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Sample records for kama sutra worm

  1. Richard Francis Burton e a inserÃÃo do kama-sutras como um manual sexual entre os vitorianos (Inglaterra, 1883)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Salvador Weissheimer

    2014-01-01

    Dentre os vÃrios âKama-sutrasâ difundidos no mercado, a versÃo clÃssica foi escrita por Vatsyayana (sÃculo I-IV, aproximadamente) e publicada na Inglaterra em 1883 pela Sociedade Hindu Kama-Shastra. Richard Francis Burton foi o membro de maior importÃncia na Sociedade Hindu Kama-Shastra, pois, alÃm de fomentar a publicaÃÃo, auxiliou na traduÃÃo, editou e enunciou vÃrios comentÃrios ao longo da obra. Em seus comentÃrios, percebemos que o projeto da traduÃÃo e publicaÃÃo do Kama-sutras visava e...

  2. Worm

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Worm is the gripping story of the 'Conficker' computer virus- which, since its introduction in November 2008, has infected millions of computers around the world - and the cyber security elites who have joined forces in a high-tech game of cops and robbers to find its creators and defeat them. This dramatic cybercrime story travels from the Ukraine to the United States (and all parts in between) to explore the next frontier in terrorism. It is the story of a dazzling battle of wits over the future of the Internet. In Worm, Mark Bowden delivers an unputdownable account of the ongoing and large

  3. Desvendando os Mantras: um mergulho na história da Índia e sua relação com o Kama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Portanova Laborde

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem o objetivo de investigar qual o papel da religião para a formação da sociedade indiana. Nesse sentido, encaminha a discussão sobre o contexto histórico e sua ligação com o sagrado, como forma de salvaguardar a discussão acerca do simbolismo que permeia o Kama Sutra. Nessa análise, discorremos sobre esse processo de construção em torno da religião, como forma de balizar a representação histórica que verifica a investigação entre hinduísmo, budismo e tantrismo como formas de legitimar a sedimentação do Kama Sutra enquanto literatura.

  4. The Kama Sutra, Romeo and Juliet, and Mathematics: Studying Mathematics for Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The motivation of students is of great import to mathematics teachers. Such an abstract powerful language needs to be valued or students will not wish to study it. This article argues that mathematics may be better appreciated through the beauty of the language in which problems are written, respect for the cultures of others and through relevance…

  5. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  6. UNIQUE ILLUSTRATIONS IN TIBETAN BUDDHIST SUTRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The illustrations for Tibetan sutras are coloured in two ways:in black and white or colours-the monotone illustrations accompanying Tibetan characters and usually engraved on woodblocks.The illustrations are often showed on the cover pages or two sides of the head pages of sutras; they are frequently displayed at two frames and in the middle of end pages.In this paper,I am going to introduce the

  7. Programmed Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  8. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. Method: The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra. Result: In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra. Conclusion: Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.

  9. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra...

  10. The Digitalized Protection and Inheritance of the Woodblock Printing Called “Jinling Sutra Printing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Ge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinling Sutra Publishing House, a protection site for Chinese woodblock printing, is the inheritance organization for Chinese woodblock engraving and ink printing of the Chinese Buddhism classics. This paper, taking “Jinling Sutra Printing” as study object, introduced its carving and printing skills, and proposed that, by means of digital acquisition and storage technology, this intangible cultural heritage could be fully documented and presented through characters, pictures, audio, video and other information.

  11. The Digitalized Protection and Inheritance of the Woodblock Printing Called “Jinling Sutra Printing”

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong Ge; Shuyang Deng

    2014-01-01

    Jinling Sutra Publishing House, a protection site for Chinese woodblock printing, is the inheritance organization for Chinese woodblock engraving and ink printing of the Chinese Buddhism classics. This paper, taking “Jinling Sutra Printing” as study object, introduced its carving and printing skills, and proposed that, by means of digital acquisition and storage technology, this intangible cultural heritage could be fully documented and presented through characters, pictures, audio, video and...

  12. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in Kamas Valley, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L.E.; Stolp, B.J.; Spangler, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Kamas Valley, Utah, is located about 50 miles east of Salt Lake City and is undergoing residential development. The increasing number of wells and septic systems raised concerns of water managers and prompted this hydrologic study. About 350,000 acre-feet per year of surface water flows through Kamas Valley in the Weber River, Beaver Creek, and Provo River, which originate in the Uinta Mountains east of the study area. The ground-water system in this area consists of water in unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock; water budgets indicate very little interaction between consolidated rock and unconsolidated deposits. Most recharge to consolidated rock occurs at higher altitudes in the mountains and discharges to streams and springs upgradient of Kamas Valley. About 38,000 acre-feet per year of water flows through the unconsolidated deposits in Kamas Valley. Most recharge is from irrigation and seepage from major streams; most discharge is to Beaver Creek in the middle part of the valley. Long-term water-level fluctuations range from about 3 to 17 feet. Seasonal fluctuations exceed 50 feet. Transmissivity varies over four orders of magnitude in both the unconsolidated deposits and consolidated rock and is typically 1,000 to 10,000 feet squared per day in unconsolidated deposits and 100 feet squared per day in consolidated rock as determined from specific capacity. Water samples collected from wells, streams, and springs had nitrate plus nitrite concentrations (as N) substantially less than 10 mg/L. Total and fecal coliform bacteria were detected in some surface-water samples and probably originate from livestock. Septic systems do not appear to be degrading water quality. A numerical ground-water flow model developed to test the conceptual understanding of the ground-water system adequately simulates water levels and flow in the unconsolidated deposits. Analyses of model fit and sensitivity were used to refine the conceptual and numerical models.

  13. High speed multiplier using Nikhilam Sutra algorithm of Vedic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Manoranjan; Panda, Rutuparna

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the design of a new high-speed multiplier architecture using Nikhilam Sutra of Vedic mathematics. The proposed multiplier architecture finds out the compliment of the large operand from its nearest base to perform the multiplication. The multiplication of two large operands is reduced to the multiplication of their compliments and addition. It is more efficient when the magnitudes of both operands are more than half of their maximum values. The carry save adder in the multiplier architecture increases the speed of addition of partial products. The multiplier circuit is synthesised and simulated using Xilinx ISE 10.1 software and implemented on Spartan 2 FPGA device XC2S30-5pq208. The output parameters such as propagation delay and device utilisation are calculated from synthesis results. The performance evaluation results in terms of speed and device utilisation are compared with earlier multiplier architecture. The proposed design has speed improvements compared to multiplier architecture presented in the literature.

  14. FPGA Implementation of Complex Multiplier Using Urdhva Tiryakbham Sutra of Vedic Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa A. Tomaskar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work VHDL implementation of complex number multiplier using ancient Vedic mathematics is presented, also the FPGA implementation of 4-bit complex multiplier using Vedic sutra is done on SPARTAN 3 FPGA kit. The idea for designing the multiplier unit is adopted from ancient Indian mathematics "Vedas". The Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra (method was selected for implementation since it is applicable to all cases of multiplication. The feature of this method is any multi-bit multiplication can be reduced down to single bit multiplication and addition. On account of these formulas, the partial products and sums are generated in one step which reduces the carry propagation from LSB to MSB. The implementation of the Vedic mathematics and their application to the complex multiplier ensure substantial reduction of propagation delay. The simulation results for 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit and 32 bit complex number multiplication using Vedic sutra are illustrated. The results show that Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra with less number of bits may be used to implement multiplier efficiently in signal processing algorithms.

  15. 从《东大寺讽诵文稿》看日本愿文的仁孝礼佛说%On the Idea of Worshiping Buddha by Benevolence and Filial Piety in Japanese Sutras from Todaiji Sutras Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平

    2009-01-01

    和中的大多数愿文,都不是为特定愿主撰写的"专文专用"的作品,而属于愿文"范文".它们都可以纳入"民间宗教文学"的范畴来进行比较研究.多方面受到传入日本的中国愿文的影响,将礼佛作为报答父母恩情最根本的途径加以宣扬,仁孝的儒家思想彻底变为佛教的工具,体现了平安时代初期佛教从宫廷贵族走向民间的思想特点.与传世愿文相比,佛教哲理的成分更为淡薄,而抒情性、叙述性更为突出.这也为后来文人的追善愿文发展成"哀伤的抒情文学"开辟了道路.%Most sutras in Todaiji Sutras Collection and Dunhuang Sutras Collection are not specifically written for specific purpose,but belong to "models" of sutras.They can be included in Folk Religious Literature for comparative study.Many aspects of Todaiji Sutras Collection are influenced by Chinese sutras spread to Japan,which advocate worshiping Buddha as the basic approach to repaying parents' love.The Confucian ideas of benevolence and filial piety were completely transformed to the tools of Buddhism,which shows the characteristics of Buddhism at the beginning of Heian Period from aristocrats to ordinary people.Compared with sutras,there are fewer elements of Buddhist philosophy,but lyricism and narration are more distinct,which opened ways for sutras of later scholars to develop into "sentimental lyric literature".

  16. SUTRA model used to evaluate the freshwater flow system on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, groundwater model (SUTRA) was developed to understand the effects of seawater washover on the freshwater lens of Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll,...

  17. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus......, the work focuses on ecologists who, in turn, examine worms; and worms amateurs who learn to collect and identify them in the field. Composting, and the waste-eating of earthworms are also experimented with. The "living together " that worms unearth is about eating and being eaten - a set of relations...

  18. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patien...

  19. A lemma science of mind: the potential of the Kegon (Flower Ornament) Sutra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shin'ichi

    2017-02-01

    The paper argues for a new perspective on the relationship between Buddhism and European psychology, or sciences of the mind, based in the Kegon Sutra, a text that emerged in the early stages of Mahayana Buddhism (3(rd) - 5(th) century CE). The basis of European science is logos intellection, formalized by Aristotle as following three laws: the law of identity, the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Logic in the Buddhist tradition, by contrast, is based in lemma (meaning to understand as a whole not with language, but with intuition). Lemma-based science born in the Buddhist tradition shows that rational perception is possible even without the three laws of logos. The Kegon Sutra, which explains what Buddha preached only a week after he attained enlightenment, is unified under the logic of lemma and can be seen as an effort to create a 'lemma science of the mind'. The fundamental teaching of the Kegon Sutra is explored, and its principles are compared with primary process thinking and the unconscious as outlined by Freud and Jung. Jung's research of Eastern texts led him to create a science of the mind that went further than Freud: his concept of synchronicity is given by way of example and can be seen anew within the idea of a lemma-based science. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  1. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  2. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  3. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakhi; Arya, Ramesh C.; Minhas, Satinder S.; Dutt, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patients were randomly allotted to two groups of 10 patients each. Group I patients underwent RBL, whereas patients of group II underwent KSL. Guggul-based Apamarga Kshar Sutra was prepared according to the principles laid down in ancient Ayurvedic texts and methodology standardized by IIIM, Jammu and CDRI, Lucknow. Comparative assessment of RBL and KSL was done according to 16 criteria. Although the two procedures were compared on 15 criteria, treatment outcome of grade II and grade III hemorrhoids was decided chiefly on the basis of patient satisfaction index (subjective criterion) and ability of each procedure to deal with prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal masses (objective criterion): Findings in each case were recorded over a follow-up of four weeks (postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30). Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test for parametric data and Chi square test & Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. P 0.05). Both the groups were comparable statistically on all other grounds. Kshar Sutra Ligation is a useful form of treatment for Grades II and III internal hemorrhoids. PMID:20814519

  4. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  5. Management of pilonidal sinus by Kshar Sutra, a minimally invasive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Amar P

    2010-04-01

    A Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work. It is more common in men (as they have more hair) than in women. The most commonly used surgical techniques for this disorder include excision and primary closure and excision with reconstructive flap. However, the risk of recurrence or of developing an infection of the wound after the operation is high. Also, the patient requires longer hospitalization, and the procedure is expensive. There is a similarity between Shalyaj Nadi Vran described in Sushruta Samhita and Pilonidal sinus. Sushruta has advocated a minimally invasive para-surgical treatment, viz., Kshar Sutra procedure, for nadi vran. Hence this therapy was tried in Pilonidal sinus, and is described in this case report. Kshar Sutra treatment not only minimizes complications and recurrence but also enables the patient to resume work quicker and with less discomfort, impact upon body image and self-esteem as well as reduced cost.

  6. Funeral sites of the beginning of the Late Bronze age in the estuarine Trans-Kama river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyganov Anton V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers results of 2014 field research of the first stage of the late Bronze Age burial grounds in the Volga-Kama region –Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI. These burial grounds are located in the area of the abrasion escarpment of Kuybyshev dam lake, in the confluence of the Volga and the Kama rivers. The first burial ground was discovered by A.H. Khalikov in 1962, the second is a recent discovery. The authors believe that the funeral rite and the inventory of these sites are very similar. All inhumations were made in shallow sub-quadrangular pits, in a crouched position on the left side. The funeral rite and the inventory combine elements of the Pokrovskiy and the Potapovskiy cultural types, which makes the authors to suggest the origins of formation of the Zaymishche type sites here. Analogies revealed in the sites of the Pokrovskiy and Potapovskiy types date existence of Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI burial grounds to the period preceding the Srubnaya cultural-historical community, and overall can fit within 19th – 18th centuries BC.

  7. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  8. A Can of Sea Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  9. Intelligent System for Worm Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Sobh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms are on the top of malware threats attacking computer system although of the evolution of worms detectiontechniques. Early detection of unknown worms is still a problem. This paper produce a method for detecting unknown wormsbased on local victim information. The proposed system uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN for classifying worm/ nonwormtraffic and predicting the percentage of infection in the infected network. This prediction can be used to support decisionmaking process for network administrator to respond quickly to worm propagation in an accurate procedure.

  10. Worm attack detection and response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; YU Xiangzhan; FANG Binxing; YUN Xiaochun

    2007-01-01

    There appear many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years,which have caused severe damage to the society.It is clear that a simple self-propagation worm can quickly spread across the Internet.Therefore,it is necessary to implement automatic mitigation which can detect worm and drop its packet.In this paper,the worm's framework was first analyzed and its two characteristies were detected.Based on the two characteristics,a defending algorithm was presented to protect network.Experimental results verify that our algorithm is very effective to constrain the worm propagation and meanwhile it almost does not interfere in normal activity.

  11. SUTRA model used to evaluate the role of uplift and erosion in the persistence of saline groundwater in the shallow subsurface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A modified version of the three-dimensional, variable-density solute-transport model (SUTRA) was developed to simulate the effects of erosion and uplift on the...

  12. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct......) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...

  13. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  14. A New Paradigm in Fast BCD Division Using Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Sutras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Sengupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, division is the most time consuming an d expensive procedure in the Arithmetic and Logic Unit of the processors. This paper proposes a novel division algorithm based on Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Sutras which is much faste r compared to conventional division algorithms. Also large value for the dividend and t he divisor do not adversely affect the speed as time estimation of the algorithm depends on the num ber of normalizations of the remainder rather than on the number of bits in the dividend a nd the divisor. The algorithm has exhibited remarkable results for conventional midrange proces sors with numbers of size around 50 bits(15 digit numbers, the upper ceiling of comput able numbers for conventional algorithms and the algorithm can divide numbers having size up to 38 digits (127 bits with conventional processor in the present form, if modified it can d ivide even bigger numbers.

  15. Sun Xi-miao in T he Biogr aphy of T he Avatamsaka - Sutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Hyun- Sook

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to introduce and examine the biography of Sun Xi-miao(孫思邈581-682 which I found in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經傳記, that Fazang(法藏643-712 wrote in 692 A.D. This document was neglected to understand Sun who was the famous medical writer of the collection of prescriptions, the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方. His life is rather well documented, because he has his own biographies in Jiu Tang shu and Xin Tang shu(新唐書 which cited from Da Tang sin yu(大唐新語, published in 807. But I found several new informations about Sun in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra, such as he use to be a military medicine in the troops of Li Yuan(李淵 who became the first emperor Kao Tsu(高祖 of Tang dynasty and treat Sun with great favour. This document let us know that the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方 was dedicated to Kao Tsu, known as published in 652 A.D. MY CONCLUSIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: First, it was written by Fazang in 692 A.D, who was the real establisher of the fraternity of the Avatamsaka in China, for the purpose of encouraging to copy the Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經. According to this biography, Sun made 750 copies to persuade the monks and the peoples, and that's the reason Fazang wrote his biography.Secondly, it was not conveyed to posterity, such as Sun was good looking, tall and use to be the medicine of Kao Tsu and dedicated his medical book to the first emperor. It might be left out for Tai Tsung(太宗's sake in the official records, who murdered his brother, the heir apparent to the throne and became the second emperor by himself. On the contrary, it was written in Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang shu that Sun made a prediction that his collection of prescriptions would help the holyman after 50 years from Xuan Di(宣帝578-579 of Northern Chou(北周 Dynasty. Holyman meant Tai Tsung. It shows that Sun's biographies in the Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang Shu were

  16. Structure and evolution of the Sura-Kama strike-slip zone in the Cenozoic (the Volga-Ural anteclise of the East European Platform)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodyazhnyi, S. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    The Sura-Kama zone (SKZ) complicates the central area of the Volga-Ural anteclise and extends sublaterally from the Sura River basin towards the Kama River at a distance of 700-750 km. Based on the analysis of geological-geophysical data and structural studies, a model for the tectonic structure and the evolution of the SKZ is developed. This is a deep tectonic fault that shows the features of long-term polystage development. During the latest Cimmerian-Alpine period of tectonic reactivation, the SKZ represented a zone of strike-slip and consecutive manifestation of early transpressional right-lateral strike-slip dislocations that changed to left-lateral strike-slip displacements under transtension settings as a result of kinematic inversion. Features of the heterogeneous structure of the SKZ are revealed. The segments formed by the system of strike-slip duplexes are alternated along the strike by the principle of rotation-fold and "domino" structures. The particular models of evolution of these segments are proposed by the examples of the widely known Karlin, Tetyushin, and Lower Kama dislocations. It is assumed that kinematic inversion and compression-decompression phenomena on the flanks of the SKZ, as well as the tectonic environments in the area of its dynamic influence were highly important for the development of the processes of migration and redistribution of hydrocarbon components.

  17. Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yichang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear by using SolidWorks. On the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Obtain the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear. Modal analysis laid the foundation for further study on dynamics analysis, Also for the worm and worm gear structure optimization design provides a reference.

  18. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  19. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  20. Leitin að hinum fullkomna líkama: Vangaveltur um líkamsmynd ungra kvenna

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Birgisdóttir 1992

    2016-01-01

    Markmið ritgerðarinnar er að komast að hvað veldur því að svona mikill fjöldi ungra vestrænna kvenna hefur bæði neikvæða sjálfs- og líkamsmynd. Fjallað verður um staðalímyndir samfélagsins og þá miklu pressu sem ungar konur finna fyrir í hinu daglega lífi hvað varðar útlit, líkama og hegðun. Farið verður yfir þá utanaðkomandi áhrifavalda sem taldir eru geta valdið slæmri sjálfs- og líkamsmynd hjá ungum konum, til að mynda fjölmiðla og orðræðu samfélagsins. Á undanförnum árum hefur umræða...

  1. Formation of Microelement Composition and Hydrogeochemical Anomalous Zones of Ground-water of the Kama PreUrals Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kopylov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of hydrogeochemical studies and groundwater mapping in the Kama PreUrals are given in the article. Analytical data (more than 2000 spectral analyses of water samples, mainly from the springs are analyzed. Regularities of distribution of the background values of basic geochemical parameters (macro – and microelements in groundwater has been studied. Hydrogeochemical particularities are revealed. Hydro-geochemical zoning was conducted and the geochemical anomalous zones were deter-mined. Studies provided for the first time an integrated assessment of microelements hydrogeochemistry of the Western Urals and the PreUrals at the regional level. A large number of hydrogeochemical anomalies are located on the territory of the Perm region. It was established that concentration for 18 elements exceeds a legislation admissible limit. The large anomalous zones are characteristic for high concentrations of Br, B, Ba, Mn, and Ti, but anomalies of Sb, Be, Cd, V, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sr, F, Zn, Co, Mo, and P are observed locally. Anomalies in the zone of active water exchange form 14 complex geochemical anomalous zones of areas from 2 000 up to 9 000 km2. The natural environments of formation of hydrogeochemical fields are the main factors of generation of the geochemical anomalies with predominant role of structural, tectonic conditions, and geodynamic (neotectonic activity. The major hydrogeochemical anomalies spatially coincide with litho-geochemical, geophysical anomalies, and geodynamic active zones.

  2. Worms by number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, C J; Glasby, S P; Pleijel, F

    2008-09-22

    This paper investigates alternation patterns in length, shape and orientation of dorsal cirri (fleshy segmental appendages) of phyllodocidans, a large group of polychaete worms (Annelida). We document the alternation patterns in several families of Phyllodocida (Syllidae, Hesionidae, Sigalionidae, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae and Acoetidae) and identify the simple mathematical rule bases that describe the progression of these sequences. Two fundamentally different binary alternation patterns were found on the first four segments: 1011 for nereidiform families and 1010 for aphroditiform families. The alternation pattern in all aphroditiform families matches a simple one-dimensional cellular automaton and that for Syllidae (nereidiform) matches the Fibonacci string sequence. Hesionidae (nereidiform) showed the greatest variation in alternation patterns, but all corresponded to various known substitution rules. Comparison of binary patterns of the first 22 segments using a distance measure supports the current ideas on phylogeny within Phyllodocida. These results suggest that gene(s) involved in post-larval segmental growth employ a switching sequence that corresponds to simple mathematical substitution rules.

  3. NEDAC: A WORM COUNTERMEASURE MECHANISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    disruption of services and significant financial losses to government, transportation ... A vulnerability can be exploited by a worm if it is network reachable, provides .... of the detection and containment systems across of local network across two ...

  4. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  5. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  6. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  7. LUBRICATION BASIS THEORY OF WORM PAIR AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON WORM GEAR SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The lubrication basis theory of worm pair is given. The lubrication state of worm gear is analyzed. It is found that the temperature distribution on the tooth surface of worm gear is closely related with the lubrication state and that the temperature on the tooth surface of worm gear is consistent with the characteristic term of mesh and motion of worm pair.

  8. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin , S.; M. FAIZAL A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  9. Produksi Functionally Graded Material (FGM dari Hydroxyapatite-Serat Sutra untuk Aplikasi di Bidang Biomaterial dengan Teknik Pulse Electric Current Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to produce functionally graded material (FGM of Hydroxyapatite (Hap-silk fibroin by pulse electric current sintering in facing the need in biomaterial application. The sample is created with 4 layers with the thickness for each layer is 0,625 mm, so that the total samples thickness become 2.5mm, with diameter 15 mm. The carbon die is used to compact the sample. The composition of lower layer is 100% silk fibroin, after that 90% silk fibroin +10% Hap, third layer was 80% silk fibroin + 20%Hap, and 70% silk fibroin +30% Hap for the upper layer. The properties of the FGM product was characterized by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, three point bend with single-edge beam fracture toughness test (KIC. The grade of the FGM material is proven by using electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. The value of fracture toughness is 0.45 MPa.m1/2. The sample still can support the load after maximum load is reached. Optical micrograph and SEM, and result from EPMA indicate that the Hap-silk fibroin FGM can be produce perfectly by using the method that is introduced in this research. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan memproduksi functionally graded material (FGM dari hydroxyapatite (Hap-serat sutra, melalui teknik pulse electric current sintering untuk memenuhi tantangan kebutuhan akan bahan jenis ini untuk digunakan dibidang biomaterial. Benda uji terdiri dari 4 lapis dengan ketebalan sama untuk tiap lapisnya sehingga tebal total menjadi 2.5 mm dengan diameter 15 mm. Komposisi lapisan paling bawah adalah 100% serat sutra, setelah itu 90% serat sutra + 10% Hap. Lapisan ketiga dengan komposisi 80% serat sutra + 20% Hap, dan 70% serat sutra + 30% Hap untuk lapisan paling atas. Perilaku produk FGM ini dikarakterisasikan dengan mikroskop optik, mikroskop electron, uji ketangguhan retak three point bend with single-edge. Gradasi (grade dari FGM dibuktikan dengan electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA

  10. Brocade SilkWorm 3250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越

    2004-01-01

    Brocade SilkWorm 3250是一款8端口的入门级光纤交换机产品。它采用1U设计,主要被设计用来简化SAN存储系统的部署和监控管理。作为基于Brocade第三代通信技术的产品之一.SilkWorm 3250能够提供2Gbps的光纤通道吞吐量.可大幅度改善交换机的运行状况。

  11. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  13. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  14. SUTRA: A model for 2D or 3D saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Provost, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program that simulates fluid movement and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. This upgraded version of SUTRA adds the capability for three-dimensional simulation to the former code (Voss, 1984), which allowed only two-dimensional simulation. The code employs a two- or three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated: 1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated ground-water flow; and 2) either (a) transport of a solute in the ground water, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay; or (b) transport of thermal energy in the ground water and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above processes. A flow-direction-dependent dispersion process for anisotropic media is also provided by the code and is introduced in this report. As the primary calculated result, SUTRA provides fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA flow simulation may be employed for two-dimensional (2D) areal, cross sectional and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of saturated ground-water flow systems, and for cross sectional and 3D modeling of unsaturated zone flow. Solute-transport simulation using SUTRA may be employed to model natural or man-induced chemical-species transport including processes of solute sorption, production, and decay. For example, it may be applied to analyze ground-water contaminant transport problems and aquifer restoration designs. In addition, solute-transport simulation with SUTRA may be used for modeling of variable-density leachate movement, and for cross sectional modeling of saltwater intrusion in

  15. Anal fistula with foot extension—Treated by kshara sutra (medicated seton) therapy: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P. Bhat

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An ‘anal’ fistula is a track which communicates anal canal or rectum and usually is in continuity with one or more external openings. Distant communication from rectum is rare. It is a challenging disease because of its recurrence especially, with high level and distant communications. Ksharasutra (medicated seton) therapy is being practiced in India with high success rate (recurrence of 3.33%) in the management of complicated anal fistula. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 56 year old man presented with recurrent boils in the left lower limb at different places from thigh to foot. He underwent repeated incision and drainage at different hospitals. Examination revealed sinus with discharge and multiple scars on left lower limb from thigh up to foot. Suspecting anal fistula, MRI was advised which revealed a long cutaneous fistula from rectum to left lower limb. Patient was treated with Ksharasutra therapy. Within 6 months of treatment whole tract was healed completely. DISCUSSION Sushrutha (500BC) was the first to explain the role of surgical excision and use of kshara sutra for the management of anal fistula. Ksharasutra therapy showed least recurrence. Fistula from rectum to foot is of extremely rare variety. Surgical treatment of anal fistula requires hospitalization, regular post-operative care, is associated with a significant risk of recurrence (0.7–26.5%) and a high risk of impaired continence (5–40%). CONCLUSION Rectal fistula communicating till foot may be a very rare presentation in proctology practice. Kshara sutra treatment was useful in treating this condition, with minimal surgical intervention with no recurrence. PMID:23702360

  16. kama Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  18. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  19. Worms--a "license to kill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  20. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  1. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  2. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Epée, Emillienne; Koki, Godefroy; Owono, Didier; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.

  3. Worms and Humans: A Happy Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Hannah; Britton, Sven; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic asymptomatic worm infection, often in combination with tuberculosis (TB), is common in low-income countries. Indeed, a life without worm infestation, as is now the case in most high-income countries, is a recent condition for humankind. Worms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis give rise to different immune response patterns (Th2 vs. Th1 driven), and we have studied whether chronic worm infection affects the susceptibility to and control of TB in the low income country of Ethiopia. Our results, as well of those in the general literature, are inconclusive, although we have some rather strong data in support of adult deworming in relation to vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against TB. In addition, we discuss briefly the putative relationship between chronic worm infestation and autoimmunity/allergy.

  4. Method of accurate grinding for single enveloping TI worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Yuehai; ZHENG; Huijiang; BI; Qingzhen; WANG; Shuren

    2005-01-01

    TI worm drive consists of involute helical gear and its enveloping Hourglass worm. Accurate grinding for TI worm is the key manufacture technology for TI worm gearing being popularized and applied. According to the theory of gear mesh, the equations of tooth surface of worm drive are gained, and the equation of the axial section profile of grinding wheel that can accurately grind TI worm is extracted. Simultaneously,the relation of position and motion between TI worm and grinding wheel are expounded.The method for precisely grinding single enveloping TI worm is obtained.

  5. 蒙古语诵经音乐中唱诵音乐的形态类型初探%Thick description on the morpho - types of chant sutras music of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚高娃

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis and thick description on the morpho - types of chant sutras music of Mongolian, so that the author tries to verify that the characteristics of systematism and systematization which are formed in the development of chant sutras music of Mongolian. It also proves that Tibetan Buddhism has been assimilated by Mongolian culture through analy- zing the three morphotypes of chant sutras music.%对蒙古语诵经音乐中唱诵音乐形态类型的分析和解读及其对它进行深度阐释,目的是证实:蒙古语诵经音乐在发展过程中所形成的体系化和系统化特点;以唱诵音乐中三种形态类型的分析证实藏传佛教蒙古化的特点。

  6. On the Relationship between Apocryphal Sutras and the Ancient Chinese Literature%疑伪经与中国古代文学关系之检讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小荣

    2012-01-01

    在国际汉学领域之佛教文学研究中,学人对重要的单部疑伪经或同类型的疑伪经较为关注,故相关成果也相对突出,但对疑伪经总体性质的认识却较有欠缺。有鉴于此,有必要从宏观角度来讨论疑伪经与中国古代文学之关系。它主要表现在四大层面:一者从文学史言,疑伪经本身就是古代宗教文学不可分割的组成部分之一;二者从思想史言,疑伪经是印度佛教中国化最直接的文本体现;三者从欣赏趣味言,疑伪经塑造的人物形象更符合中土民众的审美心理;四者从影响言,疑伪经既为后世作家提供了大量的文学创作素材,进而形成固定的母题,同时,又促成了某些佛教法会仪式的形成与流播。当然,中土固有的文学作品,也对疑伪经的撰作产生过相当的影响。%In the academic circle of internaitonal sinology, shcolars pay more attention to single Apocry- phal or Apocryphals of same kind in terms of Buddhist literature. Therefore, it is productive in this field of re- search with abundant achievements. However, there lacks recognition concerning the overall quality of all A- pocryphals. This article discussed relationship between Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras and ancient Chinese litera- ture from a macro point of view. It is mainly manifested in the four levels: ( 1 ) from ancient Chinese literary history, the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras itself is an integral part of the ancient religious literature; (2) from the history of ideas, the Apocryphal Sutras reflects the most direct Indian Buddhism's process in China; (3) from the Chinese people's appreciating tastes, the characters shaped by the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras have more national aesthetic psychology than those original Buddhist scriptures; (4) from the impacts, the Bud- dhist apocryphal sutras have not only provided a great deal of literary creation materials, thus forming a fixed motif, but also led to

  7. An introduction to worm lab: from culturing worms to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Parihar, Manish; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2011-01-11

    This protocol describes procedures to maintain nematodes in the laboratory and how to mutagenize them using two alternative methods: ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen combined with ultraviolet light (TMP/UV). Nematodes are powerful biological systems for genetics studies because of their simple body plan and mating system, which is composed of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males that can generate hundreds of progeny per animal. Nematodes are maintained in agar plates containing a lawn of bacteria and can be easily transferred from one plate to another using a pick. EMS is an alkylating agent commonly used to induce point mutations and small deletions, while TMP/UV mainly induces deletions. Depending on the species of nematode being used, concentrations of EMS and TMP will have to be optimized. To isolate recessive mutations of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, animals of the F2 generation were visually screened for phenotypes. To illustrate these methods, we mutagenized worms and looked for Uncoordinated (Unc), Dumpy (Dpy) and Transformer (Tra) mutants.

  8. 莫高窟第454窟观无量寿经变研究%A study on the Amitayurbhavana Sutra Illustration in Mogao Cave 454

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊叶

    2016-01-01

    通过对莫高窟第454窟观无量寿经变内容的详细考证,认为该经变左侧条幅十六观画面中以菩萨观来代替后三观中的三辈生想观,旨在表明往生皆可成就菩萨道,也是愿“上品往生”思想的反映。同时,敦煌晚唐、五代、宋时观无量寿经变中的九品往生已不再在净土庄严相的七宝池中绘出,而是集中绘于十六观之中,大多以后三观代替,并且这后三观常以菩萨观绘出,以显往生成菩萨道。%Based on the detailed textual research content of the Amitayurbhavana sutra art in Mogao Cave cave 454,the article points out the three of behind the Sixteen meditations images is bodhisattva meditations images instead of the three generation born meditations in the left banner of the sutra illustration,the purpose is to show that all the persons can be reborn to be bodhisattva,is also the reflect of willing“reborn to top grade”.At the same time,the ninefold future life did not draw in the pure land of the Amitayurbhavana sutra art of dunhuang caves in the late Tang dynasty,Five Dynasties,Song dynasty ,but in Sixteen meditations images,they mostly is the bodhisattva meditations images,to show to be the bodhisattva in future life.

  9. REVIEW OF SOURCE PLANTS OF KSHARA FOR KSHARA SUTRA PREPARATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FISTULA-IN-ANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Sudipt Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ksharasutra is a successful novel drug delivery system in managing cases of fistula-in-ano. Currently, the ksharasutra is prepared with Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera kshara. Although this ksharasutra has been a landmark success, but naturally it has certain clinical problems like pain, burning sensation and itching associated with it. These problems can be attributed to different doshas. Ayurveda also postulates for different herbs for different individuals on basis of their constitution and doshic involvement of the clinical condition. Sushruta has enlisted 23 plants for source of kshara which have to be used together for kshara preparation. Sushruta has also laid a principle to take the practically available plants, whether all or some or even one, for preparing a formulation from the enlisted plants of a category. Therefore, there is a classical support to use one or few of the source plants for preparing kshara and a pharmacological possibility that these ksharas prepared out of different plant will behave differently. The incidence of itching in Apamarga ksharasutra is the least and this can be related to the predominant kapha shamaka action of Apamarga. Therefore, it is logical to hypothesize that kshara made out of a Vata shamaka plant may cause less incidence of pain and a kshara made out of a Pitta shamaka plant may cause less incidence of burning sensation. The article critically reviews the classical, contemporary views on kshara and its source plants, the already available information supporting the role of these plants in healing of fistula-in-ano with an objective to explore specific kshara sutra on basis of doshic involvement.

  10. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  11. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  12. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  13. The self-organizing worm algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-modal optimization algorithm called the self-organizing worm algorithm (SOWA) is presented for optimization of multi-modal functions.The main idea of this algorithm can be described as follows:disperse some worms equably in the domain;the worms exchange the information each other and creep toward the nearest high point;at last they will stop on the nearest high point.All peaks of multi-modal function can be found rapidly through studying and chasing among the worms.In contrast with the classical multi-modal optimization algorithms,SOWA is provided with a simple calculation,strong convergence,high precision,and does not need any prior knowledge.Several simulation experiments for SOWA are performed,and the complexity of SOWA is analyzed amply.The results show that SOWA is very effective in optimization of multi-modal functions.

  14. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  15. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  16. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  17. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  18. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  19. Modeling and Detection of Camouflaging Worm using IP Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Preetha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active worms pose major security threats to the Internet. This is due to the ability of active worms to propagate in an automated fashion as they continuously compromise computers on the Internet. Active worms evolve during their propagation, and thus, pose great challenges to defend against them. A new class of active worms, referred to as Camouflaging Worm (C-Worm in short. The C-Worm is different from traditional worms because of its ability to intelligently manipulate its scan traffic volume over time. Thereby, the C-Worm camouflages its propagation from existing worm detection systems based on analyzing the propagation traffic generated by worms. The characteristics of the C-Worm and conduct a comprehensive comparison between its traffic and non-worm traffic (background traffic. The two types of traffic are barely distinguishable in the time domain. However, their distinction is clear in the frequency domain, due to the recurring manipulative nature of the C-Worm. Motivated by observations, designed a novel spectrum-based scheme to detect the C-Worm. The Power Spectral Density (PSD distribution of the scan traffic volume and its corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. Using a comprehensive set of detection metrics and real-world traces as background traffic, the extensive performance evaluations on proposed spectrum-based detection scheme. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation. Furthermore, show the generality of spectrum-based scheme in effectively detecting not only y the C-Worm, but traditional worms as well

  20. P2P worm detection based on application identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chunhe; SHI Yunping; LI Xiaojian; GAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    P2P worm exploits common vulnerabilities and spreads through peer-to-peer networks.Despite being recognized as a potential and deadly threat to the Internet recently,few relevant countermeasures are found in extant literature.Once it breaks out,a P2P worm could result in unpredictable losses.Based on propagation characteristics of the worm,this paper presents a detection method called PWD (P2P Worm Detection),which is designed based on application identification and unknown worm detection.Simulation result and LAN-environment experiment result both indicate that PWD is an effective method to detect and block P2P worms.

  1. Detection and location algorithm against local-worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XinYu; SHI Yi; ZHU Huidun

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the worm causes great harm to the computer network. It has recently become the focus of the network security research. This paper presents a local-worm detection algorithm by analyzing the characteristics of traffic generated by the TCP-based worm. Moreover, we adjust the worm location algorithm, aiming at the differences between the high-speed and the low-speed worm scanning methods. This adjustment can make the location algorithm detect and locate the worm based on different scanning rate. Finally, we verified the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm by simulating it under NS-2,

  2. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  3. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  4. Modeling and analyzing of the interaction between worms and antiworms during network worm propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; DUAN Haixin; LI Xing

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of antiworms with a worm population of e.g. hosts of worm infected and hosts of antiworm infected must be considered as a dynamic process. This study is an attempt for the first time to understand how introduction of antiworm affects the dynamic of network worm propagation. In this paper, we create a mathematical model (SIAR model) using ordinary differential equations to describe the interaction of worms and antiworms. Although idealized, the model demonstrates how the combination of a few proposed nonlinear interaction rules between antiworms and worms is able to generate a considerable variety of different kinds of responses. Taking the Blaster and Nachi worms as an example, we give a brief analysis for designing a practical antiworm system. To the best of our knowledge, there is no model for the spread of an antiworm that employs the passive scan and the finite lifetime and we believe that this is the first attempt on understanding the interaction between worms and antiworms.

  5. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  6. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  7. Darknet-Based Inference of Internet Worm Temporal Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm attacks pose a significant threat to network security and management. In this work, we coin the term Internet worm tomography as inferring the characteristics of Internet worms from the observations of Darknet or network telescopes that monitor a routable but unused IP address space. Under the framework of Internet worm tomography, we attempt to infer Internet worm temporal behaviors, i.e., the host infection time and the worm infection sequence, and thus pinpoint patient zero or initially infected hosts. Specifically, we introduce statistical estimation techniques and propose method of moments, maximum likelihood, and linear regression estimators. We show analytically and empirically that our proposed estimators can better infer worm temporal characteristics than a naive estimator that has been used in the previous work. We also demonstrate that our estimators can be applied to worms using different scanning strategies such as random scanning and localized scanning.

  8. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator , but also more general correlators such as or , as well as condensates like , can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  9. Sampling of General Correlators in Worm Algorithm-based Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the complex $\\phi^4$-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a (bosonic) worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator $$, but also more general correlators such as $$ or $$ as well as condensates like $$ can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by (bosonic) worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  10. Ascariasis: challenges in the diagnosis of single worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S Poongodi Alias; Palaniappan, N; Arunagiri, A

    2013-09-01

    One of the most common parasitic infections in humans is ascariasis. While most infectionsare asymptomatic, mild to moderate symptoms may occur due to migration of adult worms. The frequency of single worm infection seems to be increasing. Ascaris eggs are not found in the faeces of most cases infected with a single worm because it is an immature male or female. Diagnosis of such single worm infection is challenging.

  11. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  12. Worms,Your Unlikely Allies etc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Back in the Stone Age,humans had to put up with all sorts of creepy crawlies.Parasites - organisms that live on or in another organism - lingered inside our bodies,living off of our blood.Because internal parasites go mostly unnoticed,they were able to keep living with humans.People can survive a long time with tiny parasitic worms in their intestines.

  13. Parametric Analysis of the End Face Engagement Worm Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xingqiao; WANG Jueling; WANG Jinge; CHEN Shouan; YANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  14. Worm algorithm for the CPN−1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The CPN−1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CPN−1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CPN−1 model for N>2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CPN−1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CPN−1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  15. Review and analysis on actual case of logistic support for successful risk-elimination of Kama Reservoir%卡马水库成功排险后勤保障实例评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文利

    2011-01-01

    卡马水库排险过程中,武警水电部队充分发挥专业化装备优势和组织纪律优势,统筹谋划、科学组织、精心保障,在地方政府的大力支持下,圆满完成了抢险后勤保障任务,为成功排险提供了坚强的后勤保障.%During the risk-elimination of Kama Reservoir, the Armed Police Hydropower Troops has taken the advantages of both the professional equipment and the organizational discipline into full play and successfully fulfilled the logistic support of the risk-elimination with the effects of over-all planning, scientific organization and careful guarantee under the energetic support from the local government concerned, and then provided a strong logistic support for the successful risk-elimination.

  16. WormBook: the online review of Caenorhabditis elegans biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Lisa R; Fiedler, Tristan J; Harris, Todd W; Carvalho, Felicia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Han, Michael; Sternberg, Paul W; Stein, Lincoln D; Chalfie, Martin

    2007-01-01

    WormBook (www.wormbook.org) is an open-access, online collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters on the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Since WormBook was launched in June 2005 with 12 chapters, it has grown to over 100 chapters, covering nearly every aspect of C.elegans research, from Cell Biology and Neurobiology to Evolution and Ecology. WormBook also serves as the text companion to WormBase, the C.elegans model organism database. Objects such as genes, proteins and cells are linked to the relevant pages in WormBase, providing easily accessible background information. Additionally, WormBook chapters contain links to other relevant topics in WormBook, and the in-text citations are linked to their abstracts in PubMed and full-text references, if available. Since WormBook is online, its chapters are able to contain movies and complex images that would not be possible in a print version. WormBook is designed to keep up with the rapid pace of discovery in the field of C.elegans research and continues to grow. WormBook represents a generic publishing infrastructure that is easily adaptable to other research communities to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge in the field.

  17. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  18. Endoscopy in a rare presentation of worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be a life threatening complication. Hookworms infestation usually causes chronic blood loss resulting in anemia. A 52 year old male presented to us with massive gastrointestinal blood loss and hemodynamic instability. On examination he had anemia, which on evaluation was iron deficient microcytic hypochromic anemia with eosinophilia. On evaluation of small bowel mucosa showed multiple hookworms moving on the surface. He improved with anthelmintics, blood transfusion and supportive management. The repeat evaluation showed eradication of worms. Hookworms presenting as a massive gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare entity. Enteroscopy plays an important role in diagnosing hookworm infestation.

  19. Mini-hemoglobins from nemertean worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergon, Thomas L; Riggs, Austen F

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) found in members of the phylum Nemertea are smaller than any other known Hb molecules. These mini-Hbs have been of great interest because of their unique three-dimensional structure and their stable ligand-binding properties. Also of interest is the expression of mini-Hb in neural tissue, body wall muscle tissue, and red blood cells. This chapter outlines methods that may be used to isolate and purify functional mini-Hbs from all three tissue types in nemertean worms.

  20. NSME: a framework for network worm modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Siming; Cheng, Xueqi

    2006-01-01

    Various worms have a devastating impact on Internet. Packet level network modeling and simulation has become an approach to find effective countermeasures against worm threat. However, current alternatives are not fit enough for this purpose. For instance, they mostly focus on the details of lower layers of the network so that the abstraction of application layer is very coarse. In our work, we propose a formal description of network and worm models, and define network virtualization level...

  1. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  2. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator 〈ϕ⁎(xϕ(y〉, but also more general correlators such as 〈|ϕ(x||ϕ(y|〉 or 〈arg⁡(ϕ(xarg⁡(ϕ(y〉, as well as condensates like 〈|ϕ|〉, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  3. The Sutra Origin of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva Belief of Jiuhua Mountain%九华地藏信仰起源之佛典“钩锁骨鸣”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张总

    2012-01-01

    九华山金地藏信仰中,费冠卿所说"经云:菩萨钩锁、百骸呜矣"其实有着深厚的经典依据,但长期以来未深入探考。实际上佛典中对从凡夫到至诸象狮及十住菩萨与佛的骨骸结构与力量大小有一套说法,亦说骨骸声鸣能反映其五趣六道所在。这些经典说法对灵验故事僧俗传记都产生了影响,在金地藏信仰中也起到重要作用。%In Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva belief of Jiuhua Mountain,there are many sutras about"the clasp-like articulation of a Bodhisattva,sound ringing every-joint of skeleton"said by FeiGuanqin,which has not been discussed deeply longtime.There are actually statements about a power from a Buddha to a Bodhisattva to an elephant to a lion and a mortal,linking with the different forms of articulation-bone,and the sound ring from a group articulation which can reflect five destinies six realms.Those affect the afflatus stories and the monk biography,and become the belief base of incarnation Monk Kin kaikuo.

  4. Local structure of numerically generated worm hole spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siino, M.

    The author investigates the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, he interprets the evolution of the worm hole structure.

  5. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  6. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  7. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  8. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  9. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Nambu, Y; Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  10. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these sce

  11. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  12. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  13. Research and Development of P2P Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li You; Zhi-Guang Qin

    2011-01-01

    With the development and the application of many popular peer-to-peer (P2P) systems such as eMule and BitTorrent,worms probably employ the features of these P2P networks to put them at risk.Some features,such as the local routing table and the application routing mechanism,are helpful to quickly distribute the P2P worms into the networks.This paper aims to give a comprehensive survey of P2P worms.The definition and the classification of P2P worms are discussed firstly.Then,the research and development of P2P worms, including experimental analysis,propagation modeling,and defensive approaches,are addressed and analyzed in detail.

  14. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  15. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  16. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    CERN Document Server

    Concha, Andrés; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. Using anatomical images, high speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating micro-fluidic devices as well as novel ways for micro and nano fiber production using bioinspired strategi...

  17. SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport). A Finite-Element Simulation Model for Saturated-Unsaturated, Fluid-Density-Dependent Ground-Water Flow with Energy Transport or Chemically-Reactive Single-Species Solute Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Copies of this report can be . write to. purchased from: • Chief Hydrologist U.S, Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Services Section 431...request to the originating office at the following address: Chief Hydrologist - SUTRA U.S. Geological Survey 431 National Center Reston, VA 22092 Copies ...P P p p P P".. !Iol’e tor: fr sOl i ," ,ir p every third irv step and tor I’ each t’me step (NPCCYC=3 and NI (’ i =1 I: " - : 2 - 12 1

  18. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  19. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  20. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guevara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  1. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  3. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential ... development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at ..... systems.Agric. Wmles 2: 43--60. RAMISCH. H. & GRAFF. o. 1985.

  4. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, N. R.; Worley, A.; Grant, K. A. G.; A. R. Gorman; Vizard, V.; Plackett, H.; Doran, C.; Gamble, M. L.; Stumpe, M.; Sendova-Franks, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to co-ordinate their movements so that even at low densities t...

  5. Discrete Modeling of the Worm Spread with Random Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masato

    In this paper, we derive a set of discrete time difference equations that models the spreading process of computer worms such as Code-Red and Slammer, which uses a common strategy called “random scanning” to spread through the Internet. We show that the derived set of discrete time difference equations has an exact relationship with the Kermack and McKendrick susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, which is known as a standard continuous time model for worm spreading.

  6. WormBase: new content and better access

    OpenAIRE

    Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Ozersky, Philip; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Nansheng; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Girard, Lisa; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    WormBase (http://wormbase.org), a model organism database for Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematodes, continues to evolve and expand. Over the past year WormBase has added new data on C.elegans, including data on classical genetics, cell biology and functional genomics; expanded the annotation of closely related nematodes with a new genome browser for Caenorhabditis remanei; and deployed new hardware for stronger performance. Several existing datasets including phenotype descripti...

  7. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  8. Searching WormBase for information about Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-07-01

    WormBase is the major public biological database for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is meant to be useful to any biologist who wants to use C. elegans, whatever his or her specialty. WormBase contains information about the genomic sequence of C. elegans, its genes and their products, and its higher-level traits such as gene expression patterns and neuronal connectivity. WormBase also contains genomic sequences and gene structures of C. briggsae and C. remanei, two closely related worms. These data are interconnected, so that a search beginning with one object (such as a gene) can be directed to related objects of a different type (e.g., the DNA sequence of the gene or the cells in which the gene is active). One can also perform searches for complex data sets. The WormBase developers group actively invites suggestions for improvements from the database users. WormBase's source code and underlying database are freely available for local installation and modification.

  9. Development of a WormCAD using Parametric Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Oluwole Agboola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gears as power transmission devices are capable of changing the speed, torque, and direction of a power source and are considered to be one of the most important devices used in many types of machinery owing to their durability and higher power transmission efficiency. Worm gears as a type of gear are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are very useful in machine design but its design requires a lot of design assumptions and calculations. To achieve a rapid design devoid of errors, there is need to have a customized computer program capable of designing worm gears using standardized design equations; and that is what WormCAD stands for. The software was designed using JavaScript programming language and the Node.js platform. The WormCAD was tested to be accurate, faster and convenient hence it will be a viable software to be used by worm gear designers.

  10. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages. PMID:28302989

  11. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  13. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  14. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  15. Research on the Propagation Models and Defense Techniques of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yun Huang

    2008-01-01

    Internet worm is harmful to network security, and it has become a research hotspot in recent years. A thorough survey on the propagation models and defense techniques of Internet worm is made in this paper. We first give its strict definition and discuss the working mechanism. We then analyze and compare some repre sentative worm propagation models proposed in recent years, such as K-M model, two-factor model, worm-anti worm model (WAW), firewall-based model, quarantine based model and hybrid benign worm-based model, etc. Some typical defense techniques such as virtual honeypot, active worm prevention and agent-oriented worm defense, etc, are also discussed. The future direction of the worm defense system is pointed out.

  16. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  17. Commwarrior worm propagation model for smart phone networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei; LI Zhao-hui; CHEN Zeng-qiang; YUAN Zhu-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Commwarrior worm is capable of spreading through both Bluetooth and multimedia messaging service (MMS) in smart phone networks. According to the propagation characteristics of Bluetooth and MMS, we built the susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered-dormancy (SEIRD) model for the Bluetooth and MMS hybrid spread mode and performed the stability analysis. The simulation results show good correlation with our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of this dynamic propagation model. On the basis of the SEIRD model, we further discuss at length the influence of the propagation parameters such as user gather density in groups, moving velocity of smart phone, the time for worm to replicate itself, and other interrelated parameters on the propagation of the virus. On the basis of these analytical and simulation results, some feasible control strategies will be proposed to restrain the spread of mobile worm such as commwarrior on smart phone network.

  18. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  19. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  1. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers.

  2. [Common tropical infections with protozoans, worms and ectoparasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin have become rarer in industrialized nations, but they still affect a considerable part of the population in tropical regions. Skin diseases induced by protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are among the 17 "neglected tropical diseases" defined by the WHO (leishmaniasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis). Skin symptoms in travellers returning from the tropics may challenge dermatologists in Germany regarding differential diagnostic assessment and therapy. Among the 12 most frequent skin diseases in travellers are cutaneous larva migrans, leishmaniasis and myiasis. In this review, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of some the most relevant tropical dermatoses due to protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are discussed.

  3. Ascariasis-associated worm encephalopathy in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram; Marwaha, R K; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Kunal

    2009-04-01

    Infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides in children has a varied manifestation, but encephalopathy is a very rare presentation. This report describes a case of ascariasis-associated encephalopathy in a child. An 18-month-old boy was admitted with altered sensorium. He had a history of vomiting and was passing Ascaris worms in the vomitus. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated with an antihelminthic drug and he recovered completely. Worm encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis for unexplained encephalopathy in tropical areas.

  4. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  5. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  6. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  7. Round worm in the ear: A clinical rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhushan Rangappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body in otolaryngology practice is a common scenario. There have been very few documentations of a worm entering the ear through the Eustachian tube. We hereby report a very interesting such case and also discuss the possible cause postulated for such events.

  8. Opinion dynamics driven by leaders, media, viruses and worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, and worms and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. Effects of some time varying drives, (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated. Key words: Opinion; Leader; Media; Market; Buyers; Sellers; Excess

  9. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  10. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for Classroom"; and (8) "Case Studies". Appendices include educational…

  11. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms.

  12. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the applica

  13. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  14. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  15. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  16. Theoretical study on real tooth surface of novel toroidal worm by the forming method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel toroidal worm-gearing is a kind of worm transmission with spherical meshing elements, which is made up of worm, steel balls and worm gear, and its loading capacity and adaptability to errors can be improved by the mismatched technology applied to the meshing pair. Based on the directrix of worm surface, the mathematic model of worm surface is established, and the directrix-based forming method for machining worm surface is proposed. Further, the principle error in the machining process is analyzed, and the theoretic and real tooth surfaces of worm are fitted and compared on OpenGL platform. The results show that the tooth profile error can be controlled at the range of 0~1×10-5mm, and it is always 0 at the pressure angle.

  17. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Computer Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真.%In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid model, putting the changeable parameters design were put in the part 3D model creating procedure. The rapid modeling of worm gear and worm were realized by generating visual variable parameters dialog box. On this basis,the virtual assembly and motion simulation were made for rapid modeling of worm gear and worm.

  18. 敦煌壁画中的经架——兼议莫高窟第156窟前室室顶南侧壁画题材%The Sutra Stand in the Dunhuang Murals and the Subject Matter of the Southern Ceiling Mural of Cave 156

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊叶

    2011-01-01

    In some murals of the Dunhuang Grottoes, eminent monks or laymen are shown reading or preaching sutras from a small shelf-like stand. This stand has not come to the attention of earlier studies. Based on her analysis of sutras, Dunhuang documents and murals, and a the collections of the Shoso-in in Japan, the author suggests this object should be called a "sutra stand," and discusses its use and development. Based on this research, she also looked through all the different scenes and motifs of the sutra stand in the Mogao Grottoes. This study is valuable for judging the age and motif of Dunhuang murals.%一经架考辨 在敦煌莫高窟的一些表现高僧或俗人读经、讲经的壁画中,佛经有时被安置在一个架子形的小件器物上。此种器具应当称为经架,在前贤的研究中尚未对其有所关注。 《全唐诗》第554卷载有唐人项斯的一首五言律诗《寄坐夏僧》:“坐夏日偏长,知师在律堂。多因束带热,更忆剃头凉。苔色侵经架,松阴到簟床。

  19. 生弧哲学与魂归相地——摩经视域下的布依族思想信仰世界%The Philosophy of Life and Death and the Return of Souls to Their Hometown:The Religious Beliefs by the Buyi People in the View of Mo Sutra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗正副

    2012-01-01

    摩经是布依族在举行宗教祭仪、亡灵超度等活动过程中形成的文本典籍,是最具宗教思想和信仰意义的经典。布依族的生死哲学体现为正常死亡前有各种征兆预示,寿终正寝后由布摩超度亡灵,使灵魂一步步回归祖地。魂归祖地是布依族形上信仰世界的终极追求和至高境界,这一切在摩经里有详细的叙述和具体的呈现。%Mo Sutra is a special sutra with typical religious thoughts and beliefs of the Buyi people, which is formed in the process of religious rituals or releasing souls from suffering. The philosophy held by the Buyi people towards life and death embodies that there are symptoms or omens before the natural death happens. After the natural death, the soul will be released and led to the homeland step by step by the Pomo. The return of soul to the homeland is regarded as the ultimate pursuit and the Excellence in the philosophy by the Buyi people, which is narrated and embodied in details in Mo Sutra.

  20. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  1. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  2. Pre-stressed Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear%蜗杆蜗轮有预应力的模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜敞; 田春林; 刘涛; 王晓军

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the ordinary cylindrical worm and worm gear as the research object, which is used for transmission mechanism for automatic clutch in automobile. The three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear is established by using SolidWorks. First of all on the worm and worm gear is static analysis, get the equivalent nephogram and the displacement nephogram of worm and worm gear. In order to prevent resonance, respectively on the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. By modal analysis, the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear is gotten. From the analysis of results, resonance did not occur between the worm and worm gear. This result provides a theoretical basis for the structure improvement and later dynamic analysis of the worm and worm gear.%本文以汽车自动离合器传动机构的蜗杆和蜗轮为研究对象,运用SolidWorks建立蜗杆和蜗轮的三维模型,将模型导入到ANSYS Workbench中,再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行静力学分析,得到蜗杆和蜗轮的等效应力云图和位移云图;然后再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行模态分析,通过对模型进行模态分析,获得了蜗杆和蜗轮的前6阶固有频率和振型特征,通过结果分析,发现蜗杆和蜗轮之间不会发生共振,该结果为蜗杆和蜗轮的结构改进设计以及以后的动力学分析提供了理论依据。

  3. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  4. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Wang; David Blair; Tian Min; Fang Li; Dianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimuswestermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Methods: Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. Results: The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Conclusions: Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis.

  5. Achievements of Study Concerning Worm Face Gear Made in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Boloş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm face gears are a relatively new category of gear failure in 50 years in the USA. They are composed of a conical or cylindrical worm to engage the front wheel of a conical or flat. Geometric configuration to ensure a great contact ratio and lubrication between the flanks favorable conditions which allow their implementation of hardened steel, gray iron, bronze. Also they will produce big rapport of transmission in a single stage. Originally conceived by Illinois Tool Works Company Chicago they were taken and developed at the Institute of Mechanical Izhevsk (Russia. Experimental and theoretical developments were made in Britain, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. In the present paper is highlighted the concerns and the achievements of researchers from Romania in the period 1980-2009.

  6. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  7. An Improved Lower Bound for Moser's Worm Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2007-01-01

    We show that any convex region which contains a unit segment, an equilateral triangle of sides 1/2, and a square of side 1/3 always has area at least 0.227498. Using grid-search algorithm, we attempt to find a configuration of these three objects with minimal convex hull area. Consequently, we improve a lower bound for Moser's worm problem from 0.2194 to 0.227498.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png G...landiceps_hacksi_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  9. Multi-worm tracking using superposition of merit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Linda Ivonne; Potsaid, Benjamin; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    2008-11-01

    Traditional solutions for long term imaging of living small biological specimens and microorganisms lack efficiency due to computationally expensive algorithms, and field of view limitations in optical microscopes. This paper describes a new algorithm that allows for real time tracking of multiple 1mm nematodes called Caenorhabditis elegans with a novel optical microscope design called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), developed at the Center for Automation Technologies and Systems (CATS). Based on the real time experimentation, an improved algorithm to track multiple worms in the presence of entanglements is generated. The stages of this development start with an enhanced digital motion controller for the ASOM high speed scanning mirror to suppress undesired vibrations that limit the system capacity to track multiple organisms. The second phase is the integration of the ASOM apparatus, the high speed motion control, and a base tracking algorithm, all which allows for rapid image acquisition to track multiple C. elegans in real time. The base algorithm was developed at CATS and has been proven to track a single C. elegans in real time. Results demonstrating the efficacy of the complete system are presented. Lastly, an enhanced tracking algorithm is described that shows improved accuracy and robustness in tracking worms even when they become entangled. Taking into account the unique ASOM design, individual segments of the worm are tracked throughout an image sequence, and a mosaic pattern covering the entire worm is subsequently created. The algorithm takes advantage of geometric and dynamic knowledge of the C. elegans such as size, and movement patterns. The enhanced algorithm is tested on previously recorded footage. Simulated tracking experiments also illustrate the effectiveness of the enhanced algorithm and are presented.

  10. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  11. Worm algorithm for the CP N - 1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The CP N - 1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP N - 1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP N - 1 model for N > 2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP N - 1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP N - 1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  12. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  13. The mathematical and computer modeling of the worm tool shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, K. L.; Lyashkov, A. A.; Ayusheev, T. V.

    2017-06-01

    Traditionally mathematical profiling of the worm tool is carried out on the first T. Olivier method, known in the theory of gear gearings, with receiving an intermediate surface of the making lath. It complicates process of profiling and its realization by means of computer 3D-modeling. The purpose of the work is the improvement of mathematical model of profiling and its realization based on the methods of 3D-modeling. Research problems are: receiving of the mathematical model of profiling which excludes the presence of the making lath in it; realization of the received model by means of frame and superficial modeling; development and approbation of technology of solid-state modeling for the solution of the problem of profiling. As the basic, the kinematic method of research of the mutually envelope surfaces is accepted. Computer research is executed by means of CAD based on the methods of 3D-modeling. We have developed mathematical model of profiling of the worm tool; frame, superficial and solid-state models of shaping of the mutually enveloping surfaces of the detail and the tool are received. The offered mathematical models and the technologies of 3D-modeling of shaping represent tools for theoretical and experimental profiling of the worm tool. The results of researches can be used at design of metal-cutting tools.

  14. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid molding, putting the changeable parameter design in the part 3D model creating procedure. By generating visual variable parameters dialog box, realize the rapid modeling of worm gear and worm. On this basis, finished rapid modeling of worm gear and worm of virtual assembly and motion simulation, laid the foundation for the follow - up study of the worm and worm gear.%在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真,为蜗轮蜗杆机构的后续研究奠定了基础.

  16. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  17. Electro-worming: The Behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observati...

  18. A NOVEL METHOD FOR NETWORK WORM DETECTION BASED ON WAVELET PACKET ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Mingtao; Zhang Deyun; Hou Lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage. Methods On the basis of characteristics of network worm attack, the concept of failed connection flow (FCT) was defined. Based on wavelet packet analysis of FCT time series, this method computed the energy associated with each wavelet packet of FCT time series, transformed the FCT time series into a series of energy distribution vector on frequency domain, then a trained K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier was applied to identify the worm. Results The experiment showed that the method could identify network worm when the worm started to scan. Compared to theoretic value, the identification error ratio was 5.69%. Conclusion The method can detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage effectively.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of 44.6 kDa Protein from Schistosoma japonicum Male Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欲晓; 易新元; 曾宪芳; 袁仕善; 张顺科; LarryMCREYNOLDS

    2004-01-01

    Soluble male worm antigen of Schistosoma japonicurn (Sj) was investigated for development of new vaccine candidate. SDS--PAGE and Western blotting were performed to compare the difference between soluble antigens from worms of different sex. Mice vaccination with the testing purified protein was followed by Sj cereariae challenge to detect the protective effect against Sj. Sixteen bands were seen for the soluble male worm antigen and 12 for the female worm. In addition, a distinct band of 44.6 kDa from the male worm antigen was observed, and its antigenicity was demonstrated by Western blotting. This 44.6 kDa protein could induce significant worm and egg reduction rate in mice (39.31%, 41.98%, P < 0.001). Inthis study a 44.6 kDa protein was isolated and partially characterized. Its antigenicity, immunogenicity and the partial immune protection suggest its potential vaccine candidte against Sj.

  20. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  1. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  3. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  4. Cooperative Automated Worm Response and Detection Immune Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; McLeod, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The role of T-cells within the immune system is to confirm and assess anomalous situations and then either respond to or tolerate the source of the effect. To illustrate how these mechanisms can be harnessed to solve real-world problems, we present the blueprint of a T-cell inspired algorithm for computer security worm detection. We show how the three central T-cell processes, namely T-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation, naturally map into this domain and further illustrate how such an algorithm fits into a complete immune inspired computer security system and framework.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were...

  6. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  7. Free-Living Tube Worm Endosymbionts Found at Deep-Sea Vents▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Tara L.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Nussbaumer, Andrea D.; Bright, Monika; Ng, Andrew W.; DeChaine, Eric G.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep-sea vestimentiferan tube worms acquire their endosymbiotic bacteria from the environment each generation; thus, free-living symbionts should exist. Here, free-living tube worm symbiont phylotypes were detected in vent seawater and in biofilms at multiple deep-sea vent habitats by PCR amplification, DNA sequence analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. These findings support environmental transmission as a means of symbiont acquisition for deep-sea tube worms. PMID:18408062

  8. Fast Multicast on Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Multi-Head Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaodong; XU Ming; ZHOU Xingming

    1999-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes a new approach forimplementing fast multicast on multistage interconnection networks (MINs)with multi-head worms. For an MIN with n stages of k×k switches,a singlemulti-head worm can cover an arbitrary set of destinations with asingle communication start-up. Compared with schemes using unicastmessages, this approach reduces multicast latency significantly andperforms better than multi-destination worms.

  9. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  10. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  11. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  12. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  13. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  14. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  16. Design and analysis of SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi; Fu, Peng; Dou, Changsheng; Li, Qing; Hu, Guangwu; Xia, Shutao

    2017-02-01

    The mobile Internet has considerably facilitated daily life in recent years. However, it has become the breeding ground for lots of new worms, including the Bluetooth-based worm, the SMS/MMS-based worm and the Wi-Fi-based worm. At present, Wi-Fi is widely used for mobile devices to connect to the Internet. But it exposes these devices to the dangerous environment. Most current worm propagation models aim to solve the problems of computer worms. They cannot be used directly in the mobile environment, particularly in the Wi-Fi scenario, because of the differences between computers and mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a worm propagation model in the Wi-Fi environment, called SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious- Quarantined-Recovered). In the model, infected nodes can be quarantined by the Wi-Fi base station, and a new state named the Quarantined state (Q) is established to represent these infected nodes. Based on this model, we present an effective method to inhibit the spread of the Wi-Fi-based worms. Furthermore, related stabilities of the worm-free and endemic equilibriums are studied based on the basic reproduction number R0. The worm-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, whereas the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our model by comprehensive experiments with different infection rates and quarantine rates. The results indicate that our mechanism can combat the worms propagated via Wi-Fi.

  17. 汉译《法华经》陀罗尼译音所反映的韵母系统%The Finals System Reflected in the Transliteration of the Chinese Scripts of Lotus Sutra Dharani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧婧

    2012-01-01

    From the transliteration of the Dharani of Lotus Sutra at three different times, we can come to the roughly vowel system of the three periods, and conclude the following characteristics of the middle Chinese phonetics: 1 ) the transliteration of Chongniu (重纽) third-class and Chongniu (重纽) forth-class is different, and the Chongniu (重纽) third-class translates the top sound in Sanscript, so it may have a special pronunciation; 2) second-level rhyme is similar to the Chongniu (重纽) third-level, and may also have a special pronunciation; 3 ) some rhymes in Guangyun (广韵), may be confluent; 4) the third -class rhyme translates the sanscripts without medials, but that does not mean it has lost the medials.%利用汉译《法华经》三种不同时期的陀罗尼译音材料进行梵汉对勘,得出了三个时期大致的韵母系统,并得出了中古汉语语音的特点:1.重纽三四等韵有别,重纽三等韵对译顶音,可能有特殊的读音;2.二等韵和三等韵在对译上有相似之处,可能也有特殊的读音;3.《广韵》的一些韵,有合流的倾向;4.三等韵虽对译没有介音的梵音,但不表示其丢失i介音。

  18. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  19. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  20. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  1. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the so

  2. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  3. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems.A novel multigroup SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure.Then,the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established.It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1,the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually,whereas,if R0 is greater than 1,one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable,thus the worm persists in the network.Finally,numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. A Potential Approach of Internet Worm Propagation Based on P2P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; LUO Xingrui; GAO Fuxiang; YU Ge

    2006-01-01

    Various kinds of active worms have been plunging into the network flows, which make the Internet security problem more serious. Our research on a potential propagation approach of active worms, P2P-based propagation approach, is given in this paper. To measure the propagating performance of our approach, the SEI (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected) propagation model is presented. It proves that with the idea of pure P2P architecture, worms can be hidden in the early stage of propagation, and then infect most of the hosts in a shorter period. By comparing our SEI propagation model with the Simple Epidemic Model, we observe that the size of a worm is a significant parameter which can affect the propagating performance. When the size of the worm becomes large, our approach can still show an excellent propagating performance.

  5. DIRECT DIGITAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MESHING IN WORM-GEAR DRIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wujiao; QIN Datong; SHI Wankai

    2006-01-01

    A direct digital design method (DDDM) of worm-gear drive is proposed. It is directly based on the simulation of manufacturing process and completely different from the conventional modeling method. The loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) method is analyzed, in which the advanced surface to surface searching technique is included. The influence of misalignment errors and contact deformations on contact zone and transmission error (TE) is discussed. Combined modification approach on worm tooth surface is presented. By means of DDDM and LTCA, it is very convenient to verify the effect of worm-gear drive's modification approach. The analysis results show that,the modification in profile direction reduces the sensitivity of worm-gear drive to misalignment errors and the modification in longitudinal direction decreases the TE. Thus the optimization design of worm-gear drive can be achieved prior to the actual manufacturing process.

  6. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  7. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads.

  8. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Bergeron, Vance; Charitat, Thierry; Farago, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  9. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  10. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  11. Worms, wisdom, and wealth: why deworming can make economic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald A P; Walson, Judd L; Watkins, Kristie L

    2013-03-01

    For those of us who have had worms, getting rid of them seems a good idea, and multiple studies demonstrate the simplicity and benefit of deworming children. In the past decade or so, there has been a dramatic increase in efforts to provide inexpensive deworming medications, but at the same time there have been calls to re-evaluate the impact of deworming programs. In this review, we examine the history of deworming and explore the evidence for effects of deworming on health, on child development, and on economic returns. Important policy conclusions include that a paucity of randomized trial data suggesting benefit does not equate to a lack of benefit and that a greater emphasis on documenting such benefit should be pursued.

  12. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  13. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  14. Nonvolatile WORM memory devices based on polymethacrylate with azoanthraquinone group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel polymethacrylate containing azoanthraquinone chromophore in the side chain(PMAzoaq6) was synthesized and characterized.An electronic memory device having the indium-tin oxide(ITO)/PMAzoaq6/Al sandwich structure was fabricated and its electrical bistability was investigated.The as-fabricated device was initially found to be at the OFF state and the switching threshold voltage was 1.5 V.After undergoing the OFF-to-ON transition,the device maintains the high conducting state(ON state) even after turning off the electrical power and applying a reverse bias.The device exhibits a write-once-read-many-times(WORM) memory effect with a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 105 and a long retention time in both ON and OFF states,which demonstrated that the synthetic azoanthraquinone-containing polymer possesses a high potential to become polymeric memory devices.

  15. Malignant worms: what cancer research can learn from C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, R Mako; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Developmental processes in the nematode C. elegans are controlled by pathways of gene functions that are analogous to those used in mammals. Hence, genetic studies in C. elegans have helped build the frameworks for these regulatory pathways. Many homologs of human genes that are targets for mutation in cancer have been found to function at distinct steps within such genetic pathways. This way, studies in C. elegans have provided important clues about the functions of human oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Understanding how human cancer genes function and act in signaling cascades is of great importance. This information reveals what kind of molecular changes contribute to the process of cell transformation. Moreover, additional candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors may be revealed by identifying the functional partners of genes with an established role in cancer. Furthermore, identifying a cascade of gene functions increases the number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, as blocking either one of multiple genes may interfere with signal transduction through the pathway. Simultaneous approaches in a number of different model systems act synergistically in solving pathways of gene functions. By using multiple models, the field takes advantage of the strengths of each system and circumvents its limitations. As one of the most powerful genetic animal systems, C. elegans will continue to reveal new mammalian signaling components. In addition, now that the C. elegans genome sequence has been completed, an increasing number of researchers are likely to discover homologs of human disease genes in the nematode and to analyze gene function in the worm model. Combined with the great potential of this animal in drug screens, it is simple to predict that C. elegans will worm its way deeper and deeper into cancer research.

  16. Immunization of mice with cells from juvenile worms of Schistosoma japonicum provides immunoprotection against schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To validate the protective efficacy against schistosomiasis by immunization with cells from juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model and to analyze possible factors related to protection, in this study, two independent repeated vaccination trials were performed. After three subcutaneous vaccinations, in trial one, in the absence of adjuvant, primary juvenile worm cells (pJCs) from S. japonicum induced remarkable average reductions in worm burden (54.3%), liver eggs per gram (LEPG) load (59.8%) as well as egg granulomas size (66.5%) compared to PBS control group (P<0.01), which were significantly higher than those elicited by fractions of juvenile worm cells (JCFs) or fractions of juvenile worms (JWFs) (P<0.05). Non-cell components of worms (WNCs) showed no significant protection. In trial two, compared to PBS control group, significant protective effect was also observed for cultured juvenile worm cells (cJCs) from S. japonicum with 58.4% worm reduction and 68.1% LEPG reduction (P<0.01). However, cultured adult worms cells (cACs) showed significantly higher worm burden (P<0.05) and egg burden (P<0.01) when compared to cJCs. Immunological analysis of trial two revealed that cJCs engendered a Th1-biased mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response while cACs elicited a Th2-type response. Our data indicated that immunization with both primary and cultured cells from S. japonicum juvenile worms provided high immunoprotection, for which the physical character of immunogens, stage-specific parasite and the type of immune response induced might be responsible, suggesting that vaccination with whole cells from S. japonicum larvae is a promising approach to produce protective immunity against schistosomiasis.

  17. 网络蠕虫的演化%Evolution of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋礼鹏

    2011-01-01

    To study the evolutionary selection of intemet worms on the spreading rate under the complex ecological environment, a worms spreading model was presented. Firstly, the model's equilibria and their stability conditions were obtained mathematically and then verified by simulations. Based on the analysis, a random algorithm was used to simulate the spreading of worms at different spreading rates. Simulation results show that the complex ecology favors the worms with low spreading rate. Then, the impacts of anti-worm methods on the worms with low spreading rate were studied. Results show that the worms can be contained by enhancing the detecting ability of anti-worm system or introducing other anti-worm worms.%针对复杂生态环境中网络蠕虫对传播率的演化选择问题,给出了一个蠕虫传播模型.运用动力学分析方法得到了模型的平衡态及其稳定性条件,并进行了仿真验证.在理论分析的基础上,利用随机算法仿真了不同传播率对蠕虫传播的影响.仿真结果表明,复杂生态环境更有利于具有小传播率的蠕虫.对该类蠕虫,进一步仿真了防病毒技术对其影响.结果表明,加强杀毒系统对小传播率蠕虫的查杀能力和引入竞争性蠕虫能有效遏制该类蠕虫的传播.

  18. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitao Wu

    Full Text Available Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the proximal colon microbiota. In this study, interactions between worm burden and severity of disruptions to the microbial composition and metabolic potentials in the porcine proximal colon microbiota were investigated using metagenomic tools. Pigs were infected by a single dose of T. suis eggs for 53 days. Among infected pigs, two cohorts were differentiated that either had adult worms or were worm-free. Infection resulted in a significant change in the abundance of approximately 13% of genera detected in the proximal colon microbiota regardless of worm status, suggesting a relatively persistent change over time in the microbiota due to the initial infection. A significant reduction in the abundance of Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus indicated a change in the fibrolytic capacity of the colon microbiota in T. suis infected pigs. In addition, ∼10% of identified KEGG pathways were affected by infection, including ABC transporters, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis as well as α-linolenic acid metabolism. Trichuris suis infection modulated host immunity to Campylobacter because there was a 3-fold increase in the relative abundance in the colon microbiota of infected pigs with worms compared to naïve controls, but a 3-fold reduction in worm-free infected pigs compared to controls. The level of pathology observed in infected pigs with worms compared to worm-free infected pigs may relate to the local host response because expression of several Th2-related genes were enhanced in infected pigs with worms versus those worm-free. Our findings provided insight into the dynamics of the proximal colon microbiota in pigs in response to T

  19. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-04

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi.

  20. New culvert under the Rhine near Worms assures energy and water supplies; Neuer Rheindueker bei Worms sichert Energie- und Wasserversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, W. [Buderus Giesserei Wetzlar, Wetzlar (Germany); Schoepwinkel, R.; Maue, T. [EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Muenster, V.; Vranjes, S. [Sax und Klee GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    In 2007, EWR Netz GmbH awarded a contract for a new culvert under the Rhine for long-term assurance of energy and water supplies for Worms, the city of the ancient German Nibelungen saga, and for the South Hessian municipalities of Lampertheim and Buerstadt. 'Direct Pipe', a new trenchless construction method, was used for the first time anywhere in the world for the bore under the Rhine. This involved installation of a 464 m long DN 1200 protective steel casing pipe under the bed of the Rhine, traversing silt, sand and gravel. An innovative clamp system was then used to draw a DN 600 drinking-water pipeline and twelve cable conduits into this casing pipe. (orig.)

  1. Mesh theory of angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the meshing theory of the angle modified hourglass worm drive is enriched and developed. The ordinary condition of the angle modification is derived and the physical significance of the modification is interpreted. A normal section methodology is proposed for meshing analysis, which can be used to compute the normal distance near a singular meshing point of a conjugate surface couple. By means of the method and after analyzing the normal transversals, it is specified that the worm helicoid, the nominal former contact zone and the new contact zone intersect each other along the locus of singular points of the instantaneous contact lines of an angle-modified worm pair. As a result, it is explained clearly that those three osculate each other but the osculations are different in degree. Moreover, the mechanism of removing the twice-contacted zone from the worm gear tooth surface is clarified and the reason of shortening the worm working length is also elucidated. With the help of the theory described in the present paper and the thorough and systematic research on the relevant meshing characteristics, the angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive has been shown to be an excellent new-fashioned hourglass worm set.

  2. In vitro effects of antibiotics on Brugia malayi worm survival and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R; Well, Gary J

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intracellular Wolbachia spp. endobacteria are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes. The effects of antibiotics that are active against related bacteria on adult worms and microfilariae (Mf) of Brugia malayi in vitro were investigated. Antibiotics tested were doxycycline (Doxy), tetracycline (Tet), rifampicin (Rif), azithromycin (Azith), and chloramphenicol (Chlor). Doxy, Tet, Rif, and Azith reduced release of Mf by adult female worms. The minimum effective concentrations that reduced Mf release by 50% were 5 microg/ml for Doxy, 20 microg/ml for Tet, 40 microg/ml for Rif, and 100 microg/ml for Azith. The same drugs (at higher concentrations) killed adult worms and Mf. Embryograms showed that Tets blocked embryogenesis in female worms. Electron microscopy (EM) showed that the Tets, Rif, and Azith cleared Wolbachia spp. from adult worms and damaged developing embryos. These studies show that antibiotics active against Rickettsiaceae affect adult B. malayi worms and Mf in vitro. Additional studies will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action of these antibiotics on Wolbachia and filarial worms.

  3. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  4. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  5. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  6. EarthWorm at INGV: monitoring the Italian seismicity and some more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since March 2005 we started testing EarthWorm as an auxiliar acquisition system at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma). This was mainly dedicated to the acquisition of real-time seismic signal, to the data processing with a primary objective to locate earthquakes in the Italian Region. We also explored the capability of EarthWorm to be a robust and reliable system for automatically dissiminate parametric information and seismic data to the other routine activities of the network as magnitude estimation, moment tensor and Shakemap computation. We will present some preliminar results together with the technical improvements set up to integrate EarthWorm in the existing system.

  7. Gallbladder ascariasis with uneventful worm migration back to the duodenum: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaque, Majid; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Khanday, Samina Ali

    2012-04-01

    Ascariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is regarded by some authorities as the most common parasitic infection in humans. The causative organism is Ascaris lumbricoides, which normally lives in the lumen of the small intestine. From the intestine, the worm can invade the bile duct or pancreatic duct, but invasion into the gallbladder is quite rare because of the anatomical features of the cystic duct, which is narrow and tortuous. Once it enters the gallbladder, it is exceedingly rare for the worm to migrate back to the intestine. We report a case of gallbladder ascariasis with worm migration back into the intestine, in view of its rare presentation.

  8. Discussion on the systematic position of the Early Cambrian priapulomorph worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Diying; CHEN Junyuan; J. VANNIER

    2006-01-01

    @@ Priapulid worms form a small marine phylum in present-day environments with only 18 described species, but they were the most abundant animals in the endobenthic communities of the Cambrian. They are particularly well represented in the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale of China [1-3] and the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of Canada [4]. The priapulid worms from the 530 Ma old Maotianshan Shale 5 be placed within 6 basic groups: selkirkiid, corynetid, anningid, palaeoscolecidan, tylotitid and priapuliid [5]. In addition, another important endobenthic worm phylum, the Sipuncula has been also reported from the Maotianshan Shale [6].

  9. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  10. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  11. Phagocytes: A Holistic Defense and Protection Against Active P2P Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruichuan; Lua, Eng Keong; Crowcroft, Jon; Tang, Liyong; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Active Peer-to-Peer (P2P) worms present serious threats to the global Internet by exploiting popular P2P applications to perform rapid topological self-propagation. Active P2P worms pose more deadly threats than normal scanning worms because they do not exhibit easily detectable anomalies, thus many existing defenses are no longer effective. We propose an immunity system with Phagocytes --- a small subset of elected P2P hosts that are immune with high probability and specialized in finding an...

  12. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  13. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  14. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  15. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  16. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  17. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  18. Worm-hole run-time reconfigurable processor field programmable gate array (FPGA)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Higher performance is gained through a new architecture which implements a new method of computational resource allocation, utilization and programming based on the concept of Worm-hole Run-Time Reconfiguration (RTR). A stream-driven Worm-hole RTR methodology extends contemporary data-flow paradigms to utilize the dynamic creation of operators and pathways, based upon stream processing in which parcels of data move through custom created pathways and interact with other parcels to achieve the...

  19. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical management.

  20. Dynamics of Infected Snails and Mated Schistosoma Worms within the Human Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Besigye-Bafaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female worms are independently distributed within a human host each with a Poisson probability distribution mass function. Mating takes place immediately when partners are available. It was found that the mated worm function is non-linear near the origin and becomes almost linear as the worms increase. They increase with increase in the worm load due to aggregation of worms. This also increases the infection of snails which are secondary hosts. On the analysis of the model, three equilibrium states were found, two of which were stable and one unstable. A stable endemic equilibrium within a community is very much undesirable. So the main objective of the model was to have the point O(0,0 as the only equilibrium point. This is a situation where there are no worms within the human host and the environment is free of infected snails. A critical point, above which the disease would be chronic and below which the disease would be eradicated, was found and analyzed. The parameters indicated that to achieve a disease free environment, the death rate of worms within the human host should be much greater than the cercariae that penetrate the human. Also the death rate of infected snails should be much higher than the contact rate between the miracidia and the snails. It was concluded that de-worming and killing of snails should be emphasized for disease control and educating the masses on the modes of disease transmission is quite necessary for prevention of the disease.

  1. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  2. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  3. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  4. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  5. Viscoelastic properties of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a self-similar, shear-thinning worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2013-03-19

    Undulatory motion is common to many creatures across many scales, from sperm to snakes. These organisms must push off against their external environment, such as a viscous medium, grains of sand, or a high-friction surface; additionally they must work to bend their own body. A full understanding of undulatory motion, and locomotion in general, requires the characterization of the material properties of the animal itself. The material properties of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans were studied with a micromechanical experiment used to carry out a three-point bending measurement of the worm. Worms at various developmental stages (including dauer) were measured and different positions along the worm were probed. From these experiments we calculated the viscoelastic properties of the worm, including the effective spring constant and damping coefficient of bending. C. elegans moves by propagating sinusoidal waves along its body. Whereas previous viscoelastic approaches to describe the undulatory motion have used a Kelvin-Voigt model, where the elastic and viscous components are connected in parallel, our measurements show that the Maxwell model, where the elastic and viscous components are in series, is more appropriate. The viscous component of the worm was shown to be consistent with a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluid. We find that as the worm matures it is well described as a self-similar elastic object with a shear-thinning damping term and a stiffness that becomes smaller as one approaches the tail.

  6. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  7. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  8. 基于刚柔耦合的蜗轮蜗杆疲劳寿命分析%Fatigue Life Analysis of Worm and Worm Wheel Based on FAMFAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史亮; 范久臣; 冯增铭; 乔晗

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the mechanical transmission mechanism of worm and worm wheel in the load fatigue failure under the action of the problem , by Recurdyn the coupled analysis of worm gear and worm, obtained the worm gear and worm in the load stress distribution. Based on the coupling analysis results, through FAMFAT analysis the fatigue life of the worm gear and worm, obtained the worm gear and worm fatigue life and the safety factor, determines the load stress concentration is the main cause of fatigue damage, the results of the analysis have important significance for further structural optimization.%针对机械传动机构中蜗轮蜗杆在正常载荷作用下发生疲劳破坏的问题,通过Recurdyn对蜗轮蜗杆进行刚柔耦合分析,得出了蜗轮蜗杆的载荷应力应变云图。基于耦合分析结果,通过FAMFAT对蜗轮蜗杆的疲劳寿命分析,得出了蜗轮蜗杆疲劳寿命与安全系数,确定了载荷应力集中是引起疲劳破坏的主要原因,分析结果为进一步结构优化有重要意义。

  9. [Genetic characterization of viruses from the antigenic complex Tyuleniy (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Tyuleniy virus (TYUV) (ID GenBank KF815939) isolated from ectoparasites of colonial seabirds--Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae White, 1852, ticks collected in the high latitudes of Northern Eurasia--and Kama virus (KAMV) isolated from the Ixodes lividus Roch, 1844, collected in the digging colonies of the middle part of Russian plane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Samokhvalov, E I; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research into the Tyuleniy virus (TYUV) (ID GenBank KF815939) isolated in high latitudes from the Ixodes uriae White, 1852, ticks collected in the nesting colonies of the Alcidae (Leach, 1820) birds and Kama virus (KAMV) (ID GenBank KF815940) isolated from the I. lividus ticks collected in the nesting bird colonies in the middle part of the Russian Plane was carried out. Full-genome comparative analysis revealed 70% homology between KAMV and TYUV on the nucleotide level and 74% on the amino acid level. Thus, KAMV is a new member of the TYUV complex belonging to the seabird tick-borne virus group (STBVG) of Flavivirus (Flaviviridae). KAMV is a separate virus and forms separate phylogenetic line together with the TYUV, Meaban virus (MEAV), and Saumarez Reef virus (SREV).

  10. Mopane worm allergy in a 36-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letswiti Mavis M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increasing incidence of new diseases as well as changing features of known diseases has partly been attributed to the impact of environmental changes. As a result, there have been calls from health experts for proper surveillance and monitoring of these changes. This is a report of mopane worm allergy in a 36 year old female from the Tswana tribe in Botswana. Mopane worm, the caterpillar stage of Gonimbrasia belina moths, is a seasonal delicacy to people in many communities in southern Africa. As a result, by adulthood, many residents of these communities have had substantial exposure to the worm. Gonimbrasia belina moths belong to the Lepidoptera order of insects. Though some members of this order are known to induce contact allergy, there is no reported incidence of ingestion allergy from mopane worm. Therefore, it is important to track this case for its epidemiological significance and to alert both clinicians and the vulnerable public on the incidence of mopane worm allergy in this region. Case presentation This is a case of a 36 year old woman from the Tswana ethnic group in Botswana, who was diagnosed with food allergy. She presented with itchy skin rash, facial swelling, and mild hypotension after eating mopane worm. She had no previous history of allergic reaction following contact or ingestion of mopane worm and had no atopic illness in the past. She was treated and her symptoms resolved after 4 days. Conclusion The proper management of allergy involves patients' avoidance and clinicians' predictability. Though hypothetical, this report is expected to sensitize clinicians to anticipate and properly manage subsequent occurrence, as well as educate the public in these communities. In addition, tracking new disease patterns, with relationship to environmental changes, will compliment existing evidence in validating the importance of proper environmental surveillance and management.

  11. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  12. Keeping Silence as Speaking:Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra Interpretation of the Paradoxes of Speaking%语默不二:《维摩诘经》对言说悖论的诠释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培高; 李蒙

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between language and Metaphysics is an important philosophical topic in Vimalakirti Nirdesa Su-tra. Vimalakirti Nirdesa thinks that the way to express the unspeakable such as the dharma character is to use special methods (including“saying according to the thing itself”,“saying with specious or figurative language”,“saying with body lan-guage”,and“saying with silence”). The first method isn’t speaking ordinary language but explaining by dharma itself. The second can not only break the boundary of phenomenon and ontology to combine each other,but also make full use of analytical thinking and imagination to help you out of a bind. The third is different from indirect statement,in which listeners needn’t introspect and imagine and can directly face the thing itself. Silence is not equal to not speaking since there are two types of silence:not being able to speak and being able to speak but keeping silence instead. Vimalakirti Nirdesa’s silence is the second type:understanding the unspeakable and expressing his thought in silence.%语言与形而上者的关系是《维摩诘经》探讨的一个重要哲学问题。维摩诘认为,面对像“法相”之类的“不可说”者,不能采用常规的言说,只可采用巧说,包括“当如法说”、以“玄言”说、以“示”说、以“无言”说。“当如法说”不是一般的言说,而是“法”自身的展开;以“玄言”说,不仅打破了现象和本体之间的界限而使本体和现象合二为一,而且能够把思辨和想象能力空前地调动起来进而摆脱思维困境;以“示”说不同于间接陈述,在“示”说中听者不需要反思和想象,而是可以直接面对事情本身。沉默是无言,但不完全等同于无言,因为沉默可分为两种:想说而不能说、可说而不说。维摩诘的沉默属于第二种,然而他在沉默中悟到并且说出了“不可说”者。

  13. Mathematical Model and Geometrical Model of Double Pitch ZN-type Worm Gear Set Based on Generation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Linsen; CAO Huajun; LI Xianchong; ZHANG Chenglong; LI Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The current researches on the tooth surface mathematical equations and the theory of gearing malnly pay attention to the ordinary type worm gear set (e.g., ZN, ZA, or ZK). The research of forming mechanism and three-dimensional modeling method for the double pitch worm gear set is not enough. So there are some difficulties in mathematical model deducing and geometry modeling of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set based on generation mechanism. In order to establish the mathematical model and the precise geometric model of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set, the structural characteristics and generation mechanism of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set are investigated. Mathematical model of the ZN-type worm gear set is derived based on its generation mechanism and the theory of gearing. According to the mathematical model of the worm gear set which has been developed, a geometry modeling method of the double pitch ZN-type worm and worm gear is presented. Furthermore, a geometrical precision calculate method is proposed to evaluate the geometrical quality of the double pitch worm gear set. As a result, the maximum error is less than 6´10–4 mm in magnitude, thus the model of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set is avallable to meet the requirements of finite element analysis and engineering application. The derived mathematical model and the proposed geometrical modeling method are helpful to guiding the design, manufacture and contact analysis of the worm gear set.

  14. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  15. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  16. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.

  17. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  18. Phagocytes: A Holistic Defense and Protection Against Active P2P Worms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ruichuan; Crowcroft, Jon; Tang, Liyong; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Active Peer-to-Peer (P2P) worms present serious threats to the global Internet by exploiting popular P2P applications to perform rapid topological self-propagation. Active P2P worms pose more deadly threats than normal scanning worms because they do not exhibit easily detectable anomalies, thus many existing defenses are no longer effective. We propose an immunity system with Phagocytes --- a small subset of elected P2P hosts that are immune with high probability and specialized in finding and "eating" worms in the P2P overlay. The Phagocytes will monitor their managed P2P hosts' connection patterns and traffic volume in an attempt to detect active P2P worm attacks. Once detected, local isolation, alert propagation and software patching will take place for containment. The Phagocytes further provide the access control and filtering mechanisms for communication establishment between the internal P2P overlay and the external hosts. We design a novel adaptive and interaction-based computational puzzle scheme at ...

  19. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  20. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  1. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  2. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Asakawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX was 25,590 mouse units (MU per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescent detection (FLD (HPLC-FLD, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g. Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10. These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  3. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  4. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  5. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  6. Shells, holes, worms, high-velocity gas and the z-distribution of gas in galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, R. J.

    The author gives an overview of the current observational understanding of vertically extended gas components in spiral galaxies and the various phenomena which come under such names as shells, holes, worms, and high-velocity gas. For the most part, the focus is on recent high-resolution interferometric studies. The author concentrates on cold gas, and briefly on warm ionized gas, in the Milky Way and a few nearby spirals. Along the way, it is seen how phenomena such as worms and shells may be related to the formation and maintenance of the vertically extended components.

  7. SQL/JavaScript Hybrid Worms As Two-stage Quines

    CERN Document Server

    Orlicki, José I

    2009-01-01

    Delving into present trends and anticipating future malware trends, a hybrid, SQL on the server-side, JavaScript on the client-side, self-replicating worm based on two-stage quines was designed and implemented on an ad-hoc scenario instantiating a very common software pattern. The proof of concept code combines techniques seen in the wild, in the form of SQL injections leading to cross-site scripting JavaScript inclusion, and seen in the laboratory, in the form of SQL quines propa- gated via RFIDs, resulting in a hybrid code injection. General features of hybrid worms are also discussed.

  8. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum.

  9. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2).

  10. Filament theory based WORM memory devices using aluminum/poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/aluminum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Aswin; Krishnakumar, Govind; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2014-07-14

    Spin coated poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) sandwiched between thermally evaporated aluminum (Al) electrodes on a glass substrate showed unipolar Write Once Read Many times (WORM) characteristics. The pristine devices were in the low resistance ON state exhibiting ohmic behavior and at a voltage near -2 V, they switched abruptly to the high resistance OFF state showing space charge limited current (SCLC). We suggest that the rupturing of metallic filaments due to Joule heating may explain the effect. The WORM devices exhibited an ON/OFF ratio of 10(8), a retention of 1000 s and an endurance of ∼10(6) cycles in both ON and OFF states.

  11. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  12. Schistosoma mansoni: effects of anesthetics and antimonial drugs on worm shift in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were injected with sodium thiopental or sodium antimonyl gluconate (Triostib R, or submitted to halothane inhalation, with or without a previous injection of thiopental. Data obtained showed that halothane and thiopental induce worm shift to the liver (99 and 76%, respectively. Sodium gluconate and antimonium (Triostib R shifted 52% of worms towards the liver. These results seem to indicate that the use of antimonium would be unnecessary, when surgical removal of schistosomules is carried out through the extracorporeal filtration technique, in patients with portal hypertension.

  13. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  14. Experimental estimation of an opportunity of use of steel interfaces in worm pairs at non-adhesion friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.У. Стельмах

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  In article the brief review of problems of Ukraine manufactures of reductors and the description of opportunities of increasing of the twisting moment of worm gears in result of by using steels as materials of worm pair and the phenomenon of non-adhesion friction.

  15. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  16. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human d

  17. Worm Algorithm simulations of the hole dynamics in the t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokof'ev, Nikolai; Ruebenacker, Oliver

    2001-03-01

    In the limit of small J 0.4t there is an ongoing argument that at smaller J spin-charge separation is still possible. Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function for 0.1 hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit.

  18. Worm infestation and anaemia among pre-school children of peasant farmers in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anah, M U; Ikpeme, O E; Etuk, I S; Yong, K E; Ibanga, I; Asuquo, B E

    2008-09-01

    Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Cross sectional. Three hundred and fifty children were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Freshly passed stool was examined using Kato-Katz method while anaemia was estimated using haematocrit technique. Of the 350 children, 174 (49.7%) had intestinal helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides 64.4%, hookworms 10.9% and Trichuris trichuria 1.1%. There were 41(23.6%) children with polyparasitism, 33 of them were due to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms. The worm load was generally light in intensity with egg per gram of stool ranging from 24-60,960. Males (28.9%) were infected more than females (20.8%). The frequency of infection increases with age. The prevalence of anaemia among the entire study population and in those infected with worms was 56.6% and 56.9% respectively. With polyparasitism there was a relative increase in the frequency of anaemia females > males. Worm infections and anaemia are common in our children. A comprehensive control strategy involving good sanitation, sinking of bore hole for clean water supply and regular deworming exercises are recommended.

  19. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  20. WormBase: network access to the genome and biology of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Sternberg, P; Durbin, R; Thierry-Mieg, J; Spieth, J

    2001-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a web-based resource for the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and its biology. It builds upon the existing ACeDB database of the C.elegans genome by providing data curation services, a significantly expanded range of subject areas and a user-friendly front end.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    Full Text Available The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs. Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  2. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  3. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  4. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  5. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  6. Host-induced morphological changes of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the permissiveness of Nectomys squamipes to Schistosoma mansoni and the influence of the albino mice on the morphological aspects of adult worms derived from a population isolated from N. squamipes, the morphology of adult S. mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms was studied using a digital image analyser (MOP VIDEOPLAN and light microscopy. Their sources were as follows: (1 recovered from the wild rodent N. squamipes Brants naturally infected from Sumidouro, RJ, Brazil; (2 recovered from albino mice experimentally infected with the strain derived from N. squamipes; (3 recovered after the isolation of a strain derived from aboriginal human infections in Sumidouro. Worms recovered from N. squamipes (group 1 showed body lenght and distance between suckers significantly bigger than those of the specimens maintained in mice (groups 2 and 3. The number of tests in group 1 was statistically less than of groups 2 and 3. Group 2 strains which were maintained in mice, presented the lenght of the worms as the only significant different character. Data show that: (1 N. squamipes is a more suitable host for the development of S. mansoni when compared to the albino mice; (2 a strain of S. mansoni isolated from a natural host undergoes morphological changes after its passage in the white mouse.

  7. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  8. Development of Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice analyzed by bright field and confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Lamare Biolchini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood flukes of mammals (Digenea: Schistosomatidae are among trematodes unique whose adult worms have separeted sexes which are dissimilar in appearance. The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni were studied in Swiss Webster mice by a digital system for image analysis and confocal microscopy. Data so far obtained showed two phases with significative morphological changes at 3-4 weeks post-infection, and a gradual similar development onwards in the reproductive system and tegument. Our male-dependent phase demonstrated that mating occurs before sexual maturing. At week three, the majority of male worms (59% had formed the gynaecophoric canal although testicular lobes and tegumental tubercles were absent. By this time, 33% females had an incipient ovary (without cellular differentiation. At week four, 77.2% males presented testicular lobes with few germinative cells while 26% had developing tegumental tubercles. The immature ovary was observed in 69% females. Suckers followed different pattern of growth between male and females. The size of oral and ventral suckers from six-week-old male worms grew abruptly (3.0 fold more than that of three-week-old. In female worms, maximum growth was attained at week four, reducing in size thereafter. From sixth week onwards, all specimens showed the fully developed reproductive system. Probably, these features are morphological traits which schistosome has experienced from hermaphrodite to dioecy.

  9. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  10. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  11. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  12. A New Method for Machining Concave Profile of the Worms' Thread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Abu Shreehah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and development of wormgear drives have significantly focused on their geometrical accuracy, loadability tests, and their wear resistance and efficiency. The research has been going on in several directions. Individual method of problem solving is development new worm-gear sets and tools for their manufacturing. In the present study, worms with concave profile of their thread have been considered. To avoid the technological difficulties relevant to the application of special cutting tools for machining such gear sets, a rigid incongruent generating pair consisting of a standard hob and toroidal tool has been developed for processing the concave worm profile. The generating surface of the developed toroidal tool, which is essential for the tool manufacturing, was modeled on the basis of hob-toroidal tool interaction. The proposed method of modeling w as divided into three steps: first, the common surface for both hobbing and toroidal tools has been found in terms of hyperboloid of revolution of one sheet, then, the matrix method of transforming the coordinates, from the hob-axis reference frame to the toroidal tool-axis reference frame, has been utilized, and finally, an equation described the generating surface of the toroidal tool has been derived and presented. By using the proposed model and the obtained final equation the worm thread surface machined by the mentioned tool can be defined and experimented.

  13. High Rates of Self-Fertilization in a Marine Ribbon Worm (Nemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplins, Serena A; Turbeville, James M

    2015-12-01

    Organisms capable of self-fertilization ("selfing") typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes: uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression with high levels of selfing. We examined the effect of inbreeding on fecundity and time to first reproduction in an apparently self-compatible, simultaneously hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm Prosorhochmus americanus. Adult and juvenile worms were raised in isolation or in pairs. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms (in the adult experiment), and did not exhibit inbreeding avoidance (in the juvenile experiment). The selfing rate of six natural populations was evaluated using 17 species-specific, microsatellite markers, and was consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.843, SD: 0.027). Our results showed that P. americanus exhibited an interesting suite of life-history traits, uniting high colonization potential through self-fertilization and high fecundity, with no dispersive larval stage, and with moderate levels of gene flow. We believe that P. americanus is an ideal model system for studies of mating system evolution, inbreeding, and sex allocation. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  14. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  15. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  16. Impact of worm predation on pseudo-steady-state of the circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies integrated simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal as well as worm predation, in a circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor (CFBBR) operated with an anoxic-aerobic bioparticle recirculation. A lab-scale CFBBR with a 8.5-liter reaction zone comprising 2L anoxic and 6.5L aerobic compartments was designed to evaluate the aquatic Oligochaete worm effect. Long-term (200 days) performance showed that stable and high-rate chemical oxygen demand (COD) with sodium acetate as the carbon source and total nitrogen (NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source) conversions were achieved simultaneously, with low sludge production of 0.082 g VSS (volatile suspended solids) g COD(-1) at pseudo-steady-state. Worm predation, which causes considerable sludge reduction of the bioparticle process, was studied. The results proved that the worm predation has a significant impact on the pseudo-steady-state performance of the CFBBR, decreasing biomass yield, decreasing oxygen concentration and increasing expanded bed height.

  17. Pileolaria berkeleyana, a spirorbin polychaete worm introduced to the Netherlands (Polychaeta: Serpulidae: Spirorbinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faasse, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The spirorbin polychaete worm Pileolaria berkeleyana, new for the fauna of the Netherlands, was found at different localities in the Oosterschelde area in the province of Zeeland. They were found on empty shells and on boulders, which confirms their preference for hard substrates. The introduction

  18. WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, L.B.; Velde, van der K.J.; Arends, D.; Li, Y.; Beyer, A.; Elvin, M.; Fisher, J.; Hajnal, A.; Hengartner, M.; Poulin, G.; Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Schmid, T.; Schrimpf, S.; Xue, F.; Jansen, R.C.; Kammenga, J.E.; Swertz, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the sy

  19. WormQTL-public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, L. Basten; Van der Velde, K. Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O.; Poulin, Gino B.; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Swertz, Morris A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the sy

  20. Persistent corneal edema secondary to presumed dead adult filarial worm in the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Samar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of persistent corneal edema secondary to presumed dead adult filarial worms lying in the anterior chamber with their attachment to the endothelium. Two of them were initially diagnosed as descemet′s fold with corneal edema. Two patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty and in one case, surgical removal was partly possible with clearing of cornea.

  1. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their win

  2. Comparative growth of black spruce container seedlings grown in worm-casting-amended soilless media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, P.A.; Colombo, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the morphology of containerized black spruce seedlings grown in fertilized and non-fertilized worm- casting-amended media to seedlings grown in a non-amended fertilized peat-vermiculite mix. The comparison was made to determine if various media amended with castings could produce seedlings equivalent to those produced using a standard nursery growing medium.

  3. CLIMATE AND HABITAT INFLUENCE PREVALENCE OF MENINGEAL WORM INFECTION IN NORTH DAKOTA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J

    2015-07-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite.

  4. Relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary thromboembolism associated with dead worms in canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y

    1992-10-01

    To examine effects of thromboemboli due to dead worms on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), 20 to 50 dead heartworms were inserted into the pulmonary arteries of 4 heartworm uninfected dogs (uninfected group) and 11 dogs infected with heartworms (infected group). In the uninfected group, the mean PAP rose 1 week after worm insertion (10.9 to 166. mmHg), but it recovered by the 4th week. Clinical signs, hemodynamics and blood gas findings also deteriorated at the 1st week, but recovered at the 4th week. Angiographic and pathological findings indicated that blood flow recovered through the spaces between thromboemboli and vessel walls at the 4th week. The infected dogs were divided into three groups. In the infected-I group (5 dogs), the intimal lesions of the pulmonary arteries were slight, and clinical and laboratory findings showed changes similar to those of the uninfected group. In the infected-II group (4 dogs), the pulmonary arterial lesions were severe and the mean PAP was higher (25.7 mmHg) than in the uninfected group before worm insertion. An increase in PAP (34.1 mmHg) and worsening of clinical and laboratory findings were noticed till the 4th week. Thromboemboli adhered extensively to the vessel walls. Two dogs in the infected-III group died of severe dyspnea on the 9th and 10th day, and the mean PAP rose remarkably at the 1st week (from 19.4 to 28.2 mmHg). Severe pulmonary parenchymal lesions with edema or perforation were observed. From the above results, it was clarified that effects of dead worms on PAP and clinical signs depended on the severity of pulmonary arterial lesions before worm insertion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  6. The further application of MTT-formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, J C; Townson, S; Rees, M J; Dobinson, A

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have confirmed that MTT-formazan colorimetry in its simplest form (incubation of intact worms with MTT and direct visualisation of any formazan formed) can be readily applied to several species of filariae including Onchocerca volvulus. Data is presented which will assist the development of quantitative MTT reduction viability tests for a selection of the smaller filarial species. Assays of pieces of Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus females have led us to tentatively conclude that the tips of filariae, particularly the anterior ends, may well be metabolically the most active part of the worm. Selective sampling of these regions for Onchocerca might therefore be a useful indicator for the viability of the parasite. An example of how MTT-formazan colorimetry has been applied to yield additional data to support motility observations on the in vitro survival of male O. gutturosa is also given. The in vitro timecourse of worm death caused by 10 microM CGP 20376 on Acanthocheilonema viteae females has been examined by MTT reduction and compared with 6 other non-subjective parameters. The results suggests that the parameters examined could be divided into two groups according to the time taken for CGP 20376 to cause 50% inhibition (t50) of the parameter. Fast response parameters had t50's between 1 and 6 h (motility indices, 14CO2 evolution, adenine uptake and leucine uptake), they are more sensitive measures of viability and indicate possible worm damage which may or may not be reversible. Slow response parameters had t50's between 34 and 48.5 h (lactate output, MTT reduction and adenine leakage), and are probably linked with severe degenerative changes and are indicative of worm death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  8. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  9. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  10. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  11. Effects of Boundary Condition and Helix Angle On Meshing Performance of TI Worm Gearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yue-hai; DUAN Lu-qian; WANG Shu-ren; ZHANG Ce

    2006-01-01

    To exactly describe the contact state and contact area oftooth surface oftoroidalinvolute(TI) worm gearing.the authors introduced boundary condition into contact line analysis.With helix angle chosen as parameter,the criterion for the existence of meshing boundary line on the surface of TI worm gearing is derived.Results show that there can be four situations for meshing boundary line on the tooth surface of gear.namely,inexistence of meshing boundary line.a unique line,two lines,and two coincident lines.If the helix angle is equal to or slightly smaller than the bigger angle,which makes two meshing boundary lines superpose,a preferable meshing performance is obtained.Computer simulation proves the validity Of the above conclusion.

  12. Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2006-12-01

    The fossil record plays a key role in reconstructing deep evolutionary relationships through its documentation of the early diverging stem groups leading to extant phyla. In the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, two famously problematic worms, Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia, have recently been reinterpreted as stem-group molluscs based on their shared expression of a putative radula and putative ctenidia in Odontogriphus. More detailed analysis of these fossil structures, however, reveals pronounced anatomical and histological discrepancies with molluscan analogues, such that they are more reliably interpreted as primitive features of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. In the absence of any obviously derived characters, Odontogriphus could be placed in the stem group of the Lophotrochozoa or on the stem of any of its constituent phyla, whereas the dorsal covering of chaetae in Wiwaxia identifies it as a stem-group polychaete. Despite their close relationship, these two jawed, segmented worms could conceivably represent the early stages of two separate phyla.

  13. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  14. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  15. The barber's pole worm CAP protein superfamily--A basis for fundamental discovery and biotechnology advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Namitha; Young, Neil D; Jabbar, Abdul; Korhonen, Pasi K; Koehler, Anson V; Amani, Parisa; Hall, Ross S; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic worm proteins that belong to the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are proposed to play key roles in the infection process and the modulation of immune responses in host animals. However, there is limited information on these proteins for most socio-economically important worms. Here, we review the CAP protein superfamily of Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm), a highly significant parasitic roundworm (order Strongylida) of small ruminants. To do this, we mined genome and transcriptomic datasets, predicted and curated full-length amino acid sequences (n=45), undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses of these data and investigated transcription throughout the life cycle of H. contortus. We inferred functions for selected Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs (including vap-1, vap-2, scl-5 and lon-1) based on genetic networking and by integrating data and published information, and were able to infer that a subset of orthologs and their interaction partners play pivotal roles in growth and development via the insulin-like and/or the TGF-beta signalling pathways. The identification of the important and conserved growth regulator LON-1 led us to appraise the three-dimensional structure of this CAP protein by comparative modelling. This model revealed the presence of different topological moieties on the canonical fold of the CAP domain, which coincide with an overall charge separation as indicated by the electrostatic surface potential map. These observations suggest the existence of separate sites for effector binding and receptor interactions, and thus support the proposal that these worm molecules act in similar ways as venoms act as ligands for chemokine receptors or G protein-coupled receptor effectors. In conclusion, this review should guide future molecular studies of these molecules, and could support the development of novel interventions against haemonchosis.

  16. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  17. Anthelmintic Activity In Vivo of Epiisopiloturine against Juvenile and Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria A.; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Véras, Leiz M. C.; Lima, David F.; Campelo, Yuri D. M.; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported. PMID:25816129

  18. Composting Organic Kitchen Waste with Worms for Sustainable Kitchen Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehali J. Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India produces around 3000 million tons of organic waste annually. This huge volume of waste(s comes from agriculture, urban and industrial sources and also from domestic activities. Utilization of this waste material for productivity process is important for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study an effort has been made to assess the efficacy of E. foetida (red tiger worm in utilizing the kitchen waste material, to analyse the waste decomposition process assessed with earthworm activity.

  19. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.

  20. On accretion of dark energy onto black- and worm-holes

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, José A. Jiménez; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages ...

  1. Response to "Discussion on the systematic position of the Early Cambrian priapulomorph worms"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; HU Shixue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Due to the combination of complex states of preservation and taphonomies in Chengjiang fossils, Huang et al.[1] expressed different opinions to those of Han et al.[2] on the morphology and systematic position of the fossil priapulomorph worms (Priapulomorpha) based on their additional materials. These diverse opinions are critical in any investigation of the diversity of the Introverta in the Cambrian explosion. However, some of their ideas need to be discussed in further detail.

  2. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria A; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N; Véras, Leiz M C; Lima, David F; Campelo, Yuri D M; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Allegretti, Silmara M; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  3. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  4. The distribution of worm borings in brachiopod shells from the Caradoc Oil Shale of Estonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vinn, Olev

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Abundant worm borings were found in some brachiopod shells (Clitambonites, Estlandia, Nicolella) from the Ordovician (Caradoc) oil shale in North Estonia. 9 of 21 brachiopod genera (43 %) have been bored. Excluding the size and thickness of valves, no common morphological feature discriminates the brachiopods with borings from those without them. The Trypanites are host-specific, and the frequency of bored valves varies from 6.5 % in Bekkerina to 51 % in Estlandia. The...

  5. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty in thermophilic

  6. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Jollivet

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty

  7. Worm algorithms for the 3-state Potts model with magnetic field and chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Ydalia; Gattringer, Christof

    2012-01-01

    We discuss worm algorithms for the 3-state Potts model with external field and chemical potential. The complex phase problem of this system can be overcome by using a flux representation where the new degrees of freedom are dimer and monomer variables. Working with this representation we discuss two different generalizations of the conventional Prokof'ev-Svistunov algorithm suitable for Monte Carlo simulations of the model at arbitrary chemical potential and evaluate their performance.

  8. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salathé Rahel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host

  9. Worm-like thrombus in left main coronary artery after cytostatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavelioglu, Yusuf; Ekicibasi, Erkan; Tanalp, Ali C; Karapinar, Hekim; Aung, Soe M

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports a 43-year-old patient who had a large, mobile, worm-like thrombus in the left main coronary artery after receiving a chemotherapy regimen containing cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide for a nonseminomatous testes tumor. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. Physicians should be aware that thrombotic events may be observed after the administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents, particularly cisplatin.

  10. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa.

  11. Worm Monte Carlo study of the honeycomb-lattice loop model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qingquan, E-mail: liuqq@mail.ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027 (China); Deng Youjin, E-mail: yjdeng@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027 (China); Garoni, Timothy M., E-mail: t.garoni@ms.unimelb.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-05-11

    We present a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm of worm type that correctly simulates the O(n) loop model on any (finite and connected) bipartite cubic graph, for any real n>0, and any edge weight, including the fully-packed limit of infinite edge weight. Furthermore, we prove rigorously that the algorithm is ergodic and has the correct stationary distribution. We emphasize that by using known exact mappings when n=2, this algorithm can be used to simulate a number of zero-temperature Potts antiferromagnets for which the Wang-Swendsen-Kotecky cluster algorithm is non-ergodic, including the 3-state model on the kagome lattice and the 4-state model on the triangular lattice. We then use this worm algorithm to perform a systematic study of the honeycomb-lattice loop model as a function of n{<=}2, on the critical line and in the densely-packed and fully-packed phases. By comparing our numerical results with Coulomb gas theory, we identify a set of exact expressions for scaling exponents governing some fundamental geometric and dynamic observables. In particular, we show that for all n{<=}2, the scaling of a certain return time in the worm dynamics is governed by the magnetic dimension of the loop model, thus providing a concrete dynamical interpretation of this exponent. The case n>2 is also considered, and we confirm the existence of a phase transition in the 3-state Potts universality class that was recently observed via numerical transfer matrix calculations.

  12. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T; Cross, Julie O; Heald, Steve M; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J Herbert; Stucky, Galen D

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  13. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  14. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien

    2004-07-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  15. Self-avoiding worm-like chain model for dsDNA loop formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Amit, Roee

    2014-01-01

    We compute for the first time the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte-Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self- avoiding worm-like chains, which are used to compute the J-factor for varying lengthscales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92, which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power-law predicted by the non-self-avoiding worm-like chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, lead to an increase in the J-factor of the self-avoiding worm-like chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

  16. Cell death and the immune responses of the sipunculan worm Themiste petricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GA Blanco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently studied the role of cell death in the immune system of the sipunculan worm Themiste petricola. Typical biochemical and morphological changes of apoptosis were induced in celomocytes of these marine worms after in vitro exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide. Apoptosis was time and dose dependent, and required several hours to become apparent. Surprisingly, in unexposed samples a subtype of granulocyte was observed to undergo homotypic aggregation, extensive cytoskeletal changes, and degranulation followed by cell death. This spontaneous response ending in cell death occurred in a divalent cation-dependent manner, served to entrap foreign particles, and was blocked by EDTA-containing saline solutions. Even though the mode of granulocyte cell death shares some features with apoptosis, it appears to be a different form of programmed cell death since it occurs within minutes and does not produce single cell-derived apoptotic bodies but transforms itself into one or several syncytial masses with haemostatic and immune purposes. Since numerous granulocyte types and multicellular masses involved in cellular immunity have been described in sipunculan worms, the review also discusses the potential influence of activation of granulocytes by sea water in expanding the variety of morphological types and multicellular structures identified through morphological studies among sipunculan species.

  17. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  18. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Composition and Nutrient Digestibility of Super Worm Meal in Red Tilapia Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Abd Rahman Jabir*, S. A. Razak and S. Vikineswary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of super worm (Zophobas morio meal were determined for fish feed formulations. Experiments were conducted to compare super worm meal (SWM with fish meal (FM as main protein sources for fish diets. Super worm had lower protein content (42.83% compared to fish meal (52.64%. SWM contained high percentage (40.01% of lipids along with quality protein and this made it a suitable replacement for FM. SWM contained seventeen amino acids including the essential amino acids. All eight essential amino acids present were similar in values except for methionine which showed a large difference with 5.75 (mg/g crude protein and 21.17 (mg/g crude protein for SWM and FM respectively. SWM contained higher percentage of arginine and glutamic acid while the rest of the essential amino acids were lower than those present in FM. The fatty acid profile of SWM also showed a good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.87. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of protein in SWM diet was lowest (50.53±6.08% and significantly different (P<0.05 from that of FM diet (77.48±0.53%. Lipid digestibility of SWM based diet was significantly lower (69.76±3.72% than that of FM value (91.51±0.21%. However, SWM-based diets fulfilled the requirements of fish recommended by FAO.

  20. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  1. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects of ne...... of parasites and APP concentrations. Conclusion: There is a particular acute phase response profile in dogs with kidney worm infection. Nephrectomy induced a short-term inflammatory process....

  2. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  3. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago José MATOS-ROCHA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni.

  4. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  5. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  6. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  7. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  8. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs.

  9. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  10. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  11. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  12. Molecular evidence of curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial worm Setaria cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ananya; Gayen, Prajna; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Niladri; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is a major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa that exhibits various pharmacological effects and has shown multiple beneficial activities. Our understanding of its anticarcinogenic and other activities occurring through curcumin-induced apoptosis in several cancer cells has greatly expanded in recent years. Lymphatic filariasis is a worldwide health problem causing global disability in humans and is caused by filarial nematodes. Development of efficient strategies to promote programmed cell death in filarial worms remains a key challenge for anti-filarial drug developing research and a crucial unmet medical need. In this study, we have taken molecular and biochemical approaches toward understanding the molecular basis for curcumin-mediated anti-filarial activity in the filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Results of MTT assay showed that curcumin causes a significant reduction in viability of Mf and adults and thus acts as a potent macro- and micro-filaricidal agent. Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining, showed several apoptotic nuclei in different parts of curcumin-treated adults. At 25 μM concentration it showed chromosomal DNA fragmentation in adult worms. Our results indicate that curcumin decreases protein and mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic gene ced-9 and enhances both the levels of pro-apoptotic genes ced-3 and ced-4 in a dose-dependent manner. All these observations ascertained the apoptogenicity of curcumin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM in this filarial worm. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin causes depletion of parasitic glutathione level, enhances the activities of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and stimulates rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we present molecular evidence on curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial nematode S. cervi with probable involvement of ROS in a caspase-dependent manner.

  13. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. McIlroy

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  14. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  15. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans.

  16. Monitoring of the process of composting of kitchen waste in an institutional scale worm farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, R; Nair, J; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2005-01-01

    Vermicomposting provides an alternative method of managing waste that is ecofriendly and cost-effective. The Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) at Murdoch University and St. John of God Hospital (SJOG) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to install a vermiculture system in SJOG to treat some of the organic waste generated by the on site kitchen facility. This is an effort made by SJOG to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill each year and to treat the waste on site as part of a recycling/reuse program. The study is aimed at scientifically monitoring vermicomposting process and to understand the optimum management requirements to improve the operation of an institutional scale worm farm. In addition, an experiment was conducted to investigate the suitability of bedding materials: horse manure, cow manure, peat coir, and natural bedding (vermicast). The species of earthworms used in this experiment were Red (Lumbricus rubellus), Tiger (Eisenia fetida), and Blue (Lumbricus excavatus). The pH, temperature, worm population and quality of castings were tested in different beds. Results indicated that vermicast was the best bedding for vermicomposting, and there were no significant difference between the performances of the other three beds. However, it can be concluded that the bedding material of horse manure, cow manure, and peat coir were successfully established well within the experimental period of eight weeks, and cow manure with the lowest C:N ratio produced the best quality bedding. As using vermicast for the initial bedding creates a very high capital cost these organic substrates provide cost-effective alternative. Therefore they would be quite appropriate to initiate an institutional scale worm farm.

  17. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  19. Deterministic 1-k routing on meshes with applications to worm-hole routing

    OpenAIRE

    Sibeyn, J.; Kaufmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    In $1$-$k$ routing each of the $n^2$ processing units of an $n \\times n$ mesh connected computer initially holds $1$ packet which must be routed such that any processor is the destination of at most $k$ packets. This problem reflects practical desire for routing better than the popular routing of permutations. $1$-$k$ routing also has implications for hot-potato worm-hole routing, which is of great importance for real world systems. We present a near-optimal deterministic algorithm running in...

  20. The versatile worm: genetic and genomic resources for Caenorhabditis elegans research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshechkin, Igor; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-07-01

    Since its establishment as a model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans has been an invaluable tool for biological research. An immense spectrum of questions can be addressed using this small nematode, making it one of the most versatile and exciting model organisms. Although the many tools and resources developed by the C. elegans community greatly facilitate new discoveries, they can also overwhelm newcomers to the field. This Review aims to familiarize new worm researchers with the main resources, and help them to select the tools that are best suited for their needs. We also hope that it will be helpful in identifying new research opportunities and will promote the development of additional resources.

  1. First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. FERRERO-VICENTE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 have been collected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, thus increasing the number of known sipunculan species of up to 36 in this area. They were encountered on soft bottoms from the coast of San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. Thirty specimens were collected at a depth ranging from 32.6 to 37.2 m, mainly in sandy substrata with high load of silt and clays. 80% of the individuals were found inhabiting empty shells of gastropods or empty tubes of serpulid polychaetes.

  2. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C; Weil, Gary J

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of "classical" anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of V as deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects of

  3. Phylogeny of protostome worms derived from 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1995-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of protostome worms were studied by comparing new complete 18S rRNA sequences of Vestimentifera, Pogonophora, Sipuncula, Echiura, Nemertea, and Annelida with existing 18S rRNA sequences of Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata, and Platyhelminthes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred via neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. These suggest that (1) Sipuncula and Echiura are not sister groups; (2) Nemertea are protostomes; (3) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are protostomes that have a common ancestor with Echiura; and (4) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are a monophyletic clade.

  4. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  5. Ultrastructural investigation of spermatogenesis in the nemerine worm Procephalothrix sp. (Palaeonemertini, Anopla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, A. A.; Klepal, W.

    1997-08-01

    Spermatogenesis and sperm structure of the nemertine worm Procephalothrix sp. were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that a flagellum and proacrosomal vesicles are common in spermatogonia and spermatocytes as in spermatogenesis of a number of marine invertebrates with external fertilization. Originally, the animals were collected as Procephalothrix spiralis but they were found to have a type of spermatozoon different from that of P. spiralis as described by Turbeville & Ruppert (1985). The re-identification of the material collected in the Japan Sea has shown that the features are characteristic, of P. spiralis (Coe, 1930). This finding suggests that P. spiralis shows variations in different parts of the world.

  6. A New Platy-armored Worm from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstatte, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstatte provides a good window to explore the origin and radiation of early bilaterians. Here we describe a netted sclerite-bearing worm Tabelliscolex hexagonus gen. et sp. nov., and tentatively assign it to palaeoscolecidans of priapulids. The cuticle of the animal is covered with two kinds of platy sclerites which are constructed by hexagonally arranged tubercles. Similar structures of the sclerites can be seen on some Cambrian palaeoscolecidans and lobopods, so, this new species is critical for understanding the relationships between lobopods and palaeoscolecidans.

  7. Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract on resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V; Perfeito, Márcia L G; Guimarães, Maria A; dos Santos, Raimunda C; Lima, David F; Nascimento, Carlos; Silva, Marcos P N; Soares, Maria José dos S; Ropke, Cristina D; Eaton, Peter; de Moraes, Josué; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-12-04

    There are ethnopharmacological reports supporting the use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf against bacterial and worm infections. However there is a lack of studies about its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the in vitro effects of neem leaf ethanolic extract (Neem EE) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and against S. mansoni worms. Quantification of the Azadirachtin (AZA), thought to be one of their main compounds related to biological effects, was performed. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of Neem EE on biofilm formation and planktonic aggregates of S. aureus was tested using the crystal violet dye method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, respectively. Changes in S. mansoni motor activity and death of worms were analyzed in vitro after exposition to the extract. Treated schistosomes were also examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was observed the presence of AZA in the extract (0.14 ± 0.02 mg/L). Testing Neem EE sub-inhibitory concentrations, a significant biofilm adherence inhibition from 62.5 µg/mL for a sensitive S. aureus and 125 µg/mL for two MRSA strains was observed. AFM images revealed that as the Neem EE concentration increases (from 250 to 1000 µg/mL) decreased ability of a chosen MRSA strain to form large aggregates. In relation of anti-schistosoma assay, the extract caused 100% mortality of female worms at a concentration of 50 µg/mL at 72 h of incubation, while 300 µg/mL at 24h of incubation was required to achieve 100% mortality of male worms. The extract also caused significant motor activity reduction in S. mansoni. For instance, at 96 h of incubation with 100 µg/mL, 80% of the worms presented significant motor activity reduction. By the confocal microscopy analysis, the dorsal surface of the tegument of worms exposed to 300 µg/mL (male) and 100 µg/mL (female) of the extract

  8. The effects of worms, clay and biochar on CO2 emissions during production and soil application of co-composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    In this study we evaluated CO2 emissions during composting of green wastes with clay and/or biochar in the presence and absence of worms (species of the genus Eisenia), as well as the effect of those amendments on carbon mineralization after application to soil. We added two different doses of clay, biochar or their mixture to pre-composted green wastes and monitored carbon mineralization over 21 days in the absence or presence of worms. The resulting co-composts and vermicomposts were then added to a loamy Cambisol and the CO2 emissions were monitored over 30 days in a laboratory incubation. Our results indicated that the addition of clay or clay/biochar mixture reduced carbon mineralization during co-composting without worms by up to 44 %. In the presence of worms, CO2 emissions during composting increased for all treatments except for the low clay dose. The effect of the amendments on carbon mineralization after addition to soil was small in the short term. Overall, composts increased OM mineralization, whereas vermicomposts had no effect. The presence of biochar reduced OM mineralization in soil with respect to compost and vermicompost without additives, whereas clay reduced mineralization only in the composts. Our study indicates a significant role of the conditions of composting on mineralization in soil. Therefore, the production of a low CO2 emission amendment requires optimization of feedstocks, co-composting agents and worm species.

  9. WormClassroom.org: An Inquiry-rich Educational Web Portal for Research Resources of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Stewart, James; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of biology research resources, coupled with a “learning by inquiry” approach, has great potential to aid students in gaining an understanding of fundamental biological principles. To help realize this potential, we have developed a Web portal for undergraduate biology education, WormClassroom.org, based on current research resources of a model research organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. This portal is intended to serve as a resource gateway for students to learn biological concepts using C. elegans research material. The driving forces behind the WormClassroom website were the strengths of C. elegans as a teaching organism, getting researchers and educators to work together to develop instructional materials, and the 3 P's (problem posing, problem solving, and peer persuasion) approach for inquiry learning. Iterative assessment is an important aspect of the WormClassroom site development because it not only ensures that content is up-to-date and accurate, but also verifies that it does, in fact, aid student learning. A primary assessment was performed to refine the WormClassroom website utilizing undergraduate biology students and nonstudent experts such as C. elegans researchers; results and comments were used for site improvement. We are actively encouraging continued resource contributions from the C. elegans research and education community for the further development of WormClassroom. PMID:17548872

  10. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms.

  12. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  13. The Immunodominant Brugia malayi Paramyosin as a Marker of Current Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti Adult Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langy, Sandra; Plichart, Catherine; Luquiaud, Patrick; Williams, Steven A.; Nicolas, Luc

    1998-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Brugia malayi L3 paramyosin has been isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library with a mouse antiserum raised against Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae. A recombinant truncated form of paramyosin was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and used to evaluate humoral responses of adults from a W. bancrofti-endemic area in French Polynesia according to their parasitological status. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) preferentially bound to paramyosin in W. bancrofti-parasitized individuals, in contrast to unparasitized individuals, who harbored neither microfilaria nor Og4C3 adult worm circulating antigen. Reduction of the anti-paramyosin IgG4 titer following combined chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin was significantly correlated with a reduction in the adult worm burden. This indicates that the presence of paramyosin-reactive IgG4 is associated with the presence of parasites and that reduction can be used as an immunological marker for W. bancrofti clearance. PMID:9596759

  14. Morphological Study of Adult Male Worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubercles, spines and sensory receptors are the most studied structures of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni isolated in other countries. The purpose of this investigation was to properly define these structures in Brazilian worms. Specimens 7-8 weeks after infection were recovered from albino SW mice and from a wild rodent (Nectomys squamipes and processed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Photomicrographs of the anterior region with the aspects related to the outer and inner regions of both suckers were considered. The ventral portion of the middle region was represented by the anterior of gynaecophoric canal while the dorsal surface was studied in its ventral and dorsal regions mainly focusing the aspect of the tubercles, spines and sensorial papillae. The outer surface of the oral sucker is spiny and spines are bigger, sharp with sensory receptors in their posterior edge. Tubercles with spines or receptors are more concentrated in the middle region and in one of the margins of the gynaecophoric canal. An excretory pore-like structure in the posterior portion was observed. The gynaecophoric canal has few sensory structures, spines broadned in their mid-region and are sharp pointed at the distal end. It was concluded that the presently studied characters are similar to those previously reported

  15. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: morphometric differences between adult worms from sympatric rodent and human isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer software for image analysis (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS was utilized in male and females adult worms, aiming the morphological characterization of Schistosoma mansoni samples isolated from a slyvatic rodent, Nectomys squamipes, and humans in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and recovered from Mus musculus C3H/He. The following characters for males's testicular lobes were analyzed: number, area, density, larger and smaller diameter, longer and shorter axis and perimeter and extension; for females: area, longer and shorter axis, larger and smaller diameter and perimeter of the eggs and spine; oral and ventral suckers area and distance between them in both sex were determined. By the analysis of variance (one way ANOVA significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in all studied characters, except for the density of testicular lobes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected for all characters in the female worms. Data ratify that sympatric isolates present phenotypic differences and the adult female characters are useful for the proper identification of S. mansoni isolates.

  16. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  17. Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Block Copolypeptoids – Micelles, Worms and Polymersomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Corinna; Gaitzsch, Jens; Messager, Lea; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptoids are an old but recently rediscovered polymer class with interesting synthetic, physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Here, we introduce new aromatic monomers, N-benzyl glycine N-carboxyanhydride and N-phenethyl glycine N-carboxyanhydride and their block copolymers with the hydrophilic polysarcosine. We compare their self-assembly in water and aqueous buffer with the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolypeptoids with aliphatic side chains. The aggregates in water were investigated by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. We found a variety of morphologies, which were influenced by the polymer structure as well as by the preparation method. Overall, we found polymersomes, worm-like micelles and oligo-lamellar morphologies as well as some less defined aggregates of interconnected worms and vesicles. Such, this contribution may serve as a starting point for a more detailed investigation of the self-assembly behavior of the rich class of polypeptoids and for a better understanding between the differences in the aggregation behavior of non-uniform polypeptoids and uniform peptoids. PMID:27666081

  18. Bioaccumulation of isocarbophos enantiomers from laboratory-contaminated aquatic environment by tubificid worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-01

    The benthic fauna is of great importance to assess the environmental fate of contaminations in aquatic ecosystem. In this study, tubificids were exposed to both laboratory-contaminated aqueous phases and spiked sediment to study the bioaccumulation of isocarbophos (ICP). Two types of spiked sediments were used in the spiked sediment experiment. During the exposure period, an enantioselective bioaccumulation was found in spiked water treatment, with concentrations of the (-)-ICP higher than that of the (+)-ICP, but no enantioselectivity was detected in the spiked sediment treatments. However, different bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the two spiked sediment treatments. Results showed that for spiked forest field sediment (FF sediment) incubation, bioaccumulation was governed by the concentrations in soil. Whereas ICP was bioaccumulated dominantly from overlying water in spiked Chagan Lake sediment (CG sediment) test. The dissipation rates were proved different in the two sediments and ICP dissipated much faster in CG sediment than that in FF sediment. Significant difference in ICP's half-life was also observed between worm-present and worm-free treatments in FF sediment. The detections of concentrations in overlying water indicated that much more ICP diffused to aquatic phase with the present of tubificids.

  19. Conditions for worm-robot locomotion in a flexible environment: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, David; Sharf, Inna; Shoham, Moshe

    2012-04-01

    Biological vessels are characterized by their substantial compliance and low friction that present a major challenge for crawling robots for minimally invasive medical procedures. Quite a number of studies considered the design and construction of crawling robots; however, very few focused on the interaction between the robots and the flexible environment. In a previous study, we derived the analytical efficiency of worm locomotion as a function of the number of cells, friction coefficients, normal forces, and local (contact) tangential compliance. In this paper, we introduce the structural effects of environment compliance, generalize our previous analysis to include dynamic and static coefficients of friction, determine the conditions of locomotion as function of the external resisting forces, and experimentally validate our previous and newly obtained theoretical results. Our experimental setup consists of worm robot prototypes, flexible interfaces with known compliance and a Vicon motion capture system to measure the robot positioning. Separate experiments were conducted to measure the tangential compliance of the contact interface that is required for computing the analytical efficiency. The validation experiments were performed for both types of compliant conditions, local and structural, and the results are shown to be in clear match with the theoretical predictions. Specifically, the convergence of the tangential deflections to an arithmetic series and the partial and overall loss of locomotion verify the theoretical predictions.

  20. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours) exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  1. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  2. Propensity of undulatory swimmers, such as worms, to go against the flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H

    2015-03-24

    The ability to orient oneself in response to environmental cues is crucial to the survival and function of diverse organisms. One such orientation behavior is the alignment of aquatic organisms with (negative rheotaxis) or against (positive rheotaxis) fluid current. The questions of whether low-Reynolds-number, undulatory swimmers, such as worms, rheotax and whether rheotaxis is a deliberate or an involuntary response to mechanical forces have been the subject of conflicting reports. To address these questions, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model undulatory swimmer and examine, in experiment and theory, the orientation of C. elegans in the presence of flow. We find that when close to a stationary surface the animal aligns itself against the direction of the flow. We elucidate for the first time to our knowledge the mechanisms of rheotaxis in worms and show that rheotaxis can be explained solely by mechanical forces and does not require sensory input or deliberate action. The interaction between the flow field induced by the swimmer and a nearby surface causes the swimmer to tilt toward the surface and the velocity gradient associated with the flow rotates the animal to face upstream. Fluid mechanical computer simulations faithfully mimic the behavior observed in experiments, supporting the notion that rheotaxis behavior can be fully explained by hydrodynamics. Our study highlights the important role of hydrodynamics in the behavior of small undulating swimmers and may assist in developing control strategies to affect the animals' life cycles.

  3. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Lin; Lu, Yaobin

    2012-11-01

    This study focused on the effect of worm reactor on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in the MBR coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR). The filtration tests showed that the C-EPS (EPS in Control-MBR) and S-EPS (EPS in SSBWR-MBR) resulted in 76% and 67% of flux decrement, respectively. On both fouling layers, the preferential accumulation was protein, but the adsorption efficiency for protein in C-EPS was 20% higher than that in S-EPS. In comparison with the membrane fouled by C-EPS, the bio-volume of protein on the membrane fouled by S-EPS reduced 33%, and the protein porosity increased 20%. Meanwhile, the S-EPS approaching the membrane had to overcome×2.4 stronger repulsive interaction energy than C-EPS, and the membrane fouled by S-EPS exhibited relatively smoother compared to that fouled by C-EPS. As a result, the fouling potential of S-EPS was lower than that of C-EPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Directed Dynamic Small-World Network Model for Worm Epidemics in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chen-Ping; WANG Li; LIU Xiao-Ting; YAN Zhi-Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane.A medium access control mechanism operates within it,inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking.We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes,and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network.A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance,which has been ignored by previous models.%We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane. A medium access control mechanism operates within it, inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking. We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes, and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network. A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance, which has been ignored by previous models.

  5. Active-site properties of Phrixotrix railroad worm green and red bioluminescence-eliciting luciferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, V R; Arnoldi, F G C; Venkatesh, B; Neto, A J S; Ogawa, F G T; Oehlmeyer, A T L; Ohmiya, Y

    2006-10-01

    The luciferases of the railroad worm Phrixotrix (Coleoptera: Phengodidae) are the only beetle luciferases that naturally produce true red bioluminescence. Previously, we cloned the green- (PxGR) and red-emitting (PxRE) luciferases of railroad worms Phrixotrix viviani and P. hirtus[OLE1]. These luciferases were expressed and purified, and their active-site properties were determined. The red-emitting PxRE luciferase displays flash-like kinetics, whereas PxGR luciferase displays slow-type kinetics. The substrate affinities and catalytic efficiency of PxRE luciferase are also higher than those of PxGR luciferase. Fluorescence studies with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid and 6-p-toluidino-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid showed that the PxRE luciferase luciferin-binding site is more polar than that of PxGR luciferase, and it is sensitive to guanidine. Mutagenesis and modelling studies suggest that several invariant residues in the putative luciferin-binding site of PxRE luciferase cannot interact with excited oxyluciferin. These results suggest that one portion of the luciferin-binding site of the red-emitting luciferase is tighter than that of PxGR luciferase, whereas the other portion could be more open and polar.

  6. Molecular basis for the blue bioluminescence of the Australian glow-worm Arachnocampa richardsae (Diptera: Keroplatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowell, Stephen C; Dacres, Helen; Dumancic, Mira M; Leitch, Virginia; Rickards, Rodney W

    2016-09-16

    Bioluminescence is the emission of visible light by living organisms. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a MW ≈ 59,000 Da luciferase from the Australian glow-worm, Arachnocampa richardsae. The enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA ligase superfamily and produces blue light on addition of D-luciferin. These results are contrary to earlier reports (Lee, J., Photochem Photobiol 24, 279-285 (1976), Viviani, V. R., Hastings, J. W. & Wilson, T., Photochem Photobiol 75, 22-27 (2002)), which suggested glow-worm luciferase has MW ≈ 36,000 Da and is unreactive with beetle luciferin. There are more than 2000 species of firefly, which all produce emissions from D-luciferin in the green to red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although blue-emitting luciferases are known from marine organisms, they belong to different structural families and use a different substrate. The observation of blue emission from a D-luciferin-using enzyme is therefore unprecedented.

  7. Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Widjajanti

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica were evaluated in an effort to identify the protein antigen for the candidate of vaccine. In this study the protein antigen from adult worms was extracted, and the extract antigen was then intramuscularly injected into 4 groups of 5 sheep. Two groups received one injection, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. The other two groups received two injections with a two week interval, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. Three weeks later all of the sheep were challenged with 300 metacercariae of F. gigantica. The antibody titer was monitored every two weeks by using ELISA and the protein profile from each group was compared by using western blotting. Fifteen weeks after challenged all of the sheep were killed and the liver flukes were collected from the liver and counted. The results showed that the antibody titer was higher in the group which received two injections, and the additional of Quil A adjuvant gave much better protection from the infection of F. gigantica (57% and could avoid the death of the sheep than twice injection of antigen without Quil A adjuvant (37%.

  8. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  9. Setting of and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies associated with Holocene nearshore sabellid worm reefs, northern Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Burke, C.D.; Dunn, R.K.; bischoff, W.D. (Wichita State Univ., KS (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Communities of sabellid worms (Polychaeta) in northern Belize (mouth of Northern River Lagoon) occur as areally discontinuous, unlithified patch reefs cresting positive features on an irregular depositional topography of Holocene and older sediments. They are found in nearshore marine, moderate energy, tidally influenced environments (intertidal to 60-cm depths) of normal salinity (36%) adjoining subtidal deposits. These colonies, as much as 30 cm thick, are composed of dense thickets of agglutinating worm tubes (1.0 mm diameter, 3.0 cm long) that trap and bind sand to silt-size bioclastic debris and micrite. Worm population density in these communities averages 30 tubes/cm{sup 2}. The antecedent depositional topography beneath the worm reefs and subjacent to adjoining Holocene deposits is characterized by ridges oriented normal to the present shoreline. These ridges are held up by pre-Holocene (latest Pleistocene ) terrigenous sands of probably fluvial distributary origin, occurring at approximately 2.0 m in the subsurface. The overlying Holocene deposits on these ridges are 2.0 m thick and consist of a general upward-coarsening section of terrigenous sandy, carbonate sandy muds to muddy sands punctuated by mangrove peats and capped by the worm reefs. Low areas on the antecedent topography are presently the sites of deposition of deeper subtidal (1.0 m), muddy carbonate sands with some admixed, reworked terrigenous sand. The Holocene section records drowning due to recent (approximately 6 Ka) transgression of the older, lowstand distributary sands on the northern Belize shelf. This mixed carbonate-siliciclastic section and the worm reefs presently are being reshaped and modified by littoral processes.

  10. 网络蠕虫传播模型的分析与仿真研究%Analysis and Simulation Research of Network Worm Propagation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查东辉

    2012-01-01

    研究网络安全问题,网络蠕虫是当前网络安全的重要威胁.网络蠕虫传播途径多样化、隐蔽性强、感染速度快等特点.蠕虫模型以简单传染病模型进行传播,无法准确描述网络蠕虫复杂变化特点,网络蠕虫检测正确率比较低.为了提高网络蠕虫检测正确率,提出一种改进的网络蠕虫传播模型.在网络蠕虫传播模型引入动态隔离策略,有效切断网络蠕虫传播途径,采用自适应的动态感染率和恢复率,降低网络蠕虫造成的不利影响.仿真结果表明,相对于经典网络蠕虫传播模型,改进模型有效地加低了网络蠕虫的传播速度,提高网络蠕虫检测正确率和整个网络安全性,为网络蠕虫传播研究提供重要指导.%Network worm is the main one threat to network security, and worms spread model is the most commonly used method. Because Internet worm transmission way has the characteristics of diversification, strong concealment, and high infection speed, the majority current worm spread models developed from the simple infectious disease model cannot accurately describe the changing rules of network worms and effectively detected network worms. In order to improve the network worm detection rate, this paper put forward an improved network worm's spread model. Dynamic isolation strategy was introduced into the network worms spread model to effectively cut off the spread ways of network worms. Adaptive dynamic infection and recovery rate were used to reduce the adverse impact of the network worms. The results of the simulation experiment show that compared with the classic network worms spread model, the improved model can decrease the network worms of propagation speed and improve the network worm detection rate and the whole network's security, and it provides an important guidance for network worms spread research.

  11. Worm Warning and Optimization of Nonlinear Propagation Model%蠕虫预警及非线性传播模型优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓筠; 王翥

    2011-01-01

    At present there are some worm intrusion detection systems which detect network worms only by using worm propagation properties and have high false alarm rate.This paper analyzed worm non-linear propagation models, realized the optimization of worm model, and proposed distributed worm propagation model.Then a distributed worm detection technology was designed according to the distributed worm propagation model.The system uses rule-based detection method to monitor network worms, and the console side manages and coordinates detection work of the client sides.The experimental results show that the technology is a good solution to worm warning and worm detection, which can give an alarm with high detection rate and low false alarm rate.%目前已有一些蠕虫检测系统利用蠕虫传播特性进行检测,误报率高,不能对大范围网络进行检测.为此,首先对蠕虫传播模型进行了分析和优化,提出了新蠕虫分布式传播模型.针对该模型提出了分布式蠕虫检测技术,亦即采用基于规则的检测方法监控网络蠕虫,控制台管理和协调多个检测端的工作.实验结果表明,该方法能够很好地预警蠕虫的传播行为并进行监控和报警,具有高检测率和低误报率.

  12. GROWTH OF POULTRY CHICKS FED ON FORMULATED FEED CONTAINING SILK WORM PUPAE MEAL AS PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT AND COMMERCIAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DUTTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste silkworm pupae (SWP generate vast resources of nutrients for livestock and poultry. In the present investigation, three days old chicks of RIR strain were allocated to five dietary treatments of silk worm pupae meal. The energy budget was prepared from calculated proximate analysis and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with different percentages of silk worm pupae. The result showed that the silkworm powder meal (SWPM is the cheapest and has potential to replace the costly and contaminated fish meal, as the protein source, used in poultry industry.

  13. [The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics.

  14. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  15. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennafirme, Simone F., E-mail: sipennafirme@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Marinha; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: machado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles

  16. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.; Poulsen, L.

    1996-01-01

    reduced specific growth rate of worms at the sea floor (0.2 ± 1.1% d-1), compared to worms elevated just 10 cm above the sediment surface (2.5 ± 0.8% d-1), indicates that extremely meagre food conditions may be prevailing at the bottom. Experimental laboratory data on the development of vertical algal...

  17. Finite element analysis of contact between ZA worm and worm gear based on precise tooth surface model%基于精确齿面建模的ZA蜗杆蜗轮有限元接触分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立新; 江玉刚; 曹谊勃

    2011-01-01

    To make research on contact stress between worm and worm gear under different circumstances, and the relationship between the torsion angle of the worm and the driving torque,solid models with precise tooth surface of a ZA worm and worm gear were established based on tooth surface equations. Using these models, finite element analysis of contact was performed with ANSYS at different meshing locations under the same load and at the same meshing location under different loads, and the contact stress distribution on different meshing teeth and the load distribution among them were studied in a meshing cycle. The analysis results show that the contact stress calculated by the theoretical formula is quite smaller than the actual maximum, and that a power function is discovered between the driving torque and the torsion angle of the worm caused by elastic deformation of contact teeth, which can be used in precise angle control of the worm gear.%为了研究不同情况下蜗杆蜗轮间的接触应力和蜗杆扭转角与驱动力矩之间的关系,根据齿面方程建立具有精确齿面的ZA蜗杆蜗轮实体模型,利用ANSYS对此模型在同一载荷不同啮合位置和同一啮合位置不同载荷条件下进行有限元接触分析,研究在一个轮齿啮合周期内,各啮合齿对的接触应力分布和载荷在不同齿对上的分配情况.分析结果表明:理论接触应力计算公式给出的结果远小于实际的最大接触应力,同时得到由接触齿对弹性变形引起的蜗杆扭转角与驱动力矩之间的幂函数关系,可以用于蜗轮转角的精确控制.

  18. 一种改进的良性蠕虫传播模型%A Kind of Improved Benign Worm Propagation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培飞

    2013-01-01

    文章提出了一种改进的良性蠕虫传播模型,并详细分析了不同策略下恶性蠕虫与良性蠕虫的状态转换,传播动力学方程、以及恶性蠕虫和良性蠕虫的传播趋势。%In this paper, we put forward a novel revised benign worm propagation model which based on the law of worm propagation and Two-Factor model, and the analysis of the wrong illustration of the WAW worm propagation model. The detailed analysis of dynamics equation, the state transitions, as well as malicious worm and benign worm propagation trends in the 4 different strategies are given.

  19. Study of the stability of a SEIRS model for computer worm propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.; Hernández Encinas, L.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, malware is the most important threat to information security. In this sense, several mathematical models to simulate malware spreading have appeared. They are compartmental models where the population of devices is classified into different compartments: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. The main goal of this work is to propose an improved SEIRS (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) mathematical model to simulate computer worm propagation. It is a continuous model whose dynamic is ruled by means of a system of ordinary differential equations. It considers more realistic parameters related to the propagation; in fact, a modified incidence rate has been used. Moreover, the equilibrium points are computed and their local and global stability analyses are studied. From the explicit expression of the basic reproductive number, efficient control measures are also obtained.

  20. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  1. Prevalence of gastrointestinal round worms in calves in Sokoto, northwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mahmuda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal roundworms in calves in Sokoto metropolis was carried out. A total of 216 faecal samples from calves were examined using Modified McMaster technique for morphological egg differentiation and count of worm-egg per gram of faeces of the sampled calves. Positive samples were cultured to differentiate between morphologically indistinguishable nematode genera. An overall prevalence was found to be 133 (61.57%. Eight different nematode genera were identified with Cooperia spp being highest in prevalence (28.78% followed by Haemonchus spp (26.76% and the least was Toxocara spp (0.50%. The prevalence was generally higher in females (56.39% than in males (43.61%.

  2. Worm crawling inside my brain”: a rare case of delusional parasitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekh Afrar Alam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a disorder in which persons suffering have a firm and unshakeable belief of harbouring some parasite or worm in his/her body. In today’s nosology, it has been placed under delusional disorder-somatic type in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 (297.1 and under persistent delusional disorders in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 (F22. Existing literature has extensively described this condition to affect mainly the skin with some instances of affecting the oral mucosa and the intestine. We are reporting a rare case of delusional disorder of parasite infestation in the brain.

  3. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  4. On accretion of dark energy onto black- and worm-holes

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, José A Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of the different points of view. We finally suggest new lines of research to resolve the shortcomings of the different accretion methods. We then discuss future directions for new possible observations that could help choose the most accurate model.

  5. WormGUIDES: an interactive single cell developmental atlas and tool for collaborative multidimensional data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Anthony; Catena, Raúl; Kovacevic, Ismar; Shah, Pavak; Yu, Zidong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Schaff, James; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari; Mohler, William A; Bao, Zhirong

    2015-06-09

    Imaging and image analysis advances are yielding increasingly complete and complicated records of cellular events in tissues and whole embryos. The ability to follow hundreds to thousands of cells at the individual level demands a spatio-temporal data infrastructure: tools to assemble and collate knowledge about development spatially in a manner analogous to geographic information systems (GIS). Just as GIS indexes items or events based on their spatio-temporal or 4D location on the Earth these tools would organize knowledge based on location within the tissues or embryos. Developmental processes are highly context-specific, but the complexity of the 4D environment in which they unfold is a barrier to assembling an understanding of any particular process from diverse sources of information. In the same way that GIS aids the understanding and use of geo-located large data sets, software can, with a proper frame of reference, allow large biological data sets to be understood spatially. Intuitive tools are needed to navigate the spatial structure of complex tissue, collate large data sets and existing knowledge with this spatial structure and help users derive hypotheses about developmental mechanisms. Toward this goal we have developed WormGUIDES, a mobile application that presents a 4D developmental atlas for Caenorhabditis elegans. The WormGUIDES mobile app enables users to navigate a 3D model depicting the nuclear positions of all cells in the developing embryo. The identity of each cell can be queried with a tap, and community databases searched for available information about that cell. Information about ancestry, fate and gene expression can be used to label cells and craft customized visualizations that highlight cells as potential players in an event of interest. Scenes are easily saved, shared and published to other WormGUIDES users. The mobile app is available for Android and iOS platforms. WormGUIDES provides an important tool for examining developmental

  6. Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: insights from population studies 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Abena S; Boakye, Daniel A; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The last few decades have seen a marked increase in the global prevalence of allergic diseases particularly among children. Among the factors attributed to this rise has been reduced exposure to pathogens during childhood leading to insufficient maturation of the regulatory arm of developing immune systems. Over the years, a number of epidemiological studies have observed an inverse relationship between parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergies. The purpose of this review is to highlight insights from population studies conducted among children published between 2008 and 2013 that explore the complex dynamics between helminth infections and allergies. These insights include the effect of anthelmintic treatment on allergic responses, an elucidation of immune mechanisms and an examination of helminth-induced immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity. A better understanding of the relationship between helminths and allergies is imperative as research directions move toward harnessing the therapeutic potential of helminths and their products in the treatment of allergic disorders.

  7. Worm-improved estimators in continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Ribic, T.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2016-09-01

    We derive the improved estimators for general interactions and employ these for the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Using a worm algorithm we show how measuring higher-ordered correlators leads to an improved high-frequency behavior in irreducible quantities such as the one-particle self-energy or the irreducible two-particle vertex for non-density-density interactions. A good knowledge of the asymptotics of the two-particle vertex is essential for calculating nonlocal electronic correlations using diagrammatic extensions to the dynamical mean field theory as well as for calculating susceptibilities. We test our algorithm against analytic results for the multiorbital atomic limit and the Falicov-Kimball model.

  8. A Worm Algorithm for the Lattice CP(N-1) Model arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than the one for simulating 4D QCD. However to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose and test a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications.

  9. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  10. Distribution of tetrodotoxin in the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus (Takakura, 1898) (nemertea): Immunoelectron and immunofluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarlamov, Timur Yu; Shokur, Olga A; Chernyshev, Alexey V

    2016-03-15

    Transmission electron and confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopies with monoclonal anti-tetrodotoxin antibodies were used to locate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tissues and gland cells of the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus. CLSM studies have shown that the toxin is primarily localized in the cutis (special subepidermal layer) of the body wall and in the glandular epithelium of the proboscis. Immunoelectron micrographs have shown that only subepidermal bacillary gland cells type I in cutis and pseudocnidae-containing and mucoid gland cells manifested TTX-gold labeling. TTX was associated with the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and secretory granules of TTX-positive gland cells. These studies indicate that ТТХ is brought into the cytoplasm of the glandular cells of the cutis and proboscis epithelium, where it is associated with membrane-enclosed organelles involved in protein secretion and then concentrated in glandular granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research overview of anti-backlash end face engagement worm gearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqiao DENG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating the negative effect of gear backlash on transmission precision so as to achieve precise motion transformation remains a problem to be solved in the field of precision transmission. To date, optimization of manufacturing process, new transmission structure and control system are mainly used to solve the above scientific problem, however, the new transmission structure is undoubtedly the best method compared with the methods above based on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages for various methods. In doing so, this paper originally proposes a type of transmission, an anti-backlash end face engagement worm gearing, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems.

  12. The Worm-Like Chain Theory And Bending Of Short DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Alexey K

    2007-01-01

    The probability distributions for bending angles in double helical DNA obtained in all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are compared with theoretical predictions. The computed distributions remarkably agree with the worm-like chain theory for double helices of one helical turn and longer, and qualitatively differ from predictions of the semi-elastic chain model. The computed data exhibit only small anomalies in the apparent flexibility of short DNA and cannot account for the recently reported AFM data (Wiggins et al, Nature nanotechnology 1, 137 (2006)). It is possible that the current atomistic DNA models miss some essential mechanisms of DNA bending on intermediate length scales. Analysis of bent DNA structures reveals, however, that the bending motion is structurally heterogeneous and directionally anisotropic on the intermediate length scales where the experimental anomalies were detected. These effects are essential for interpretation of the experimental data and they also can be responsible for the a...

  13. Big ideas for small brains: what can psychiatry learn from worms, flies, bees and fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, T; Scott, E; van Swinderen, B; Hilliard, M; Reinhard, J; Claudianos, C; Eyles, D; McGrath, J

    2011-01-01

    While the research community has accepted the value of rodent models as informative research platforms, there is less awareness of the utility of other small vertebrate and invertebrate animal models. Neuroscience is increasingly turning to smaller, non-rodent models to understand mechanisms related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they can never replace clinical research, there is much to be learnt from 'small brains'. In particular, these species can offer flexible genetic 'tool kits' that can be used to explore the expression and function of candidate genes in different brain regions. Very small animals also offer efficiencies with respect to high-throughput screening programs. This review provides a concise overview of the utility of models based on worm, fruit fly, honeybee and zebrafish. Although these species may have small brains, they offer the neuropsychiatric research community opportunities to explore some of the most important research questions in our field.

  14. Lessons from "lower" organisms: what worms, flies, and zebrafish can teach us about human energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Schlegel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic of metabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, unleashed by multiple social and economic factors beyond the control of most individuals, threatens to diminish human life span for the first time in the modern era. Given the redundancy and inherent complexity of processes regulating the uptake, transport, catabolism, and synthesis of nutrients, magic bullets to target these diseases will be hard to find. Recent studies using the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the zebrafish Danio rerio indicate that these "lower" metazoans possess unique attributes that should help in identifying, investigating, and even validating new pharmaceutical targets for these diseases. We summarize findings in these organisms that shed light on highly conserved pathways of energy homeostasis.

  15. Arsenic concentrations and species in three hydrothermal vent worms, Ridgeia piscesae, Paralvinella sulficola and Paralvinella palmiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, W. A.; Duncan, E.; Dilly, G.; Foster, S.; Krikowa, F.; Lombi, E.; Scheckel, K.; Girguis, P.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal vents are surficial expressions of subsurface geological and hydrological processes. Fluids emitting from active vents are chemically distinct from bottom seawater, and are enriched in dissolved metals and metalloids, including arsenic. Vent organisms accumulate arsenic but the arsenic speciation in these non-photosynthetic organisms is largely unknown. Here, arsenic concentrations and chemical species were measured in three deep sea hydrothermal vent worms (Ridgeia piscesae, Paralvinella sulfincola and Paralvinella palmiformis) from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Northwest pacific. R. piscesae has similar arsenic concentrations (3.8-35 μg g-1) to shallow water polychaetes while P. sulfincola and P. palmiformis have significantly higher arsenic concentrations (420-1417 and 125-321 μg g-1 respectively). R. piscesae contains appreciable quantities of inorganic arsenic (36±14%), monomethyl arsenic (2±2%), dimethyl arsenic (34±21%), an unknown methyl arsenical (7±16%), OSO3-arsenosugar (5±9%), TETRA (4±5%), ThioPO4/ThioDMAE (1±2%) and an unknown thio-arsenical (12±14%). These results suggests that host and symbionts are either involved in the methylation of arsenic, or are bathed in fluids enriched in methylated arsenic as a result of free-living microbial activity. The host carrying out methylation, however, cannot be ruled out. In contrast, 96-97% of the arsenic in P. sulfincola and P. palmiformis is inorganic arsenic, likely the result of arsenic precipitation within and upon the mucus they ingest while feeding. While all worms have oxo- and thio arsenosugars (2-30%), Paralvinella also have small amounts of arsenobetaine (arsenic species in the absence of photosynthesising algae/bacteria indicates that they may be formed by vent animals in the absence of sunlight, but at this time their formation cannot be explained.

  16. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  17. Accounting for Film-Forming and Damping Properties of Lubricants in Worm Gear Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Polyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers to use a curve of changing vibration amplitude of the rotating moment on the worm shaft of reducer in the process of growing brake (loading moment as one of criteria of the worm reducer operability. A condition of reducer operability at the nominal moment is lack of vibrations of the rotating moment with a critical value of amplitude.It is shown that vibrations of rotating moment on a shaft of the electric engine, by their nature, are self-vibrations in the system with "negative friction". Values of the brake moment at which there is a sharp increase of vibration amplitude leading to operability loss correspond to the nominal moment for this reducer or to the brake moment, corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is shown that different lubricants differently influence on the generation of self-vibrations. The most efficient damping occurs when using oil with the additive "Striboil", and the reason of falling efficiency at the excess of the nominal moment is essentially increased energy losses at generation of vibrations with "negative friction", especially when approaching to the resonance area. Thus, taking into account a nature of damping vibrations, with using different lubricants, allows us to increase the permissible tension since the more is a damping value the more is a brake moment corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is noted that, when using the additives to oils, a growth of the permissible tension is caused by the processes of film formation increasing the real contact area, which increases its share of the nominal contact area determined by the Hertz formula.

  18. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  19. Characteristics and function of sulfur dioxygenase in Echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sulfide is a common toxin to animals and is abundant in coastal and aquatic sediments. Sulfur dioxygenase (SDO is thought to be the key enzyme involved in sulfide oxidation in some organisms. The echiuran worm, Urechis unicinctus, inhabits coastal sediment and tolerates high concentrations of sulfide. The SDO is presumably important for sulfide tolerance in U. unicinctus. RESULTS: The full-length cDNA of SDO from the echiuran worm U. unicinctus, proven to be located in the mitochondria, was cloned and the analysis of its sequence suggests that it belongs to the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily. The enzyme was produced using an E. coli expression system and the measured activity is approximately 0.80 U mg protein(-1. Furthermore, the expression of four sub-segments of the U. unicinctus SDO was accomplished leading to preliminary identification of functional domains of the enzyme. The identification of the conserved metal I (H113, H115, H169 and D188, metal II (D117, H118, H169 and H229 as well as the potential glutathione (GSH (R197, Y231, M279 and I283 binding sites was determined by enzyme activity and GSH affinity measurements. The key residues responsible for SDO activity were identified by analysis of simultaneous mutations of residues D117 and H118 located close to the metal II binding site. CONCLUSION: The recombinant SDO from U. unicinctus was produced, purified and characterized. The metal binding sites in the SDO were identified and Y231 recognized as the mostly important amino acid residue for GSH binding. Our results show that SDO is located in the mitochondria where it plays an important role in sulfide detoxification of U. unicinctus.

  20. Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stefan Michael; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Freitas, Paula Albuquerque; Massara, Cristiano Lara; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of larval and adult worm excretory-secretory (ES) products from hookworm on the proliferative responses and cytokine secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from hookwormpatients and egg-negative, nonendemic controls. When compared with negative controls, mitogen-stimulated PBMC from hookworm-infected individuals showed a significantly reduced proliferative response when adult worm ES antigen was added to the cultures. Furthermore, in hookworm-infected individuals a significant downmodulation of inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion resulted when PBMCs were stimulated with mitogen in combination with larval or adult worm ES. Both, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 secretion were significantly lower in stimulated PBMC from infected individuals; however the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was much lower in hookworm-infected patients. Comparable effects, although at lower concentrations, were achieved when PBMCs from both groups were incubated with living hookworm third-stage larvae. We suggest that hookworm ES products downmodulate proliferative responses and inflammation during the chronic phase of the disease and facilitate early larval survival or adult worm persistence in the gut. PMID:21772981

  1. Toxic effects of heavy metals in three worm species exposed in artificially contaminated soil substrates and contaminated field soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma L; Notenboom J; ECO

    1996-01-01

    The toxicity of chemicals is often determined in standardised laboratory experiments. OECD artificial soil (artisoil) is often used to determine chemical toxicity for soil organisms. This report presents exposure and effect assessments of metals for three worm species (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus

  2. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (Trematoda:Schistosomatidae evidenced by brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Heisler Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative morphometric study was performed to identify host-induced morphological alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. A wild parasite population was obtained from a naturally infected rodent (Nectomys squamipesand then recovered from laboratory infected C3H/He mice. Furthermore, allopatric worm populations maintained for long-term under laboratory conditions in Swiss Webster mice were passed on to N. squamipes. Suckers and genital system (testicular lobes, uterine egg, and egg spine were analyzed by a digital system for image analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM showed details of the genital system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands, and ovary and the tegument just below the ventral sucker. Significant morphological changes (p < 0.05 were detected in male worms in all experimental conditions, with no significant variability as assessed by CLSM. Significant changes (p < 0.05 were evident in females from the wild population related to their ovaries and vitelline glands, whereas allopatric females presented differences only in this last character. We conclude that S. mansoni worms present the phenotypic plasticity induced by modifications in the parasite's microenvironment, mainly during the first passage under laboratory conditions.

  4. Influence of zinc nanoparticles on survival of worms Eisenia fetida and taxonomic diversity of the gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yausheva, Еlena; Sizova, Еlena; Lebedev, Svyatoslav; Skalny, Anatoliy; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Plotnikov, Andrey; Khlopko, Yuri; Gogoleva, Natalia; Cherkasov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effect of zinc nanoparticles on survival of worms Eisenia fetida and composition of the gut microflora. Analysis of the survival data has shown that the introduction of high doses of the nanoparticles causes death of worms in the second group with 35 % mortality rate and activates protective mechanisms realized as mucous film. DNA from the worm guts was extracted and 16S metagenomic sequencing was fulfilled using MiSeq (Illumina). Regarding the gut microflora of worms in the control group, high diversity of microorganisms (303 OTUs) was noted. Most of those belong to the taxa Firmicutes (51.9 % of the total high-quality united reads), Proteobacteria (24.1 % of the total), and Actinobacteria (13.3 % of the total), which were represented by numerous species of gen. Clostridium (C. saccharobutylicum, C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum, C. beijerinckii), gen. Pseudomonas (P. hydrogenovora, P. aeruginosa, and P. putida), gen. Bacillus (B. megaterium, B. silvestris), gen. Cellulomonas (B. megaterium, B. silvestris), and other numerically smaller genera. Adding of zinc nanoparticles to the substrate decreased the diversity of bacteria (78 OTUs) as well as percentage of bacteria belonging to the taxon Firmicutes (-41.6 %) and increased the proportion of Proteobacteria due to growth in abundance of gen. Verminephrobacter (+46 %) and gen. Ochrobactrum (+19.5 %).

  5. Selection of Immunogenic Peptide Mimics of Male Worm Origin of Schistosoma Japonicum using Phage Display Peptide Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欲晓; 易新元; 曾宪芳; 王林纤; 唐连飞; 章洁; McreynoldsLarry

    2004-01-01

    To select the immunogenic short peptide mimics of male worm origin of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) and to explore their protection effect against schistosomiasis in mice, the random phage display peptide hbrary of 12 - mer was screened with IgG to soluble male worm antigen of Sj, and the specific positive clones selected through three rounds of screenings were detected by Dot-ELISA, and then injected subcutaneously into mice for vaccination and protection assessment against Sj. It was found that 18 randomly picked phage displayed clones all showed definite antigenicity with various intensities. The pooled phages displayed clones could induce production of specific antibodies and cause 31.72% of worm reduction rate and 51.54 % of egg reduction rate in mice, revealing a significant difference ( P < 0. 001 ) in comparison with those of the controls. It concludes that the short peptide mimics of male worm origin of Sj obtained by affinity screening phage display ptide library can elicit partial protection against this pathogen.

  6. Knowledge and practice of worm infection among mothers of school going children of Arba VDC, Kaski, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic worms (helminths, are serious threat to life. A good knowledge of worm infection among the mothers of child bearing age could help to improve the scenario. The present study aimed to obtain the scenario of the knowledge, and practice of helminth infection in relation to the community’s existing knowledge in a village of western Nepal. Methods The present research work was conducted between 01-07-2014 to 31-07-2014 with a structured questionnaire in Arba VDC, Kaski, Nepal Results Majority of the mothers were in the age group of 26-30 years, followed by 31-35 years and <25 years. Among the 26-30 years age group mothers, knowledge score was relatively good. Brahmins had highest good knowledge score. Among Hindus knowledge score was more comparing with Buddhists. Practice score was good for almost all participants. Conclusion This study has showed a need for more awareness of worm infections for a better health. Governmental policies regarding health education need to increase knowledge of worm infections also important in this context.

  7. WormClassroom.org: An Inquiry-Rich Educational Web Portal for Research Resources of "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Stewart, James; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of biology research resources, coupled with a "learning by inquiry" approach, has great potential to aid students in gaining an understanding of fundamental biological principles. To help realize this potential, we have developed a Web portal for undergraduate biology education, WormClassroom.org, based on current research…

  8. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  9. Abundance and population structure of eastern worm snakes in forest stands with various levels of overstory tree retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    In-depth analyses of a species’ response to canopy retention treatments can provide insight into reasons for observed changes in abundance. The eastern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus amoenus Say) is common in many eastern deciduous forests, yet little is known about the ecology of the species in managed forests. We examined the relationship between...

  10. The carbon to nitrogen ratio in isoenergetic wheat based diets controls the growth rate of the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Temmink, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv) contains high levels of proteins and can provide an excellent fish food. Large-scale production of Lv on low value organic substrates, such as by-products produced during wheat processing, therefore can be a promising and sustainable concept for the aquac

  11. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    unreported 10 kDa band, specific to the L2 larval stage and egg hatch fluid, emerged in all pigs after challenge, while the major adult body fluid constituent, ABA-1, remained unrecognized. No significant effect of an intestinal adult worm burden on the larval recovery after a challenge inoculation...

  12. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.A.; Khan, N.C.; Burema, J.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anae

  13. Effects of water temperature and substrate type on spore production and release in eastern Tubifex tubifex worms infected with Myxobolus cerebralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Waldrop, T.B.; Schill, W.B.; Densmore, Christine L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    Eastern Tubifex tubifex worms were exposed to Myxobolus cerebralis spores at 9, 13, 17, and 20 C in 1-L jars that contained sand, mud, or leaf litter as substrata. Beginning 60 days after exposure, water from each jar was filtered daily and examined for the presence of waterborne triactinomyxon spores (TAMs). On discovering a single TAM from an experimental jar, 48 T. tubifex worms from that jar were placed individually into 24-well plates. Spores released from individual infected T. tubifex worms were quantified to determine the first day of TAM release from infected worms, the infection rate, the total number of TAMs released per worm, and the duration of release. No TAMs were found in any of the jars incubated at 20 C or in uninfected, control worms at any temperature. The total number of TAMs released by infected worms in mud and sand was highest at 13 C compared with other temperatures. Infection rates among individual worms increased with temperature between 9 and 17 C. Higher temperatures (up to 17 C) induced earlier TAM releases among infected worms, and substratum did not influence this production parameter. The average duration of TAM release decreased as the temperature increased from 9 to 17 C, and there was a significant effect of substratum in the groups maintained at 13 and 17 C. In all temperature treatments between 9 and 17 C, the duration of release was least in the worms maintained in leaf litter, as was the total number of TAMs released during the experimental period and the median number of TAMs per production day.

  14. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS and related databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Costello

    Full Text Available The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies, 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive, of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved

  15. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and related databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W; Poore, Gary C B; van Soest, Rob W M; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim; Appeltans, Ward

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  16. The influence of worm age, duration of exposure and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, T.S. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Farrar, J.D. [AScI Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The influence of worm age, duration of exposure, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three exposure scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week exposure beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each exposure to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each exposure scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of exposure from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating exposures with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal age, duration of exposure, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.

  17. A reversible bipolar WORM device based on AlOxNy thin film with Al nano phase embedded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Li, J.; Zhang, L.; Hu, X. C.

    2017-03-01

    An Al-rich AlOxNy thin film based reversible Write-Once-Read-Many-Times (WORM) memory device with MIS structure could transit from high resistance state (HRS, ∼1011 Ω) to low resistance state (LRS, ∼105 Ω) by sweeping voltage up to ∼20 V. The first switching could be recorded as writing process for WORM device which may relate to conductive path are formed through the thin film. The conductive path should be formed by both Al nano phase and oxygen vacancies. Among of them, Al nano phases are not easy to move, but oxygen vacancies could migrate under high E-field or at high temperature environment. Such conductive path is not sensitive to charging effect after it formed, but it could be broken by heating effect, which may relate to the migration of excess Al ions and oxygen vacancies at high temperature. After baking LRS (ON state) WORM device at 200 °C for 2 min, the conductivity will decrease to HRS which indicates conductive path is broken and device back to HRS (OFF state) again. This phenomenon could be recorded as recovery process. Both writing and recovery process related to migration of oxygen vacancies and could be repeated over 10 times in this study. It also indicates that there is no permanent breakdown occurred in MIS structured WORM device operation. We suggest that this conductive path only can be dissolved by a temperature sensitive electro-chemical action. This WORM device could maintain at LRS over 105 s with on-off ratio over 4 orders.

  18. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  19. Association of breast feeding practice with worm infestation in children aged 0 -24 months in Calabar South Local Gov-ernment Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Ekabua; Kufre Ekabua; Martin Meremeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Reduction in child morbidity and mortality require improved knowledge about hygiene,baby feed-ing and childrearing practices,especially by mothers in low resource nations.The objectives of the study were to compare the prevalence of worm infestation between exclusively and non-exclusively breast -fed children and to determine the age at which exclusively breast -fed children child could be significantly infested with worms. Method:Systematic sampling of 196 mother-infants pairs was done.A pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Fresh stool samples collected from the children were examined using the cellophane thick faecal smear technique of Kato -Katz.Results:The difference in preva-lence of worm infestation within 6 months of age was not significant between the exclusively and non-exclusively breast feed children.Age of significant worm infestation for exclusively breast -fed infants was 13 months. Mother's educational level significantly influenced their de-worming practices.Conclusion:This study showed that breast milk does protect children in the first year of life against worm infestation;but the burden of infesta-tion becomes significant after 12 months of age.Mothers should be taught to de -worm their children from 13 months of age.

  20. Resarch of IPv6 worm based on double layer scan strategy%基于双层扫描策略的IPv6蠕虫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小刚; 王振兴; 刘慧生; 孙建平

    2012-01-01

    由于IPv6网络地址空间巨大,传统的基于随机扫描、顺序扫描等网络层扫描策略的IPv4蠕虫难以在IPv6网络中传播.构建了一种新型IPv6网络蠕虫——V6-Worm,该蠕虫运用双层扫描策略,在子网内和子网间分别采用基于组播和基于域间路由协议路由前缀的扫描策略,并在此基础上建立了一种双层蠕虫传播模型( double layer model,DLM)来仿真V6 -Worm的传播趋势.仿真结果表明,V6-Worm可在大规模IPv6网络中传播,与采用随机扫描策略的CodeRed相比,V6-Worm具有更快的传播速度.%Because of the huge address space in IPv6 network, traditional worm based on random scan, sequential scan in IPv4 network can hardly spread in IPv6 network. This paper developed a new type of IPv6 worm-V6-Worm. The worm ap-pliesd double layer scan strategy, it applied subnet scaning starategy based on multicast in local sunbet and applied scaning strategy based on the information of BGP routing prefix in inter-subnet. Based on the double layer scanning strategy, established a double layer model ( DLM) for simluating the propagation of V6-Worm. The reults of simulation show that V6-Worm can propagate in IPv6 network,and compare to random-scaning worm codered, V6-Worm can propagate more rapidly.

  1. Anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC against immature and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Oliveira, Adriana Silva Santos; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2014-04-01

    Although its efficiency against all Schistosoma species, praziquantel (PZQ) shows low efficacy against schistosomula and juvenile stages. The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more comprehensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. Amongst all the variety of the medicinal species studied, we can highlight Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, known as "Carqueja-amarga". This paper not only describes the effect of crude dichloromethane extract (DE) and aqueous fraction (AF) obtained from B. trimera, in vitro but also is the first one that investigates the in vivo efficacy of B. trimera against schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni BH strain. In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200mg/kg) over the period of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60days post-infection; pi). The in vitro results show that the DE and AF effects are dose-dependents, being the 130μg/mL the most effective one in a shorter period of incubation. The exposure of the in vitro samples over adult parasites were able to inhibit 100% of the oviposition in females. Likewise caused the mortality of the parasites with morphological alterations on the tegument, on the suckers, oral and acetabulum, in both males and females after 6-72h of exposure. Additionally, the in vivo treatments against juvenile and adult infection were more effective compared to the control group untreated. Administrations of AF and DE in day 30pi (juvenile worms) show female worm total burden reductions of 75% and 68% respectively. At the same period of infection reductions of respectively 98% and 97% egg/g in the faeces were seen. In relation to the different egg developmental stages

  2. Worm Phenotype Ontology: Integrating phenotype data within and beyond the C. elegans community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yook Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caenorhabditis elegans gene-based phenotype information dates back to the 1970's, beginning with Sydney Brenner and the characterization of behavioral and morphological mutant alleles via classical genetics in order to understand nervous system function. Since then C. elegans has become an important genetic model system for the study of basic biological and biomedical principles, largely through the use of phenotype analysis. Because of the growth of C. elegans as a genetically tractable model organism and the development of large-scale analyses, there has been a significant increase of phenotype data that needs to be managed and made accessible to the research community. To do so, a standardized vocabulary is necessary to integrate phenotype data from diverse sources, permit integration with other data types and render the data in a computable form. Results We describe a hierarchically structured, controlled vocabulary of terms that can be used to standardize phenotype descriptions in C. elegans, namely the Worm Phenotype Ontology (WPO. The WPO is currently comprised of 1,880 phenotype terms, 74% of which have been used in the annotation of phenotypes associated with greater than 18,000 C. elegans genes. The scope of the WPO is not exclusively limited to C. elegans biology, rather it is devised to also incorporate phenotypes observed in related nematode species. We have enriched the value of the WPO by integrating it with other ontologies, thereby increasing the accessibility of worm phenotypes to non-nematode biologists. We are actively developing the WPO to continue to fulfill the evolving needs of the scientific community and hope to engage researchers in this crucial endeavor. Conclusions We provide a phenotype ontology (WPO that will help to facilitate data retrieval, and cross-species comparisons within the nematode community. In the larger scientific community, the WPO will permit data integration, and

  3. Study of the formation and solution properties of worm-like micelles formed using both N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide-based cationic surfactant and anionic surfactant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihu Yan

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles.

  4. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Iben; Jensen, Jan Kjærgaard; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Diet composition of slow worms (Anguis fragilis) from a Danish population was recorded from May to September 2006. Slow worms were maintained in cool conditions (at 8°C) for a maximum of 126 h, which made approximately half of the animals regurgitate. The method worked equally well on juveniles...... types was tested on juveniles in a laboratory experiment. Mealworms gave a significantly lower gain in mass and snout-vent length than slugs, earthworms and a mix of all three prey types. A supplementary experiment revealed that slow worms from the present population completely rejected mealworms...

  5. 蜗轮蜗杆副在机动、手动进给传动机构中的应用%Application of a pair of worm and worm wheel using in the motor and manual feed transmission mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永锋; 李海珍

    2011-01-01

    一种新型机动、手动进给传动机构,在传动链起始端都用蜗轮蜗杆副,利用蜗轮蜗杆副反向传动自锁的特点,达到机动进给时自锁手动进给,而手动进给时又自锁机动进给的结果.%This article introduces a new motor and manual feed transmission mechanism, the beginning of the transmission chain of motor and manual feed adopts a pair of worm and worm wheel, we use its characteristic of reverse transmission and self-lock, when it is in motor feed, manual feed will be self-locked, it can also realize contrarily.

  6. MicroRNAs in cancer: from developmental genes in worms to their clinical application in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, M; Calin, G A

    2015-08-11

    Several discoveries have paved the way to personalise cancer medicine and a tremendous gain of knowledge in genomics and molecular mechanisms of cancer progression cumulated over the last years. Big stories in biology commonly start in a simple model system. No wonder microRNAs have been identified as regulators of embryonic development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From the first identification in worms to the first-in-man microRNA-based clinical trial in humans, almost 20 years passed. In this review we follow the story of understanding microRNA alterations in cancer, describe recent developments in the microRNA field and critically discuss their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutics factors in cancer medicine. We will explain the rationale behind the use of microRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis prediction, but also discuss the limitations and pitfalls associated with this. Novel developments of combined microRNA/siRNA pharmacological approaches will be discussed and most recently data about MXR34, the first-tested microRNA drug will be described.

  7. THE E.U. TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON SILK WORM REARING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the major trade flows in the E.U. textile and clothing industry in close connection with the future development of sericiculture using the data provided by EU Market Access Data Base for the period 2007-2011.The world market of textile and clothing is divided into two parts: raw material providers mainly situated in Asia, but also in South America and large processors situated in the E.U. such as Italy, France, United Kingdom and Spain, whose contribution to the EU production is 75 %. The main E.U. supplier of raw material for textile and clothing industry is China, followed by India, Bangladesh, Turkey and Brazil. About 33 % of the E.U.production of textile and garments is successfully exported as long as demand/offer ratio is unbalanced at world level. Import and export price have substantially increased. At present, the EU is the 2nd silk products exporter in the world. The new E.U. policy strategy regarding sericiculture is focused on the stimulation of silk worm rearing for producing cocoons mainly in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Spain, France and Romania where climate conditions are favorable, it is a long tradition in the field and rural population needs jobs. At the same time, the E.U. is focused on technology improvement and silk product design in order to create more value added and increase export and sales.

  8. Stable photosymbiotic relationship under CO₂-induced acidification in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Dupont

    Full Text Available As a consequence of anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, oceans are becoming more acidic, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. Many marine species predicted to be sensitive to this stressor are photosymbiotic, including corals and foraminifera. However, the direct impact of ocean acidification on the relationship between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organism remains unclear and is complicated by other physiological processes known to be sensitive to ocean acidification (e.g. calcification and feeding. We have studied the impact of extreme pH decrease/pCO₂ increase on the complete life cycle of the photosymbiotic, non-calcifying and pure autotrophic acoel worm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Our results show that this species is resistant to high pCO₂ with no negative or even positive effects on fitness (survival, growth, fertility and/or photosymbiotic relationship till pCO₂ up to 54 K µatm. Some sub-lethal bleaching is only observed at pCO₂ up to 270 K µatm when seawater is saturated by CO₂. This indicates that photosymbiosis can be resistant to high pCO₂. If such a finding would be confirmed in other photosymbiotic species, we could then hypothesize that negative impact of high pCO₂ observed on other photosymbiotic species such as corals and foraminifera could occur through indirect impacts at other levels (calcification, feeding.

  9. An experimental and theoretical investigation into the ``worm-hole'' effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Pan, Yafeng; Wang, Limin; Fang, Jinpeng; Sun, Xu; Li, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie

    2013-08-01

    On a nanosecond time scale, solid insulators abnormally fail in bulk rather than on surface, which is termed as the "worm-hole" effect. By using a generator with adjustable output pulse width and dozens of organic glass (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) samples, experiments to verify this effect are conducted. The results show that under short pulses of 10 ns, all the samples fail due to bulk breakdown, whereas when the pulse width is tuned to a long pulse of 7 μs, the samples fail as a result of surface flashover. The experimental results are interpreted by analyzing the conditions for the bulk breakdown and the surface flashover. It is found that under short pulses, the flashover threshold would be as high as the bulk breakdown strength (EBD) and the flashover time delay (td) would be longer than the pulse width (τ), both of which make the dielectrics' cumulative breakdown occur easily; whereas under long pulses, that Ef is much lower than EBD and td is smaller than τ is advantageous to the occurrence of the surface flashover. In addition, a general principle on solid insulation design under short pulse condition is proposed based on the experimental results and the theoretical analysis.

  10. Proteomic analysis of tegument-exposed proteins of female and male Schistosoma japonicum worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Hong, Yang; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Peng, Jinbiao; Qiu, Chunhui; Yang, Jianmei; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2013-11-01

    The interplay between sexes is a prerequisite for female growth, reproductive maturation, and egg production, and the basis of schistosome pathopoiesis and propagation. The tegument is in direct contact with the host environment and its surface membranes are particularly crucial for schistosome survival in the definitive host. In this study, a streptavidin-biotin affinity purification technique combined with LC-MS/MS was used to analyze putative tegument-exposed proteins in female and male adult Schistosoma japonicum worms. In total, 179 proteins were identified in females and 300 in males, including 119 proteins common to both sexes, and 60 female biased and 181 male biased proteins. Some (e.g., serpin and CD36-like class B scavenger receptor) were involved in host-schistosome interactions, while some (e.g., gynecophoral canal protein) were important in the interplay between sexes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in protein glycosylation and lysosome were highly expressed in females, while proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction, regulation of actin filament polymerization, and proteasome core complex were highly expressed in males. These results might elucidate physiological differences between the sexes. Our study provides new insights into schistosome growth and sexual maturity in the final host and permits the screening of vaccine candidates or drug targets for schistosomiasis.

  11. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  12. Selenium incorporated in vegetable material for the obtaining of worm flour and compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcivar Cedeño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to evaluate the quality of the earthworm flour fed with the addition of selenium. Two groups with three replicates were used; a food made of sterilized vegetable waste and other with the addition of soya (5% as a source of selenium. Temperature, humidity, and pH were controlled to ensure the optimal growth of earthworms. A 0.5 g sample of both groups replicates was weighed in order to determine the amount of Na, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu, Li, Se, Hg and Pb. The humus quality provided by the samples was also qualitatively analyzed, and the amount of moisture, protein, dry matter, fat, ash, crude fiber and soluble carbohydrates were determined. The amount of the elements Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Li was satisfactory because the flour had concentrations similar to the conventional worm flour, which is first achieved for this type of product. The amount of protein and lipid was also high similar to the conventional foods derived from animals. No heavy metals were found. Remarkably, the use of Eisenia foetida Savigny extracts can be used as a dietary supplement in amounts less than 1 g per person, which minimizes the risk of heavy metals. The application of humus from earthworms that were fed with a diet that contained selenium, corn plants obtained were significantly different from the untreated ones.

  13. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  14. Morphological study of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado-Silva José Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to detail data obtained through brightfield microscopy (BM on reproductive, excretory and digestive system, specimens of Schistosoma mansoni eight weeks old, were recovered from SW mice, stained with Langeron's carmine and analyzed under a confocal laser scanning microscope CLSM 410 (Carl Zeiss. The reproductive system presented a single and lobate testis, with intercommunications between the lobes without efferent duct. Supernumerary testicular lobe was amorphous and isolated from the normal ones. Collecting tubules (excretory ducts, followed by the excretory bladder, opening to the external media through the excretory pore, were observed at the posterior extremity of the body. In the digestive tract, a cecal swelling was noted at the junction that originates the single cecum. It was concluded that through confocal laser scanning microscopy, new interpretations of morphological structures of S. mansoni worms could be achieved, modifying adopted and current descriptions. The gonad consists of a single lobed testis, similar to that observed in some trematode species. Moreover, the same specimens can be observed either by BM or CLSM, considering that the latter causes only focal and limited damage in tissue structures.

  15. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian P Nesnidal

    Full Text Available Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias.

  16. A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Robert

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down- regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes.

  17. A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Hodges, Emily; Dessi, Patrick; Johnsen, Robert; Vaz Gomes, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Background Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down- regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes. PMID:15877817

  18. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Kakumani

    Full Text Available microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  19. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  20. Fabrication of worm-like Ag2S nanocrystals under mediation of protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dezhi Qin; Li Zhang; Xian Du; Guangrui Yang; Qiuxia Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A simple protein-assisted method was reported to synthesize pepsin-conjugated Ag2S nanocrystals in aqueous solution. The morphology, composition and structure of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements. The results showed that as-prepared monoclinic Ag2S nanocrystals are worm-like nanochains in shape with sizes about 25 nm in diameter and up to hundreds of nanometres in length. The multiple coordinate bonds of pepsin molecules to the surface of Ag2S nanocrystals make as-prepared samples have good colloidal stability and biocompatibility as elucidated by Fourier transform infrared examination. Thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that the obtained products are inorganic–organic nanocomposites and there is strong interaction between Ag2S and pepsin. This interaction could result in the change of hydrophilic environment of pepsin and consequently intrinsic fluorescence of protein was quenched by Ag2S nanocrystals. Furthermore, the nanochains assembly of particle–particle and rod–rod oriented attachment was discussed to investigate the growth mechanism.

  1. A transcriptomic approach to ribbon worm systematics (nemertea): resolving the pilidiophora problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sónia C S; Montenegro, Horácio; Strand, Malin; Schwartz, Megan L; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Norenburg, Jon L; Turbeville, James M; Sundberg, Per; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Resolving the deep relationships of ancient animal lineages has proven difficult using standard Sanger-sequencing approaches with a handful of markers. We thus reassess the relatively well-studied phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea (ribbon worms)-for which the targeted gene approaches had resolved many clades but had left key phylogenetic gaps-by using a phylogenomic approach using Illumina-based de novo assembled transcriptomes and automatic orthology prediction methods. The analysis of a concatenated data set of 2,779 genes (411,138 amino acids) with about 78% gene occupancy and a reduced version with 95% gene occupancy, under evolutionary models accounting or not for site-specific amino acid replacement patterns results in a well-supported phylogeny that recovers all major accepted nemertean clades with the monophyly of Heteronemertea, Hoplonemertea, Monostilifera, being well supported. Significantly, all the ambiguous patterns inferred from Sanger-based approaches were resolved, namely the monophyly of Palaeonemertea and Pilidiophora. By testing for possible conflict in the analyzed supermatrix, we observed that concatenation was the best solution, and the results of the analyses should settle prior debates on nemertean phylogeny. The study highlights the importance, feasibility, and completeness of Illumina-based phylogenomic data matrices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Synthesis of worm and chain-like nanoparticles by a microfluidic reactor process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujun; Sun, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Pengyun; Han, Li

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate a room temperature microfluidic reactor (MFR) process for the synthesis of worm-like and chain-like shaped metallic nanoparticles (NPs). These high aspect ratio NPs are in geometrically metastable states, which can be further transformed into ellipsoidal, spherical, or short rod-like species with enhanced crystallinity after their solutions are stirred for several hours and/or undergo sonication for more than half an hour, evidenced by their transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis on the relative stronger shape control ability by the microfluidic process than by the batch process suggests that the attachment and merging of pre-formed nanoclusters along the flow orientation in the microchannel slits may be the main reason for the formation of non-spherical shaped NPs. The result indicates that the room temperature microfluidic process has the potential to assemble primary nanoclusters into two-dimension architectures (i.e., chain-like networks).

  3. A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Georg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of the arthropod head is one of the most contentious issues in animal evolution. In particular, controversy surrounds the homology and innervation of segmental cephalic appendages by the brain. Onychophora (velvet worms play a crucial role in understanding the evolution of the arthropod brain, because they are close relatives of arthropods and have apparently changed little since the Early Cambrian. However, the segmental origins of their brain neuropils and the number of cephalic appendages innervated by the brain - key issues in clarifying brain composition in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda - remain unclear. Results Using immunolabelling and neuronal tracing techniques in the developing and adult onychophoran brain, we found that the major brain neuropils arise from only the anterior-most body segment, and that two pairs of segmental appendages are innervated by the brain. The region of the central nervous system corresponding to the arthropod tritocerebrum is not differentiated as part of the onychophoran brain but instead belongs to the ventral nerve cords. Conclusions Our results contradict the assumptions of a tripartite (three-segmented brain in Onychophora and instead confirm the hypothesis of bipartite (two-segmented brain composition. They suggest that the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda possessed a brain consisting of protocerebrum and deutocerebrum whereas the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods.

  4. Unexpected results and open questions from experiments on regeneration in lumbricid worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Plytycz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbricid worms are commonly subjected to noxious stimuli leading to expulsion of celomic fluid or to loss of body segments; therefore regeneration of lost segments and restoration of the depleted cellular and soluble components of celomic fluid are of fundamental importance for these animals. Series of experiments was performed on regeneration abilities in well-defined epigeic species Eisenia andrei, E. fetida and Dendrobaena veneta, and endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa. Efficient regeneration of the lost anterior or posterior segments was consistently observed in Eisenia sp. In a sharp contrast, D. veneta regenerated amputated anterior segments or extirpated suprapharyngeal ganglia (‘brains’ while regeneration of posterior segments was never recorded so far in this species. In A. caliginosa a loss of posterior segments was followed either by compensatory body growth or by formation of regeneration blastema. In all species regeneration was cold-inhibited while was resistant to cadmium soil pollution. The efficiency of regenerative processes in E. andrei and E. fetida might be connected with quality and quantity of some components of their celomic fluid; lysenin is unique for these species and riboflavin is much more abundant in Eisenia sp. than in other lumbricids investigated so far.

  5. Regeneration in planarians and other worms: New findings, new tools, and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saló, Emili; Baguñà, Jaume

    2002-05-01

    Molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and new methods of cell lineage have reignited the interest of planarians and other worms (mainly annelids and nemerteans) as invertebrate model systems of regeneration. Here, the mean results produced in the last five years are reviewed, an update of the genes and molecules involved in planarian regeneration is provided, and a new morphallactic-epimorphic model of pattern formation is suggested. Moreover, and most importantly, we highlight the new strides brought upon by genomic/proteomic analyses, RNA interference (RNAi) to inactivate gene function, and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) cell labelling. The raising hope to obtain transformed neoblasts and transgenic planarians is also stressed. Altogether, such approaches will eventually lead to solve the long-standing open questions on regeneration which still baffles us. Finally, we warn against overlooking the evident links between regeneration processes and those controlling the daily wear and tear of tissues and cells. Both processes act, at least in planarians, upon a unique stem-cell endowed with an unrivaled developmental potential in the animal kingdom-the neoblast. This cell could be considered the forebear and a model system for stem-cell analysis.

  6. Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and operative findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Sheila C; Mamprim, Maria J; Oliveira, Hugo S; Mesquita, Luciane R; Faria, Luis G; Takahira, Regina K; Matsubara, Lídia M; Agostinho, Felipe S

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale). DESIGN--Case series. ANIMALS--15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale. PROCEDURES--Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed. RESULTS--In the corticomedullary area of the right kidney of 12 dogs, ultrasonography revealed several ring-like structures with an echogenic wall and anechoic central area in the transverse plane and arrayed as bands in the longitudinal plane. Similar structures were observed in the abdominal cavity of 10 dogs. In 13 dogs, CT revealed loss of corticomedullary differentiation in the right kidney, with discrete uptake of contrast material in the periphery of the kidney, and several ring-like or elongated structures with a hyperdense wall and hypodense center. In 11 dogs, the same structures were observed free in the abdominal cavity. Surgery revealed that 13 dogs had a damaged right kidney that required nephrectomy. Parasites were found free in the abdominal cavity of 7 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Ultrasonography and CT were effective imaging methods for detecting D renale in the kidney and less effective for detecting parasites in the abdominal cavity. Care should be taken to avoid erroneously interpreting normal structures as parasites, especially in the abdominal cavity.

  7. Biased sex ratio among worms of the family Heligmosomidae--searching for a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Michalski, Aleksander; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    According to Fisher's principle, an equal sex ratio is an evolutionary stable strategy. However, biased sex ratios have been reported in many metazoan parasite species, although the causes and mechanisms of the observed bias are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analysed sex ratios in long-term datasets from three populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys (=Myodes) glareolus) infected with Heligmosomum mixtum and Heligmosomoides glareoli. The overall sex ratios of both species were female-biased but in contrast to previous studies we did not find a relationship between the proportion of females and infection intensity. A higher female bias was observed in older hosts, suggesting that the sex ratio changes over time; the lifespan of nematodes in the family Heligmosomidae is known to be comparable with that of their hosts. We also compared the distributions of sexes in voles infected with two, three, four or five worms and we found significant differences from the expected values in both parasite species. In infections with four and five H. glareoli we observed more single-sex infections than expected, both female- and male-dominated, whereas in the case of H. mixtum female-dominated infections were more frequent.

  8. Local transmission of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnis, Johannes; Naucke, Thorsten J; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the first assumed locally transmitted case of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in a dog living in southern Germany. A 4-year-old male golden retriever from the town of Bühl in north eastern Baden-Württemberg, about 10 km from the German-French border, showed one sided lacrimation for over 2 weeks. Despite the application of antibiotics, there was no improvement, and the dog additionally showed blepharospasmus, epiphora and red conjunctivas. A deepened eye inspection revealed five whitish filiform parasites that were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1, 605 bp) from one specimen revealed a novel haplotype, which differs by 1.3% from the only one (haplotype 1) identified in Europe so far. Since the infected dog had never been abroad with the exception of two daytrips to the close Alsace region in France, the transmission of T. callipaeda most probably was domestic. With the presence of end hosts and Phortica flies nourishing on lachrymal secretions acting as intermediate hosts and an increasing number of dogs travelling to and coming from endemic regions in the South, the establishment of T. callipaeda in large parts of Europe cannot be excluded.

  9. Detailed Morphology of All Life Stages of the Agave Red Worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, R; Llanderal-Cázares, C

    2016-12-01

    The agave red worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt), is an important source of food and income in Mexico. Despite its importance, several aspects of its biology, morphology, and behavior remain poorly studied. In this work, we describe and illustrate the morphology of all the life stages that may aid in understanding certain aspects of its biology. To obtain all life stages, last instar larvae were collected from agave plants and allowed to pupate; after the adults emerged, they were allowed to mate and oviposit. The frenulum is longer in males; epiphysis I is longer in females than in males; the abdomen bears two types of tubercles of unknown function. Eggs present a reticulate chorion; primary rosette cells are highly variable in shape; the micropylar formula is (10-14): (12-13). First instar larvae are white, becoming red as they develop; L3 in the prothorax is subprimary; the SV setal group in A1 is comprised of only SV1 on first instar larvae; last instars have several secondary setae. Pupae are adecticous and obtect; there are rows of spines on the dorsum of the abdomen. The biological significance of some of the findings is discussed.

  10. Enhanced red-emitting railroad worm luciferase for bioassays and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Niwa, Kazuki; Viviani, Vadim R; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    A luciferase from the railroad worm (Phrixothrix hirtus) is the only red-emitting bioluminescent enzyme in nature that is advantageous in multicolor luciferase assays and in bioluminescence imaging (BLI). However, it is not used widely in scientific or industrial applications because of its low activity and stability. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we produced red-emitting mutants with higher activity and better stability. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the luminescent activities from extracts of cultured mammalian cells expressing mutant luciferase were 9.8-fold in I212L/N351K, 8.4-fold in I212L, and 7.8-fold in I212L/S463R; and the cell-based activities were 3.6-fold in I212L/N351K and 3.4-fold in N351K. The remaining activities after incubation at 37 degrees C for 10 min were 50.0% for I212L/S463R, 31.8% for I212L, and 23.0% for I212L/N351K, but only 5.2% for WT. To demonstrate an application of I212L/N351K, cell-based BLI was performed, and the luminescence signal was 3.6-fold higher than in WT. These results indicate that the mutants might improve the practicability of this signaling in bioassays and BLI.

  11. Tetrodotoxin-producing Bacillus sp. from the ribbon worm (Nemertea) Cephalothrix simula (Iwata, 1952).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarlamov, Timur Yu; Beleneva, Irina A; Chernyshev, Alexey V; Kuhlevsky, Andrey D

    2014-07-01

    Specimens of the toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula from the Sea of Japan were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A single TTX-producing bacterial strain (No 1839) was isolated from tissues of C. simula and studied by immunohistochemical methods (including immunoelectron and immunofluorescent microscopies) with anti-TTX antibodies. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of the strain 1839 showed that it is most likely Bacillus sp. CU040510-015 and Bacillus asahii. Based on its morphological and biochemical properties, however we suppose that the isolated Bacillus sp. 1839 should be classified as representing a new species. Microdistribution of TTX in bacterial cell was investigated under electron microscope by immunoenzymatic methods. TTX was concentrated in the forespore and free spores, but it was not detected in the vegetative cells of Bacillus sp. 1839. We suggest that release of free mature spores from sporangium of Bacillus sp. 1839 leads to appearance of toxin in tissues of C. simula. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) method with anti-TTX antibodies can be recommended for preliminary detection of apparent TTX accumulation.

  12. Studies on the effect of fenbendazole and mebendazole on some enzymes of swine kidney worm Stephanurus dentatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Kaushal, P

    1996-09-01

    The effect of fenbendazole and mebendazole on the activity of some enzymes of the homogenates of swine kidney worm Stephanurus dentatus was investigated. Fenbendazole at 10(-5) M inhibited malate oxidation by 49% and 51% and oxaloacetate reduction by 33% and 40% whereas, mebendazole at 10(-5) M diminished malate oxidation by 25% and 35% and oxaloacetate reduction by 12% and 14% in male and female S. dentatus, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by 45% and 50% in male and female worm respectively by 10(-5) M fenbendazole. Aldolase activity in both male and female S. dentatus was inhibited by 10(-5) M fenbendazole and mebendazole. Fenbendazole at 10(-5) M caused moderate inhibition of acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterases but mebendazole did not show a significant effect on these enzymes. Cholinesterase activity was not affected significantly with either compound. The possible mode of action of the two compounds is compared.

  13. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  14. Highly Sensitive Thin Film Sensor Based on Worm-like Carbon Nanofibers for Detection of Ammonia in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-zhi; CHEN Xing; LI Min-Qiang; LIU Jin-Huai

    2008-01-01

    A thin film sensor was fabricated using the mixture of worm-like carbon nanofibers (WCNF), which were synthesized using aluminium supported iron catalysts via chemical vapour deposition, and glass dust in proportion of 3 : 2, combined by drops of terpineol. The morphology of the catalyst, the worm-like carbon nanofibers and the film surface were investigated with the help of TEM and SEM. Low single-potential signal was employed to investigate gas sensitivity of the sensor to the deleterious ammonia, in atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The results suggest that the sensor has high sensitivity at low concentration (0.175-0.35 mg/m3), perfect reproducibility,and a fast response time (0.05 s) and restoration time (1 min).

  15. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  16. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural groundglass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus.

  17. Urban pollution of sediments: Impact on the physiology and burrowing activity of tubificid worms and consequences on biogeochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigneret, M; Mermillod-Blondin, F; Volatier, L; Romestaing, C; Maire, E; Adrien, J; Guillard, L; Roussel, D; Hervant, F

    2016-10-15

    In urban areas, infiltration basins are designed to manage stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of associated pollutants. The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of these structures is highly organic and multicontaminated (mainly heavy metals and hydrocarbons). Only few aquatic species are able to maintain permanent populations in such an extreme environment, including the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Nevertheless, the impact of urban pollutants on these organisms and the resulting influence on infiltration basin functioning remain poorly studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how polluted sediments could impact the survival, the physiology and the bioturbation activity of L. hoffmeisteri and thereby modify biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface. To this end, we conducted laboratory incubations of worms, in polluted sediments from infiltration basins or slightly polluted sediments from a stream. Analyses were performed to evaluate physiological state and burrowing activity (X-ray micro-tomography) of worms and their influences on biogeochemical processes (nutrient fluxes, CO2 and CH4 degassing rates) during 30-day long experiments. Our results showed that worms exhibited physiological responses to cope with high pollution levels, including a strong ability to withstand the oxidative stress linked to contamination with heavy metals. We also showed that the presence of urban pollutants significantly increased the burrowing activity of L. hoffmeisteri, demonstrating the sensitivity and the relevance of such a behavioural response as biomarker of sediment toxicity. In addition, we showed that X-ray micro-tomography was an adequate technique for accurate and non-invasive three-dimensional investigations of biogenic structures formed by bioturbators. The presence of worms induced stimulations of nutrient fluxes and organic matter recycling (between +100% and 200% of CO2 degassing rate

  18. Rearing and estimation of life-cycle parameters of the tubicifid worm Branchiura sowerbyi: application to ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Quéau, Hervé; Mons, Raphaël; Lafont, Michel; Garric, Jeanne

    2007-10-01

    This paper provides original collection, acclimatizing, rearing and toxicity test methods for the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi, an alternative species to Tubifex tubifex for ecotoxicity evaluation of sediments. Influence of the substrate, type of food, and feeding level on individual performances was assessed in short-term tests, in order to set up optimal culture and test conditions. Low-size particles and high organic matter content favoured the growth and reproduction of B. sowerbyi. The relative contribution of sediments and fish food to the individual food intake was assessed using a foraging efficiency model based upon the dynamic energy budget theory. Individual performances were optimal when the substrate plus fish food provided the energy equivalent to 5 mg Tetramin per worm per day, which is the ad libitum food level for adults at 21 degrees C. The life-cycle of the worm was fully characterized using a life-cycle test conducted under the previously defined optimal conditions. Hatching rates were low (32%), whereas newborn and juveniles exhibited high survival (>80%) and growth (2.4 mg/day in juveniles) rates. Age at puberty was low (60 days) when compared to the maximal life span (1100 days) as predicted using a Weibull model. Adults reproduced every other month with a constant fecundity (0.16 cocoon/worm/day). The mean values of the life-cycle parameters and their variability and reproducibility among laboratory studies were discussed in order to identify relevant endpoints to be used in ecotoxicity tests. Survival, juvenile growth, and fecundity may constitute suitable test endpoints, whereas hatching rate and adult growth should not be used as endpoints in B. sowerbyi.

  19. Star-shaped feeding traces produced by echiuran worms on the deep-sea floor of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Suguru

    1984-12-01

    Many star-shaped foraging traces were observed in bottom photographs of the deep-sea floor taken in the Bay of Bengal between the depths of 5025 and 2635 m. They were classified into 10 types according to their dimensions, aspect ratios (length/width) of their spokes, features of the central structure, and possible production mechanisms. The proboscis of a deep-sea bonellid echiuran worm was photographed at a depth of 2635 m in the act of producing one of the star-shaped foraging traces. On the basis of photographic observations and observations of shallow-water forms, several types of the feeding traces can be ascribed to the foraging of deep-sea echiuran worms on surface detritus. At least four types of the star-shaped trace are probably produced by deep-sea bonellid worms, and a linear correlation could be found between the aspect ratios of the spokes and maximum number of spokes around the central hole. A geometrical model experiment stimulating the feeding behavior of a bonellid worm suggested simple behavioral principles which afford maximum utilization of the surface area around a central hole with least expenditure of energy. The prediction of the maximum number of spokes for a given aspect of spokes by the model experiment agreed well with those observed, both utilizing about 76% of the fresh sediment surface within the span of the probiscis around a central hole. This efficient feeding pattern may have adaptive value in deep-sea environments such as the central part of the Bay of Bengal, where energy input is limited.

  20. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1 Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Ziniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450 gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA silencing of S. mansoni (SmCYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  1. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  2. Managing anthelmintic resistance-Variability in the dose of drug reaching the target worms influences selection for resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M; Luo, Dongwen

    2017-08-30

    The concentration profile of anthelmintic reaching the target worms in the host can vary between animals even when administered doses are tailored to individual liveweight at the manufacturer's recommended rate. Factors contributing to variation in drug concentration include weather, breed of animal, formulation and the route by which drugs are administered. The implications of this variability for the development of anthelmintic resistance was investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation. A model framework was established where 100 animals each received a single drug treatment. The 'dose' of drug allocated to each animal (i.e. the concentration-time profile of drug reaching the target worms) was sampled at random from a distribution of doses with mean m and standard deviation s. For each animal the dose of drug was used in conjunction with pre-determined dose-response relationships, representing single and poly-genetic inheritance, to calculate efficacy against susceptible and resistant genotypes. These data were then used to calculate the overall change in resistance gene frequency for the worm population as a result of the treatment. Values for m and s were varied to reflect differences in both mean dose and the variability in dose, and for each combination of these 100,000 simulations were run. The resistance gene frequency in the population after treatment increased as m decreased and as s increased. This occurred for both single and poly-gene models and for different levels of dominance (survival under treatment) of the heterozygote genotype(s). The results indicate that factors which result in lower and/or more variable concentrations of active reaching the target worms are more likely to select for resistance. The potential of different routes of anthelmintic administration to play a role in the development of anthelmintic resistance is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1 Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Ziniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450 gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA silencing of S. mansoni (SmCYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  4. Fabrication of Worm-Like Nanorods and Ultrafine Nanospheres of Silver Via Solid-State Photochemical Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Navaladian S; Viswanathan B; Varadarajan TK; Viswanath RP

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Worm-like nanorods and nanospheres of silver have been synthesized by photochemical decomposition of silver oxalate in water by UV irradiation in the presence of CTAB and PVP, respectively. No external seeds have been employed for the synthesis of Ag nanorods. The synthesized Ag colloids have been characterized by UV-visible spectra, powder XRD, HRTEM, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Ag nanospheres of average size around 2 nm have been obtained in the presence of PVP. ...

  5. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  6. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  7. Vanadium-Binding Ability of Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase from the Vanadium-Rich Fan Worm, Pseudopotamilla occelata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Kamino, Kei; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Polychaete fan worms and ascidians accumulate high levels of vanadium ions. Several vanadiumbinding proteins, known as vanabins, have been found in ascidians. However, no vanadium-binding factors have been isolated from the fan worm. In the present study, we sought to identify vanadiumbinding proteins in the branchial crown of the fan worm using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. A nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) homolog was isolated and determined to be a vanadium-binding protein. Kinase activity of the NDK homologue, PoNDK, was suppressed by the addition of V(IV), but was unaffected by V(V). The effect of V(IV) on PoNDK precedes its activation by Mg(II). This is the first report to describe the relationship between NDK and V(IV). PoNDK is located in the epidermis of the branchial crown, and its distribution is very similar to that of vanadium. These results suggest that PoNDK is associated with vanadium accumulation and metabolism in P. occelata.

  8. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis.

  9. Effect of management practices on screw-worm among sheep in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R

    1998-06-01

    The screw-worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), whose larvae develop in wild and domestic animals as well as in man, is one of the major causes of myiasis in Brazil. Sheep raising is expanding in the state of São Paulo, where information about the infestation of screw-worm is necessary for appropriate control measures. The present data were obtained from questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to Associacão Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos--ASPACO (São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. The results show that screw-worm is the most frequent ectoparasite in the flocks and is responsible for the greatest economic losses. Its occurrence is strongly associated with flock size, reaching 100% in flocks consisting of more than 500 animals. Infestation is higher in spring and summer and lowest in the fall. The number of cases increases in the presence of some management practices such as tail amputation. Furthermore, several other associations between the indicators surveyed were also found to be significant. The data obtained will permit the elaboration of strategies for the control of this parasitosis.

  10. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Fabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid.

  11. The Parallel Worm Tracker: a platform for measuring average speed and drug-induced paralysis in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion is a simple behavior that has been widely used to dissect genetic components of behavior, synaptic transmission, and muscle function. Many of the paradigms that have been created to study C. elegans locomotion rely on qualitative experimenter observation. Here we report the implementation of an automated tracking system developed to quantify the locomotion of multiple individual worms in parallel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our tracking system generates a consistent measurement of locomotion that allows direct comparison of results across experiments and experimenters and provides a standard method to share data between laboratories. The tracker utilizes a video camera attached to a zoom lens and a software package implemented in MATLAB. We demonstrate several proof-of-principle applications for the tracker including measuring speed in the absence and presence of food and in the presence of serotonin. We further use the tracker to automatically quantify the time course of paralysis of worms exposed to aldicarb and levamisole and show that tracker performance compares favorably to data generated using a hand-scored metric. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this is not the first automated tracking system developed to measure C. elegans locomotion, our tracking software package is freely available and provides a simple interface that includes tools for rapid data collection and analysis. By contrast with other tools, it is not dependent on a specific set of hardware. We propose that the tracker may be used for a broad range of additional worm locomotion applications including genetic and chemical screening.

  12. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  13. Capacidad de carga de las transmisiones por tornillo sinfín y corona. // Load capacity of worm gears transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los reductores de velocidad comenzó a principios del siglo xx, su extensa difusión en el mundo actual permiteadquirirlos como unidades ensambladas a un costo relativamente bajo para la calidad del producto ofertado. Losantecedentes de este trabajo están en las investigaciones realizadas desde hace más de tres décadas en el ISPJAE. Lacreación de tecnologías propias sobre la base de estas investigaciones ha permitido la producción de reductores develocidad por tornillo sinfín con índices de calidad comparables con los índices de los reductores foráneos. El método dereconversión de reductores de velocidad que han quedado fuera de servicio, es utilizado en Cuba con resultadossatisfactorios a partir de la utilización de las carcasas originales. El presente trabajo pretende destacar la influencia de loserrores de contacto en la capacidad de carga de la transmisión por tornillo sinfín. Se brinda en esta ocasión, unprocedimiento para el cálculo automatizado de la superficie activa del diente de la rueda y se ofrece una expresión decálculo propia que permite pronosticar la capacidad de carga de la transmisión, a partir de la huella de contacto, encorrespondencia con los requisitos de contacto para un grado de precisión dado.Palabras claves: Capacidad de carga, huella de contacto, tornillo sinfín._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The use of worm gears transmissions started at the beginning of the 20th century and its wide spread use allow to purchaseas join units with low cost according to the product quality. Investigations that for more than thirty years took place at theISPJAE are the bases of this study. The Cuban technologies have permitted to produce worm gears with a comparablequality as foreign ones. The reconversion method for worm gears out of service is used in Cuba, and satisfactory results areobtained. In this paper are exposed the contact errors influence

  14. Adhesive complex coacervate inspired by the sandcastle worm as a sealant for fetoscopic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarbjit

    Inspired by the Sandcastle Worm, biomimetic of the water-borne adhesive was developed by complex coacervation of the synthetic copolyelectrolytes, mimicking the chemistries of the worm glue. The developed underwater adhesive was designed for sealing fetal membranes after fetoscopic surgery in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and sealing neural tissue of a fetus in aminiotic sac for spina bifida condition. Complex coacervate with increased bond strength was created by entrapping polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-dA) monomer within the cross-linked coacervate network. Maximum shear bond strength of ~ 1.2 MPa on aluminum substrates was reached. The monomer-filled coacervate had complex flow behavior, thickening at low shear rates and then thinning suddenly with a 16-fold drop in viscosity at shear rates near 6 s-1. The microscale structure of the complex coacervates resembled a three-dimensional porous network of interconnected tubules. This complex coacervate adhesive was used in vitro studies to mimic the uterine wall-fetal membrane interface using a water column with one end and sealed with human fetal membranes and poultry breast, and a defect was created with an 11 French trocar. The coacervate adhesive in conjunction with the multiphase adhesive was used to seal the defect. The sealant withstood an additional traction of 12 g for 30-60 minutes and turbulence of the water column without leakage of fluid or slippage. The adhesive is nontoxic when in direct contact with human fetal membranes in an organ culture setting. A stable complex coacervate adhesive for long-term use in TTTS and spina bifida application was developed by methacrylating the copolyelectrolytes. The methacrylated coacervate was crosslinked chemically for TTTS and by photopolymerization for spina bifida. Tunable mechanical properties of the adhesive were achieved by varying the methacrylation of the polymers. Varying the amine to phosphate (A/P) ratio in the coacervate formation

  15. Phylogeographical and speciation patterns in subterranean worm lizards of the genus Blanus (Amphisbaenia: Blanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, E M; Zardoya, R; García-París, M

    2007-04-01

    The peculiar lifestyle of subterranean reptiles must determine their modes of speciation and diversification. To further understand the evolutionary biology of subterranean reptiles, we studied the phylogeny of worm lizards of the genus Blanus and the phylogeography of its Iberian representatives. We used mitochondrial (ND4 and 16S rRNA) and nuclear (anonymous) partial gene sequences to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Blanus. The Eastern Mediterranean Blanus strauchi was recovered as sister group of Western Mediterranean species. Iberian and North African Blanus were recovered as reciprocally monophyletic groups. The same genes were used to determine phylogeography of 47 populations of Blanus cinereus. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data recovered two highly supported Iberian clades. Parapatry and high sequence divergences between them suggest that these clades may represent independent taxonomic units. A molecular clock was calibrated considering that the split between Iberian and North African Blanus was due to the re-opening of the Betic Strait in the Upper Tortonian (8-9 million years ago). Differentiation between the two Iberian clades was estimated to date back to 5.2 million years ago. The Central Iberian clade included five mitochondrial haplotype lineages (A-E). Geographical ranges of two of them broadly overlap in the central Iberian plateau. After testing alternative hypotheses, the most likely explanation for this striking phylogeographical pattern involves recent dispersal of one of the lineages (C) over the geographical range of the other (B). The inferred recent dispersal of this fossorial reptile is explained in terms of demographic advantages associated to underground lifestyle.

  16. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

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    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in adult Schistosoma mansoni BH strain worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertão, Humberto Gonçalves; da Silva, Renata Alexandre Ramos; Padilha, Rafael José R; de Azevedo Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessôa; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2012-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by helminths from the genus Schistosoma; it affects over 200 million people globally and is endemic in 70 countries. In Brazil, 6 million individuals are infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, as the prevalence of S. mansoni infections is increasing, approximately 26 million citizens in 19 Brazilian states are at risk for infection. Schistosomiasis disease control involves predominately the administration of a single drug, praziquantel. Although praziquantel exhibits chemotherapeutic efficacy and safety, its massive use in endemic zones, the possibility of the emergence of drug-resistant Schistosoma parasites, and the lack of another efficacious antischistosomal drug demand the discovery of new schistosomicidal compounds. First developed as anti-tumor drug, miltefosine is an alkylphospholipid derivative that exhibits bioactivity against Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites, free-living protozoa, bacteria, and fungi. With its anti-parasite activity, miltefosine was the first orally administered drug against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis approved. Previously, by means of the MTT cytotoxic assay and a DNA fragmentation test, we verified that, at doses of 100 and 200 μM (40 and 80 μg/mL), miltefosine exhibited in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms. Here, we present ultrastructural evidence of rapid, severe miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni following drug treatment. The number of dead parasites was concentration- and time-dependent following miltefosine treatment. At a miltefosine concentration of 200 μM (∼80 μg/mL), in vitro parasite killing was initiated as early as 3 h post-incubation, and it was maximal after 24 h of treatment. The parasite death was preceded by progressive surface membrane damage, characterized by tegument peeling, spine reduction and erosion, blister formation and rupture, and the emergence of holes. According to our

  19. Hymenolepis nana: worm recovery from congenitally athymic nude and phenotypically normal rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1984-10-01

    When eggs or mouse-derived cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana were inoculated into previously uninfected congenitally athymic nude (rnu/rnu) rats of an outbred Rowett strain, they failed to mature in the intestinal lumen. They also failed to mature in phenotypically normal (rnu/+) littermates, except when these hosts were treated with cortisone acetate from the beginning of the lumen phase. The Rowett rat, either thymus-deficient or not, was susceptible to tissue cysticercoids but resistant to luminal adults. It is therefore considered to be an unnatural host, at least for mouse-derived H. nana. There was little or no difference in susceptibility to initial tissue cysticercoids between these nude rats and phenotypically normal ones. The normal rats became completely resistant to reinfection with eggs and no secondary cysticercoids developed in their intestinal tissue, whereas the nude rats showed unaltered susceptibility to secondary tissue cysticercoids. Thus, acquired resistance to egg challenge, assessed by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery, was thymus-dependent. However, innate resistance to both a primary egg dose, assessed by the low recovery rates of tissue cysticercoids, and to a primary cysticercoid dose, assessed by the failure of luminal adult recovery, were thymus-independent. The effect of cortisone acetate to initiate maturation of H. nana appeared to be unrelated to thymus function. In contrast, all mice, either thymus-deficient or not, were highly susceptible to both phases. The number of worms recovered was more than 10 times greater than that of cysticercoids established in the rat's intestinal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Bioactivities of crude mucus proteins from Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler) and Perionyx excavatus (Blue worm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem-U-Domkit, K; Muangman, T; Klungsupya, P; Chantsavang, S; Kubera, A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the enzymatic anti-oxidative, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of crude mucus proteins from the two earthworms including Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler) and Perionyx excavatus (Blue worm). The bioactivities were determined by hemolytic activity, cytotoxic activity using HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, L-929 mouse fibroblast and TK6 human lymphoblast cell lines and antioxidant activity. The results indicated that the hemolytic activity of mucus proteins of P. excavatus was higher than that of E. eugeniae. The cytotoxic activity of the mucus proteins of E. eugeniae could inhibit the growth of HepG2 with the IC50 at 144.2 ± 0.18 µg/mL but showed no effect on L-929 and TK6. On the other hand, the crude proteins of P. excavatus decreased cell viability of both L-929 and HepG2 with their IC50 respectively were 6.87 ± 0.16 and 174.3 ± 0.19 µg/mL but they did not reduce the growth of TK6 cell line. The SOD-like activity of P. excavatus and E. eugeniae crude proteins were found with the IC50 at 149 µg/mL and 386.2 µg/mL, respectively. For GPx-like activity, crude proteins of P. excavatus exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) greater activity than those of E. eugeniae when tested at the concentration 100 µg/mL. This study revealed the bioactivities of crude mucus of earthworms which served as alternative natural proteins for the prophylaxis or treatment of free radical-related diseases as well as development of dietary supplements and cosmetics.