a member during a ministerial meeting on December 15.

  8. Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.

    2005-06-01

    Two recent trends have rekindled the debate concerning the place and strategy of Russia on the world oil scene. The first is the development of its oil production and the second is the gradual resumption of control of the country's oil policy by President Vladimir Putin's government. Will Russia be a key variable in world energy balances and could the nation, as some suggest and even desire, become an alternative supply to OPEC and/or challenge Saudi Arabia's position? If so, is that what Russia actually wants? In this study, we attempt to answer some of these important questions by assessing and comparing the capabilities of the producing countries, while studying Russia's aims and objectives for the petroleum sector in the future, when demand for energy supplies is forecast to rise considerably. (author)

  9. Hierarchy in Moldova-Russia Relations: the Transnistrian Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crandall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect of the Transnistrian area on Moldova-Russia relations. David Lake’s concept of hierarchy will be used as the theoretical framework. The article examines why Russia’s mechanisms of infl uence should be seen as a reflection of a hierarchical relationship between Russia and Moldova. The article begins by explaining why this work has chosen a hierarchical framework and a brief introduction of Transnistria. This is followed by two sections of analysis: security and economy.These two sections will also contain subsections on events that highlight the hierarchical nature of the Moldova-Russia relationship. This article shows that Russia clearly has a hierarchical relationship with Moldova. David Lake’s theory proves to be a useful tool in understanding Moldovan-Russian relations.

  10. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. Laktionova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  11. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhov, A. I., E-mail: a.i.terekhov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing 'centers of excellence.' It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  12. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, A. I.

    2012-11-01

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing "centers of excellence." It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  13. Koptev announces space plans for Russia in 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Pieson, D

    2003-01-01

    According to the head of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Yuri Koptev, the major emphasis of Russia's space program in 2003 will be supporting the nation's telecommunication satellite program (1/2 page).

  14. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  15. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...

  16. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  17. Russia and the Current State of Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    deterrence even in the distant future. Russia would have to maintain its nuclear triad .50 Speaking to a meeting of the Social Science sec- tion of the...the prototype stage in 2012.53 Russia is in the process of rearming its triad with more advanced systems— 39 achieving great progress in surface-to...unpleasant surprise to Moscow because the EPAA ra- dar component would reduce the possibility of coop- eration in the sharing of radar and sensor data

  18. Main stages of development of photodynamic therapy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Stranadko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of development and establishment of photodynamic therapy (PDT in Russia are described in the article. Brief description of photosensitizers approved for clinical use in Russia including fotogem, photosens, alasens, radachlorine and fotoditazin is represented. Their physical and chemical and spectral characteristics, drug formulations, results of pre-clinical studies and post-marketing experience are shown. Main research centers dealing with PDT are listed. 

  19. Russia’s Next Revolution: Reclaiming Lost Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    narrative. The Russian government today is in a weaker position than many realize due to social challenges, geopolitical ambitions, and severe...utm_term=.7df2089539a1 (accessed November 14, 2016). 8 Ostrovsky, 314-320. 9 Sergei Guriev, “Russia’s Constrained Economy ,” Foreign Affairs 95, no. 3...18-22 (2016): 18-19, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russia-fsu/2016-04-18/russias-constrained- economy (accessed October 15, 2016). 4

  20. Kaliningrad - One Common Space for the EU and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The thesis explores the possibilities and barriers of making the Russian Baltic exclave, Kaliningrad, a “pilot region” for cooperation between the EU and Russia. By analysing Kaliningrad’s political-geographic status as both Russian exclave and EU enclave, it is argued that Kaliningrad is influenced by the territoriality of the EU as well as the territoriality of Russia, and that development in Kaliningrad is depending on alignment of the EU and Russia’s territorial strategies in general and ...

  1. Environmental Legislation of Russia and China: Common and Peculiar Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Pavlovich Anisimov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative legal analysis of the environmental legislations of Russia and China, including the line of terminology, environmental protection procedures, presence of requirements in certain fields of activities, norms of protection of certain natural resources. In the conclusion the authors draw attention to a range of interesting provisions of the environmental legislation of the PRC which are of interest for Russia.

  2. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    approval-rating-at- record-levels 22 Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), 272. 23 TASS (Russian News...breedlove-explains-implications-of- information-in-hybrid-warfare- 48 Katya Adler , “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article...Unconventional Warfare, Ukraine 2013-2014”, (Fort Bragg, NC), 39. Articles Adler , Katya. “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article, 06

  3. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  4. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  5. Ukraine’s Relations with Russia: Competition or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Because the Druzhba pipeline traverses Ukraine from Russia westward to Slovakia and Hungary, more Russian oil flows through Ukraine to Europe and...possible extensions into Poland while feeding off the Druzhba line. With the pipeline , Ukraine seeks to entice Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan oil exporters to...abroad.”3 In the fall of 2000, after receiving pressure from Russia, Ukrainian President Kuchma dismissed the “Western-oriented” Borys Tarasiuk as

  6. New Progress in China's Energy Cooperation with Russia and Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC and YUKOS signes oil pipeline agreement CNPC and Russia's private oil producer YUKOS signed an agreement on May 28 in Moscow, setting out key aspects such as the quality of oil to be supplied, contractual terms and pricing formulas to pave the way for a US$2.5 billion oil pipeline stretching the vast expanse of Siberian and into China. This agreement was inked on the third day of China's President Hu Jintao's state visit to Russia.

  7. The borders between Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia: Soviet heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhipova, Ekaterina

    2005-01-01

    The administrative-territorial reforms carried out under Soviet power in the Caucasus to delimitate Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia have always been and remain a bone of contention. So far their governments have not yet come to terms on several problems on certain border stretches. For fourteen years now, delimitation has been going on with varying intensity. Russia and Azerbaijan have come the closest to settling these disputes with respect to the Daghestanian stretch of their common border....

  8. Double Win for China and Russia in Oil & Gas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum industry plays an important role in both the Chinese and Russian economy.Petroleum cooperation between the two countries continue to accelerate since China opening wider to the outside world, and Chinese oil companies have increased their presence in Russia. Sino–Russia joint-ventures, oil& gas trade has progressed smoothly, there is a better future for cooperation in oil& gas development in Russian Far Eastern region. Chinese and Russian companies will continue to benefit from collaboration in petroleum industry.

  9. Main stages of development of photodynamic therapy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Stranadko

    2015-01-01

    The main stages of development and establishment of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Russia are described in the article. Brief description of photosensitizers approved for clinical use in Russia including fotogem, photosens, alasens, radachlorine and fotoditazin is represented. Their physical and chemical and spectral characteristics, drug formulations, results of pre-clinical studies and post-marketing experience are shown. Main research centers dealing with PDT are listed. 

  10. Geochemical Similarities Between the Pre-Caldera and Modern Evolutionary Series of Eruptive Products from Gorely Volcano, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, M.; Ozerov, A.

    2010-12-01

    Gorely volcano, in southern Kamchatka, is a large, long-lived shield-type volcano that is currently in an eruptive phase. Prior eruptions occurred in 1980 and 1984. It is comprised of three structural units: Pra-Gorely volcano; thick ignimbrite complex, associated with a caldera forming eruption; modern edifice named ‘Young Gorely’. An integrated mineralogical-geochemical have been conducted on all structural units of the Gorely volcanic edifice to determine their genetic conditions. After geochemical analysis two evolution series were found. First, Pra-Gorely volcano is represented by a suite of compositions ranging from basalt to rhyolite, with in this series, high-Mg basalts were discovered. Second, Young Gorely edifice is composed of only basalt, andesite and dacite. The reconstruction of chemical evolution trends shows that both volcanic series of Gorely volcano share the same genetic history with similar evolutionary stages. We suggest fractionation of an upper mantle peridotite as a common means to produce both volcanic series as a result of which the evolution of all rocks was generated. The magmatic series of Pra-Gorely and Young Gorely volcanoes were formed under different geodynamic conditions. Between these two series was a powerful stage of caldera formation, during which 100 km3 of ignimbrites were emplaced. The 12-km diameter caldera collapse was the catalyst for large-scale reorganization of the volcanic feeding system. Nevertheless following caldera collapse, Young Gorely was formed by activity inside the caldera and shows very similar evolutionary trends to that of Pra-Gorely. It can be confidently stated that crustal components are practically absent in the evolution of the series, and the compositional range is attributed directly to the evolution of the magmatic melts of Gorely volcano. Microprobe analyses conducted on olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts of Gorely volcano lavas, show that there were at least two stages of crystallization

  11. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  12. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  13. Stratigraphic scale the Lower Precambrian of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Svetlana; Bogdanov, Yuri

    2017-04-01

    The quality of state geological maps depends on the quality of the combined serial legends, which are based on the adopted stratigraphic scheme of the General stratigraphic scale, regional and local stratigraphic schemes. The main task of the General stratigraphic scale is the temporal correlation of stratigraphic units of regional schemes and the age of their boundaries. For the Precambrian age determination is based on paleontological and geochronological methods. Currently, work is being carried out to update the stratigraphic framework of the formations of the upper Proterozoic (Riphean and Vendian). Relatively less studied is the stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian. To the bottom are Precambrian structurally-material complexes of Archean and lower Proterozoic rocks, crystalline basement of ancient platforms and also included in the fold belts. The solution to the problems of stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian is possible only by creating and improving regional stratigraphic schemes. Such work should be based on the study of stratotype sections and references of boundaries in the model regions of the lower Precambrian. The current General stratigraphic scale of the lower Precambrian of Russia (RGSS) consists of the Lower Archean (Sami) and the Upper Archean (Lopi) and lower Proterozoic (Karelian) Eonotam. Archaea is divided into two Eonotam in Russian General stratigraphic scale, in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC) - three units, designated as Eon. The age of the boundary between Eonotam and Eon the same (3200 million years). The same and the age of the boundary between the Archean and the Proterozoic. The RGSS of the Precambrian, based on the comprehensive study of typical sections and analysis of isotopic Dating of different methods. Stratotype reference sections of the districts of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula represent different types of sections, the time (geochronological) correlation which was the basis for the regional scheme

  14. A Qualified Optimistic Analysis of Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Worobec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In his magnum opus on Russia’s imperial history B.N. Mironov characterizes himself as a positivist thinker who marshals impressive amounts of statistics and other types of hard evidence, and employs economic theory, sociological paradigms to understand Russian social structures and development, political analysis, anthropology, and at times psychology to Russia over the longue durée. With this arsenal at hand, he argues against Russian exceptionalism and identifies Russia instead as a typical European state. In so doing, he emphasizes Imperial Russia’s successes as a state, the social and economic foundations of which, he argues, did not cause revolution and attributes revolution to political causes. As he has tried to do previously, the author does not begin with the revolutions of the early twentieth century and largely does not read history backwards, but rather delineates Russia’s historical development within a robust comparative European context (occasionally broadening that context to include the United States. More specifically, B.N. Mironov charts Russia’s modernization through the creation of well-defined estates in the late eighteenth century and the subsequent breakdown of those estates in the post-reform period as a result of greater social mobility; gradual urbanization; industrialization; the beginnings of a demographic transformation; improvements in the standard of living; an increase in literacy; the development of a civil society; the spread of private property among all social groups; the growth of individualism; and the eventual establishment of the rule of law, all of which constitute the attributes of a modern European state. The author’s largely negative perceptions of the Russian peasants’ mentalité, however, sit uneasily with his claims about advancements in the countryside by the turn of the twentieth century. Equating peasants’ collectivism with authoritarianism and conflating it with the Bolshevik

  15. Species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Russia (western region of European Russia) with molecular characteristics of Paramecium novaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Potekhin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    The presence of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, and P. novaurelia of the P. aurelia complex was revealed in the studied region of Russia. RAPD-PCR fingerprints (band patterns) of newly identified P. novaurelia strains from Russia were compared to those characteristic for the other chosen European strains of the species. The strains revealed intraspecific polymorphism as several groups of genotypes confirming the existence of polymorphism within P. novaurelia.

  16. EXPORT POTENTIAL OF THE AGRICULTURE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Export of the food production is undoubtedly one of the most important strategic problems of Russia. The agricultural capacity of our country allows it not only to be fully self-sufficient in terms of food but also turns it into the leading exporter of foodstuffs in the world. The solution of this task requires the effective solution of many problems such as bringing the food industries to a new higher technical and technological level, the creation of the export infrastructure and mechanisms of the financial support to food producers. The fulfilling of the export potential of the domestic agrarian and industrial complex will not only help Russian economy to find the faster way out of the crisis but also will let our country play a major role in the international food trade and, respectively, in the struggle against hunger in the poorest countries of the world. In this article, the essence and the structure of the Russian agricultural export are considered. The three scenarios of the export development (pessimistic, realistic and optimistic and the conditions of their realization are analyzed. The analysis of the main indicators characterizing the current economic state of the agricultural production export is carried out. Based on the drawn conclusions, we have offered the ways of the solution of the given problem

  17. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  18. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  19. ROMANIA, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion MUSCHEI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, international relationships have always witnessed the forming of alliances, bilateral agreements, mutual treaties, conventions, partnerships or founding organizations. All these agreements have lasted as long as all the actors involved have shared a common interest, but during conflictual periods they have been reduced to simple sheets of paper. Certainly, the very same states have, again and again, been both ‘friends’ and ‘enemies’ because in international relations “nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests.”1 Thus, in a world of growing interdependence and continuous change, globalization will not turn this world into a flat one, nor will it bring history to an end. On the contrary, it will generate new threats and will make differences more obvious and more striking. Moreover, the events that have taken place during the last few years clearly point this out. Starting with the 2013 Summit in Vilnius, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership, in particular, have brought about major direct changes in Eastern Europe and indirect ones in Bruxelles, culminating in territorial changes in the immediate proximity of Romania. Taking into account both its significant geopolitical and geostrategic location and its membership to the European Union, Romania finds itself, as always, at a crossroads. In this context, the present paper aims at determining the role the European Union plays in Romania’s relationship with Russia.

  20. A Rússia Americana The American Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Ehlert Maia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar interpretações do Brasil assentadas na idéia de que seríamos uma "Rússia Americana". Para tanto, analiso as contribuições de Gilberto Freyre, Otávio Velho e Vicente Licínio Cardoso, e apresento brevemente o caso russo, a partir das obras clássicas de Franco Venturi e Isaiah Berlin. Argumento ao longo do texto que essa percepção de que o Brasil teria uma geografia social "russa" implica a produção de um americanismo específico, que encontra sua maior expressão no pensamento de Vicente Licínio Cardoso e em suas idéias que conjugam fordismo e arielismo.This article seeks to analyse Brazil's interpretations founded on the idea that we would be an "American Russia". in order to do so, I analyse the contributions of Gilberto Freyre, Otávio Velho and Vicente Licínio Cardoso, and I briefly present the russian case, using the works of Franco Venturi and Isaiah Berlin. I suggest that this perception implies the production of an especific type of americanism, wich finds its greater expression on the unusual combination between fordism and arielism made by Vicente Licínio.

  1. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...

  2. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  3. Financial Institutes of Nanoindustry Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strukova Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage Russia’s nanoindustry can be formed on the basis of new and old specialized financial and non-financial institutes, which form a milti-layered structure providing targeted investments for innovative projects. The active state fiscal policy plays a decisive role in the national nanoindustry formation at different stages of its development and approval. The article substantiates the need for state regulation of the nanoindustry development funding mechanism in Russia. The author characterizes the main principles, subjects, methods, tools and sources of nanoindustrialization financial mechanism. The article presents the system of Russian financial institutes of development, allowing to identify the goals, objectives, forms and tools for implementation of the functions of each of them in the process of innovative development. The author reveals the essence, types, role and interests of development institutes in the process of public and public-private funding of national innovation system. The problems of innovative projects funding, caused by the specific features of the Russian economy are designated; a number of measures aimed at coordinating the activities of financial institutions and consolidating the public and private financial resources in priority sectors and industries of the economy is proposed. The author substantiates the necessity of building a mechanism of institutional, organizational and informational interaction of the federal target programs regulation bodies focused on the development of innovative activity system, federal executive bodies and exchange institutes, as well as the coordinating mechanism allowing to maximize the effectiveness of using methods and tools for innovation support.

  4. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  5. Forecast of the Demografic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the contemporary issues of the reproduction of the Russian population, their reasons, and state policy toward them are considered. Relevance of the task solution of assessment of the most expected birth rate dynamics of the Russian population in future in the conditions of low norms of the parenthood status taking into account the influence of government measures for the birth rate stimulation is proved. In order to achieve this objective, on the basis of the behavior probability distribution function of crude birth rate, the probabilistic assessment of the future birth rate dynamics of the Russian population was conducted. On the basis of the modernized Hirst method, two expected dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate were constructed: the first trajectory corresponds to the scenario at which the value of crude birth rate will be in the range of 8-10,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,182, including the negative external impact, the second trajectory will be in the range of 13-16,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,618, including the positive external impact. In spite of the fact that these scenarios are quite different, the dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate predicted according to them during the period of 2015-2041 that corresponds to the time of the reliable prediction are almost identical. The analysis of the received results enabled to conclude that the state population policy cannot affect the future dynamics of the birth rate due mainly to to the conjunctural changes.These conclusions confirm the intellectual vested interest of the academic circles that government regulation of a demographic situation in Russia has to be aimed, first of all, at the health improvement and increase of the expected life interval of the population

  6. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  7. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  8. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  9. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  10. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslund, A. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  11. Forest certification in Russia: development, current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashevich Victor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of voluntary forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC system in Russia. The article is based on the review of diverse information sources, analysis of the reports of timber processing enterprises, personal observations during certification audits, discussions in workgroups, and information collected at training courses. We evaluated the present state of voluntary forest certification in Russia, analyzed non-compliances of the activity of Russian wood processing enterprises with the national standard FSC-STD-RUS-V6-1-2012 and indicated possible reasons for non-fulfillment of the requirements. We also presented problems in the development of forest certification in Russia and possible ways for its further development.

  12. Russia's 'dictatorship-of-the-law' approach to internet policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Nocetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As international politics' developments heavily weigh on Russia's domestic politics, the internet is placed on top of the list of "threats" that the government must tackle, through an avalanche of legislations aiming at gradually isolating the Russian internet from the global infrastructure. The growth of the Russian internet market during the last couple of years is likely to remain secondary to the "sovereignisation" of Russia's internet. This article aims at understanding these contradictory trends, in an international context in which internet governance is at a crossroads, and major internet firms come under greater regulatory scrutiny from governments. The Russian 'dictatorship-of-the-law' paradigm is all but over: it is deploying online, with potentially harmful consequences for Russia's attempts to attract foreign investments in the internet sector, and for users' rights online.

  13. The local context of mobile phone use in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina

    While social relationships are important in any culture, research suggests that in societies marked by economies of shortage and authoritarian political systems, such as Russia, people rely on their social relationships for coping with contingencies of daily life as well as for providing the basic...... networks of shallow and long-distance ties that can be useful for certain types of support (Horst & Miller, 2006). Although Russians were relatively late to broadly adopt mobile telephony, by 2005 Russia had the fourth largest number of mobile subscribers in the world (Gladarev, 2006). Despite such breadth...... of adoption, the social consequences of mobile phone use and the dynamics of use in social situations are relatively understudied. This paper presents results from a study of the role of mobile telephony in the lives of adults (30-60 years old) in Russia. The analysis is based on 50 interviews collected...

  14. Chlorine Stable Isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in subduction zones: the case of the Kamchatka-Kuril and the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bardoux, Gerard; Michel, Agnes; Maximov, Alexandr; Kalatcheva, Elena; Ryabinin, Gennady; Bonifacie, Magali

    2015-04-01

    By using the stable isotopes of chlorine (δ 37Cl), we have shown that magmatic chlorine (δ 37Cl ≤ -0.6 ‰ [1]) is different from surface chlorine (δ 37Cl ≈ 0 ‰ [1]) in hydrothermal system of Soufrière and Montagne Pelé from the young arc volcanic system of Lesser Antilles. First measurements on condensed chlorides from volcanic gases (e.g. [2], [3]) did not permitted to get sensible δ 37Cl values on degassed chlorine likely because chlorine isotopes are fractionated during the HClgas - chloride equilibrium in the fumaroles or during sampling artifacts. Therefore we have developed an alternative strategy based on the analysis of chloride in thermal springs, streams, sout{f}lowing on the flanks of the volcanoes. Due to the highly hydrophilic behavior of Cl, we hypothesize that thermal springs incorporate chlorine without fractionation of chlorine isotopes and might reflect the chlorine isotopic composition degassed by magmas [1]. Indeed Thermal spring with low δ 37Cl chlorides (≤ -0.6 perthousand{}) are linked with magmatic volatiles characters (3He ratio at 5 Ra at and δ 13C CO2 quad ≈ -3 perthousand{}). To go further in the potentiality of using the Chlorine isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in volcanic systems, we have started the survey of thermal springs and wells waters in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc (on sites Mutnovsky, Paratunka, Nalychevsky, Khodutkinsky, Paramushir Island, identified by Taran, 2009 [4] for concentrations of chloride). Preliminary results show δ 37Cl values ranging from 0.5 to -0.2 ‰ and generally higher chloride concentrations. The δ 37Cl values are higher than the value recorded for the young arc volcanic system of lesser Antilles. At present moment very few negative δ 37Cl have been measured in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc. [1] Li et al., 2015 EPSL in press. [2] Sharp et al. 2010 GCA. [3] Rizzo et al., 2013, EPSL, 371, 134. [4] Taran, 2009, GCA, 73, 1067

  15. China-Russia Relations: Succession, Syria ... and the Search for Putin's Soul

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu Bin

    2012-01-01

      Succession politics There was little doubt about the outcome of the March 4 presidential elections in Russia, as Vladimir Putin and his United Russia Party dominated the electoral process and public space...

  16. Activities of China-Russia People-to-People Friendship Month Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 60th anniversary of the estab- lishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia and the founding of the Chi- na-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA), the CPAFFC and CRFA designated

  17. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  18. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  19. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  20. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  1. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  2. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  3. Russia's Interests in the Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crimes against humanity committed by Bashar Assad's regime in Syria and despite the growing international pressure, Russia provided steadfast international political support to the regime during the development of the conflict in Syria in March 2011-July 2012. The article examines Russia's position and analyzes the reasons behind its support for the regime, arguing that it was primarily motivated not by material interests but rather by the foreign policy doctrine of multipolarity and the wish to maintain influence and reputation in the region.

  4. Viewing Europe-Russia Ties from a New Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Ukrainian election crisis started on November 22 resulted not only from the struggle between pro-West and pro-Russia forces in Ukraine but also from the conflict of different values and strategic interests between the West and Russia. The European Union responded to the Ukrainian election crisis swiftly in step and also in relatively great strength. Therefore, the EU's move was strongly criticized by the Russians. So it was not only aggravated still further the two sides' mutual distrust, ① surely it will influence the future development of the bilateral relationship as well.

  5. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003 (domestic arbitration and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993 (international arbitration. This law was drafted on the basis of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.

  6. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform

  7. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  8. Welfare Analysis of Lifting the GM Ban in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chetvertakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of genetically modified crops is prohibited in Russia, however, Russian politicians are currently discussing this technology. This article evaluates the potential welfare effects of adopting genetically modified crops in Russia, focusing on the potential benefits to Russian producers who adopt herbicide tolerant corn and soybeans. Calculations are based on supply and demand functions of current market situations and their potential shifts. The results quantify the potential monetary gains from open markets to genetic engineering technology and explain the potential additional costs related to technology adoption.

  9. China-Russia Alliance - a common choice of the two countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with Sino-Soviet Alliance and NATO countries alliance, China -Russia Alliance should have its own characteristics. China-Russia Alliance can further enhance strategic mutual trust betweeneach other, enhance cooperation quality and space, to promote the mutualprogress and prosperity, achieve national revival of China and Russia as soon as possible, which is the ultimate goal of theChina-Russia Alliance.

  10. Strategic Prospects for Russia from the Perspective of Its Modernization Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Huang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Russia's Modernization Strategy, advocated by President Dmitry Medvedev, aims at attracting Western capital, technology and human resources, and building a stronger Russia by making its politics more democratic and its economy more creative. This strategy, different from that of Vladimir Putin's, underlines Medvedev's eamestness to modernize Russia with the assistance of the West, and triggers suspicion that his strategy is one of emerging from Putin's shadow before the next presidential election. Uncertainty is once again defining Russia's strategi cprospects.

  11. Speech by V. V. Tereshkova, President of Russia International Cooperation Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Russia International Centre for Scientific and Cultural Cooperation under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, the Russia International Cooperation Association and the Russia-China Friendship Association, to express my heartfelt thanks for this opportunity to participate in this 50th anniversary celebration of the founding of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, our long partner of cooperation.

  12. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  13. 77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... International Trade Administration Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request... of the antidumping duty orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR 5/2/2011-3... include the Ammonium Nitrate from Russia administrative review in the referenced notice. Dated: April...

  14. Present Russia in a sociological mirror (about Zinaida Golenkov's studies related to social structure of contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In many aspects, sociological thought in present Russia is a mirror of the condition and key social processes occurring in that large country. They are basically the same as the processes which have already been under way in the majority of other societies in the region of former real-socialism. Therefore the results acquired by the sociological thought in Russia specially those from empirical researches, are significant for the scientific and broader social public in other countries, too. In that sense, the findings obtained by Zinaida Golenkova in the research about the changes of the social structure in present Russia are representative and very indicative. Her researches concentrate on the social stratification. She concludes that the government, income and ownership are the main factors in social stratification, thus revealing the main factors in the creation and reproduction of social inequalities - which are very deep in present Russia - then the basis of the formation of a new social structure in that country and the division into losers and winners in the ownership-structural changes. The key relation is the relation between these changes and "deetatization". The middle class in Russia is underdeveloped, more than a half of the specialists with the high and secondary education is poor. In spite of the widespread poverty, there are no larger social protests, disturbances and strikes in Russia. This could be explained by the tradition of forbearance political aparthy, struggle for survival, as well as by the additional income of one part of the unemployed population. Material-status inequalities and life perspectives intersect with ethnic inequalities and with the destiny of numerous migrants of Russian and non-Russian origin.

  15. The nexus of soil radon and hydrogen dynamics and seismicity of the northern flank of the Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Malysheva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of kinematics and dynamic parameters of radon and molecular hydrogen concentration in subsoil air on the stations network at the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky geodynamic proving ground with seismicity of the northern flank of the Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone was fulfilled in the period from July till August 2004. On the basis of correlation analysis of the regional seismicity and variations of radon flux density calculated using the data of gas-discharge counters of STS-6 type and SSNTDs it was shown that the radon mass transfer abnormal variations are conditioned by both regional seismicity in total and the subduction zone of proving ground. The azimuths of «geodeformation waves» coming to the registration points are calculated during clearly expressed anomaly beginnings, which coincide with directions to earthquake epicenters taking place at the same time. The geochemical anomalies recorded are presumptively deformative by nature and can be conditioned by processes of «quasi-viscous» flow of the lithosphere during rearrangement of tectonic stress fields of the subduction zone. The short-term (predicted time ? <14 days precursor of the earthquakes swarm was revealed in hydrogen dynamics on August, 4-5 (four earthquakes had M?5.3 and epicentral distance about 130 km from the Paratunka base station.

  16. Accumulation reconstruction and water isotope analysis for 1735–1997 of an ice core from the Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka, and their relationships to North Pacific climate records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate past climate change in the Northwest Pacific region, an ice core was retrieved in June 1998 from the Gorshkov crater glacier at the top of the Ushkovsky volcano, in central Kamchatka. Hydrogen isotope (δD analysis and past accumulation reconstructions were conducted to a depth of 140.7 m, dated to 1735. Two accumulation reconstruction methods were applied with the Salamatin and the Elmer/Ice ice flow models. Reconstructed accumulation rates and δD were significantly correlated with North Pacific surface temperature. This, and a significant correlation of δD with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO index implies that NPGO data is contained in this record. Wavelet analysis shows that the ice core records have significant multi-decadal power spectra up to the late 19th century. The multi-decadal periods of reconstructed accumulation rates change at around 1850 in the same way as do Northeast Pacific ice core and tree ring records. The loss of multi-decadal scale power spectra of δD and the 6‰ increase in its average value occurred around 1880. Thus the core record confirms that the periodicity of precipitation for the entire North Pacific changed between the end of the Little Ice Age through the present due to changes in conditions in the North Pacific Ocean.

  17. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  18. Traditions and Innovations: English Language Teaching in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G.

    2005-01-01

    The English language in Russia: a brief survey. It includes a historical perspective, the traditions of the past and the new challenges of the present-day situation. The history is simple: it is based on a deep love of foreign languages in general and English in particular. Love against all odds, for better, for worse, for richer and for poorer.…

  19. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  20. State regulation of services in real estate market of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Medovy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines role of state in regulation framework of real estate market of Russia. Factors influencing on decreasing state regulatory level are analyzed. The author describes role and significance of administrative and economic methods of state regulation in real estate market. Some policy measures are recommended to improve regulatory environment.

  1. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  2. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  3. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  4. Some Problems and Support for Small businesses in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlina R. Sitnikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on key issues of small businesses in today’s market conditions. Implementation of suggested measures will ensure the sustainable development of small businesses in Russia eliminating down sides in the government support system for small businesses.

  5. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  6. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary

    1999-01-01

    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  7. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

  8. Memory politics in contemporary Russia : Television, cinema and the state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijermars, Mariëlle

    2016-01-01

    Since Vladimir Putin was elected president of Russia in 2000, the rhetorical use of the past has increasingly become a defining characteristic of Russian politics. Through a new national holiday, references to history in official statements, the erection of monuments and other forms of state symboli

  9. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... (75 FR 9252) and determined on June 4, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 35086, June 21... 10, 2010 (75 FR 48360). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 7, 2010, and all persons... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  10. CMS Virtual Visit from Russia - 16 November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Belotelov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This event gathered 200+ high school students selected from all over Russia from three places: - high school students from "Experimental Physics Olympics" at Sirius center, Sochi - students from European Gymnasium, Moscow - interested people at "White leaf" lecturing space Pictures show the CMS Virtual Visit, preparation lecture and masterclass activity. CMS Guides for the Virtual Visit: Nikolay Voytishin & Alexey Kamenev

  11. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  12. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  13. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  14. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Carol McCue Verratti, Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business... including antidumping duties). If you are a trade/business association, provide the information, on an...: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normova T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the competitiveness of Russia in the world economy. This aspect of the study was considered in the dynamics and historical perspective of world economic relations development, the world's leading economies being an example. The origins and nature of competition, the concept of substitute goods were considered as an important problem of market economic system. The place of Russian Federation in the modern external economic environment and real prospects of achieving a high position among the leading producing countries were studied based on retrospective data. A comparative analysis was carried out according to certain criteria between the highly developed States. Theoretical review of data to assess the competitiveness of Russia in the world economy showed that the crisis of recent years could not have a positive impact on both economic development level of the Russian Federation and its opponents. It is known that each approach to consideration of a specific situation has its advantages and disadvantages but this article provides the most comprehensive and detailed material on the subject matter. Evaluation of competitive ability of Russia in the global economy has shown the need to increase the production capacity of the domestic manufacturer, and consequently, the production power of the country is increasing. This will contribute to the strengthening of the international authority of Russia

  16. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  17. The global economic crisis and marketing activities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Article on the impact of the crisis in the global economy on marketing strategy in Russia. The author substantiates the thesis of the decline in the value of methods of promoting the marketing mix and a gradual return to the dominance of the marketing concept of the distribution.

  18. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  19. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB.

  20. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  1. A reappraisal of Cerebavis cenomanica (Aves, Ornithurae), from Melovatka, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Stig A.; Milner, Angela C.; Bourdon, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the avian brain is of crucial importance to studies of the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to modern birds, but very few avian fossils provide information on brain morphological development during the Mesozoic. An isolated specimen from the Cenomanian of Melovatka in Russia...

  2. Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskiy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses research on social inequality and access to higher education in Russia. It argues that the myth about equality of life chances, as with certain other myths, was an important part of the Soviet ideology. However, children from privileged groups traditionally received the education and professional training which were most…

  3. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary

    1999-01-01

    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  4. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and in

  5. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... general and trade media, e-mail, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service, is organizing an Aerospace Supplier...

  6. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    .../trademissions/eg_main_023185.asp ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media... International Trade Administration Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce (DOC) International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. Commercial Service (CS) and Department of...

  7. Discursive Practices of Private Online Tutoring Websites in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2015-01-01

    A recent development in English teaching in Russia is the emergence of private online language-tutoring schools, which offer one-on-one lessons by means of audio/videoconferencing. It remains unclear: (1) how these new providers of educational services are presenting themselves to the potential learners; (2) what ideology they tend to drawn on and…

  8. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  9. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    psychological operations, and information operations. • In keeping with traditional Soviet notions of battling constant threats from abroad and within...theorists, is a holistic concept that includes computer network operations, electronic warfare, psychological operations, and information operations.3...that “in the ongoing revolution in information technologies, information and psychological warfare will largely lay the groundwork for victory.”10

  10. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-long Chechnya crisis, and facing similar problems in her 'new neighborhood' (Abkhazia, South Ossetia Transdniestria, is among the countries that might be affected by this precedent. Secondly, with her bad experience in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Russia has become sensitive not only to any disturbance in the balance of power in the Balkans but also to any change to the existing international order. Moscow has not forgotten that during the 1990s many Westerners saw Serbia as a 'metaphor for Russia' and that the NATO interventions against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995 and against Serbia (1999 revealed Russia's weakness, sending her the message to give up her interests in the Balkans and Europe. Thirdly, diverging American and Russian policies on Kosovo and Metohija coincide with their strained relations over the deployment of an antimissile 'shield' in Poland and the Czech Republic, the war in Iraq, policy towards Iran and other issues currently at the top of the list of international problems. Fourthly, meanwhile Russia has managed to recover from the disintegration of the USSR and to consolidate her economic and political power in Europe and the world, owing above all to oil and gas exports, but also to the export of industrial products (military in particular. The precedent that an independent Kosovo and Metohija would constitute in international relations is therefore a test of Russia's role as a permanent member of the UN Security Council

  11. Evolution of open tender mechanism in public procurement in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of public procurement through open tender in Russia over the last 20 years. It is proved the necessity of the transition to a competitive public procurement system in the 1990s. Stages and terms of carrying out of this method for determining of the supplier also are shown. The structure and the comparative analysis of procedures of open tender, and also differentiation of the application of certain regulations are given. On the basis of the analysis of purchasing technologies we can make conclusion about the progressive evolution of the process of procurement. The movement in the direction of decreasing corruption capacity of procurement procedures tells us about expediency of transition to competition in an electronic form along with expansion of the sphere of its application.

  12. High-power microwave development in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Sylvain

    1995-03-01

    This is a survey of Russian research and development in high-power microwave (HPM) sources. It emphasizes those sources of nanoseconds pulse duration time which have potential weapon as well as radar applications. It does not cover the whole range of Russian HPM research and development but concentrates on those aspects which may lead to military applications. Russian investigators have achieved many world firsts in HPM generation; for example, a multiwave Cerenkov generator with a peak output power of 15 gigawatts. Their successes are based on their impressive capability in pulsed power technology which has yielded high-current generators of terawatt peak power. They have transformed the energy of these currents into microwave radiation using tubes of both conventional and novel designs exploiting relativistic electron beams. Recently, the development of high-current mini-accelerators has moved relativistic electron-beam (REB) HPM generation out of the laboratory and enabled the development of deployable military systems with peak powers in the gigawatt range. As a result, they now see development of a REB-based radar systems as one of the most promising directions in radar systems. Details of such a system are described and the implications for HPM weapons are considered.

  13. Neural network approach to the prediction of seismic events based on low-frequency signal monitoring of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Japanese regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Very-low-frequency/ low-frequency (VLF/LF sub-ionospheric radiowave monitoring has been widely used in recent years to analyze earthquake preparatory processes. The connection between earthquakes with M ≥5.5 and nighttime disturbances of signal amplitude and phase has been established. Thus, it is possible to use nighttime anomalies of VLF/LF signals as earthquake precursors. Here, we propose a method for estimation of the VLF/LF signal sensitivity to seismic processes using a neural network approach. We apply the error back-propagation technique based on a three-level perceptron to predict a seismic event. The back-propagation technique involves two main stages to solve the problem; namely, network training, and recognition (the prediction itself. To train a neural network, we first create a so-called ‘training set’. The ‘teacher’ specifies the correspondence between the chosen input and the output data. In the present case, a representative database includes both the LF data received over three years of monitoring at the station in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (2005-2007, and the seismicity parameters of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Japanese regions. At the first stage, the neural network established the relationship between the characteristic features of the LF signal (the mean and dispersion of a phase and an amplitude at nighttime for a few days before a seismic event and the corresponding level of correlation with a seismic event, or the absence of a seismic event. For the second stage, the trained neural network was applied to predict seismic events from the LF data using twelve time intervals in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007. The results of the prediction are discussed.

  14. The Establishment and Development of Muftiates in Tsarist Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Alp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, muftiates which was founded in Tsarist Russia, composed important part of policy of Russian government on Muslim people and Islam religion and lasted for a long time was analyzed. Factors which influenced foundation process of Orenburg Ecclesiastical Assembly, Crimean Muftiate, Southern Caucasia Sunnite and Shiite Muftiates, their duties and authorities were put forward. It was mentioned that religious organizations which have equal rights and authorities were not formed in regions where Muslim people were dominant in Russia. The difference between perspective of Tsardom government and Muslim people towards muftiates were determined, the reflection of this situation on relation between Empire and Muslim people was stated in the sense of policy.

  15. Women Physicists in Russia After 20 Years of Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2009-04-01

    The process of globalization and reforms in Russia resulted in great changes in the human resources of Russian science. Feminization and stratification of Russian scientific community has occurred in physics and all sciences. Active women physicists ages 35-50 years are part of a new group of "new Russian scientists," whose expertise is in demand in Russia and abroad. But the social conditions for young mothers are not satisfactory as yet, so young women physicists with small children have great problems in their career building, though there are lots of grants for young scientists (Russian and international). The percentage of female in physics and mathematics on average is about 40%. We show the present situation for women in physics and the activities of organizations of women physicists.

  16. Gli studi umanistici in Russia e la svolta del 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dovgopolova Aleksej Kamenskich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentiamo la cronaca del seminario scientifico-didattico internazionale Gumanitarnaja škola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g.: èkzistenciajl’noe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, svolto nella filiale di Perm’ dell’Università di ricerca internazionale «Higher School of Economics» dal 25 al 28 agosto 2015. We present the chronicle of the international scientific-didactic seminar Gumanitarnaya shkola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g .: ekzistentsiajlnoe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, held in Perm filial of Narional Research University "Higher School of Economics» (25-28 August 2015.

  17. Russia's contribution to regional geologic mapping of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. A.; Bobina, N. N.; Shashkina, V. P.

    1993-01-01

    Geologic maps in Magellan C1-format were produced by six geologists and three cartographer in Russia during 1992. More sheets are in progress. The work is coordinated by Vernadsky Institute. The Magellan SRR images in form of C1-format photomaps were used as a base for geologic-geomorphic regional mapping of Venus at approximately 1:8,000,000 scale. This work took place in Russia at Vernadsky Institute and at the Department of Geology, Lomonosov Moscow University. The aim is to produce a preliminary geologic survey of Venus with the new high resolution images obtained by Magellan. It took place at the cartographic division, Laboratory of Comparative Planetology and Meteoritics, Vernadsky Institute, Russsia's Academy of Sciences.

  18. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  19. Russia in Modern Eurasia: The Vision of a Russian Geographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin Alexander G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that ‘Eurasianism’ as an interdisciplinary scientific doctrine and an object-focused area of geographical social science is at its root, generally complementary to the methodology of Russian (Soviet socio-economic (human geography, and corresponds to its research tradition. The geo-economic, geopolitical and geo-cultural transformation of the post-Soviet ‘Eurasian space’ is analysed. The geo-concept of a multipolar ‘Mega-Eurasia’ is proposed and justified. It is emphasised that the effective participation of Russia as one of the dominants of the Eurasian space is associated with the non-admission of an extremely undesirable, harmful scenario for Russia as well as of its possible marginalisation and limitation to the flimsy framework of the ‘Russian world’. A hypothetically possible commitment to only one of the existing global ‘power centres’ is also considered to be a losing one.

  20. CO2 fluxes at wetland ecosystems in European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, J.; Astafeva, E.; Ivanov, D.; Avilov, V.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands are one of the main element of natural landscapes of Russia (about 10% of territory). Chamber measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil with vegetation were conducted during green seasons 2011, 2012 years in European part of Russia (Central Forest Reserve, Tver region). Two main subjects were selected for field researches: ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. Our previous eddy covariance investigations in the ecosystems have allowed to determine that in common wet forest is source of CO2 for atmosphere but ombrotrophic bog is sink for CO2. Chamber measurements have evaluated net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. Photosynthesis of vegetation cover on the bog is significantly more than at the forest. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance as at the bog as at the wet forest mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile.

  1. Veterans’ Policy in Russia: a Puzzle of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Danilova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Every war creates a new “lost generation”, veterans of wars and military operations. After the end of wars, states develop different ways of rewarding ex-soldiers for their service to the state. This paper analyzes veterans’ policy in the Soviet Union, its transformation after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new veterans’ policy in modern Russia. The paper reviews different historical stages in developing a veterans’ policy, and examines the main differences among the population of veterans. It outlines how the position of the most preferred group, the veterans of the Great Patriotic War, is supported by politics and expressed in civil-military relations. Further, the paper shows the gradual development in the welfare of veterans for other subgroups of veterans. In conclusion, it discusses the consequences of the modern veterans’ system in Russia.

  2. Court representation in Russia before 1917 (historical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Ilyashenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research and analysis of the legislation historical legal sources and other materials to study the process of formation and development of the institution of legal representation in Russia before 1917. Methods the theoretical basis of research is the works of Russian scientists on various aspects of formation development and functioning of the institution of legal representation in Russia from ancient times till 1917. The methodological basis of the research is general scientific methods historical formallogical system and general logical methods analysis synthesis induction and deduction synthesis analogy abstraction. Historicallegal formallegal logicallegal comparative legal methods were applied in the study. The author used the retrospective approach to the study of the issues of legal representation in Russia. Results basing on analysis of normative legal acts regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation and various doctrinal sources the author has examined the process of the formation and development of the legal representation institution in Russia before 1917 raised the question of providing legal assistance in prerevolutionary Russia. An analogy is drawn between the prerevolutionary legal regulation of the legal representation institution and the modern legislation regulating this legal institution. The conclusion is made about the inadequacy of prerevolutionary legislation regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation as well as the modern legal regulation of relations in this sphere. It is established that the judicial reform of 1864 improved regulation in this sphere but still did not solve all the problems in this area. The relevance of the study is due to the topicality and the constitutional importance of legal representation for the entire Russian society the need to examine the origins of this legal phenomenon as well as the fact that the institution of legal representation

  3. CIVIL SOCIETY AS A RESOURSE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Makarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research on civil society in Russia conducted for the Committee of Civil Initiatives by the Centre of Political Technologies in June-July 2013. It compares the Western model of civil society with its understanding in non-Western nations. The author analyses historical evolution of the Russian society and provides assessment of its current standing. He concludes that non-governmental organisations and civil activities in Russia develop under conditions of low mutual trust among the population and between society and state. The lack of trust of governmental bodies to civil initiatives is clearly reflected in the latest legislation on “foreign agents”. The remaining unfavourable conditions are likely to continue to hinder progress of Russian civil society for the years to come. The foundation for the research created the data from surveys, in-depth interviews and group discussions.

  4. The State of Play in Russia’s Near Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and would derail the momentum for domestic reforms. ■ Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan have heavily depended on migrant worker remittances from both Russia...White Russians make common cause with the Red Russians in almost every endeavor. Belarus . The possibility of a reintegra- tion plebiscite has been...States air warning system. Only Belarus and Nicara- gua are sympathetic to the Abkhaz and South Ossetian independence declarations. The European

  5. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  6. Income Shocks, Consumption, Wealth, and Human Capital: Evidence from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren

    2006-01-01

    Using the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, this article investigates how Russian households' consumption responds to income shocks and, in particular, how household wealth and human capital affect the households' ability to smooth consumption. An instrumental variable estimation method with household fixed effects is implemented. After correcting for potential problems of sample attrition using the inverse probability weighting method, the article finds that household consumption in Rus...

  7. New records of annulate Pluteus in European and Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Malysheva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of the annulate Pluteus were made by the authors in Central Russia (Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve and Western Siberia (Yugansky Nature Reserve. The description of the species based on these records is presented. The taxonomic value of such features as the presence of velum and the color of lamellae edge as well as the similarity between Chamaeota and Pluteus are discussed and the new combination Pluteus fenzlii is proposed.

  8. JINR and Russia Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The collaboration of JINR scientists and specialists with Russian colleagues, large institutes and industrial enterprises of the JINR host countries dates back its founding. These fruitful contacts cover virtually all research areas of JINR and largely determine new trends in scientific research. Geographically, JINR co-operation with scientific and educational centres and industry in Russia embraces over 150 organisations and over 40 Russian towns.

  9. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  10. Quality of Tourism and Hospitality Management Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of quality standards (ISO, their application in Russia, analyzes Quality Awards, awarded to Russian producers, such as the Award of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of Quality, National Tourism Award named after Yu. Senkevich, Travel Award «Golden Meridian», Moscow “Guiding Star” Award. The objectives of management system for Sochi resorts and hotels were determined

  11. Perception of Russia in the Finnish public consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Laine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Finland and the Russian Federation share signifi cant overlaps in history. With the exception of a couple of confl icts, the relationship between the two is commonly described as friendly. With a common border of more than 1.300 kilometers, Finland has always been closely tied to its eastern neighbor. Despite the physical proximity, the Cold War era closure of the border increased the mental distance between the two sides, and fostered an image of the other colored largely by attitudinal stereotypes. For a long time, a good fence indeed made good neighbors. The resultant ‘us’ versus ‘them’ mentality etched in the minds of many has proven to be far more deeply rooted and harder to erase than the political border per se. In an attempt to trace the development of the portrayed image of Russia, this article analyzes the opinion columns featured in the main Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat during 1990–2010. The analysis suggests that little effort has been made to improve the popular geopolitical image of Russia. While understanding the potential of having Russia as a neighbor, many Finns continue to actively reconfi rm the elements in the neighbor, which should be let go in order move beyond stereotypes. This tendency is only reinforced by the load of the language used in the opinion writings, which seems to inhibit people from critically evaluating the opinions and views that they hold. Myths about Russia are used for transferring ideological norms and dominant historical values of Finnish culture. Therefore, myths serve to make collective views and convictions natural and evident, even if they ungrounded. Stronger is the main myth, easier it is for both the author (the message’s sender and the reader (the message’s recipient to fi nd a common interpretation. As a result, it creates a code which can be understood only by those who know it and possesses a respective social knowledge.

  12. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Y.E

    2005-07-01

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  13. Social networking as an advertising tool in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the behavioural patterns of users on Facebook with those on VKontakte using data collected by Facebook and a survey of Russian VKontakte users. The authors analyse the key differences between the two popular social networks, including what users perceived to be the most attractive options, the amount of time spent online and attitudes toward advertising. The results have been used to evaluate the potential of social networks (SMM for business promotion in Russia.

  14. Narrative Propagation In Russia: A Study In Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Tsar Alexander III who first attempted to bridge that gap , presenting the image of a tsardom that was both Russian and Orthodox. Images of the tsar and...the poorly-disciplined troops in a vain effort to boost morale. Russia suffered from a racial superiority complex that led them to underestimate a...the Baltic states, Bessarabia, Finland, and Poland.92 Hitler hoped to invade Poland without Russian opposition and then to wage war on Britain and

  15. OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND THE SITUATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Arefyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study and evaluate the use of andprospects for the development of open educational resources in Russia andin the international context of the historical and legal point of view, and presentthe example of the integration of open educational resources of universitiesin the digital library portal ‘Single Window’ with opportunities for information exchange in the educational environment.

  16. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  17. Cyber Operations Between Russia and Ukraine During Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pavlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When the Ukraine crisis started in 2013, discussions about possible cyber warfare appeared. Debates about the usage of cyber tools in war conflicts have already been considered for the last few years and conflicts where actors possess these capacities emphasize the importance to analyze this phenomenon. This article examines cyber warfare between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukraine crisis and aims to analyze incidents in the cyber domain with considerations cyber war on a theoretical background.

  18. Russia’s Conventional Military Weakness and Substrategic Nuclear Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    February 8, 2011, Lithuanian Defense Minister Rasa Jukneviciene alleged that Russia had moved SSNW into Kaliningrad , bordering both Poland and... Kaliningrad . And to our east as well,” Jukneviciene told Lithuanian public radio. Moscow had dismissed similar allegations in November 2010. She made...the absence of 27. any clarity on the possible Russian response Kaliningrad effectively being cut off were the scenario to be implemented. Citing an

  19. Slash Fandom, Sociability, and Sexual Politics in Putin's Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Russian slash practices are much more than a protest subculture—a reductionist term that implies an unchanging isolation from other public realms. The political significance of slash practices on the Russian-language Internet, Runet, is more effectively understood by examining how slash and slashers travel from fannish to other public spaces to shape everyday political conversations about sexual politics in Russia. Keywords LGBT politics; Public spaces; Social media

  20. Slash fandom, sociability, and sexual politics in Putin's Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Rajagopalan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian slash practices are much more than a protest subculture—a reductionist term that implies an unchanging isolation from other public realms. The political significance of slash practices on the Russian-language Internet, Runet, is more effectively understood by examining how slash and slashers travel from fannish to other public spaces to shape everyday political conversations about sexual politics in Russia.

  1. Human Resource Management in Russia: Some Unwritten Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more effic...

  2. Regional aspects of electricity sector regulations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pobochy Serguey; Yudashkina Galina

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates regional features of the electricity sector regulation in Russia. We use panel data for 77 Russian regions during 1998–2003. Our analysis is based on the interest-group theory of regulation. The objective of the project is to estimate the influence of regional energy company, consumers, and governor on regulation policy in the region. Empirical analysis shows that governors' elections are accompanied by tariffs' decrease. We found that during 1999–2001 there was a gap bet...

  3. The cascade of HIV care in Russia, 2011–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Pokrovskaya; Anna Popova; Natalia Ladnaya; Oleg Yurin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The cascade of HIV care is one of the main tools to assess the individual and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify barriers of treatment as prevention (TasP) concept realization. We aimed to characterize the changes in engagement of HIV-positive persons in care in Russia during three years (2011–2013). Methods: We defined seven steps in the cascade of care framework: HIV infected (estimation data), HIV diagnosed, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV...

  4. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  5. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  6. HUGE ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY COOPERATION AMONG CHINA, RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In November 30 to December 2,2005, Beijing successfully hosted the "2nd Sino-Russo-KazakhOil Forum", on which the participants discussed the ways to find the crossing points of their common benefit. In addition to the participants from China,Russia and Kazakhstan, some representatives from the petroleum industries of other countries such as Ukraine,Turkmenistan, England and Netherlands also attended the meeting.

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer.

  8. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  9. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  10. TRENDS IN FIELD OF REFERENCE MATERIALS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Osintseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in development of reference materials (RMs in Russia, in particular in the regulation and standardization, are described. As of December- 2015, Fifteen statutory and regulatory acts are valid in Russia in that field. The main principles of these acts to be harmonized with international requirements are discussed. Four interstate standards (for CIS country based on ISO Guide 30, ISO Guide 31, ISO Guide 34, ISO Guide 35 are developed and issued in 2016 to harmonize activities in the RMfield. The main trend in the national and interstate standardization in the RM field is the harmonization with international RM documents (OIML, ISO. In 2015 190 new approved pattern certified reference materials (CRMs of composition and properties of substances and materials were developed in Russia. The majority of new patterns of CRMs were developed for metallurgical, oil producing, refining and gas enterprises. Also CRM development for clinical diagnosis, pharmaceutics, ecological monitoring and production safety are still requested.. Development of CRMs based on the principles of private-state partnership is growing slowly.

  11. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria SIMIONOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The unfolding events in the Ukraine remind us of Georgia 2008 and make us wonder whether their impact and implications on the EU – Russia relations will be as deep and long-lasting. Although it is too soon to ponder on the implications of these events, we can already perceive the wave of tensions and disagreements that is spreading all around the European continent; tensions that once more prove that proper economic cooperation between the two actors is merely impossible to consider without taking into account the political ties between them. How can the EU enhance greater cooperation with Russia and solve Churchill’s "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma"? Is the European Union vulnerable politically due to its energy dependence on Russia? Is the Russian economy dependent solely on its European consumers? Whose behaviour is more rational? Who holds the upper hand? This paper will focus on answering all these questions by analysing both actors in terms of power and will particularly highlight their paradigms, perceptions, needs and expectations from one another.

  12. Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism in Russia is played out on several registers. It is the instrument by which the ruling elites succeed in effacing (at least superficially their internal divisions and unifying the political spectrum under their banner. It can also be likened to a new form of state-proposed social contract, an attempt to remobilise society to its advantage by drawing on those elements of its cultural reservoirs that form a consensus around the theme of patriotism. Lastly, for the tiny proportion of the population committed to radical right-wing parties, it makes it possible to mobilise against the “other” at a time when massive social discontent is being expressed in xenophobic terms. Nationalism is therefore akin to an amalgam that reveals the multiplicity of current social and cultural experiences in contemporary Russia. Through nationalism, those who have lost out as a result of the reforms formulate their critique of the present and their nostalgia for the past, whereas the elites and the middle classes that have gained from these changes express their satisfaction and belief that Russia will win the game of globalisation.

  13. Genre Formatting in Periodic Printed Media of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertytchny A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of genre formatting in printed media in Russia are analyzed in the article. A number of printed periodicals are investigated, namely “Ekonomika i zhizn’”, “Vedomosti”, “Schastlivye roditeli” (more than 1200 texts and 5 regional Moscow newspapers (“Kolomenskaya Pravda”, “Zarya”, “Orekhovo-Zuevskaya Pravda”, “Serebryanoprudsky Vestnik”, “Khimkinskie Novosti” comprising more than 400 texts. The author states that formatting of modern printed media and formatting of the used genres occur within the main tendencies of journalism development. They are PR, Westernization, glamorization and usage of Western journalism patterns. It leads to distribution of new text types, such as an advertising article, an ordered article, an image and supporting articles. Some changes in the process of genre formatting in Russia are determined: traditional genre forms characteristic for Russia are reduced and hybrid genres appear instead whereas journalism genres mutate and Western ones are widely applied. This results in news reports as the most popular genres whereas high quality analytical and art-journalistic genres are reduced.

  14. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  15. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Isotope products manufacture in Russia and its prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, S.V.; Okhotina, I.A.; Kalelin, E.A.; Krasnov, N.N.; Kuzin, V.V.; Malykh, J.A.; Makarovsky, S.B. [Tenex, Techsnabexport Co Ltd, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    At the present stage of the world economy development, stable and radioactive isotopes,preparations and products on their base are widely used in many fields of the national economy, medicine and scientific researches. The Russian Federation is one of the largest worldwide producers of a variety of nuclide products on the base of more than 350 isotopes, as follows: stable isotopes reactor, cyclotron, fission product radioactive isotopes, ion-radiation sources compounds, labelled with stable and radioactive isotopes, radionuclide short-lived isotope generators, radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide light and heat sources; luminous paints on base of isotopes. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy coordinates activity for development and organization of manufacture and isotope products supply in Russia as well as for export. Within many years of isotope industry development, there have appeared some manufacturing centres in Russia, dealing with a variety of isotope products. The report presents the production potentialities of these centres and also an outlook on isotope production development in Russia in the next years

  17. ECONOMIC SECURITY OF RUSSIA UNDER THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Instability of economic processes and exacerbation of political tensions regarding Russia require measures in foreign trade policy, which are able to increase the economic security of Russia. The import substitution policy is considered one of the main directions nowadays. There have been considered two directions of the state policy for displacement or substitution of imported goods in the domestic market. There has been also reported the structure of the country's merchandise imports during the period from 2013 until 2015, resulting in a detected negative dynamics of imports, which indicates a successful beginning of the importsubstitution policy. Gradation of the main economic activities according to dependence on imports has allowed identifying the most import-dependent activities and the most available ways to form the import substitution. Threshold amount of economic security of the country has been considered to characterize the external economic security of Russia and some other countries of the world. There has been identified the necessity of state aid, which is reflected in the program of support for transport engineering industry for 2016, subsidies from the federal budget to participants of industrial clusters, the elimination of discriminatory relationships between credit financial institutions and industrial enterprises, the provision of state guarantees for loans to strategic enterprises and organizations of the country

  18. COSTS OF THE HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009. Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.  Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%. Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.

  19. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  20. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  2. The Strategic Partnership between Russia and China in Educational Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Tseya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the scientific and educational cooperation of Russia and China. Over the last two decades it has developed dramatically due to the constant support of the countries’ leaders and resultedin a large number of agreements in scientific, technical, educational and cultural spheres. The partnership involves the joint research programs, training programs, scientific and educational activities, mutual support of academic mobility of teachers and students, international conferences, workshops, contests of innovative projects and students’ festivals. The research methodology combines general scientific methods of logicalcognition, analysis and synthesis, and statistic methods of selection, combination, comparison and generalization. The paper demonstrates the dynamics of Chinese students graduated in Russia from 1950 to 2013 and Russian students graduated in China in the last thirteen years, as well as therelated prognoses for 2020.The partnership between Russia and China in educational sphere has a strategic importance for economic stability and steady development of both countries in the nearest and distant future, given the globalization processes, complicated international situation, etc. However, there still remains a considerable potential for the reciprocal friendly cooperation in educational and cultural spheres. The author emphasizes a need for further exploration and development of the intellectual exchange mechanisms and effectiveness of the process.

  3. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  4. Russia's transition process in the light of a rising economy: Economic trajectories in Russia's industry and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hockmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years Russia has faced an astonishing economic growth, coinciding with the era of Vladimir Putin's presidentship. Accordingly, it is not surprising that commonly these rising economic trajectories are attributed to progress in terms of transition initiated and further triggered by Putin's government. This paper is trying to investigate empirically whether the current growth in Russia tends to be caused mainly by (1 success of transition or just by (2 favourable external circumstances such as rising prices for oil, gas, etc. Thus, analytically, progress in transition has been approximated by efficiency estimates, which are - from a theoretical point of view - expected to be rising in course of transition of a formerly planned economy towards a free market system. In order to capture potentially different trajectories of several sectors and regions industry and agriculture have been considered separately, each at regionally aggregated level over a period of 11 years. In general, little evidence of the anticipated rising trends could be found. Instead, notable ups, downs and divergences among regions and sectors were uncovered. According to this analysis, Russia's current growth rates cannot be attributed to general success of transition. Instead, besides reaping the benefits of favourable external circumstances at world markets, from an empirical point of view, scale effects and slightly rising productivity appear to be the main causes of the recent track record. Moreover, in the industry the trend is also triggered by technological progress, which may indicate the turnaround after a decade of decline and give a reason to believe in an initiation of a long-term growth process. Unfortunately, in agriculture little evidence for such a sustainable growth process was evident so far. In general, the inter-sectoral integration in Russia's economy seems to be still quite low.

  5. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  6. LOW LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AT MURMANSK, RUSSIA: FACILITY UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C.; DYER,R.S.; SORLIE,A.

    2000-03-01

    Today there exist many almost overfilled storage tanks with liquid radioactive waste in the Russian Federation. This waste was generated over several years by the civil and military utilization of nuclear power. The current waste treatment capacity is either not available or inadequate. Following the London Convention, dumping of the waste in the Arctic seas is no longer an alternative. Waste is being generated from today's operations, and large volumes are expected to be generated from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. The US and Norway have an ongoing co-operation project with the Russian Federation to upgrade and expand the capacity of a treatment facility for low level liquid waste at the RTP Atomflot site in Murmansk. The capacity will be increased from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3} /year. The facility will also be able to treat high saline waste. The construction phase will be completed the first half of 1998. This will be followed by a start-up and a one year post-construction phase, with US and Norwegian involvement for the entire project. The new facility will consist of 9 units containing various electrochemical, filtration, and sorbent-based treatment systems. The units will be housed in two existing buildings, and must meet more stringent radiation protection requirements that were not enacted when the facility was originally designed. The US and Norwegian technical teams have evaluated the Russian design and associated documentation. The Russian partners send monthly progress reports to US and Norway. Not only technical issues must be overcome but also cultural differences resulting from different methods of management techniques. Six to eight hour time differentials between the partners make real time decisions difficult and relying on electronic age tools becomes extremely important. Language difficulties is another challenge that must be solved. Finding a common vocabulary, and working through interpreters make the

  7. Evaluation of the implementation of investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds in Russia and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyakova Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to assessing the impact of macroeconomic conditions on the choice of investment strategies and the results of sovereign funds in Russia and Norway . We consider the comparative analysis of realized investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds of foreign countries , and on the basis of SWOT analysis strategy sovereign funds of Norway and Russia plans need to develop effective mechanisms to increase the use and the National Welfare Fund of Russia.

  8. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-01-01

    The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC) of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to...

  9. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuejun, E-mail: zyjmis@126.co [School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China) and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: {yields}This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. {yields} Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. {yields} Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. {yields} Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. {yields} There exists bi-directional causality

  10. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  11. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation Attends Celebrations of 50th Anniversary of Russia-China Friendship Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), the delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia to attend the celebrations of the 50th Anniversary of the RCFA from October 21 to 28, 2007. The delegation included Liu Shu, former vice president of the China Association for Science and Technology; Zhu Jiamu, vice presi-

  12. Design of an Optimal Waste Utilization System: A Case Study in St. Petersburg, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Rodionov; Toshihiko Nakata

    2011-01-01

    Storing municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills is the oldest and still the primary waste management strategy in many countries. Russia is the third largest methane (CH 4 ) emitter country after USA and China, representing 5% of total global CH 4 emissions from waste landfilling. Due to high economical growth, the amount of waste generated in Russia has risen sharply over the last ten years. However, waste management in Russia is mainly based on landfilling. In order to design an optimal MSW...

  13. The Current State of CSR Consultancy Development in Russia and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Armley, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The research examines the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR) consultancy in Russia, as a new growing market, in comparison with well defined CSR consultancy in the UK, more advanced in CSR traditions and practices. The introduction to CSR consultancy has been made through a prism of CSR definitions: how it is interpreted in the West and Russia. Significant attention has been paid to analysing the UK and Russia national CSR systems combining the major drivers of CSR develo...

  14. The EU, Russia and Models of International Society in a Wider Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Makarychev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this article is two-fold: On the one hand, this study aims at analysing the multifaceted EU-Russia relations as seen from different theoretical/conceptual approaches. On the other hand, this article examines how the EU-Russia dialogue is organised in sectoral terms – economy, trade, visa regime liberalisation, and security cooperation. Both the promising and problematic areas in the EU-Russia bilateral relations are identified. The need for a more adequate conceptual framework applicable to the EU-Russia relations as well as a new, more efficient, EU-Russian joint strategy is explained.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Caloplaca in Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchnik Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on 21 Caloplaca Th. Fr. species from central European Russia. Two species are new for Russia: C. atroflava (Turner Mong. s.l. and C. soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek. A further seven are new for European Russia [C. flavocitrina (Nyl. H. Olivier, C. inconnexa (Nyl. Zahlbr., C. marmorata (Bagl. Jatta, C. oasis (A. Massal. Szatala] or central European Russia [C. dichroa Arup, C. interfulgens (Nyl. J. Steiner, C. monacensis (Leder. Lettau]. Short taxonomic notes together with information on habitat and distribution are provided for the newly recorded species. An additional twelve Caloplaca species recognized in the area are also briefly presented.

  16. Special Issue on the Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics was held from November 1 to November 3,2010 at Hong Kong Baptist University.The purpose of the conference is to discuss recent progress in the field of computational mathematics,to promote scholarship and friendship between China and Russia.This is the first time in Hong Kong to organize a joint conference on computational mathematics between China and Russia.Many top scientists in the area of computational mathematics from China and Russia,including academicians and members of Academy of Sciences,attended the conference and presented their research results.

  17. Special Issue on the Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Ng; Zhong-Ci Shi; Eugene E. Tyrtyshnikov

    2012-01-01

    The Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics was held from November 1 to November 3,2010 at Hong Kong Baptist University.The purpose of the conference is to discuss recent progress in the field of computational mathematics,to promote scholarship and friendship between China and Russia.This is the first time in Hong Kong to organize a joint conference on computational mathematics between China and Russia.Many top scientists in the area of computational mathematics from China and Russia,including academicians and members of Academy of Sciences,attended the conference and presented their research results.

  18. Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Spiegeleire, “Europe’s Security Relation with Russia: Staying the Course,” in Dmitri Trenin, Stephan De Spiegeleire, and Angela Stent , “Russia’s Security...to Help Pressure Russia on Energy,” International Herald Tribune, April 30, 2006. 129. Alan Cullison, “Russia Turns up Heat Again Over Natural Gas...Cullison, “Russia Turns up Heat Again Over Natural Gas for Ukraine.” 145. Daniel Yergin, “Ensuring Energy Security,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 2, March

  19. Forum on China-Russia Trade and Economic Relations Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Forum on China-Russia Trade and Economic Relations with the theme of "Current Situation, Potential and Prospects of China-Russia Economic and Trade Cooperation" jointly sponsored by the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) and the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA) was held in Beijing from January 26 to 27, 2008. At the forum, the current situation, existing problems in the development of Sino-Russian economic and trade relations, ways to tackle them and other matters of interest to both sides were discussed.

  20. INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE IN RUSSIA BASED ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND LABORATORY DATA FOR THE PERIOD FROM 2005 TO 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sominina; Burtseva, Elena; Eropkin, Mikhail; Karpova, Ludmila; Zarubaev, Vladimir; Smorodintseva, Elizaveta; Konovalova, Nadezhda; Danilenko, Daria; Prokopetz, Alexandra; Grudinin, Mikhail; Pisareva, Maria; Anfimov, Pavel; Stolyarov, Kirill; Kiselev, Oleg; Shevchenko, Elena; Ivanova, Valeriya; Trushakova, Svetlana; Breslav, Nataliya; Lvov, Dmitriy; Klimov, Alexander; Moen, Ann; Cox, Nancy

    Exchange of information on and sharing of influenza viruses through the GISRS network has great significance for understanding influenza virus evolution, recognition of a new pandemic virus emergence and for preparing annual WHO recommendations on influenza vaccine strain composition. Influenza surveillance in Russia is based on collaboration of two NICs with 59 Regional Bases. Most epidemiological and laboratory data are entered through the internet into the electronic database at the Research Institute of Influenza (RII), where they are analyzed and then reported to the Ministry of Public Health of Russia. Simultaneously, data are introduced into WHO's Flu Net and Euro Flu, both electronic databases. Annual influenza epidemics of moderate intensity were registered during four pre-pandemic seasons. Children aged 0-2 and 3-6 years were the most affected groups of the population. Influenza registered clinically among hospitalized patients with respiratory infections for the whole epidemic period varied between 1.3 and 5.4% and up but to 18.5-23.0% during the peak of the two pandemic waves caused by influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 virus and to lesser extent (2.9 to 8.5%) during usual seasonal epidemics. Most epidemics were associated with influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B co-circulation. During the two pandemic waves (in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011) influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 predominated. It was accompanied by a rapid growth of influenza morbidity with a significant increase of both hospitalization and mortality. The new pandemic virus displaced the previous seasonal A(H1N1) virus completely. As a rule, most of the influenza viruses circulating in Russia were antigenic ally related to the strains recommended by WHO for vaccine composition for the Northern hemisphere with the exception of two seasons when an unexpected replacement of the influenza B Victoria lineage by Yamagata lineage (2007-2008) and the following return of Victoria lineage viruses (2008-2009) was registered