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Sample records for kalb xl75 secale

  1. A taxonomic revision of Secale (Triticeae, Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth; Petersen, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    Several taxa have previously been recognized within Secale, but most of them are difficult or even impossible to distinguish morphologically. We recognize only three species: S. sylvestre, S. strictum, and S. cereale. Secale strictum has priority over S. montanum and has two subspecies, ssp. stri...

  2. Hamiltonian dynamics of 5D Kalb-Ramond theories with a compact dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Escalante, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    A detailed Hamiltonian analysis for a five-dimensional Kalb-Ramond, massive Kalb-Ramond and St{\\"{u}}eckelberg Kalb-Ramond theories with a compact dimension is performed. We develop a complete constraint program, then we quantize the theory by constructing the Dirac brackets. From the gauge transformations of the theories, we fix a particular gauge and we find pseudo-Goldstone bosons in Kalb-Ramond and St{\\"{u}}eckelberg Kalb-Ramond's effective theories. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects.

  3. Stability of Einstein-Maxwell-Kalb-Ramond wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul H.; Harms, Benjamin C.; Hou, Shaoqi

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates a particular type of wormhole. The wormhole solutions studied are obtained by sewing together two static, spherically symmeric, charged black-hole metrics at their horizons. The charged wormholes are in a background Kalb-Ramond field, which is the source of the necessary tension in the gravitational field. The metric-tensor elements are studied by numerically solving Einstein's equations with stress-energy-tensor elements given by the combination of static electric and Kalb-Ramond fields. For a certain range of electric charge the tension is positive away from the wormhole throat, but the tension is negative near the throat, making it nontraversable. The wormholes are found to be quasistable against decay via gravitational instanton tunneling.

  4. Stability of Einstein-Maxwell-Kalb-Ramond Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Paul H; Hou, Shaoqi

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a particular type of wormhole. The wormhole solutions studied are obtained by sewing together two static, spherically symmetric, charged black-hole metrics at their horizons. The charged wormholes are in a background Kalb-Ramond field, which is the source of the necessary tension in the gravitational field. The metric-tensor elements are studied by numerically solving Einstein's equations with stress-energy-tensor elements given by the combination of static electric and Kalb-Ramond fields. For a certain range of electric charge the tension is positive away from the wormhole throat, but the tension is negative near the throat, making it non-traversable. The wormholes are found to be quasi-stable against decay via gravitational instanton tunnelling.

  5. Bulk Kalb-Ramond field in Randall Sundrum scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyaya, B; Sen-Gupta, S; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Siddhartha; Sen, Somasri; Gupta, Soumitra Sen

    2004-01-01

    We have considered the most general gauge invariant five-dimensional action of a second rank antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond tensor gauge theory, including a topological term of the form $\\epsilon^{ABLMN}B_{AB}H_{LMN}$ in a Randall-Sundrum scenario. Such a tensor field $B_{AB}$ (whose rank-3 field strength tensor is $H_{LMN}$), which appears in the massless sector of a heterotic string theory, is assumed to coexist with the gravity in the bulk. The third rank field strength corresponding to the Kalb-Ramond field has a well-known geometric interpretation as the spacetime torsion. The only non-trivial classical solutions corresponding to the effective four-dimensional action are found to be self-dual or anti-selfdual Kalb-Ramond fields. This ensures that the four-dimensional effective action on the brane is parity-conserving. The massive modes for both cases, lying in the TeV range, are related to the fundamental parameters of the theory. These modes can be within the kinematic reach of forthcoming TeV scale experime...

  6. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. SANTOS; M. MATOS; P. SILVA; A. M. FIGUEIRAS; C. BENITO; O. PINTO-CARNIDE

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships amongSecalespp. and among cultivars ofSecale cerealeusing RAPDs, ISSRs and sequence analysis of six exons ofScMATE1gene.Thirteen ryes (cultivated and wild) were genotyped using 21 RAPD and 16 ISSR primers. A total of 435 markers (242 RAPDsand 193 ISSRs) were obtained, with 293 being polymorphic (146 RAPDs and 147 ISSRs). Two RAPD and nine ISSR primersgenerated more than 80% of polymorphism. The ISSR markers were more polymorphic and informative than RAPDs. Further,69% of the ISSR primers selected achieved at least 70% of DNA polymorphism. The study of six exons of theScMATE1gene also demonstrated a high genetic variability that subsists inSecalegenus. One difference observed in exon 1 sequencesfromS. vaviloviiseems to be correlated with Al sensitivity in this species. The genetic relationships obtained using RAPDs,ISSRs and exons ofScMATE1gene were similar.S. ancestrale ,S. kuprijanoviiandS. cerealewere grouped in the same clusterandS. segetalewas in another cluster.S. vaviloviishowed evidences of not being clearly an isolate species and having greatintraspecific difference

  7. Transgender DeKalb: observations of an advocacy campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John R

    2003-01-01

    In September 2000, the Community Members Against Discrimination (CMAD), a grassroots LGBT organization in DeKalb, Illinois, convinced their city council to add protection against discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression. Written as an autoethnography, this essay considers the events of the campaign in terms of queer theory and the study of public argument by isolating a set of episodes that bring the reader closer to the experiences of transgender citizens who act in a public culture. The author also explores his own responsibilities as a scholar of communication, an activist, and a member of the LGBT community.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Sec2 Loci in Wheat—Secale africanum Derivatives Demonstrates Genomic Divergence of Secale Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The unique 75 K γ-secalins encoded by Sec2 loci in Secale species is composed of almost half rye storage proteins. The chromosomal location of Sec2 loci in wild Secale species, Secale africanum, was carried out by the wheat—S. africanum derivatives, which were identified by genomic in situ hybridization and multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Sec2 gene-specific PCR analysis indicated that the S. cereale Sec2 was located on chromosome 2R, while the S. africanum Sec2 was localized on chromosome 6Rafr of S. africanum. A total of 38 Sec2 gene sequences were isolated from S. africanum, S. cereale and S. sylvestre by PCR-based cloning. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. africanum Sec2 diverged from S. cereale Sec2 approximately 2–3 million years ago. The illegitimate recombination of chromosome 2R–6R involving the Sec2 loci region may accelerate sequence variation during evolutionary process from wild to cultivated Secale species.

  9. Strong gravitational lensing --- A probe for extra dimensions and Kalb-Ramond field

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    Strong field gravitational lensing in the context of both higher spacetime dimensions and in presence of Kalb-Ramond field have been studied. After developing proper analytical tools to analyze the problem we consider gravitational lensing in three distinct black hole spacetimes --- (a) four dimensional black hole in presence of Kalb-Ramond field, (b) brane world black holes with Kalb-Ramond field and finally (c) black hole solution in $f(T)$ gravity. In all the three situations we have depicted the behavior of three observables: the asymptotic position approached by the relativistic images, the angular separation and magnitude difference between the outermost images with others packed inner ones, both numerically and analytically. Difference between these scenarios have also been discussed along with possible observational signatures.

  10. Charging a Double Kerr Solution in 5D Einstein-Kalb-Ramond-Maxwell Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Becerril, R; Becerril, Ricardo; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a formulation of the stationary 5-dimensional Einstein-Kalb-Ramond theory as a double Ernst system, apply the so-called normalized Harrison transformation on a generic solution of this double system and compute the field content of the generated charged configuration for the special case when the starting Ernst potentials correspond to a pair of interacting Kerr black holes.

  11. Success Rate Comparisons for DeKalb Tech Developmental Studies Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Berman E.

    A study was conducted to determine whether DeKalb Technical School's developmental studies students were as successful as other students who took more conventional routes of matriculation. The study was limited to 449 students who posted grades in developmental studies and/or in specified common content courses in Reading, English and Mathematics…

  12. Sex influence on recombination frequency in Secale cereale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, C; Romero, M P; Henriques-Gil, N; Llorente, F; Figueiras, A M

    1996-10-01

    The variation in recombination frequency (rf) is important to plant breeders since their major objective is to obtain favorable recombinants of linked genes. One source of variation in rf is sex. Sex differences for recombination frequencies were studied in four of the seven chromosomes of Secale cereale L. cv 'Ailés' using isozyme and storage protein loci and were determined on the basis of reciprocal crosses between heterozygous plants of cv. 'Ailés' and homozygous plants of the inbred line 'Riodeva'. The differences were found to be strongly segmentspecific. In some cases the level of crossing-over in male and female meiosis was about the same (between Pgm1 and Ndh1 loci on chromosome arm 4RS). However, for most of the chromosome segments in 1R, 3RL and 6RL the male rf was significantly higher than the female rf. Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of plant sex differences for recombination are discussed.

  13. Characterization of wheat-Secale africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives carrying Secale specific genes for grain hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangrong; Gao, Dan; La, Shixiao; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Jianbo; He, Weilin; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2016-05-01

    New wheat- Secale africanum chromosome 5R (a) substitution and translocation lines were developed and identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers, and chromosome 5R (a) specific genes responsible for grain hardness were isolated. The wild species, Secale africanum Stapf. (genome R(a)R(a)), serves as a valuable germplasm resource for increasing the diversity of cultivated rye (S. cereale L., genome RR) and providing novel genes for wheat improvement. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular markers were applied to characterize new wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives. Labeled rye genomic DNA (GISH) and the Oligo-probes pSc119.2 and pTa535 (FISH) were used to study a wheat-S. africanum amphiploid and a disomic 5R(a) (5D) substitution, and to identify a T5DL.5R(a)S translocation line and 5R(a)S and 5R(a)L isotelosome lines. Twenty-one molecular markers were mapped to chromosome 5R(a) arms which will facilitate future rapid identification of 5R(a) introgressions in wheat backgrounds. Comparative analysis of the molecular markers mapped on 5R(a) with homoeologous regions in wheat confirmed a deletion on the chromosome T5DL.5R(a)S, which suggests that the wheat-S. africanum Robertsonian translocation involving homologous group 5 may not be fully compensating. Complete coding sequences at the paralogous puroindoline-a (Pina) and grain softness protein gene (Gsp-1) loci from S. africanum were cloned and localized onto the short arm of chromosome 5R(a). The S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) substitution and translocation lines showed a reduction in the hardness index, which may be associated with the S. africanum- specific Pina and Gsp-1 gene sequences. The present study reports the production of novel wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) stripe rust resistant derivatives and new rye-specific molecular markers, which may find application in future use of wild Secale genome resources for grain quality

  14. Magnetic Monopoles from Global Monopoles in the presence of Kalb-Ramond Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2016-01-01

    Possible classical solutions for electromagnetic monopoles induced by gravitational (global) monopoles in the presence of torsion are found. Such solutions rely on a non-zero (Kalb-Ramond) torsion strength, which may characterise low energy theories inspired from string models. Bounds from the current run of the LHC experiments are used to constrain the parameters of the model, but because the production mechanism depends on the details of the model and its ultraviolet completion, such bounds are presently only indicative.

  15. Vergleichende Untersuchung zum Einsatz verschiedener Erstbehandlungsmaßnahmen beim neonatalen Kalb unter Praxisbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Homberg, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, den Einsatz von Fruchtwasserabsaugpumpen und das Aufhängen im Rahmen der Erstbehandlung von neugeborenen Kälbern zu vergleichen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde die Vitalität der Kälber post natum beurteilt. Außerdem wurde die Erkrankungshäufigkeit der Kälber in den ersten Lebenswochen ermittelt. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht, ob Störvariablen wie das Geschlecht des Kalbes, die Parität des Muttertieres, die geburtshilfliche Maßnahme und die Jahreszeit einen Einfluss au...

  16. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  17. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mioara Navrotescu; Ovidiu Toma

    2005-01-01

    Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14). On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  18. Blue Spectra of Kalb-Ramond Axions and Fully Anisotropic String Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    1999-01-01

    The inhomogeneities associated with massless Kalb-Ramond axions can be amplified not only in isotropic (four-dimensional) string cosmological models but also in the fully anisotropic case. If the background geometry is isotropic, the axions (which are not part of the homogeneous background) develop, outside the horizon, growing modes leading, ultimately, to logarithmic energy spectra which are "red" in frequency and increase at large distance scales. We show that this conclusion can be evaded not only in the case of higher dimensional backgrounds with contracting internal dimensions but also in the case of string cosmological scenarios which are completely anisotropic in four dimensions. In this case the logarithmic energy spectra turn out to be "blue" in frequency and, consequently, decreasing at large distance scales. We elaborate on anisotropic dilaton-driven models and we argue that, incidentally, the background models leading to (or flat) logarithmic energy spectra for axionic fluctuations are likely to ...

  19. Neutrinos in the Early Universe, Kalb-Ramond Torsion and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe may be induced by the propagation of fermions in non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating gravitational backgrounds. Such backgrounds may characterise the epoch of the early universe. The key point in these models is that the background induces di_erent dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV appears in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. We consider here a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar “axionlike” field. The mixing of the KR field with an ordinary axion field can lead to the generation of a Majorana neutrino mass.

  20. Nutritional status of refugee children entering DeKalb County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care.

  1. Quasi-quantum groups from Kalb-Ramond fields and magnetic amplitudes for strings on orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Jureit, J H

    2006-01-01

    We present the general form of the operators that lift the group action on the twisted sectors of a bosonic string on an orbifold ${\\cal M}/G$, in the presence of a Kalb-Ramond field strength $H$. These operators turn out to generate the quasi-quantum group $D_{\\omega}[G]$, introduced in the context of orbifold conformal field theory by R. Dijkgraaf, V. Pasquier and P. Roche. The 3-cocycle $\\omega$ entering in the definition of $D_{\\omega}[G]$ is related to $H$ by a series of cohomological equations in a tricomplex combining de Rham, Cech and group coboundaries. We construct magnetic amplitudes for the twisted sectors and show that $\\omega=1$ arises as a consistency condition for the orbifold theory. Finally, we recover discrete torsion as an ambiguity in the lift of the group action to twisted sectors, in accordance with previous results presented by E. Sharpe.

  2. KALB METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  3. Gibt es eine linguistische „Werkstattsprache“? Ein Versuch der vertikalen Schichtungder Fachsprache Linguistik. Ar yra praktinė kalbotyros kalba? Bandymas vertikaliai suskirstyti kalbotyros kalbą kaip dalykinę kalbą

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Kontutytė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vienas iš dalykinės kalbos teorijos uždavinių yra apibrėžti dalykinės kalbos tyrimo objektą, t. y. nustatyti dalykinės komunikacijos situacijas, kurių kalba yra tiriama. Norint suskirstyti kalbotyros mokslo kalbą kaip dalykinės kalbos atmainą, remiamasi L. Hoffmanno vadinamuoju vertikalaus skirstymo modeliu, pagal kurį išskiriami penki skirtingo dalykiškumo laipsnio sluoksniai. Sluoks­nį laikant tekstų žanrų, kurie kuriami tam tikru tikslu, visuma, išskiriami tokie kalbotyros kalbos sluoksniai: kalbotyros teorijos kūrimo kalba, kalbos aprašymo kalba, kalbotyros mokymo kalba, kalbos praktikos kalba, kalbotyros mokslo populiarinimo kalba, kalbos mokymo kalba. Aprašant atskirus sluoksnius, pateikiami tipiškiausi vokiečių ir lietuvių kalbų tekstų žanrų pavyzdžiai. Iša­nalizavus vokiškų ir lietuviškų kalbotyros tekstų žanrų pavyzdžius, nustatyti vokiečių ir lietuvių kalbotyros kalbų vertikalių sluoksnių bei atskirų tekstų žanrų panašumai ir skirtumai.

  4. Renormalizability and quantum stability of the phase transition in rigid string coupled to Kalb-Ramond fields, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Awada, M

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have shown that a phase transition occurs in the leading approximation of the large N limit in rigid strings coupled to long range Kalb-Ramond interactions. The disordered phase is essentially the Nambu-Goto-Polyakov string theory while The ordered phase is a new theory. In this part I letter we study the first subleading quantum corrections of the free rigid string and derive the renormalization group equation. We show that the theory is asymptotically free, thus the extrinsic curvature of the string drops out at large distance scales in the disordered phase. In part II we generalize the results of this letter to the interacting theory of rigid strings with the long range Kalb-Ramond interactions. We derive the renormalized mass gap equation and obtain the renormalized critical line. Our main and final result is that the phase transition does indeed survive quantum fluctuations.

  5. O(d, d)-Symmetry and Ernst Formulation for Einstein-Kalb-Ramond Theory in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, A

    1996-01-01

    The (3+d)-dimensional Einstein-Kalb-Ramond theory reduced to two dimensions is considered. It is shown that the theory allows two different Ernst-like $d Hermitian dualized non-target space ones. The O(d, d) symmetry is written in a SL(2,R) matrix-valued form in both cases. The Kramer-Neugebauer transformation, which algebraically maps the non-dualized Ernst potential into the dualized one, is presented.

  6. On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesare, M; Mavromatos, Nick E; Sarkar, Sarben

    In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to [Formula: see text] and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed.

  7. Novel Scenarios for Majorana Neutrino Mass Generation and Leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    The Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymmetric tensor field arises naturally in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. Nevertheless, the respective low-energy field theory action, in which, for reasons of gauge invariance, the only dependence on the KR field is through its field strength, constitutes an interesting model \\emph{per se}. In this context, the KR field strength also acts as a totally antisymmetric torsion field, while in four space-time dimensions is \\emph{dual} to an (KR) axion-like pseudoscalar field. In this context, we review here first the r\\^ole of quantum fluctuations of the KR axion on the generation of Majorana mass for neutrinos, via a mixing with ordinary axions that may exist in the theory as providers of dark matter candidates. Then we proceed to discuss the r\\^ole of constant in time (thus Lorentz violating) KR torsion backgrounds, that may exist in the early Universe but are completely negligible today, on inducing Leptogenesis by means of \\emph{tree-level} CP violating decays of Right ...

  8. On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, M.; Sarkar, Sarben [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Mavromatos, Nick E. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to CP and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Aegilops-Secale amphiploids: chromosome categorisation, pollen viability and identification of fungal disease resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Błaszczyk, L; Wiśniewska, H; Apolinarska, B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential breeding value of goatgrass-rye amphiploids, which we are using as a "bridge" in a transfer of Aegilops chromatin (containing, e.g. leaf rust resistance genes) into triticale. We analysed the chromosomal constitution (by genomic in situ hybridisation, GISH), fertility (by pollen viability tests) and the presence of leaf rust and eyespot resistance genes (by molecular and endopeptidase assays) in a collection of 6× and 4× amphiploids originating from crosses between five Aegilops species and Secale cereale. In the five hexaploid amphiploids Aegilops kotschyi × Secale cereale (genome UUSSRR), Ae. variabilis × S. cereale (UUSSRR), Ae. biuncialis × S. cereale (UUMMRR; two lines) and Ae. ovata × S. cereale (UUMMRR), 28 Aegilops chromosomes were recognised, while in the Ae. tauschii × S. cereale amphiploid (4×; DDRR), only 14 such chromosomes were identified. In the materials, the number of rye chromosomes varied from 14 to 16. In one line of Ae. ovata × S. cereale, the U-R translocation was found. Pollen viability varied from 24.4 to 75.4%. The leaf rust resistance genes Lr22, Lr39 and Lr41 were identified in Ae. tauschii and the 4× amphiploid Ae. tauschii × S. cereale. For the first time, the leaf rust resistance gene Lr37 was found in Ae. kotschyi, Ae. ovata, Ae. biuncialis and amphiploids derived from those parental species. No eyespot resistance gene Pch1 was found in the amphiploids.

  10. Renormalizability and quantum stability of the phase transition in rigid string coupled to Kalb-Ramond fields, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Awada, M

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have shown that a phase transition occurs in the leading approximation of the large N limit in rigid strings coupled to long range Kalb-Ramond interactions. The disordered phase is essentially the Nambu-Goto-Polyakov string theory while the ordered phase is a new theory. In this part II letter we study the first subleading quantum corrections we started in I. We derive the renormalized mass gap equation and obtain the renormalized critical line of the interacting theory. Our main and final result is that the phase transition does indeed survive quantum fluctuations.

  11. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  12. An empirical test of the treatment of indels during optimization alignment based on the phylogeny of the genus Secale (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Aagesen, Lone

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the program POY, implementing optimization alignment, to deal with major indels is explored and discussed in connection with a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Secale based on partial Adhl sequences. The Adhl sequences used span exon 2-4. Nearly all variation is found in intron 2...

  13. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  14. Tracking of intercalary DNA sequences integrated into tandem repeat arrays in rye Secale vavilovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Achrem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of repetitive sequences of the JNK block present in the pericentromeric region of the 2RL chromosome was studied in Secale vavilovii. Amplification of sequences present between the JNK sequences led to the identification of seven abnormal DNA fragments. Two of these fragments showed high similarity to the glutamate 5-kinase gene and putative alcohol dehydrogenase gene of trypanosomatid from the genus Leishmania, whose presence can be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Other fragments were similar to mitochondrial gene for ribosomal protein S4 in plants and to the glycoprotein (G gene of the IHNV virus. Presumably, they are pseudogenes inserted into the JNK heterochromatin region. Within this region, also fragments similar to the rye repetitive sequence and chromosome 3B in wheat were found. There is no known mechanism that would explain how foreign sequences were inserted into the block region of tandem repetitive sequences of the JNK family.

  15. Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P; Meyer, A S;

    2000-01-01

    of the analyzed components were observed among the different rye varieties and also between different harvest years. However, the content of phenolic acids in the analyzed rye varieties was narrow compared to cereals such as wheat and barley. The concentration of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid......The contents of pnenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline hydrolysis in kernels of 17 rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties grown in one location in Denmark during 1997 and 1998. Significant variations (P ... ranged from 900 to 1170 microgram g(-1) dry matter. The content in sinapic acid ranged from 70 to 140 microgram g(-1) dry matter, p-coumaric acid ranged from 40 to 70 microgram g(-1) dry matter, and caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids were all detected in concentrations less...

  16. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Cultured Immature Embryos of Rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C Y; Chandler, S F; Vasil, I K

    1984-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis was initiated in immature embryos of rye (Secale cereale L.) cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D and sucrose. The developmental stage of the embryo (optimal embryo length 0.5-2.0 mm) and concentration of 2,4-D (optimal concentration 2.5 mg · l(-1)) were found to be critical in determining embryo response. The phenoxyacetic acids, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and MCPA were more effective in initiating embryogenic callus and embryoid formation than other auxins (NAA, IBA, IAA, IPA). Embryogenic callus and embryoid production was greater in embryos cultured scutellum up, and more embryoids were formed in the dark than in the light. Embryoids germinated after transfer to basal medium with/without cytokinin or GA3. The regenerated plants were grown to maturity in soil and were shown to have the normal diploid chromosome number of 14.

  17. The two-loop effective action and some symmetries of the Riemann tensor and the Kalb-Ramond H field

    CERN Document Server

    Ozkurt, S S

    2003-01-01

    Sometimes ago, it has been proposed in a paper by N.Kaloper and K.A.Meissner (\\PR {\\bf D56} (1997) 7940) that if one makes local redefinitions of fields, it does not change the equations of motion (in the redefined fields); however, this comment has not generally been accepted, namely, the redefined fields satisfy different equations of motion. For this reason, the whole action will be written in terms of the zeroth-order field equations in this paper. In this study, we also observe that N.Kaloper and K.A.Meissner's effective action (\\PR {\\bf D56} (1997) 7940)which has a duality symmetry beyond the first loop, can be written in terms of the zeroth-order field equations if the Riemann tensor and the Kalb-Ramond field have some symmetries. For example, K\\"{a}hler manifolds have these symmetries.

  18. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  19. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CZECHOSLOVAK ORIGIN RYE VARIETIES (SECALE CEREALE L. BASED ON PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the electrophoretic profiles of storage proteins of seven genotypes of rye (Secale cereale L., which were obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS (SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic separation of storage proteins was conducted according to the methodology recommended by an international organization ISTA, with some own modifications. Results showed, that all analyzed materials were multiline and there were from 4 (Valtické to 9 (Keřkovské and Zenit lines. Content of high molecular weight glutelin subunits varied from 6.67 % (variety České to 10.86 % (variety Valtické. The highest proportion of storage proteins with low molecular weight glutelin subunits and prolamins was detected in Keřkovské (69.89 % and the lowest one in variety Tešovské (61.96 %. The highest percentage of albumins and globulins associated with high nutritional value of grain was detected in variety Tešovské (31.02% and lowest one in variety Valtické (20.97 %. The Jacquard coefficient of similarity and UPGMA algorithm was used for construction of dendrogram of similarity.

  20. Differentiation of shoot elements from the rachis of Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Rybczyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of young Secale cereale spikes is described with special attention given to changes in development of the rachis. 7 mm explants were cultivated on a modified M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g (1962 medium (MS supplemented with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, NAA (α-naph-thaleneacetic acid, IAA (β-indoleacetic acid, 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and ZEA (zeatin, KIN (kinetin, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, IPA (izopentenyladenine or 2 iP in numerous combinations and concentrations. Rachises differentiated branches with node construction in the presence of synthetic auxin. Rhizogenesis of explants was stimulated by 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. 2,4,5-T + IPA appeared to be the best combination for callus regeneration. Many meristematic centres were found previously and combinations of NAA + KIN stimulated direct, whereas 2,4-D + ZEA indirect, differentiation of shoot elements. Development was observed from plantlets to flowering plants.

  1. Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × Dasypyrum villosum hybrids through cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Tomasz; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kulak-Książczyk, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Halina; Stojałowski, Stefan; Łapiński, Mirosław

    2011-08-01

    Genome modifications that occur at the initial interspecific hybridization event are dynamic and can be consolidated during the process of stabilization in successive generations of allopolyploids. This study identifies the number and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites between Secale cereale, Dasypyrum villosum, and their allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids.

  2. Screening for Ricinoleic Acid as a Chemical Marker for Secale cornutum in Rye by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-11-02

    Ricinoleic acid as the characteristic fatty acid of Secale cornutum oil is a good marker for Secale cornutum impurities in cereal. The presented screening for ricinoleic acid in rye by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD) offers a selective and sensitive method for the determination of Secale cornutum and is very different from existing gas chromatographic analyses. Lipid extraction was followed by transesterification and solid-phase extraction cleanup; thereafter, extracts were selectively derivatized with 2-naphthoyl chloride and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD with silica gel plates and cyclohexane/diisopropyl ether/formic acid (86:14:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. For quantitation, the enhanced fluorescence was scanned at 280/>340 nm. Limits of detection and quantitation of 0.1 and 0.4 mg ricinoleic acid/kg of rye were obtained, which enables the determination of Secale cornutum far below the maximum admitted level. With near-100% recoveries and low standard deviations at relevant spiking levels, reliable results were guaranteed.

  3. DOP-PCR-based chromosome painting of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat-rye hybrid 1R and 1RS chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. In oeder to determine whether the chromosome painting techniques can be used to identify rye genome in wheat genetic background, 1R and 1RS chromosomes were microdissected from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King ll) and wheat-rye a...

  4. Multilingualism in Lithuanian cities. Daugiakalbystė Lietuvos miestuose: namų kalbų apklausos Vilniuje, Kaune ir Klaipėdoje tikslai ir rezultatai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Extra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the experience gained from the Multilingual Cities Project, carried out in 6 Western European multicultural cities (Extra & Yağmur 2004, a home language survey was carried out at almost all primary schools in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The total sample consists of almost 24,000 pupils, most of them in the age range of 8-10 years old. After an introduction to the aims of the project, the design of the questionnaire and the collection, processing and analysis of the resulting data, information will be provided on the size and composition of the sample and the distribution of reported home languages. The top-9 of reported languages contains the vast majority of all home languages referred to, i.e., Lithuanian, Russian, English, Polish, German, Belarusian, French, Ukrainian, and Latvian. For these 9 languages groups, crosslinguistic perspectives will be offered on language profiles and language vitality in terms of reported language proficiency, language choice, language dominance, and language preference. Pseudolongitudinal perspectives will be offered for each of these four dimensions in the age range of 8-10 years old.                 Straipsnyje analizuojami namų kalbų plataus masto apklausos, 2008 metais atliktos Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos miestų mokyklų pradinėse klasėse, duomenys. Apklausa rėmėsi šešiuose Vakarų Europos miestuose atlikto Daugiakalbių miestų projekto (Multilingual Cities Project patirtimi ir metodologiniais principais. Trijų didžiųjų Lietuvos miestų apklausos imtį sudarė beveik 24 tūkstančiai 8-10 metų amžiaus respondentų. Buvo apklausti 98 % Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos II-IV klasių moksleivių. Sukaupti gausūs kiekybiniai duomenys apdoroti Tilburgo universiteto (Nyderlandai mokslininkų parengta specialia kompiuterine programa ir ten esančia įranga, pritaikyta greitam duomenų skenavimui, tikrinimui ir apdorojimui.Straipsnyje pristatomi namų kalbų analiz

  5. Gliadin Variations in Secale L.%黑麦属醇溶蛋白遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯永翠; 郑有良; 魏育明; 刘登才; 兰秀锦

    2001-01-01

    采用酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(APAGE)对黑麦属(Secale L.)8个种共20份材料进行了醇溶蛋白位点遗传多样性研究.结果表明,20份供试材料出现20种带型.不同种间带型显著不同,同一种内不同居群或不同品种间也有明显差异.说明黑麦属醇溶蛋白变异丰富,存在广泛的遗传多样性.

  6. The impact of soil contamination by oil products on the growth of Secale cereale L. and prospects for its use in phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myazin V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effect of soil contamination by light and dark oil products on a rye (Secale cereale L. and the prospects of using the plants with phytoremediation have been evaluated. Residual hydrocarbon oil concentration in the soil has been determined, phytoremediation may conduct not more than 5 g/kg of light and not more than 13 g/kg of dark oil

  7. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    early as 1850. Among the natural consequences of changing weather patterns, years of drought (rainfall deficit) and wet (rainfall excess) conditions, resulted in problems among plant nutrition and field crop production (EU, 2003). Whereas rye (Secale cereale L.) is a crop of worldwide importance, limited research exists about the effects of climate change on these crop (Kádár et al., 1984; Kádár, 2005; Márton, 2002). These crop has sensitive reactions to the prevailing weather conditions (such as rainfall) and, for this reason, understanding the effects of anthropogenic climate change on it's production has a great importance. In addition to rainfall, the crop require an optimal level of soil macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Várallyay, 1939; Kádár, 1992; Kárár et al., 1982; Kádár et al., 1984; Kádár & Szemes, 1994). Most environmental research focuses on only one, or a very few changes instead of the concomitant multiple changes occurring in our world. Unfortunately, however, the bulk of past research has focused on one factor at a time. As a result for example, much is known about the effects of a change in a geochemical element (macro, meso, micro or trace) loading on yield of some crops, but much less is known about the effects of a change in a geochemical element in combination with a change in rainfall quantity and distribution on the yield of those same crops. It is obviously the effects of all the environmental changes occurring, rather than just a geochemical element (or just other geochemical elements, or just raifall quantity and distribution, etc.), that is of importance to any crop. Although much of this paper focuses on single factors (rainfall quantity, rainfall distribution, N-, P-, K-fertilization), it was our intent to emphasize that the net effect of multiple environmental changes on rye is far more important than the effect of a single factor on that crop. So, we show interaction findings related to rainfall quantity

  8. kalb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. Very long chain alkylresorcinols accumulate in the intracuticular wax of rye (Secale cereale L.) leaves near the tissue surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiufeng; Jetter, Reinhard

    2008-03-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are bioactive compounds occurring in many members of the Poaceae, likely at or near the surface of various organs. Here, we investigated AR localization within the cuticular wax layers of rye (Secale cereale) leaves. The total wax mixture from both sides of the leaves was found to contain primary alcohols (71%), alkyl esters (11%), aldehydes (5%), and small amounts (synthetic standard of nonadecylresorcinol. The alkyl side chains of the wax ARs contained odd numbers of carbons ranging from C19 to C27, with a prevalence of C21, C23 and C25. Waxes from both sides of the leaf, analyzed separately in a second experiment, comprised the same compound classes in similar relative amounts and with similar homolog patterns. Finally, the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers were sampled separately from the abaxial side of the leaf. While ARs accounted for 2% of the intracuticular wax, they were not detectable in the epicuticular wax. The intracuticular wax was also slightly enriched in steroids, whereas the epicuticular layer contained more primary alcohols. All other wax constituents were distributed evenly between both wax layers.

  10. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new wheat Secale africanum 2Ra(2D) substitution line for resistance to stripe rust

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mengping Lei; Guangrong Li; Sufen Zhang; Cheng Liu; Zujun Yang

    2011-08-01

    A stable, highly fertile wheat Secale africanum substitution line LF24, derived from the F7 generation of a cross between Mianyang11 (MY11) and Triticum durum, S. africanum amphiploid (YF) was identified through molecular cytogenetic analysis. Application of C-banding, in situ hybridization and molecular markers analysis showed that LF24 was a wheat S. africanum 2Ra(2D) substitution line. When inoculated with stripe rust isolates, T. durum and MY11 were highly susceptible, while S. africanum, YF and LF24 were immune. It is confirmed through molecular cytogenetic analysis that the stripe rust resistance of LF24 was derived from S. africanum chromosome 2Ra. We compared the banding patterns and disease resistance of reported chromosomes 2R from different S. cereale introduced into wheat background, and found that there was new stripe rust resistance gene(s) on S. africanum 2Ra. LF24 is a new substitution line which can be used as stripe rust resistant source in wheat improvement.

  11. Osmo and hydro priming improvement germination characteristics and enzyme activity of Mountain Rye (Secale montanum seeds under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari O.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of polyetylenglycol 6000 (PEG 6000(0, -9, -11, -13 and -15 bar and hydro priming on Mountain Rye (secale montanum germination characteristic and enzyme activity were evaluated under drought stress in the seed laboratory of Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. Analyze of variance for hydro priming showed that temperature × time of priming interaction was significantly for germination percentage (GP, normal seedling percentage (NSP, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, seedling vigor index (SVI, coefficient of allometry (AC and seedling length (SL under drought stress and for osmo priming showed that Concentration of PEG × Temperature × Time of priming interaction was significantly for all traits under drought stress. Results of interaction effects for hydro priming showed that the highest GP (53% and NSP (23.5% were attained from hydro priming for 16h at 15 ◦C and the highest CVG (0.21 and AC (0.49 were attained from hydro priming for 8h at 10 ◦C, also hydro priming for 8h at 15 ◦C increased SL (3.15 as compared to the unprimed.Osmo priming with concentration of -15 bar PEG for 24h at 15 ◦C increased GP (80.5 %, GI (17.9, NSP (45 %, SVI (257.85 and SL (5.73 cm and decreased MTG as compared to the unprimed and other treatments of osmo priming. The highest CVG was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 24h at 10 ◦C. the highest AC was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 12h at 15 ◦C. Also osmo and hydro priming increased catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX as compared to the unprimed.

  12. Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

    2013-04-01

    A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Activity of Hydroxamic Acids from Secale cereale Against the Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Xiphinema americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, I A; Meyer, S L F; Halbrendt, J M; Rice, C

    2005-10-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic hydroxamic acids are secondary metabolites found in the family Poaceae and have been implicated in the allelopathy of rye (Secale cereale). The toxicity of these compounds against plant-parasitic nematodes is unknown. DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), DIMBOA (2,4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), and their degradation products BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) were screened in vitro against Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and eggs and mixed-stages of Xiphinema americanum. Xiphinema americanum was more sensitive to DIBOA and DIMBOA than M. incognita J2, with a maximum apparent mortality of 96 and 92% compared to 73 and 72% at 90 mug/ml. Eggs of M. incognita were less sensitive to the hydroxamic acids than J2; only DIBOA resulted in a 50% reduction in egg hatch, with a lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 74 mug/ml compared to 21 mug/ml for J2. When M. incognita J2 were exposed to DIBOA for 48 h and the compound was removed and replaced with water, the LC(50) value increased from 21.0 to 40.7 mug/ml. MBOA was not toxic to X. americanum or M. incognita eggs, but was toxic to M. incognita J2, with LC(50) values of 44 and 20 mug/ml before and after the compound was removed and replaced with water. BOA was the least toxic hydroxamic acid tested; it did not reduce M. incognita egg hatch after 1 week of exposure or increase X. americanum mortality after 24 h of exposure. While in vitro studies provide a valuable starting point in determining the toxicity of the chemical component of rye, the relevance of the data to soil remains to be determined.

  14. Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv Puma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1987-01-01

    Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.

  15. Distribution of 5-methylcytosine residues in 5S rRNA genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulnecek, J; Matyásek, R; Kovarík, A

    2002-12-01

    Bisulfite genomic sequencing was used to localise 5-methylcytosine residues (mC) in 5S rRNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Secale cereale. The maps of mC distribution were compared with the previously published map of the corresponding region in Nicotiana tabacum. In all three species, the level of methylation of 5S rRNA genes was generally higher than the average for the entire genome. The ratio of 5S rDNA methylation to average overall methylation was 44%/30-33% for N. tabacum, 27%/4-6% for A. thaliana and 24%/20-22% for S. cereale. With the exception of one clone from S. cereale, no methylation-free 5S rDNA was detected. The level of methylation at different sequence motifs in 5S rDNA was calculated for N. tabacum/A. thaliana/ S. cereale, and this analysis yielded the following values (expressed as a percentage of total C): mCG 90%/78%/85%, mCWG 89%/41%/53%, mCmCG 72%/32%/16%, mCCG 4%/2%/0%, mCHH 15%/6%/1%, where W=A or T, and H=A or C or T. Non-symmetrical methylation was almost negligible in the large genome of S. cereale but relatively frequent in N. tabacum and A. thaliana, suggesting that the strict correlation between genome size and cytosine methylation might be violated for this type of methylation. Among non-symmetrical motifs the mCWA triplets were significantly over-represented in Arabidopsis, while in tobacco this preference was not as pronounced. The differences in methylation levels in different sequence contexts might be of phylogenetic significance, but further species in related and different taxa need to be studied before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in the genus Secale : 1. Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from cultured immature embryos of five wild species of rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczyński, J J; Zduńczyk, W

    1986-12-01

    A tissue culture of five wild species of the Secale genus, i.e., S. africanum (Stapf.), S. ancestrale (Zhuk.), S. kuprianovii (Grossh), S. segetale (Rosher.), and S. vavilovii (Grossh), from immature embryos of sizes (stages) varying between 1.0 mm to 3.0mm, cultured on MS (1962) mineral nutrient medium supplemented with 0.62 mg/1-5.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D, was established. Initially various types of callus were observed and a correlation between genotype, size of explant and 2,4-D concentration was found. The best embryogenic response was observed when explants were smaller than 1.0 mm. Induction of somatic embryogenesis of 2.0 mm-3.0 mm explants required a higher concentration of 2,4-D. Most embryoids were formed in the presence of 5.0 mg/l of 2,4-D. Secale africanum and S. kuprianovii appeared to have the highest embryogenic capacity among the five investigated species. For embryoids germination to plantlets the MS medium supplemented with GA3 and cytokinins was used. Ultimately, out of the 932 regenerants obtained 364 originated from somatic embryogenesis.

  17. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-10-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.3-mile reach of South Fork Peachtree Creek that extends from about 500 feet above the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with DeKalb County, Georgia. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Peachtree at Casa Drive, near Clarkston, Georgia (02336152). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/).

  18. Interactions between rye (Secale cereale) root border cells (RBCs) and pathogenic and nonpathogenic rhizosphere strains of Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszuk-Sciseł, Jolanta; Kurek, Ewa; Rodzik, Beata; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2009-10-01

    Interactions of rye (Secale cereale) root border cells (RBCs), generated during plant growth and surrounding the root cap, with nonpathogenic rhizosphere Fusarium culmorum isolates: DEMFc2 (PGPF) and DEMFc5 (DRMO), and a pathogenic strain DEMFc37 were studied in test tube experiments. The effect of water-suspended RBCs released from the rye root cap on the rate of macroconidia germination and hyphae (mycelial) growth of F. culmorum strains was also examined. It was found that root caps of 3-d-old rye seedlings (with the root length of 20mm) were surrounded with a layer of RBCs generated in a number specific for this plant species of 1980+/-30. Introduction of the macroconidia of the tested F. culmorum strains into the root zone of 3-d-old seedlings resulted, after 3d of incubation, in the formation of mantle-like structures only in the rhizosphere of plants inoculated with the pathogenic DEMFc37 strain. The macroconidia were suspended in (1) water, (2) a water mixture with root caps deprived of RBCs, (3) Martin medium, (4) malt extract broth, and (5) a water mixture with rye RBCs, and their percentage germination was determined during 96-h incubation at 20 degrees C. Germination of the macroconidia of all the tested F. culmorum strains suspended in the rich growth media (Martin and malt extract broth) and in the mixture with RBCs was significantly speeded up. While only an average of 16.6 % of macroconidia suspended in water germinated after 96-h incubation, more than 90 % of those suspended in the growth media or in the mixture with RBCs germinated after 24h of incubation. In all the treatments, the highest rate of macroconidia germination was found in suspensions of the pathogenic strain and the lowest in macroconidial suspensions of the PGPF strain. The stimulatory effect of RBCs was not specific to the pathogenic strain. Nevertheless, microscopic observation revealed that it was only in the suspension containing a mixture of rye RBCs and macroconidia of the

  19. Comparison of Dehydrin Gene Expression and Freezing Tolerance in Bromus inermis and Secale cereale Grown in Controlled Environments, Hydroponics, and the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. J.; Weninger, A.; Wilen, R. W.; Fu, P.; Gusta, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    There have been very few reports on the expression of stress-responsive genes in field-grown material. A barley dehydrin cDNA was used to investigate the expression of dehydrin-like transcripts after low-temperature and abscisic acid-induced acclimation of bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) suspension cells and of bromegrass and rye (Secale cereale) plants grown in the field and under controlled environmental conditions. Field-acclimated plants accumulated high levels of dehydrin transcripts and were very freezing tolerant. Plants grown in pots and hydroponics under controlled environments also accumulated dehydrin transcripts and showed increased freezing tolerance. Simulation of a combined drought and freezing stress in pots resulted in expression of dehydrin-like transcripts comparable to those observed in field-acclimated material. PMID:12232403

  20. The Drug Threat to Teens in Our Rural Communities. Hearing before the Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (DeKalb, IL, July 7, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    A House subcommittee hearing held in DeKalb, Illinois, received testimony on drug abuse problems among young people in small towns and rural areas. Personal experiences of drugs and their effects on young people were described in statements from the mother of a victim of drug-related violence, a former drug dealer, a former drug user and gang…

  1. Effective transfer of chromosomes carrying leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii Coss. into hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) using Ae. tauschii × Secale cereale amphiploid forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Belter, Jolanta

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows the results of effective uses of a molecular cytogenetics toolbox and molecular marker to transfer leaf rust resistance genes from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (DDRR, 2n = 4x = 28) amphiploid forms to triticale cv. Bogo (AABBRR, 2n = 6x = 42). The molecular markers of resistance genes and in situ hybridization analysis of mitotic metaphase of root meristems confirmed the stable inheritance of chromosome 3D segments carrying Lr32 from the BC2F2 to the BC2F5 generation of (Ae. tauschii × S. cereale) × triticale hybrids. The chromosome pairing analysis during metaphase I of meiosis of BC2F4 and BC2F5 hybrids showed increasing regular bivalent formation of 3D chromosome pairs and decreasing number of univalents in subsequent generations. The results indicate that using amphiploid forms as a bridge between wild and cultivated forms can be a successful technology to transfer the D-genome chromatin carrying leaf rust resistance genes into triticale.

  2. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  3. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed.

  4. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  5. Einstein-Kalb-Ramond cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Gleiser, M.

    1986-11-15

    We study possible cosmological solutions to a higher-dimensional model of gravity with a three-form taking values in the physical space, and show that it is possible to integrate Einstein's equations exactly for flat physical and internal spaces. We then present a detailed analysis of the possible trajectories in the phase plane of the Hubble factors and find the allowed regions for a physically acceptable cosmology. These turn out to be rather small.

  6. High levels of nucleotide diversity and fast decline of linkage disequilibrium in rye (Secale cereale L. genes involved in frost response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzun Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye (Secale cereale L. is the most frost tolerant cereal species. As an outcrossing species, rye exhibits high levels of intraspecific diversity, which makes it well-suited for allele mining in genes involved in the frost responsive network. For investigating genetic diversity and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD we analyzed eleven candidate genes and 37 microsatellite markers in 201 lines from five Eastern and Middle European rye populations. Results A total of 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and nine insertion-deletion polymorphisms were found within 7,639 bp of DNA sequence from eleven candidate genes, resulting in an average SNP frequency of 1 SNP/52 bp. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity of candidate genes were high with average values π = 5.6 × 10-3 and Hd = 0.59, respectively. According to an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, most of the genetic variation was found between individuals within populations. Haplotype frequencies varied markedly between the candidate genes. ScCbf14, ScVrn1, and ScDhn1 were dominated by a single haplotype, while the other 8 genes (ScCbf2, ScCbf6, ScCbf9b, ScCbf11, ScCbf12, ScCbf15, ScIce2, and ScDhn3 had a more balanced haplotype frequency distribution. Intra-genic LD decayed rapidly, within approximately 520 bp on average. Genome-wide LD based on microsatellites was low. Conclusions The Middle European population did not differ substantially from the four Eastern European populations in terms of haplotype frequencies or in the level of nucleotide diversity. The low LD in rye compared to self-pollinating species promises a high resolution in genome-wide association mapping. SNPs discovered in the promoters or coding regions, which attribute to non-synonymous substitutions, are suitable candidates for association mapping.

  7. The DNA methylation level against the background of the genome size and t-heterochromatin content in some species of the genus Secale L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Anna; Poter, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine in DNA is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in eukaryotes and plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene activity and the maintenance of genomic integrity. DNA methylation and other epigenetic mechanisms affect the development, differentiation or the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress. This study compared the level of methylation of cytosines on a global (ELISA) and genomic scale (MSAP) between the species of the genus Secale. We analyzed whether the interspecific variation of cytosine methylation was associated with the size of the genome (C-value) and the content of telomeric heterochromatin. MSAP analysis showed that S. sylvestre was the most distinct species among the studied rye taxa; however, the results clearly indicated that these differences were not statistically significant. The total methylation level of the studied loci was very similar in all taxa and ranged from 60% in S. strictum ssp. africanum to 66% in S. cereale ssp. segetale, which confirmed the lack of significant differences in the sequence methylation pattern between the pairs of rye taxa. The level of global cytosine methylation in the DNA was not significantly associated with the content of t-heterochromatin and did not overlap with the existing taxonomic rye relationships. The highest content of 5-methylcytosine was found in S. cereale ssp. segetale (83%), while very low in S. strictum ssp. strictum (53%), which was significantly different from the methylation state of all taxa, except for S. sylvestre. The other studied taxa of rye had a similar level of methylated cytosine ranging from 66.42% (S. vavilovii) to 74.41% in (S. cereale ssp. afghanicum). The results obtained in this study are evidence that the percentage of methylated cytosine cannot be inferred solely based on the genome size or t-heterochromatin. This is a significantly more complex issue. PMID:28149679

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  9. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb

  10. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum, TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm, longitud de las espigas (cm, masa de mil granos (g y rendimiento agrícola (t.ha-1. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva para cada una de las variables estudiadas, estimándose la media y desviación típica por especie. La variedad cubana de trigo harinero CC-204 fue utilizada como control. La matriz de datos obtenida (genotipo x variable fue procesada mediante la técnica multivariada de Componentes Principales. Los datos para todos los análisis estadísticos se ejecutaron por el paquete estadístico SPSS 11. 0 para Windows. La mayoría de los genotipos tuvieron un comportamiento medio general, aunque se separaron del resto algunos genotipos de trigo harinero y triticale. Los valores de la media y desviación estándar para las variables analizadas muestran que no fue posible distinguir diferencias por especie, aunque las plantas de trigo duro fueron las de menor altura, siendo los mejores genotipos: 12 y 54 de la especie T. aestivum (trigo harinero; 17, 18 y 25 de T. durum (trigo duro; 29 y 37 del X Triticum secale (tritic

  12. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  13. Spatial variation in photosynthetic CO(2) carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination along leaves of the monocot triticale (Triticum × Secale) relates to mesophyll conductance and the Péclet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naomi; Cousins, Asaph; Tu, Kevin P; Barbour, Margaret M

    2011-09-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination of CO(2) during photosynthesis (Δ(13)C(obs) and Δ(18)O(obs)) were measured along a monocot leaf, triticale (Triticum × Secale). Both Δ(13)C(obs) and Δ(18)O(obs) increased towards the leaf tip. While this was expected for Δ(18)O(obs) , because of progressive enrichment of leaf water associated with the Péclet effect, the result was surprising for Δ(13) C(obs). To explore parameters determining this pattern, we measured activities of key photosynthetic enzymes [ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and carbonic anhydrase) as well as maximum carboxylation and electron transport rates (V(cmax) and J(max)) along the leaf. Patterns in leaf internal anatomy along the leaf were also quantified. Mesophyll conductance (g(m)) is known to have a strong influence on Δ(13)C(obs) , so we used three commonly used estimation methods to quantify variation in g(m) along the leaf. Variation in Δ(13)C(obs) was correlated with g(m) and chloroplast surface area facing the intercellular air space, but unrelated to photosynthetic enzyme activity. The observed variation could cause errors at higher scales if the appropriate portion of a leaf is not chosen for leaf-level measurements and model parameterization. Our study shows that one-third of the way from the base of the leaf represents the most appropriate portion to enclose in the leaf chamber. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. 2种除草剂对黑麦早期幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Two Herbicides on the Growth of Early Seedlings of Rye ( Secale cereale)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晨; 高越

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解除草剂对黑麦幼苗早期生长的影响.[方法]从生理生化和细胞水平分析了2种除草剂[阿特拉津(Atrazine)和甲酰胺草磷(Amiprophos methyl,APM)]对黑麦早期幼苗生长的影响.[结果]Atrazine可明显降低黑麦幼苗叶绿素a、b和可溶性蛋白质的含量.当用0.100和1.000 mg/L Atrazine处理黑麦幼苗16 h时,叶绿素a、b含量分别从对照的1.26 (a)、0.49 (b) mg/g(FW)下降至1.15(a)、0.46 (b) mg/g(FW)和0.81 (a)、0.33 (b) mg/g(FW).可溶性蛋白质含量则随着Atrazine处理浓度的增加而减少.Atrazine对黑麦分生组织细胞有丝分裂和染色体结构无显著影响.APM处理后,黑麦幼苗叶绿素a、b和可溶性蛋白质含量无显著变化,但分生组织细胞有丝分裂和染色体结构变异如桥、多极分裂、滞后染色体和不均等分裂中期细胞数量显著增加.[结论]黑麦中Atrazine使用的临界剂量为0.100~1.000 mg/L,而APM为4.000 mg/L.%[Objective] The aim was to study the effect of herbicide on the growth of early seedlings of rye (Secale cereale). [ Method] Effect of two kinds of herbicide ( Atrazine and APM) on seedling growth of rye was investigated at the physiological, biochemical and cellular level. [Result] The Atrazin significantly decreased the contents of chlorophyll a,b and soluble proteins. Rye seeds were treated with 0. 100 and 1.000 mg/L Atrazine for 16 h, the contents of chlorophyll a and b decreased from 1.26 (a), 0.49 (b) mg/g FW ( control) tol.15 (a),0.46 ( b) mg/g FW (0. 100 mg/L) and 0.81 (a) ,0. 33 ( b) mg/g FW( 1.000 mg/L). The content of soluble protein decreased with the increasing concentration of Atrazin. Atrazin had no significant influence on the cell division and chromosome structure variation. The contents of chlorophyll a, b and soluble proteins had no significantly change under the treatment of APM, but the number of chromosome structure variation such as chromosome bridge,multipolar division cells

  15. Effect of Two Herbicides on the Growth of Early Seedlings of Rye(Secale cereale)%两种除草剂对黑麦早期幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晨; 高越

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to study the effect of herbicide on the growth of early seedlings of rye(Secale cereale).[Method]Effect of two kinds of herbicide(Atrazine and APM)on seedling growth of rye was investigated at the physiological,biochemical and cellular level.[Result]The Atrazin significantly decreased the contents of chlorophyll a,b and soluble proteins.Rye seeds were treated with 0.01-1 mg/L Atrazine for 16 h,the contents of chlorophyll a and b decreased from 1.26(a),0.49(b)mg/g FW(control)to 1.15(a),0.46(b)mg/g FW(0.1 mg/L)and 0.81(a),0.33(b)mg/g FW(1.0 mg/L).The content of soluble protein decreased with the increasing concentration of Atrazin.Atrazin had no significant influence on the cell division and chromosome structure variation.The contents of chlorophyll a,b and soluble proteins had no significantly change under the treatment of APM,but the number of chromosome structure variation such as chromosome bridge,multipolar division cells,lagging chromosome and unequal division cells increased significantly.[Conclusion]The critical concentration of Atrazine was 0.1-1.0 mg/L and 4 mg/L of APM in rye.%[目的]了解除草剂对黑麦幼苗早期生长的影响。[方法]从生理生化和细胞水平分析了2种除草剂[阿特拉津(Atrazine)和甲酰胺草磷(Amiprophos methyl,APM)]对黑麦早期幼苗生长的影响。[结果]Atrazine可明显降低黑麦幼苗叶绿素a、b和可溶性蛋白质的含量。当用0.100和1.000mg/L Atrazine处理黑麦幼苗16h时,叶绿素a、b含量分别从对照的1.26(a)、0.49(b)mg/g(FW)下降至1.15(a)、0.46(b)mg/g(FW)和0.81(a)、0.33(b)mg/g(FW)。可溶性蛋白质含量则随着Atrazine处理浓度的增加而减少。Atrazine对黑麦分生组织细胞有丝分裂和染色体结构无显著影响。APM处理后,黑麦幼苗叶绿素a、b和可溶性蛋白质含量无显著变化,但分生组织细胞有丝分裂和染色

  16. 普通小麦与非洲黑麦双二倍体中随体、醇溶蛋白%Intergenomic Interaction of Nucleolus, Gliadin and Disease Resistance in a Triticum Aestivum-Secale Africanum Amphiploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨足君; 李光蓉; 蒋华仁; 任正隆

    2001-01-01

    An amphiploid between Triticum aestivum native to Sichuan, China, and Secale africanum was evaluated by cytological observatio n, seed storage protein electrophoresis analysis and diseases resistance surveys . Feulgen staining of somatic metaphases indicates that the nucleolus from S.africanum is partially expressed in the amphiploid. The S.africanum chromosomes can be identified in amphiploid backgrou nd by Giemsa-C banding. APAGE shows that most gliadin of both parents is observ ed in the endosperm of the amphiploid with codominant expression, except the agg regation secalin of S.africanum. By inoculating the stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, it is found that diseases resistance from S .africanum are not totally expressed in the amphiploid. In addition, the wheat-alien intergenomic interaction and the utilization of the amphiploid to triticale and wheat breeding are discussed in the present paper.%利用细胞学方法、种子储藏蛋白电泳技术和抗病接种鉴定对四川小麦地方品种与非洲黑麦(S.africanum)人工合成双二倍体进行了研究,结果表明: ①根尖细胞的染色体计数发现,来自非洲黑麦的随体在双二倍体中仅得到部分表达;Giemsa-C带分析能准确鉴定双二倍体中的非洲黑麦染色体,发现非洲黑麦与栽培黑麦的染色体C带有较大的区别;②种子醇溶蛋白电泳发现除非洲黑麦的聚集黑麦碱蛋白在双二倍体中不表达外,其余来自普通小麦和非洲黑麦的相应蛋白带能够在双二倍体中正常表达;③双二倍体及其亲本的苗期抗白粉病性和成株期抗条锈性分析表明,非洲黑麦对这两种病害的优良抗性在双二倍体中并不表达,抗性受到普通小麦背景的抑制.另外本文对小麦-外源染色体组的相互作用和该双二倍体在小麦与八倍体小黑麦育种中的应用进行了讨论.

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of oα-gliadin Gene from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale Amphiploids%节节麦-黑麦双二倍体α醇溶蛋白基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大乐; 李玉阁; 张晓萍; 苏亚蕊; 李锁平; 王和洲

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen novel o-gliadin genes from Aegilops tauschii x Secale cereale amphiploids were amplified and cloned using conserved primers specific to wheat a-gliadin genes. A total of 15 sequences were obtained with lengths ranging from 843 to 897 bp,containing ORFs encoding peptides with 280 to 298 amino acids and GenBank accession numbers JQ029719, JQ046392 to JQ046405,respectively. A BLAST search showed that these sequences belonged to typical structural characters of a-gliadin genes reported previously. Comparative analysis of homologous proteins showed that they were members of the a-gliadin super-family, of which two sequences were synonymous mutations. Searching for four different T cell stimulatory epitopes for celiac disease patients,it was found that eight of fifteen sequences did not contain the Giia-α-2 and Giia-α-9 epitope typical feature. The phylogenetic trees based on the amino acids sequence of Secale and Aegilops indicated that the cloned gliadin genes clustered in the clade of Aegilops a-gliadin gene.%以人工合成节节麦-黑麦双二倍体基因组DNA为模板,用小麦种子醇溶蛋白保守引物进行PCR扩增,经克隆测序获得了843 ~ 897 bp共15个新的DNA序列(GenBank登录号为:JQ029719,JQ046392~JQ046405),分别编码280 ~298个氨基酸.序列比对结果表明,它们具有α-醇溶蛋白基因的典型结构特点,是α-醇溶蛋白基因家系成员,其中有两个序列为同义突变.利用14个新氨基酸序列与乳糜泻( celiac disease)病人毒性抗原相关序列的比对,发现有8个序列的Glia-α-2和Glia-α-9型抗原序列产生缺失和替换.与来自粗山羊草属和黑麦属的α-醇溶蛋白基因的编码氨基酸建立系统树,结果表明,14个DNA序列编码的氨基酸序列与粗山羊草属的相关序列聚在一起.

  18. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  19. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and

  20. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DeKalb COUNTY, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DeKalb County, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Published in unknown, DeKalb County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  4. Tamsa lietuvių ir rusų kalbų pasaulėvaizdyje

    OpenAIRE

    Činčikienė, Asta

    2010-01-01

    Kalba neatsiejamais saitais susijusi su žmogaus mąstymu. Ji padeda atkurti pasaulio vaizdą, esantį žmogaus sąmonėje. Pasaulio suvokimas, arba objektyvios realybės daiktų ir reiškinių samprata, paliekanti pėdsakus kalboje, vadinama kalbos pasaulėvaizdžiu. Kiekviena kalba pasaulio suvokimą nuspalvina skirtingu atspalviu, nes tautų istorija, geografinės sąlygos, gyvenimo būdas, kultūra, aksiologija yra skirtingos. Kalbos pasaulėvaizdį kuria visi, kalbantys ta kalba. Tiriant žodžių vartoji...

  5. Dabartinių baltų bendrinių kalbų balsių spektrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kaukėnienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available THE SPECTRA OF ISOLATED VOWELS OF THE STANDARD BALTIC LANGUAGESSummaryThe article examines the spectra of isolated vowels of the standard Baltic languages, their acoustic, articulation features and their relationship with D. Jones’ cardinal vowels.The acoustic features of the separate vowels of Lithuanian and Latvian are not the same. The vowels [aˑ], [a], [i], [e̤ˑ], [u] are not pronounced in the same place. The timbre of Latvian [i], [e̤ˑ] is higher than that of similar vowels in Lithuanian, but the timbre of isolated Lithuanian [eˑ] is higher than that of the similar Latvian vowel. The timbre of the Latvian isolated vowels [aˑ], [a], [ɔ], [uˑ], [u] is lower than that of similar Lithuanian vowels. The Latvian isolated vowels [iˑ], [uˑ] have a higher F1, that is, they are more open than the corresponding Lithuanian vowels.Besides Latvian isolated [i], [e̤ˑ], [uˑ] are more tense and [u], [ɔ] are more rounded than similar Lithuanian vowels but Lithuanian [iˑ] is more tense than its Latvian correspondent.The spectral analysis and acoustic data allow us to claim that the isolated vowels of the standard Baltic languages are similar to the secondary and primary cardinal vowels. The marked extreme articulation is typical of Latvian and Lithuanian [oˑ], [ɔ], [iˑ], [uˑ].

  6. Donor of winter rye short stem (Secale cereale L. Gnom 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that the genetic cluster analysis using of parents – offspring system at the period of 38 generations of directional intentional selection to short stem, the height of winter rye plants has been reduced less than 90 cm with simultaneously productivity integral components increasing. Directional selection on parent plants short stem has revealed pleiotropic effects to increasing averages of productivity yield capacity, spike length, flowers number, grains, and short stem and simultaneously its productivity reducing, plant and weight reducing of 100 direct descendants grains. Plant height donor of short stem Gnome 1 has been controlled prevailing by genetic factors and has been less influenced by environmental conditions. Selection by enlargement of elite plants grains has predetermined genetically increasing of the average height of families in the next generation without the concept selection requirements satisfaction. Therefore, the directed selections, by the structural analysis results, are annually held in two phases, first – to the expressed short stem and then among of them – to the high weight of 100 grains per plant and desirable productivity elements. A creative dominant short stem donor with stems up to 90 cm and a weight of 100 grains per plant more than 4.0 g has been made. A short stem spike shortness donor Dwarf 1possesses a significant reserve of common genetic mutation of quantitative characteristics, which can be used by direct and indirect selection. This population has been represented by its large amount, in order to enhance capabilities of directional selection plants short stem providing with the desired productivity components during the studying. Informative additive genetic cluster analysis is high. Plants productivity is considered to be extremely complicated selection characteristics, including many component constituents parts related genetically. One of these traits changing inevitably causes genetic changes in other breeding traits. The aim of the task should be set clearly and information flow should be methodically and genetically corrected used. Keywords: winter rye, the efficiency of selection, inheritance, short stem, Dwarf 1, pleiotropic effects, genotypic, additive correlation.

  7. Cultivar and year-to-year variation of phytosterol content in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, M.; Hansen, H.B.; Jørgensen, J.R.;

    2004-01-01

    Intake of phytosterols (and -stanols) has been shown to decrease the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and thus protect against development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, studies on the cultivar and year-to-year variation in phytosterol content in rye grains have been performed...

  8. Output of continuous directed selection aimed at short stem development in Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides progress report on the barley of F3к-10029/Saratovske 4 height decreasing throughout 1974 to 2012 by way of selecting plants of the shortest stem. 38 years of selecting the shortest stem genotypes cut down plant height by 5,7 times at the background of dominant Hl gene expression. Average plant height during 38 breeding cycles was descending by 2,69 cm, but this was not an even trend. New creative donor for ultimate short stem characteristic, Gnome 3, has been developed, with Hl-3Hl-3alleles designation. Relative impact on the efficacy of minus-selection by the plant height of the selection differential (38,00% and inheritance coefficient in its narrow sense (14,56% is established. Efficiency of the selection is realized with the decrease of winter rye height plants by 72,08% as expected by the relative breeding forecast. Analyzes is completed for 11 genetic and statistical clusters of average utilitarian characteristics of Gnome 3 ultra short stem rye over the period from 1974 to 2012.

  9. Genetic architecture of complex agronomic traits examined in two testcross populations of rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedaner Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye is an important European crop used for food, feed, and bioenergy. Several quality and yield-related traits are of agronomic relevance for rye breeding programs. Profound knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is needed to successfully implement marker-assisted selection programs. Nevertheless, little is known on quantitative loci underlying important agronomic traits in rye. Results We used 440 F3:4 inbred lines from two biparental populations (Pop-A, Pop-B fingerprinted with about 800 to 900 SNP, SSR and/or DArT markers and outcrossed them to a tester for phenotyping. The resulting hybrids and their parents were evaluated for grain yield, single-ear weight, test weight, plant height, thousand-kernel weight, falling number, protein, starch, soluble and total pentosan contents in up to ten environments in Central Europe. The quality of the phenotypic data was high reflected by moderate to high heritability estimates. QTL analyses revealed a total of 31 QTL for Pop-A and 52 for Pop-B. QTL x environment interactions were significant (P  Conclusions QTL mapping was successfully applied based on two segregating rye populations. QTL underlying grain yield and several quality traits had small effects. In contrast, thousand-kernel weight, test weight, falling number and starch content were affected by several major QTL with a high frequency of occurrence in cross validation. These QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance can be exploited in marker-assisted selection programs and are candidates for further genetic dissection.

  10. Kino filmų titrai kaip kalbų mokymosi priemonė. Untertitel als Mittel zum Fremdsprachenerwerb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Baravykaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das in den letzten Jahren spürbare Bestreben der litauischen Gesetzgeber, Untertitelung von Fernsehfilmen zwecks Fremdsprachenerwerb gesetzlich anzuordnen, löste eine Auseinandersetzung in der Öffentlichkeit aus, die sich in der Presse sowie im Internet widerspiegelt und als Anstoß zum vorliegenden Beitrag dient. Diese Arbeit stellt den Versuch dar, die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Untertitelung als eines Mittels zum Fremdsprachenerwerb zu untersuchen. Auf Grund der fehlenden wissenschaftlichen Forschungen in diesem Bereich sollen dabei empirische Betrachtungen und die vergleichende Textanalyse von Original und Übersetzung als Hilfe dienen. Auch wenn die Relevanz der Untertitelung für den Fremdsprachenerwerb nicht bestreitbar ist, ist sie aber zugleich nicht zu überschätzen: Durch die lediglich für diese Form der audiovisuellen Übersetzung charakteristischen Merkmale (kurze Einblendezeit, kondensierte Sprache und begrenzte Übertragungsmöglichkeiten von Realia-Begriffen, Phraseologismen, Intertextualismen, dem Wortspiel etc. bleiben dem Zuschauer oft sprachliche Stilmittel vorenthalten und der in allen Übersetzungsbereichen vorkommende unausweichliche Sinn- und Wirkungsverlust des Originals wird erheblich verstärkt. Anbetracht der erwähnten Aspekte und der häufigen fehlerhaften Übersetzungen sollen Untertitel nur als Hilfsmittel beim Fremdsprachenerwerb angewendet werden, wobei herkömmliche Lehr- und Lernstrategien von Fremdsprachen in den Vordergrund treten müssen.

  11. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 1992-Sep 1993. FY 1993. (Alachua, Florida-DeKalb, Georgia). Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    66j Go 11 i-a) c , i𔃾-4-4 m -4 -I PNN- 41-4 NO)O)O)N4%rlt0 0 -4 14 W0 (0 AdNN I (-4N(0 U JiNnni~nn4nUU u L)Ui U 4 U U U) I W-4N 4 U 0 -440040-4O...0O00*Etw YL o Nco Lna 00t0o00 0 ONNOIQOO O a)C C v)() m0 aDnNe 3m H 0o I 00o4 Ht in c wP-r. f.v4 P%. Ln c)vi r. in Lu 4 m mm mcn i ciio tioto n r

  12. Pragmatinės kompetencijos ugdymas anglų kalbos pamokoje per kalbėjimą

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with developing pragmatic competence in the English as a second language classroom, mainly through speaking activities. In Part One the theoretical background of pragmatics and its various aspects are discussed. Views of a number of authors on pragmatics are presented, witnessing the necessity of pragmatic upbringing at schools and other educational establishments in the world of globalization. Some examples are given why pragmatic awareness is inseparable from grammatical or...

  13. 75 FR 28629 - Tennessee; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    .... Chester, Clay, DeKalb, Hardin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, Macon, Stewart, Trousdale, and Wayne Counties for Individual Assistance. Chester, Clay, DeKalb, Hardin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence,...

  14. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kruczek

    2017-03-01

    [b]Results.[/b] The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. Conclusions. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country, than in Szczecin city

  15. Grain characteristics, chemical composition, and functional properties of rye (Secale cereale L.) as influenced by genotype and harvest year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hanne B; Møller, Birthe; Andersen, Sven B; Jørgensen, Johannes R; Hansen, Ase

    2004-04-21

    Grain characteristic, chemical composition, and functional properties of rye were measured in 19 different cultivars grown in one location in up to 3 years. The cultivars included 8 adapted hybrids, 7 adapted population cultivars, and 4 nonadapted population cultivars. The results showed a significant influence of both harvest year and genotype on grain characteristics, chemical composition, and functional properties of the grain. Multivariate data analysis confirmed that the variations in the data were explained by yearly and genotype differences. Calculations of variance components showed that the variations in plant height, harvest yield, and protein content were mainly due to genotype differences and to a lesser extent to differences among harvest years. The kernel weight, hardness index, and content of dietary fiber components, however, were more strongly influenced by the harvest year than by the genotype. Differences in starch properties measured by falling number (FN), amylograph peak viscosity, and temperature at peak viscosity were more strongly influenced by harvest year. The water absorption was strongly influenced by genotype effects, compared to yearly differences. FN and amylograph peak temperature were positively correlated (r = 0.94). No correlation was found between the water absorption and the relative proportion of water-extractable arabinoxylan (AX) compared to the total AX content. However, the degree of ferulic acid cross-linking showed a negative correlation (r = -0.70) with the water absorption.

  16. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesic, Ljiljana; Hansen, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster(R) software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed...... characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height....

  17. The impact of extrusion on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of rye grains (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyphenols which are included in a group of food antioxidants have a beneficial impact on human organism, as they prevent the occurrence of life style diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Cereals are the main source of polyphenols in a human diet, and especially rye is characterized by high level of these compounds. Many technological processes applied in food production cause a decrease of polyphenols in rye and reduce their antioxidative activity. The aim of the study was to estimate quantitative changes of polyphenols in rye grains subjected to extrusion, under varying process conditions and establish the antioxidant activity of the obtained rye extrudates. Material and methods. The materials were extrudates prepared from grains of three rye cultivars, namely Amilo, Rostockie and Agrikolo. Extrusion was performed in a single-screw laboratory extruder Brabender 20 DN. Contents of phenolic acids and apigenin in analysed samples was checked by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP and EPR methods. Results. All rye extrudates contained ferulic acid levels (53-104 mg/100 g d.m. approximately 112-316% higher as compared to raw material (25 mg/100 g d.m.. The highest antioxidant activity (using of FRAP method was measured in extrudates prepared at extrusion parameters: 14% moisture of raw material and 180°C but the lowest at 20% moisture and 120°C. The analysis of spin label reduction kinetics (in EPR method allowed to conclude, that its reduction was greater for extrudates (except extrudates obtained at moisture content 20% and 120°C as compared to raw material. Conclusions. Content of polyphenols and antioxidative activity of rye extrudates is highly dependant on the moisture content of raw material and extrusion temperature.

  18. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Aleksandra; Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2017-03-21

    Among herbal plants, most cases of allergic reactions, like seasonal inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis and pollen asthma, are related to the allergens from grass pollen. As the blossoming and pollination of rye is known to start the pollen season of grasses, information about the airborne rye pollen count permits alerting the people allergic to certain allergens contained in rye pollen. An important cause of allergy is also the pollen from wormwood, blossoming in late summer, as its two main allergens produce cross-reactions with many other plant allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of allergic reactions in persons with pollinosis on the basis of the pollen calendar, analysis of concentrations of pollen grains of grass and rye, and comparison of diurnal pattern of airborne pollen grain concentrations at two sites with different degrees of urbanisation (Gudowo in the country and the city of Szczecin) in 2012-2014. The concentration of pollen was measured by the volume method. Length of the pollination season was determined by the method of 98%, assuming that the beginning and the end of the pollen season are the days on which 1% and 99% of the annual sum of pollen appeared. The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country), than in Szczecin city.

  19. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    generally showed stronger regrowth than barley after late cutting, but only the perennial variety 'Soperta' regenerated as many tillers at cutting as formed when harvested at the ripe grain stage. In both species, significant differences were found between varieties. The level of soluble carbohydrates...

  20. Purification, biochemical characterisation and partial primary structure of a new alpha-amylase inhibitor from Secale cereale (rye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iulek, J; Franco, O L; Silva, M; Slivinski, C T; Bloch, C; Rigden, D J; Grossi de Sá, M F

    2000-01-01

    Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors show great potential as tools to engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. Their possible use is, however, complicated by the observed variations in specificity of enzyme inhibition, even within closely related families of inhibitors. Better understanding of this specificity depends on modelling studies based on ample structural and biochemical information. A new member of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family of cereal endosperm has been purified from rye using two ionic exchange chromatography steps. It has been characterised by mass spectrometry, inhibition assays and N-terminal protein sequencing. The results show that the inhibitor has a monomer molecular mass of 13,756 Da, is capable of dimerisation and is probably glycosylated. The inhibitor has high homology with the bifunctional alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors from barley and wheat, but much poorer homology with other known inhibitors from rye. Despite the homology with bifunctional inhibitors, this inhibitor does not show activity against mammalian or insect trypsin, although activity against porcine pancreatic, human salivary, Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus alpha-amylases was observed. The inhibitor is more effective against insect alpha-amylases than against mammalian enzymes. It is concluded that rye contains a homologue of the bifunctional alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family without activity against trypsins. The necessity of exercising caution in assigning function based on sequence comparison is emphasised.

  1. Alkylresorcinols of rye (Secale cereale L. caryopses IV. Three-step preparation of 5-n-alkylresorcinols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mejbaum-Katzenellenbogen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole rye or wheat grains were extracted with acetone at room temperature. The extracts were pooled and acetone was evaporated. The remaining acetone oil was washed out with n-pentane until a colourless filtrate was obtained. The residue was dried, then dissolved in chloroform-acetone (95:5 mixture and separated by column chromatography on silica gel. The fractions containing 5-n-alkylresorcinols were pooled, condensed and crystallised from n-hexane. The preparation obtained was homogeneous in thin-layer chromatography and gave the UV spectrum characteristic for 5-n-alkyl derivatives of resorcinol.

  2. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesić, Ljiljana; Hansen, Hanne Boskov; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2002-12-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Rønhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height.

  3. The influence of extrusion on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant/antiradical activity of rye grains (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to check the influence of extrusion on the content of polyphenol and antioxidant/antiradical activity of rye grains. The extrudates prepared from three cultivars of rye were obtained at different process parameters. Total polyphenol, antioxidant and antiradical activity was measured in the samples. Extrusion resulted in a decrease of total polyphenol content (TPC on average by 40% in rye grains, and the largest loss of endogenic phenolic compounds was observed at the extrusion conditions: 20% moisture of raw material and 120°C. Extrudates obtained at: 14% moisture of raw material and 180°C exhibited either increase of these compounds or no change. It was found that rye extrudates exhibited the highest antiradical activity (measured by the methods with DPPH and ABTS when raw material contained 14% of moisture and at temperature of the extrusion – 180°C, while the lowest when the parameters were 20% and 120°C. Antioxidant activity in beta-carotene-linoleate model system was high when rye extrusion was performed at 14% and 20% moisture and temperature 180°C. The negative influence of extrusion on the antioxidant activity of rye grains was observed at 20% moisture and 120°C.

  4. Genetic Characteristic of Dominant Ultra Short Stem and Wax Coating Absence for Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available By means of directed hybridization and selection, a new donor of Winter Rye with combination of ultra short stem and absence of wax coating has been synthesized. Markings was offered for the first time for dominant genes of ultra short stem characteristic – HI-3HI-3, and for recessive genes of absence of wax coating characteristic – wcwc. Determination is made of genetic variability, coefficients of inheritance, phenotype and genotype correlation coefficients, on the basis of which a selection strategy by ten quantitative characteristics is proposed. Polypheny and cohesion effects were established. Under certain conception, strategy and tactic of improvement by breeding of Winter Rye characteristics, determination of genetic and statistic parameters between traits of parents and the offspring is required.

  5. Baltų kalbų žodžių tvarkos raida tipologijos požiūriu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Ambrazas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available THE DEVELOPMENT OF WORD ORDER IN BALTIC FROM A TYPOLO­GICAL VIEWPOINTSummaryThe inherited word order type DH, in which dependent is placed before head, has been preserved up till now in most Lithuanian and Latvian word order patterns, e.g.: GenN, AdjN, DemN, AdvV, AdvAdj, AdvAdv1. Historical analysis reveals the former prevalence of DH order both in the distribution of main sentence components (SOV and in the comparative clauses (StComp. On the other hand, a tendency to place head before dependent manifests itself in the expansion of the SVO sentence pattern and of comparative clauses with a postposed standard (CompSt during the recent history of Lithuanian and Latvian.The early stage of HD order development in Baltic is represented by prepositional constructions. They are based on ancient clauses with preverbs, which modified the meaning of nouns and verbs and had the status of dependent components. Preverbs preceding verbs maintained their dependent status; they turned into verbal prefixes later. But preverbs preceding nouns changed their relation and became heads of prepositional constructions, i.e. prepositions governing cases.Reanalysis of preposed preverbs as prepositions caused a deviation from the prevailing word order type and paved the way to the use of HD patterns in other constructions. Contacts with Slavic languages stimulated this change. A relative chronology of expansion of some HD patterns in Baltic can be presented in the following sequence: Prep - CompSt - (SVO.

  6. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Supplemental Major Rehabilitation Evaluation Report for Center Hill Dam, Caney Fork River, DeKalb County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    project manager and senior engineer for the Bee Tree Dam Spillway Capacity Expansion Project, North Carolina and the evaluation of air ramp alternatives...interests. She earned her M.S. in biology/ ecology in 1978 from Steven F. Austin State University and has received additional academic training in the NEPA... corridors , and power plants and other types of projects involving federal funding. Ms. Crouch has demonstrated experience with cultural surveys

  7. Baltų ir slavų kalbų vardažodžių daryba (senosios bendrybės ir skirtybės

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Ambrazas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available WORD FORMATION OF NOUNS IN BALTIC AND SLAVIC (old common traits and differences Summary The article deals with the problem of relations of Baltic and Slavic languages on the base of word forma­tion of nouns. Some archaic features of Slavic word formation in comparison with Baltic one are distinguished: 1 nomina agentis with old Indo-European suffix *-tel- were left whale in Slavic, but they were completly pushed out by the corresponding derivatives with new suffixes   *-tāi̯o- (<*-tā- +* -i̯o-,  *-ēi̯o- (<*ē + *-i̯o- in Baltic; 2 the adjectives with suffix *-(ii̯o- kept their produktivity in Slavic, but they were replaced by the corresponding derivatives with suffixes *-ino-, *-ini̯o(<* -ino- +*-i̯o* in Baltic;3 the substantives with old Indo-European suffix *-mo- were also productive in Common Slavic, but they were changed by the derivatives with new suffixes *-i-mo-, *-u-mo- in Baltic. There are some mor old differences in Baltic and Slavic word formation. The suffix * -(ii̯o- was often used on the formation of nomina collectiva in Slavic and in many other Indo-European languages (cf. Slav, sъnьje, Skt. svapn(iyam, Lat. somnium, Gk. έν-υχνιον, Lith. sapnỹs “dream”, but this type of derivatives is almost unknow in Baltic. Nomina deminutiva with suffix *-iko- (

  8. A systematic review of rye (Secale cereale L.) as a source of resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Åhman, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years. With new devastating stem and yellow rust pathotypes invading wheat at large acreage globally, along with new biotypes of pest insects, there is renewed interest in using rye as a source of resistance. Currently the proportion of wheat cultivars with rye chromatin varies between countries, with examples of up to 34%. There is mainly one rye source, Petkus, that has been widely exploited and that has contributed considerably to raise yields and increase disease resistance in wheat. Successively, the multiple disease resistances conferred by this source has been overcome by new pathotypes of leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. However, there are several other rye sources reported to make wheat more resistant to various biotic constraints when their rye chromatin has been transferred to wheat. There is also development of knowledge on how to produce new rye translocation, substitution and addition lines. Here we compile information that may facilitate decision making for wheat breeders aiming to transfer resistance to biotic constraints from rye to elite wheat germplasm.

  9. Evaluación de la tolerancia a la salinidad en estadios tempranos y finales del desarrollo en Triticales (X Triticum secale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Argentel

    2010-01-01

    salino con una conductivid eléctrica (CE de 10 dS.m-1 y un tratamiento control con CE=0.02 dS.m-1. En el primer ensayo se evaluaron las variables: absorción de agua, altura de las plántulas, longitud de la raíz y acumulación de biomasas fresca y seca. La evaluación en las etapas finales se realizó mediante el estudio de los componentes del rendimiento. Todos los datos se expresaron en valores relativos al control. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se realizó una caracterización en cuanto a su grado de tolerancia relativa para ambos estadios. Como resultado se obtuvo una amplia variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés en las dos fenofases. Solo se observó tolerancia en una línea (ITSN-14; sin embargo, los índices fueron altos en relación con los informes encontrados en esta especie, por lo que se recomienda evaluarlas mediante el uso de otros indicadores fisiológicos y bioquímicos más precisos de tolerancia a la salinidad

  10. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid...

  11. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4- diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid...

  12. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  13. Physical analysis of the complex rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, B-J; Gustafson, J P; Button, J; Miyazaki, J; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, N; Zhou, H; Langridge, P; Collins, N C

    2009-08-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies, and assess the library's suitability for investigating Al tolerance genes. The library provides 6 x genome coverage of the 8.1 Gb rye genome, has an average insert size of 131 kb, and contains only ~2% of empty or organelle-derived clones. Genetic analysis attributed the Al tolerance of Blanco to the Alt4 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7R, and revealed the presence of multiple allelic variants (haplotypes) of the Alt4 locus in the BAC library. BAC clones containing ALMT1 gene clusters from several Alt4 haplotypes were identified, and will provide useful starting points for exploring the basis for the structural variability and functional specialization of ALMT1 genes at this locus.

  14. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALE CERCELE). PART I. RELATIVE PARTICLE FLUX RATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension re...

  15. A "test of concept" comparison of aerodynamic and mechanical resuspension mechanisms for particles deposited on field rye grass ( Secale cercele). Part 1. Relative particle flux rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

    Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 10 μm. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following for our test of concept experiment: Resuspension particle flux increases when mechanical impacts occur. Mechanical resuspension dominated for 2 μm particles over purely aerodynamic resuspension, but for larger particles aerodynamic mechanisms were roughly equally effective in resuspending particles.

  16. The Repetitive Sequence of Secale cereale Applied on Detection of Exogenous Chromosome of Wheat%黑麦重复序列在检测小麦品种中外源染色体的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春燕; 闫红飞; 杨文香; 孟庆芳; 刘大群

    2011-01-01

    A pair of PCR primers pSc20ht23/24 was designed based on sequence pSc20H.2 amplified by RAPD primer OPH20 in rye. The primers were used to amplify wheat leaf rust resistance near isogonic lines of TcLr45,derived fiom rye, and its susceptible background Thatcher. In addition, 42 wheat leaf mst resistance near isogonic lines and 103 wheat varieties were detected with the primers. A specific band size about 750 bp was amplified in TcLr45 by the primers pSc20ht23/24, and there were no bands amplified in Thatcher. This specific band was cloned and sequenced, the full length is 734 bp. The result fiom testing 42 wheat leaf rust resistance near isogonic lines showed that TcLr26 amplified the same size segment as TcLr45, but there was no amplification in TcLr25 derived fiom rye. The same size specific band was amplified in the Chinese Spring-Imperial addition lines fiom 1R to 7R except 5R addition line. All of the 13 wheat varieties of 1B/1R rye translocation line were amplified the same band as TcLr45 and TcLr26, and 16 of 90 wheat landraces amplified this band too. The results fiom pedigree analysis indicated that 6 of 16 varieties had the genetic background of rye, this SCAR marker can be used for detecting exogenous chromosome of rye except 5R in wheat.%本研究根据RAPD引物OPH20在黑麦中扩增出的特异序列pSc20H.2设计一对PCR引物pSc20ht-23/24,以来源于黑麦的小麦抗叶锈近等基因系材料TcLr45及感病对照Thatcher为亲本进行PCR扩增.并对42个小麦抗叶锈近等基因系及103个小麦品种材料进行检测.引物pSc20ht23/24在TcLr45中扩增出一条约750 bp的条带,而在Thatcher中无扩增条带.对该特异片段回收、克隆测序为734 bp.42个小麦抗叶锈近等基因系检测在TcLr26中扩增出与TcLr45相同的条带,而在同样来源于黑麦的小麦抗叶锈近等基因系TcLr25中未扩增出该条带:中国春-Imperial黑麦附加系1R-7R中除5R外均扩增出该条带;13个1B/1R易位系小麦品种也扩增出该条带;90个地方小麦品种中有16个扩增出该条带,6个品种经系谱分析具有黑麦遗传背景,表明该标记可用于检测小麦中含有的除黑麦5R染色体之外的外源染色质.

  17. Seperation and Identification Systems for Waxy Protein Originated from Rye (Secale cereale L.) Seeds%黑麦籽粒Waxy蛋白亚基的高效分离与鉴定技术体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟敏; 董剑; 高翔; 赵万春; 李晓燕; 陈其皎; 陈良国; 石引刚

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of the present investigation was to construct the large-scale isolation and high-throughput identification systems for the Waxy proteins in rye seeds so as to provide more information about how to understand its bio-chemical features, functions and genetic diversity in rye cultivars. [Method]Waxy gene was isolated by using a set of gene specific primers from the full-length cDNA library derived from the immature seeds of Austria rye, followed by prokaryotic expression in Escherichia coli system. The extracted product of the DuoFlow system from Austria rye seeds, together with the purified recombinant Waxy protein by Ni-NTA resin, were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and then followed by the alignment of protein sequences which deduced from the Waxy gene originated from Austria rye and common wheat. The above Waxy protein purified by DuoFlow workstation was then employed as the sample to construct the optimal capillary electrophoresis (CE) system for the waxy of rye seeds. Both the DuoFlow isolation system and CE identification system were verified based on the analysis results of rye cultivars. [Result] Sequence analysis revealed that the gene isolated from Austria cDNA (KF559182) encoded a 60 kD mature Waxy protein. The optimal isolation system for DuoFlow Workstation was the following:fixation Waxy proteins using 20 mM Tris-Hcl buffer (pH 9.5), and then elution the target components using 20 mmol·L-1 Tris+1 mol·L-1 NaCl buffer (pH 9.5) from the UNO Q1 anion exchange column. All the above results, including SDS-PAGE, MS identified peptides and seqeunces semilarity of deduced amino acids based on the Waxy sequence, confirmed that the purified products by DuoFlow system in the present study was consistant with the characters of rye Waxy and therefore belongs to the Waxy protein itself. The CE was carried out using the purified protein by DuoFlow system under the conditions of 25 ℃20,kV and 0.5 psi × 5 s, together with the electrophoresis buffer 0.05 mM borax +15%acetonitrile +1% SDS solution (pH 9.5), and a single chromatographic peak was obtained aroud 11-12 min through the above CE system. The results also showed that the Waxy protein which extracted from the seeds could be used directly for the identification of rye Waxy in CE system. Meanwhile, the testing results of rye cultivars showed that the DuoFlow and CE system were suitable for the separation and identification of rye Waxy subunits, respectively.[Conclusion]The present study successfully isolated the complete coding sequence of Waxy gene from cDNA library of Austria rye using the gene-specific primers, and constructed the DuoFlow large-scale isolation system and CE high-throughput identification system for Waxy subunits of rye grains.%[目的]构建用于制备级分离及高效鉴定黑麦籽粒Waxy蛋白亚基的技术体系,为该亚基理化特性的分析、功能的发掘及Waxy种质的快速筛选等提供理论参考。[方法]设计特异引物从灌浆期间的奥地利黑麦籽粒cDNA中克隆获得Waxy,并进行体外表达;利用DuoFlow对籽粒蛋白提取物进行纯化,对峰值收集物、原核表达产物及其Ni柱纯化的重组Waxy蛋白进行SDS-PAGE分离,挖取蛋白条带进行MALDI-TOF质谱鉴定,结合经由基因序列所推导的氨基酸序列,确定回收产物的Waxy蛋白属性;在优化电泳条件的基础上构建针对Waxy蛋白的毛细管电泳体系;同时,利用部分黑麦品种对DuoFlow及CE体系的有效性进行验证。[结果]核苷酸序列分析表明,从奥地利黑麦cDNA中克隆获得一条覆盖Waxy全长的编码序列(GenBank登录号:KF559182),其理论编码产物约为60 kD;利用DuoFlow Q1阳离子交换柱,以低浓度Tris-Hcl(20 mmol·L-1 Tris-Hcl,pH 9.5)进行蛋白挂柱,高浓度NaCl(20 mmol·L-1 Tris+1 mol·L-1 NaCl,pH 9.5)进行蛋白洗脱,214 nm波长检测,实现了对籽粒Waxy蛋白的DuoFlow高效分离;纯化产物的SDS-PAGE条带大小、质谱鉴定肽段与黑麦、小麦Waxy蛋白序列相似性的统计结果表明,DuoFlow峰值回收产物具有黑麦Waxy亚基一致的特征序列,故属于Waxy蛋白;以DuoFlow纯化产物为标准样,以0.05 mmol·L-1硼砂+15%乙腈+1%SDS溶液(pH 9.5)为缓冲液,采用分离电压20 kV,温度25℃,检测波长214 nm,压力进样,0.5 psi×5 s,在11-12 min处获得峰值约12 mAU单一主峰,图形清晰,基线水平,从而构建了Waxy蛋白的CE鉴定体系,且籽粒Waxy蛋白提取物能直接用于对该亚基的检测;同时,利用黑麦品种对上述体系的验证结果表明,DuoFlow及CE体系适于对Waxy亚基的高效分离与通量检测。[结论]从奥地利栽培黑麦cDNA文库中克隆获得Waxy完整编码序列,构建了能特异分离黑麦籽粒Waxy蛋白的DuoFlow制备级纯化体系,并确立了黑麦籽粒Waxy亚基的毛细管快速鉴定体系。

  18. A "test of concept" comparison of aerodynamic and mechanical resuspension mechanisms for particles deposited on field rye grass ( Secale cercele).—Part 2. Threshold mechanical energies for resuspension particle fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass seed pod in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to measure resuspension from aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms compared to that from mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 8.1 μm. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following: Threshold mechanical energy input rates increased from 0.04 to 0.2 μJ s -1 for resuspension of spherical polystyrene latex particles from 2 to 8.1 μm diameter. Kinetic energy flux generated by mechanical impact of the wind-driven oscillating grass was found to be highly sensitive to slightly different placements and grass morphology. The kinetic energy input by impaction of the grass against a stationary cylinder is roughly proportional to the kinetic energy flux of the wind.

  19. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALS CERCELE). PART 2. THRESHOLD MECHANICAL ENERGIES FOR RESUSPENSION PARTICLE FLUXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass see...

  20. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  1. Intergeneric hybridization and C-banding patterns in Hordelymus (Triticeae, Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Lu, B.-R.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1994-01-01

    Crosses of Hordelymus europaeus (2n = 4x = 28) with four genera in the Triticeae were attempted. Adult hybrids were obtained in combinations with Hordeum bogdanii (2x), Hordeum depressum (4x), and Secale cereale (2x). The meiotic pairing was very low in the hybrids with H. bogdanii and Secale cer...

  2. Adresato problema verčiant: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Mažojo Princo vertimai į lietuvių kalbą | Problème de destinataire en traduction: traductions de Le Petit Prince de Antoine de Saint-Exupéry en lituanien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucija Černiuvienė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article traite le problème du destinataire dans le processus de la traduction littéraire. Est soulevée surtout la problématique du double destinataire, de celui qui est l’enfant et de celui qui est adulte. Les problèmes sont analysés en se basant sur le conte philosophique de Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Le Petit Prince en prenant en compte que cette oeuvre est destinée aux enfants ainsi qu’aux adultes. Après avoir fait une analyse des exemples tirés de deux traductions en lituanien, après les avoir comparées avec l’original il est à noter que le traducteur d’une des deux traductions a pris en compte les deux destinataires tandis que le deuxième traducteur a traduit plutôt en orientant son travail vers le lecteur adulte. La responsabilité de la traduction littéraire tombe sans doute sur le traducteur alors sa prise de décision doit être bien mesurée et motivée en ce qui concerne tout élément du sens à transmettre en langue cible.

  3. 76 FR 72081 - Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... durum L.), and triticale (Triticum aestivum L. x Secale cereal L.), a hybrid of wheat and rye. Karnal..., the field may be planted with a crop or left fallow. If the field is planted with a host crop,...

  4. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye (Secale cereale), among...

  5. Automated Reformulation of Graphical Model in Natural Language

    OpenAIRE

    Srogis, Andrius

    2013-01-01

    Grafinių modelių projektavimas yra plačiai naudojamas tiek mokslo, tiek verslo srytyse. Pasaulyje naudojama įvairių kalbų, skirtų tiek sistemų architektūrų, tiek verslo procesų projektavimui. Daugumai kalbų yra sukurta įvairių įrankių, leidžiančių jų naudotojams projektuoti įvairius procesus ar statines sistemas. Vienai labiausiai paplitusių kalbų (UML) trūksta metodikos ir įrankių, gebančių korektiškai perteikti natūralia kalba sistemų architektų aprašytus grafinius modelius asmenims,...

  6. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)

  7. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  8. "The Polishing Cloth": Student Writing Creates Writing Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah L.

    The concept of using good student writing to inspire more good student writing, of using a text to create the next year's text is a vital process that demonstrates DeKalb College's emphasis on individual student instruction and recognition. "The Polishing Cloth" is a collection of the best student essays from English composition,…

  9. Residential Property Composition of School Districts: Its Effect on Tax Rate and Per Pupil Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Virginia; And Others

    This study related tax rate and per pupil revenue to residential assessed valuation, percent residential of total assessed valuation, and selected socioeconomic independent variables for school districts in Cook, DeKalb, DuPage, Kane, and Lake counties in Illinois. Findings suggest that for homeowners and the students of these counties in 1976,…

  10. Collection Evaluation in a Georgia Elementary School: A Look at the Process and Resulting Change in Teachers' Perceptions of Its Quality and Usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcoxon, Wanda Odom

    2001-01-01

    Describes methods used to revitalize a media collection in a DeKalb County, Georgia elementary school. Explains collection development issues; collection evaluation, including curriculum mapping, collection mapping, and weeding; reorganization, made possible through weeding; results of recency analyses; and results of teacher surveys that…

  11. Examining the Effects of a National League for Nursing Core Competencies Workshop as an Intervention to Improve Nurse Faculty Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBever Wilson, Robin R.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complex challenges facing schools of nursing, a research study was implemented to introduce nurse faculty at one small rural northeastern Tennessee school of nursing to the NLN "Core Competencies for Nurse Educators". Utilizing Kalb's Nurse Faculty Self-Evaluation Tool as a pre- and post-intervention test, 30 nurse faculty…

  12. Localization of abelian gauge fields on thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A. [Universidad de Colima, Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Colima (Mexico); Corradini, Olindo [Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Ciudad Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias en Fisica y Matematicas, Tuxtla Gutierrez (Mexico); Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Modena (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we explore a mechanism for abelian gauge field localization on thick branes based on a five-dimensional Stueckelberg-like action. A normalizable zero mode is found through the identification of a suitable coupling function between the brane and the gauge field. The same mechanism is studied for the localization of the abelian Kalb-Ramond field. (orig.)

  13. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (conyza canadensis) control with dicamba in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread horseweed resistance to glyphosate has resulted in the use of dicamba as an alternative treatment. Horseweed populations in Cherokee and DeKalb counties in northern Alabama were not well controlled following glyphosate and dicamba treatments. This research evaluates horseweed populations ...

  14. On the importance of the normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    2000-01-01

    We repeat the known procedure of the derivation of the set of Proca equations. It is shown that it can be written in various forms. The importance of the normalization is point out for the problem of the correct description of spin-1 quantized fields. Finally, the discussion of the so-called Kalb-Ramond field is presented.

  15. Learning Outside the Box: How Mayan Pedagogy Informs a Community/University Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikidis, Kryssi

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author describes a project in which professors and preservice art educators from Northern Illinois University (NIU) collaborated with teens and members of the DeKalb Latino local community center to create a mural celebrating a traditional Aztec narrative. The mural project involved professors, university students, teenagers…

  16. Effects on selective serotonin antagonism on central neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression and cannibalism in laying hens can differ in intensity and degree due to many factors, including genetics. Behavioral analysis of DeKalb XL (DXL) and high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) strains revealed high and low aggressiveness, respectively. However, the exact genetic me...

  17. Risk of Status Epilepticus in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of status epilepticus (SE after the initial diagnosis of epilepsy was determined in a prospective community-based cohort study of 613 children at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY; Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT; and BIOS/NIU, DeKalb, IL.

  18. 76 FR 64102 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Columbia Kameny, Dr. Franklin E., House, 5020 Cathedral Ave., NW., Washington, 11000773 GEORGIA DeKalb... County Bushnell--Fisher House, 349 W. State St., Eagle, 11000777 ILLINOIS Cook County Creamery Package Manufacturing Company Building, 1245 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago, 11000778 Rozek, Theodore, House, 6337 N...

  19. Prancūzų kalbos konstrukcijų su veiksmažodžiais devoir ‘privalėti’, falloir ‘reikėti’ multifunkcionalumas: prancūzų–lietuvių kalbų tekstynu paremtas tyrimas | Multifunctionality of the verb devoir ‘must’ and falloir ‘need’ based constructions: a contrastive corpus-based study of French and Lithuanian | La multifonctionnalité des constructions françaises avec les verbes devoir et falloir : étude basée sur un corpus français-lituanien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Valiukienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the morphosyntactic features and functions of the constructions je dois dire (que ‘I must say (that’ and (il faut dire (que ‘it is necessary to say (that’ in French and their correspondences in Lithuanian. The study is corpus-based and the data have been retrieved from the bidirectional parallel corpus CTLFR-LT-FR. The thorough semantic functional analysis of the construction je dois dire (que ‘I must say (that’ in the CTLFR-LT shows that the verbs devoir ‘must’ and dire ‘say’ clearly express the meanings of necessity and saying. However, in initial position the construction with the complementizer que ‘that’ represents a lexical variant and may not be functionally transparent. Its functional indeterminacy may be clarified by its prosodic realizations. The conceptual meanings of the verbs devoir ‘must’ and dire ‘say’ in the construction je dois dire (que ‘I must say (that’ are bleached and the construction may function as a marker that initiates conversation with the addressee, expresses the author’s argumentation and links clauses or parts of discourse. In initial and medial position, it may hedge an utterance or modify a word or a phrase. Thus the construction je dois dire (que ‘I must say (that’ is not primary in the communicative structure of the sentence and functions as a marker of author stance. The construction (il faut dire (que ‘it is necessary to say (that’ is less frequent in the CTLFR-LT and displays minor structural variation. It shows traces of parentheticalization, namely deverbalization (omission of the formal subject il, omission of the complementizer que ‘that’, syntactic mobility in the sentence, semantic bleaching of the verbs falloir ‘need’ and dire ‘say’, alternation with mental verbs (Pusch 2007, interpersonal and intertextual functions. The structure (il faut dire + NP ‘it is necessary + NP’ clearly expresses the meaning of necessity to say. The Lithuanian constructions turiu pasakyti/pripažinti ‘I must say/admit’ and reikia pasakyti/pripažinti ‘it is necessary to say/admit’ in the CTLLT-FR are not statistically significant and functionally they do not differ from the equivalent constructions in French. The data in the CTLFR-LT-FR and the CCLL (Contemporary Corpus of the Lithuanian Language reveal that the constructions under study are not dominant either in French or Lithuanian but possible in authentic language use. Although the generalizations made above should be corroborated by more empirical data, the present study contributes to the research on parenthetical constructions in French and Lithuanian and can be supplemented by the analysis of the constructions in academic discourse.

  20. Identification of resistance to races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici with broad virulence in triticale (X Triticosecale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale), a hybrid between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale), is known to be an excellent source of resistance to wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. A collection of 567 triticale accessions originating from 21 countries was evaluated for ...

  1. 75 FR 68942 - Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in Arizona, California, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and triticale (Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale), a... planted with seed from a lot found to contain a bunted wheat kernel; A distinct definable area that... total of 5 years (the years need not be consecutive). After tilling, the field may be planted with...

  2. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the mai

  3. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was establish...

  4. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  5. Study of the influence of winter rye on soybean seedling and root rot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can enhance or suppress plant diseases, but little is known about the effect of cover crops on soybean diseases. In 2015, the effect of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop on soybean seedling and root rot was studied at two experimental sites, Boyd and ISUAG-USB, in Ames, IA. Both ...

  6. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  7. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  8. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N nut

  9. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  10. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  11. The effect of genes on A and B chromosomes of a number of Triticinae on meiotic behaviour in Triticum aestivum and its hybrids with related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained and hypotheses that have been put forward to integrate them, are summarized in this section.1. Studies of chromosome association in F 1 hybrids Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale with and without chromosome 5B and in the presence or in the absence o

  12. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the

  13. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  14. Bosonization and Duality in Arbitrary Dimensions New Results

    CERN Document Server

    Cantcheff, M B

    2003-01-01

    A generic massive Thirring Model in three space-time dimensions exhibits a correspondence with a topologically massive bosonized gauge action associated to a self-duality constraint, and we write down a general expression to this relationship. We also generalize this structure to $d$ dimensions by adopting a doublet approach introduced recently. In particular, a non-conventional formulation of the bosonization technique in higher dimensions (in the spirit of $d=3$), is proposed and, as an application, we show how fermionic (Thirring-like) representations for especially interesting bosonic topologically massive models in four dimensions (such as Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond and Born-Infeld-Kalb- Ramond) may be built up.

  15. Spinning branes in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilic, Milovan; 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.104002

    2010-01-01

    We use the conservation law of the stress-energy and spin tensors to study the motion of massive brane-like objects in Riemann-Cartan geometry. The world-sheet equations and boundary conditions are obtained in a manifestly covariant form. In the particle case, the resultant world-line equations turn out to exhibit a novel spin-curvature coupling. In particular, the spin of a zero-size particle does not couple to the background curvature. In the string case, the world-sheet dynamics is studied for some special choices of spin and torsion. As a result, the known coupling to the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric external field is obtained. Geometrically, the Kalb-Ramond field has been recognized as a part of the torsion itself, rather than the torsion potential.

  16. Spinning branes in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan; Vojinović, Marko

    2008-11-01

    We use the conservation law of the stress-energy and spin tensors to study the motion of massive branelike objects in Riemann-Cartan geometry. The world-sheet equations and boundary conditions are obtained in a manifestly covariant form. In the particle case, the resultant worldline equations turn out to exhibit a novel spin-curvature coupling. In particular, the spin of a zero-size particle does not couple to the background curvature. In the string case, the world-sheet dynamics is studied for some special choices of spin and torsion. As a result, the known coupling to the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric external field is obtained. Geometrically, the Kalb-Ramond field has been recognized as a part of the torsion itself, rather than the torsion potential.

  17. Initial consonant clusters in Prussian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marytė Tankevičiūtė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PRŪSŲ KALBOS PRADINIŲ PRIEBALSIŲ JUNGINIAIReziumėPrūsų ir lietuvių pradinių priebalsių junginių analizė parodė, kad abiejų kalbų jungi­nių sistemos panašios. Jos skiriasi tik junginiais su /š/ ir /ž/, būdingais lietuvių kalbai, ir /tl/, randamu prūsiškuose toponimuose. Abiejų kalbų struktūriniai ryšiai yra STR tipo, t. y. R niekada nebūna prieš T ir S, o T — prieš S (S — pučiamasis, T — sprogstamasis, R — sklandusis.

  18. Penrose process in a charged axion-dilaton coupled black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Chandrima [University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2016-04-15

    Using the Newman-Janis method to construct the axion-dilaton coupled charged rotating black holes, we show that the energy extraction from such black holes via the Penrose process takes place from the axion/Kalb-Ramond field energy responsible for rendering the angular momentum to the black hole. Determining the explicit form for the Kalb-Ramond field strength, which is argued to be equivalent to spacetime torsion, we demonstrate that at the end of the energy extraction process, the spacetime becomes torsion free with a spherically symmetric non-rotating black hole remnant. In this context, applications to physical phenomena, such as the emission of neutral particles in astrophysical jets, are also discussed. It is seen that the infalling matter gains energy from the rotation of the black hole, or equivalently from the axion field, and that it is ejected as a highly collimated astrophysical jet. (orig.)

  19. Bestimmung von Immunglobulin G und M im Serum neugeborener Kälber während der ersten zehn Lebenstage unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Fütterungsregimes

    OpenAIRE

    Lack, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Die Überprüfung des Einflusses unterschiedlicher Fütterungsregime auf die Entwicklung der Immunglobulinspiegel beim bovinen Neonaten war bereits Gegenstand zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Bislang fehlte allerdings eine vergleichende Untersuchung, welche auf Basis identischer Haltungsbedingungen alle in praxi durchführbaren Fütterungsregime in Hinblick auf die optimale Immunglobulinversorgung des neugeborenen Kalbes zum Gegenstand hatte. Ziel dieser Arbeit war daher die g...

  20. A Clinically Useful Tool to Determine an Effective Snellen Fraction: Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A Clinically Useful Tool to Determine an Effective Snellen Fraction: Details by William A. Monaco, Joseph M. Heimerl, and Joel T. Kalb...ARL-TR-4756 March 2009 A Clinically Useful Tool to Determine an Effective Snellen Fraction: Details William A. Monaco, Joseph M...Effective Snellen Fraction: Details 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William A. Monaco, Joseph M

  1. Model to localize gauge and tensor fields on thick branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; Hott, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    It is shown that the introduction of a suitable function in the higher-dimensional gauge field action may be used in order to achieve gauge bosons localization on a thick brane. The model is constructed upon analogies to the effective coupling of neutral scalar field to electromagnetic field and to the Friedberg-Lee model for hadrons. After that we move forward studying the localization of the Kalb-Ramond field via this procedure.

  2. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren A; Ceschi G; Valentiner DP; Dethier V; Philippot P

    2013-01-01

    Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item ...

  3. New Ionic Liquids from Natural Products for Environmentally Benign Aircraft Deicing and Anti-Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    effective concentration to immobilize 50% microorganism GRAS ‘generally regarded as safe’, Food & Drug Administration ILs ionic liquids J·mol-1·K...mixture of propylene glycol/water just before takeoff. Although propylene glycol is ‘generally regarded as safe’ (GRAS) by the US Food & Drug ...Commun. 2004, 630-631. St. Kalb, R.; Kotschan, M. J. Ionic liquids based on dibutylphosphate; chiral and “natural” ionic liquids. proionic

  4. N=2-Maxwell-Chern-Simons Model with Anomalous Magnetic Moment Coupling via Dimensional Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, H R; Helayël-Neto, José A; Mansur, L R; Nogueira, A L M A

    1999-01-01

    An N=1--supersymmetric version of the Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond model with non-minimal coupling to matter is built up both in terms of superfields and in a component-field formalism. By adopting a dimensional reduction procedure, the N=2--D=3 counterpart of the model comes out, with two main features: a genuine (diagonal) Chern-Simons term and an anomalous magnetic moment coupling between matter and the gauge potential.

  5. Stabilization of Monodomain Polarization in Ultrathin PbTiO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Stephenson,1 Carol Thompson,3 D. M. Kim,4 K. J. Choi,4 C. B. Eom,4 I. Grinberg,2 and A. M. Rappe2 1Materials Science Division, Argonne National...Pennsylvania 19104, USA 3Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering...surface. The polarization direction is predicted to depend on the chemi- cal nature of the adsorbate. The conducting substrates were epitaxial SrRuO3

  6. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-Jun

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser-Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb-Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  7. Quantization of Interacting Non-Relativistic Open Strings using Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Fuenmayor, E; Leal, L; Leal, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    Non-relativistic charged open strings coupled with Abelian gauge fields are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation. The model comprises open-strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond field in four dimensions. It is shown that a consistent geometric-representation can be built using a scheme of ``surfaces and lines of Faraday'', provided that the coupling constant (the ``charge'' of the string) is quantized.

  8. Proceedings of the Fiber Optics in the Nuclear Environment Symposium 25-27 March 1980. Volume II. Radiation Physics,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    Alcaraz, Ernest (JAYCOR) Davis, William ( Sperry Univac) Alfonte, William (GE -TEMPO) Dawson, Larry (SLA) Allas, Richard (NRL) DeKalb, Richard (3MD...James (LMSC) Rogers , Samuel (RDA) Knowles, C.P. (DNA) Rosado, John (IIDL) Kochanski, R. (NOSC) Sandoval, Liberato (EG4*G) Kronenberg, Stanley (ET&iDL...NS/410 P. Lyons ATM: C. Rogers ATTN: C. MacDonald Lovelace iomed. 4 Environ. Rsc. Inst., Inc. ATIN: W. Grahem, Jr. AIIM: R. Fletcher Rockwell

  9. The use of legume cover crops in no-tillage broccoli and cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Seward, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 to compare conventional tillage (CT) versus no-tillage (NT) production of broccoli and cabbage. The tillage treatments were applied in combination with four rates of applied nitrogen fertilizer and three cover crops: hairy vetch (Vigia villosa Roth), Austrian winter pea (Fisum arvenu L.), and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.). Transplants of 'Premium Crop' broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) and 'Market Prize'...

  10. Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (similar to 8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny informatio...

  11. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas.In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas...

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of Aegilops chromosomes, potentially usable in triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Wiśniewska, H; Apolinarska, B

    2013-05-01

    Chromosome identification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in cytogenetic research. It is a diagnostic tool helpful in chromosome identification. It can also be used to characterize alien introgressions, when exercised in a combination with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). This work aims to find chromosome identification of Aegilops species and Aegilops × Secale amphiploids, which can be used in cereal breeding as a source of favourable agronomic traits. Four diploid and two tetraploid Aegilops species and three Aegilops × Secale hybrids were analysed using FISH with pSc119.2, pAs1, 5S rDNA and 25S rDNA clones to differentiate the U-, M-, S(sh)- and D-subgenome chromosomes of Aegilops genus. Additionally, GISH for chromosome categorization was carried out. Differences in the hybridization patterns allowed to identify all U-, M-, S(sh)- and D-subgenome chromosomes. Some differences in localization of the rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1 sequences between analogue subgenomes in diploid and tetraploid species and Aegilops × Secale hybrids were detected. The hybridization pattern of the M and S genome was more variable than that of the U and D genome. An importance of the cytogenetic markers in plant breeding and their possible role in chromosome structure, function and evolution is discussed.

  13. Discrete canonical analysis of three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Montiel, J.; E. Rosales-Quintero, J.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, correspond to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  14. Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berra-Montiel, J

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  15. Disparities in hospital utilization in an urban county: use of local consumer marketing data for priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, P L; Dignam, T A; Caldwell, M B; Wiesner, P J

    2000-11-01

    National data sets are often insufficient for priority setting by local public health systems and the communities they serve. We used marketing data to conduct an ecological analysis of hospital discharge rates in DeKalb County, Georgia, during 1996. Persons living in poorer areas had significantly higher discharge rates for the following conditions: hypertensive disease, blood-related conditions, pneumonia/influenza, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Local marketing data helped identify conditions associated with higher hospital utilization in poorer areas of this urban county. This identification of priority issues informs plans for behavior modification, access to primary care and a healthy environment.

  16. Does a Randall-Sundrum scenario create the illusion of a torsion-free universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyaya, B; Sen-Gupta, S; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; Gupta, Soumitra Sen

    2002-01-01

    We consider spacetime with torsion in a Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario where torsion, identified with the rank-2 Kalb-Ramond field, exists in the bulk together with gravity. While the interactions of both graviton and torsion in the bulk are controlled by the Planck mass, an additional exponential suppression comes for the torsion zero-mode on the visible brane. This may serve as a natural explanation of why the effect of torsion is so much weaker than that of curvature on the brane. The massive torsion modes, on the other hand, are correlated with the corresponding gravitonic modes and may be detectable in TeV-scale experiments.

  17. Geometric Representation of Interacting Non-Relativistic Open Strings using Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Fuenmayor, E; Leal, L

    2013-01-01

    Non-relativistic charged open strings coupled with Abelian gauge fields are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation. The model consists of open-strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond field in four dimensions. The geometric representation proposed uses lines and surfaces that can be interpreted as an extension of the picture of Faraday's lines of classical electromagnetism. This representation results to be consistent, provided the coupling constant (the "charge" of the string) is quantized. The Schr\\"odinger equation in this representation is also presented.

  18. Quasi-quantum groups from strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jureit, J -H

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by string theory on the orbifold ${\\cal M}/G$ in presence of a Kalb-Ramond field strength $H$, we define the operators that lift the group action to the twisted sectors. These operators turn out to generate the quasi-quantum group $D_{\\omega}[G]$, introduced in the context of conformal field theory by R. Dijkgraaf, V. Pasquier and P. Roche, with $\\omega$ a 3-cocycle determined by a series of cohomological equations in a tricomplex combining de Rham, \\u{C}ech and group cohomologies. We further illustrate some properties of the quasi-quantum group from a string theoretical point of view.

  19. Spherically symmetric solution in a space-time with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Filemon; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Moreno, Claudia; Yakhno, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    By using the analysis group method, we obtain a new exact evolving and spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein-Cartan equations of motion, corresponding to a space-time threaded with a three-form Kalb-Ramond field strength. The solution describes in its more generic form, a space-time which scalar curvature vanishes for large distances and for large time. In static conditions, it reduces to a classical wormhole solution already reported in literature. In the process we have found evidence towards the construction of more new solutions.

  20. International Symposium on Organosilicon Chemistry (8th) Held in St. Louis Missouri on 7-12 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-13

    22 P.O. Box 101 69191 Saint-Fons Cedex, France Fushun, Sichuan People’s Republic of China Jorge Cervantes Facultad de Quimica Yung-Lin Chen...Chemistry Alessandro Degl’Innocenti Northern Illinois University Centro C.N.R. Composti Eterociclici DeKalb, Illinois 60115 Dipartimento di Chimica Organica ...8217 ’qt’ ff" ’ ’ ’’or Alfredo Ricci James Rozell Dipartimento de Chimica Organica Department of Chemistry University of Florence University of Texas Via

  1. Sen. John C. Stennis celebrates a successful Space Shuttle Main Engine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Sen. John C. Stennis dances a jig on top of the Test Control Center at Stennis Space Center following the successful test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine in 1978. A staunch supporter of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the senior senator from DeKalb, Miss., supported the establishment of the space center in Hancock County and spoke personally with local residents who would relocate their homes to accommodate Mississippi's entry into the space age. Stennis Space Center was named for Sen. Stennis by Executive Order of President Ronald Reagan on May 20, 1988.

  2. 2008 HI STAR Projects: Comets, Asteroids and Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Mary Ann; Garland, C.; Nassir, M.; Moskovitz, N.; Johnson, J.; Pittichova, J.; Meech, K. J.

    2008-09-01

    The Hawaii Student/Teacher Astronomy Research (HI STAR) residential summer program strives to equip middle and high school students with the necessary research skills and background to conduct original research projects. Students are recruited through the mini-workshops conducted on the islands of Molokai, Maui, Kauai and Oahu. For one week in June, the students with a few teachers thrive on morning physics/astronomy lectures and afternoon image processing and photometry/light curve activities. They work in groups with astronomer mentors on comet, asteroid, galaxy, nebulae, variable star and extrasolar planet projects using image data sets. They also learn to do remote observing with 2 meter Faulkes Telescope on Haleakala Maui and 16 inch DeKalb Observatory Telescope in Auburn, Indiana. The asteroid, comet and extrasolar planet projects will be highlighted with slides taken from the students’ presentations on what they had accomplished. We will also discuss how these projects are being expanded upon for fall, 2008, to be ready for 2009 Science Fair entry. This network of roles and responsibilities of our astronomer mentors, teacher advisers and student participants has been developing to ensure exemplary astronomy research projects. Funding and support for this program has come from NASA IDEAS grant, NASA Astrobiology Institute, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, DeKalb Observatory, and a private donor.

  3. PENGARUH STRUKTUR AKTIVA, PERPUTARAN MODAL DAN PENDANAAN TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS PERUSAHAAN FARMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Rahmiyatun

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kebijakan modal kerja yang terdiri dari struktur aktiva, perputaran modal kerja dan pendanaan modal kerja terhadap profitabilitas pada perusahaan farmasi yang tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan farmasi yang tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2005 sampai dengan 2015 yang berjumlah 10 perusahaan. Sedangkan sampel penelitian ini adalah dua perusahaan yaitu PT. Kimia Farma yang mewakili perusahaan milik BUMN dan PT.Kalbe Farma yang mewakili perusahaan swasta. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa: (1 struktur aktiva berpengaruh positif dan sangat signifikan terhadap profitabilitas; (2 pendanaan modal kerja tidak berpengaruh terhadap profitabilitas, dan (3 struktur aktiva dan pendanaan modal kerja secara simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap profitabilitas.Implikasinya adalah bahwa perusahaan yang tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia khususnya PT. Kimia Farma dan PT. Kalbe Farma harus meningkatkan secara optimal struktur aktiva karena berpengaruh sangat signifikan terhadap profitabilitas. Peningkatan struktur aktiva akan berdampak baik terhadap kinerja perusahaan-perusahaan tersebut. Hal ini sangat relevan mengingat masih minimnya penelitian di bidang ini.   Kata kunci: Perputaran Modal Kerja, Pendanaan Modal Kerja Dan Profitabilitas.

  4. Fermionization in an Arbitrary Number of Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Borstnik, N S Mankoc

    2016-01-01

    One purpose of this proceedings-contribution is to show that at least for free massless particles it is possible to construct an explicit boson theory which is exactly equivalent in terms of momenta and energy to a fermion theory. The fermions come as $2^{d/2-1}$ families and the to this whole system of fermions corresponding bosons come as a whole series of the Kalb-Ramond fields, one set of components for each number of indexes on the tensor fields. Since Kalb-Ramond fields naturally (only) couple to the extended objects or branes, we suspect that inclusion of interaction into such for a bosonization prepared system - except for the lowest dimensions - without including branes or something like that is not likely to be possible. The need for the families is easily seen just by using the theorem long ago put forward by Aratyn and one of us (H.B.F.N.), which says that to have the statistical mechanics of the fermion system and the boson system to match one needs to have the number of the field components in t...

  5. Asymptotic freedom in a string model of high temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Awada, M

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have shown that a phase transition occurs in the leading and subleading approximation of the large N limit in rigid strings coupled to long range Kalb-Ramond interactions. The disordered phase is essentially the Nambu-Goto-Polyakov string theory while the ordered phase is a new theory. In this letter we compute the free energy per unit length of the interacting rigid string at finite temperature. We show that the mass of the winding states solves that of QCD strings in the limit of high temperature. We obtain a precise identification of the QCD coupling constant and those of the interacting rigid string. The relation we obtain is Ng_{QCD}^2 = ({8\\pi^2 (D-2)\\over 9})^2{1\\over 3\\kappa} where \\kappa = {D t \\alpha\\over \\pi \\mu_{c}} is the ratio of the extrinsic curvature coupling constant t, the Kalb-Ramond coupling constant \\alpha, and the critical string tension \\mu_{c}. The running beta function of \\kappa reproduces correctly the asymptotic behaviour of QCD.

  6. Utilização do triticale (Triticale hesaploide) na alimentação de suínos

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Flordivina; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Furlan, Antônio Claudio; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Moreira, Ivan; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Fraiha, Marcos; Universidade Estadual de Maringá

    1996-01-01

    Esta revisão de literatura descreve a composição química e os resultados de desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com triticale (Triticale hexaploide); uma cultura de grão relativamente nova, produzida pelo cruzamento do trigo (Tríticum sp.) com o centeio (Secale sp.).     This literature review describe the chemical composition and results of growing and finishing swine performance fed triticale (Triticale hexaploide), a grain culture relatively new, produced by ...

  7. Nematode succession and microfauna-microorganism interactions during root residue decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Slavka; Christensen, Søren; Andersen, Karen Stevnbak

    2005-01-01

    The quality of plant material affects the vigor of the decomposition process and composition of the decomposer biota. Root residues from hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), rye (Secale cereale L.) and vetch+rye, packed in litterbags were placed in pots of soil at 15 C and the content of the bags...... in rye. At week 12 no species dominated the nematode assemblages that were similar between the resources. The differences between nematode assemblages among plant resources at 2 week were similar to the results of a field study sampled after 6 weeks with the same soil and plant resources. This lends...

  8. The cases of non-equivalence between English and Lithuanian: a corpus based solution. Ekvivalentiškumo nebuvimo problemos ir jų sprendimai anglų ir lietuvių kalbose pasitelkiant tekstynų tyrimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Cvilikaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Šiame straipsnyje pristatomas leksinių ertmių reiškinys bei jo potipis – morfologinės ertmės. Morfologinių ertmių, kurios atsiranda dėl tam tikrų dviejų kalbų derivacijos potencialų skirtumų (šiame straipsnyje – neigiamos reikšmės perteikimas priešdėlių pagalba anglų ir lietuvių kalbose, analizė parodė, kaip tokia morfologinio pobūdžio sąvokų leksikalizacijos stoka įtakoja vertimą, t. y. domėtasi, kaip morfologinės ertmės perteikiamos vertimo kalboje. Straipsnyje pirmiausia aptariami vertimo atvejai dvikalbiame anglų–lietuvių kalbų žodyne. Pastebėta, kad tokiais atvejais dažniausiai vartojami vertimo metodai yra vertimas sinonimų grupe bei aprašomasis vertimas. Aptariamos su tokiu reikšmės perteikimu susijusios problemos. Žodynų vertimai palyginti su vertimais tekstuose, kurie gauti pasitelkus Lygiagretųjį anglų – lietuvių kalbų tekstyną. Tokių dviejų šaltinių vertimų palyginimas užbaigiamas diskusija apie išplėstinio vertimo vieneto sąvoką ir tekstynų medžiagos panaudojimą vertime bei šiuolaikinėje leksikografijoje. ----- Machine translation systems, machine-readable dictionaries or other computer-oriented electronic lexical resources present a challenging task in the case of the Lithuanian language. Many of them are related to the problem of non-equivalence resulting from cultural and systemic differences and thus existing on various levels of a language – lexical, morphological and syntactic. This paper focuses on instances of non-equivalence between Lithuanian and English on the morphologicallevel. More specifically, the resolution of non-equivalence problems caused by morphological gaps between English and Lithuanian is investigated. Morphological gaps represent a type of lexicalgaps, which are understood as lack of direct lexicalisation for a certain concept.

  9. Phenology of flowering and pollen release of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin and Gudowo (Western Pomerania and the risk of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kruczek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae in Szczecin (2009 and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland (2009–2010, and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and its onset was observed later; the maximum values of daily pollen deposition were lower. Pollen grains of most of the taxa studied appeared in the atmosphere of the city earlier than in the rural area, but in the rural area significantly higher values of daily deposition were recorded. The effect of weather conditions on pollen fall in Szczecin in 2009 was analysed. Statistically significant positive correlations with pollen deposition were found only with maximum, minimum, and mean air temperature, dew point and maximum wind speed, while a negative correlation was found with precipitation and – only for Rumex pollen grains – with air humidity and pressure.

  10. Variation of the Nuclear, Subnuclear and Chromosomal Flavanol Deposition in Hemlock and Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Polster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclei of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis and Tsuga canadensis var. nana wereinvestigated for the presence of flavanols. Histochemical staining with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde proved to be a highly valuable method yielding a brightblue flavanol coloration for nuclei. There was a significant variation in flavanol deposition(1 among nuclei, (2 at the subnuclear level and also (3 along the chromosomes duringmitosis. The presence of flavanols in nucleoli could not be established probably becausethey were too small, measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. In contrast to Tsuga, the cellsand nuclei of rootlets from rye (Secale cereale were totally devoid of natural flavanols.However, externally added flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, were bound to the ryenuclei, while the rather large nucleoli failed to associate with the flavanols. The strong sinkactivity of nucleoplasm and chromosomes for flavanols in Tsuga and Secale indicates aprocess which is apparently widespread even in distantly related plant species. Variationsin chromatin-associated flavanols could to some extent be induced byacetylation/deacetylation of histones, as confirmed in the present study by means of UV-VIS spectroscopic titrations of histone sulphate and chemically acetylated histone sulphate.

  11. Threat of allergenic airborne grass pollen in Szczecin, NW Poland: the dynamics of pollen seasons, effect of meteorological variables and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of Poaceae pollen season, in particularly that of the Secale genus, in Szczecin (western Poland) 2004-2008 was analysed to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables, air pollution and the pollen count of the taxa studied. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 2.5, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 97.5, 99% of annual total), and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, the temporary differences in the dynamics of the seasons were most evident for Secale in 2005 and 2006 with the longest main pollen season (90% total pollen). The pollen season of Poaceae started the earliest in 2007, when thermal conditions were the most favourable. Correlation analysis with meteorological factors demonstrated that the relative humidity, mean and maximum air temperature, and rainfall were the factors influencing the average daily pollen concentrations in the atmosphere; also, the presence of air pollutants such as ozone, PM(10) and SO(2) was statistically related to the pollen count in the air. However, multiple regression models explained little part of the total variance. Atmospheric pollution induces aggravation of symptoms of grass pollen allergy.

  12. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of -gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guang-Rong Li; Tao Lang; En-Nian Yang; Cheng Liu; Zu-Jun Yang

    2014-12-01

    Although the unique properties of wheat -gliadin gene family are well characterized, little is known about the evolution and genomic divergence of -gliadin gene family within the Triticeae. We isolated a total of 203 -gliadin gene sequences from 11 representative diploid and polyploid Triticeae species, and found 108 sequences putatively functional. Our results indicate that -gliadin genes may have possibly originated from wild Secale species, where the sequences contain the shortest repetitive domains and display minimum variation. A miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion is reported for the first time in -gliadin gene sequence of Thinopyrum intermedium in this study, indicating that the transposable element might have contributed to the diversification of -gliadin genes family among Triticeae genomes. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the -gliadin gene sequences of Dasypyrum, Australopyrum, Lophopyrum, Eremopyrum and Pseudoroengeria species have amplified several times. A search for four typical toxic epitopes for celiac disease within the Triticeae -gliadin gene sequences showed that the -gliadins of wild Secale, Australopyrum and Agropyron genomes lack all four epitopes, while other Triticeae species have accumulated these epitopes, suggesting that the evolution of these toxic epitopes sequences occurred during the course of speciation, domestication or polyploidization of Triticeae.

  13. Fractional-wrapped branes with rotation, linear motion and background fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Elham; Kamani, Davoud

    2017-09-01

    We obtain two boundary states corresponding to the two folds of a fractional-wrapped Dp-brane, i.e. the twisted version under the orbifold C2 /Z2 and the untwisted version. The brane has rotation and linear motion, in the presence of the following background fields: the Kalb-Ramond tensor, a U (1) internal gauge potential and a tachyon field. The rotation and linear motion are inside the volume of the brane. The brane lives in the d-dimensional spacetime, with the orbifold-toroidal structure Tn ×R 1 , d - n - 5 ×C2 /Z2 in the twisted sector. Using these boundary states we calculate the interaction amplitude of two parallel fractional Dp-branes with the foregoing setup. Various properties of this amplitude such as the long-range behavior will be analyzed.

  14. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  15. Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovic, Ljubica [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-12-15

    We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids....... There was a weak significant reduction by 30% on the reproduction of F. fimetaria fed Bt corn in Petri dishes for 21 days. Likewise there was a weak significant reduction by 40% of the reproduction of H. aculeifer by Bt corn in amounts corresponding to 20 g plant material kg-1 soil in the two species soil......-litter microcosm systems. There were no effects of Bt corn materials on the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus in the single species soil-litter microcosms. No effects of Bt corn materials on mortality of all the 4 species were observed in all treatments. The tendency of effects of the Bt corn...

  17. Diphoton signal via Chern-Simons interaction in a warped geometry scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Nabarun; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2017-01-01

    The Kalb-Ramond field, identifiable with bulk torsion in a five-dimensional Randall Sundrum (RS) scenario, has Chern-Simons interactions with gauge bosons, from the requirement of gauge anomaly cancellation. Its lowest Kaluza Klein (KK) mode on the visible 3-brane can be identified with a spin-0 C P -odd field, namely, the axion. By virtue of the warped geometry and Chern-Simons couplings, this axion has unsuppressed interactions with gauge bosons in contrast to ultra-suppressed interactions with fermions. The ensuing dynamics can lead to a peak in the diphoton spectrum, which could be observed at the LHC, subject to the prominence of the signal. Moreover, the results can be numerically justified when the warp factor is precisely in the range required for stabilization of the electroweak scale.

  18. Double Field Theory Inspired Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Houwen

    2014-01-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We find two sets of solutions in double field theory cosmology, respecting or violating the strong (weak) constraint. Both sets of solutions naturally contain the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. This novel feature opens a window for possible resolution of the cosmic amnesia. We also demonstrate that the scale factor duality in the standard string cosmology is nothing but the T-duality in double field theory. The scale dual dilatons in the standard string cosmology is simply the usual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\phi$ and dual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\tilde\\phi$ in double field theory. Furthermore, we identify the "sh...

  19. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  20. Some comments on quantum magnetic monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@ig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we intend to present some path-integral studies in the problem of confinement in the presence of fermionic and scalar magnetic monopole fields through: a Wilson loop path-integral evaluation associated to an effective second-quantized electromagnetic field generated by chiral abelian point-like monopole magnetic field current at its large mass London asymptotic limit; a path-integral bosonization analysis of quarks fields interacting with Kalb-Ramond fields considered as an effective disorder field theory of a Q.C.D. vacuum of heavier monopoles; improvements on the Wilson loops evaluations in the well-known ADHM Antonov-Ebert model for Cooper pairs of point-like fermionic magnetic monopoles. (author)

  1. Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidović, Ljubica

    2016-12-01

    We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual.

  2. Vertimo poetika, etika ir politika: George'o R. R. Martino romano A Game of Thrones vertimo į lietuvių ir prancūzų kalbas analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Černiuvienė, Liucija

    2015-01-01

    Pirmosios vertimo mokyklos Europoje pradėjo kurtis XX amžiaus pradžioje, o Lietuvos vertimo mokykla pradėta kurti tik po 1990 metų, Lietuvai atgavus nepriklausomybę, nors vertimo veikla nutrūkusi nebuvo ir sovietmečiu. Pagrindinis šio straipsnio tikslas yra išanalizuoti George‘o R. R. Martino romanų ciklo A Song of Ice and Fire (Ledo ir ugnies giesmė) pirmosios knygos A Game of Thrones (Sostų žaidimas) vertimus į prancūzų ir lietuvių kalbą remiantis vertimo poetikos, etikos ir ...

  3. CPT-Violating Leptogenesis induced by Gravitational Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2012-01-01

    We explore leptogenesis induced by the propagation of neutrinos in gravitational backgrounds that may occur in string theory. The first background is due to linear dilatons and the associated Kalb-Ramond field (axion) in four non-compact space-time dimensions of the string, and can be described within the framework of local effective lagrangians. The axion is linear in the time coordinate of the Einstein frame and gives rise to a constant torsion which couples to the fermion spin through a gravitational covariant derivative. This leads to different energy-momentum dispersion relations for fermions and anti-fermions and hence leptogenesis. The next two backgrounds go beyond the local effective lagrangian framework. One is a stochastic (Lorentz Violating) Finsler metric which again leads to different dispersion relations between fermions and antifermions. The third background of primary interest is the one due to populations of stochastically fluctuating point-like space-time defects that can be encountered in ...

  4. The Doublet Extension of Tensor Gauge Potentials and a Reassessment of the Non-Abelian Topological Mass Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Cantcheff, M Botta

    2011-01-01

    A well-defined local gauge structure for non-Abelian two-form gauge fields was introduced some years ago. This was achieved by introducing doublet group representations and doublet-assembled connections. We provide a summarized version of this formalism, in order to recall its features and applications. We also build up doublet-extended gauge-invariant actions for bosonic and fermionic matter, and discuss the appearance of novel topological quantities in these doublet-type gauge models. A partner action for higher spin fields appears in the doublet version of the fermionic matter sector. As an application of the formalism, a Chern-Simons and an Yang-Mills action in four dimensions may both be rigorously defined. We carry out this task and show that, in this doublet framework, their combination constitutes a consistent (power-counting renormalizable and unitary) non-Abelian generalization of the Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond theory with topological mass.

  5. Verslo partnerystės vystymas vidaus marketingo pagrindu

    OpenAIRE

    Daugėlaitė, Ingrida

    2014-01-01

    Vidaus marketingas yra traktuojamas kaip pagrindinis ir lemiamas veiksnys, turintis įtakos išorinio marketingo sėkmei, nes darbuotojų ir vidaus aplinkos dėka įmonės gali labiau atitikti vartotojų ir esamų ar būsimų partnerių lūkesčius. Tokiu atveju, galima kalbėti apie verslo partnerystės vykdymą ir vystymą pasitelkiant vidaus marketingo ir ryšių marketingo susietumą bei sėkmingų ir efektyvių darbuotojų motyvavimo, atrankos, skatinimo diegimu ir planavimu organizacijose. Visų pirma partneryst...

  6. Diphoton excess via Chern-Simons interaction in a warped geometry scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Nabarun; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2016-01-01

    We offer an explanation of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton peak at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in terms of an axion related to the 5-dimensional Kalb-Ramond (KR) field in a Randall-Sundrum warped geometry scenario. The KR field, identifiable with bulk torsion, has Chern-Simons interactions with gauge boson pairs. These in turn yield unsuppressed coupling of the torsion to gluon as well as photon pairs in (3+1) dimensions, while the warped geometry enforces ultra-suppressed interaction with fermion pairs . We show that the observed results can be numerically justified when the warp factor is precisely in the range required for stabilisation of the electroweak scale.

  7. Interaction of moving branes with background massless and tachyon fields in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Z., E-mail: z.rezaei@aut.ac.ir; Kamani, D., E-mail: kamani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Using the boundary state formalism, we study a moving Dp-brane in a partially compact space-time in the presence of background fields: the Kalb-Ramond field B{sub {mu}{nu}}, a U(1) gauge field A{sub {alpha}}, and the tachyon field. The boundary state enables us to obtain the interaction amplitude of two branes with the above back-ground fields. The branes are parallel or perpendicular to each other. Because of the presence of background fields, compactification of some space-time directions, motion of the branes, and the arbitrariness of the dimensions of the branes, the system is rather general. Due to the tachyon fields and velocities of the branes, the behavior of the interaction amplitude reveals obvious differences from the conventional behavior.

  8. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  9. Open and Closed String Vertices for branes with magnetic field and T-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Pesando, I

    2009-01-01

    We discuss carefully the vertices which describe the dipole open strings and closed strings on a D-brane with magnetic flux on a torus. Translation invariance along closed cycles forces surprisingly closed string vertices written in open string formalism to acquire Chan-Paton like matrices. Moreover the one loop amplitudes have a single trace for the part of gauge group with the magnetic flux. These peculiarities are also required by consistency of the action of T-duality in the open string sector. In this way we can show to all orders in perturbation theory the equivalence of the T-dual open string theories, gravitational interactions included. We provide also a new and direct derivation of the bosonic boundary state in presence of constant magnetic and Kalb-Ramond background based on Sciuto-Della Selva-Saito vertex formalism.

  10. Open and closed string vertices for branes with magnetic field and T-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesando, Igor

    2010-02-01

    We discuss carefully the vertices which describe the dipole open strings and closed strings on a D-brane with magnetic flux on a torus. Translation invariance along closed cycles forces surprisingly closed string vertices written in open string formalism to acquire Chan-Paton like matrices. Moreover the one loop amplitudes have a single trace for the part of gauge group with the magnetic flux. These peculiarities are also required by consistency of the action of T-duality in the open string sector. In this way we can show to all orders in perturbation theory the equivalence of the T-dual open string theories, gravitational interactions included. We provide also a new and direct derivation of the bosonic boundary state in presence of constant magnetic and Kalb-Ramond background based on Sciuto-Della Selva-Saito vertex formalism.

  11. Quasi-quantum groups from strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jureit, J-H; Krajewski, T [Centre de Physique Theorique, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France)], E-mail: jureit@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: krajew@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2008-02-01

    Motivated by string theory on the orbifold M/G in presence of a Kalb-Ramond field strength H, we define the operators that lift the group action to the twisted sectors. These operators turn out to generate the quasi-quantum group D{sub {omega}}[G], introduced in the context of conformal field theory by R. Dijkgraaf, V. Pasquier and P. Roche, with {omega} a 3-cocycle determined by a series of cohomological equations in a tricomplex combining de Rham, Cech and group cohomologies. We further illustrate some properties of the quasi-quantum group from a string theoretical point of view. This work is based on [2], from which a full-fledged treatment may be extracted.

  12. Winter’s law and etymologies, with special reference to Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available WINTERIO DĖSNIS IR ETIMOLOGIJOS, YPAČ ATSIŽVELGIANT Į LIETUVIŲ KALBĄ Santrauka Straipsnyje, palaikančiame Winterio dėsnio svarbą baltų ir slavų kalbų etimologijoms, aptariama grupelė lietuvių kalbos comparanda, aptiktų Mallory’o ir Adamso veikale Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, ir pateikiama alternatyvių etimologijų, paremtų šio dėsnio taikymu. Be to, pabrėžiamas produktyvios baltų darybinės apofonijos vaidmuo aiškinant akivaizdžias Winterio dėsnio išimtis, tokias kaip lie. ligà.

  13. Pseudoscalar Fields in Torsionful Geometries of the Early Universe, the Baryon Asymmetry and Majorana Neutrino Mass Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    We discuss here a specific field-theory model, inspired from string theory, in which the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos is due to the propagation of fermions in a non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating) gravitational background that may characterise the epochs of the early universe. The background induces different dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV) already in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. More specifically, after reviewing some generic models of background-induced CPTV in early epochs of the Universe, we consider a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar ``axion-like'' field. The thermalising ...

  14. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherently linked with culture, moral values and legal tradition of a given country. In intercultural communication the most widely used legal English is permeated by Anglo-Saxon legal system and concepts which have little or no equivalents in Romano-Germanic or other continental law countries. The authors present a comparative analysis of the translation strategies employed by the compilers of two main English-Lithuanian law dictionaries (V. Bitinaitė „Mokomasis anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės terminų žodynas“ and O. Armalytė, L. Pažūsis. „Anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės žodynas“ in translation of the English-Welsh law terms defining abstract common law terms, some specific English-Welsh legal professions and the English-Welsh court names. The findings of the analysis reveal the difficulties which the dictionary compilers have to cope with when translating culture-bound terms and the strategies chosen by them for problematic translations. The research also highlights the role of the legal language translator as the key figure in facilitating different cultural background comprehension of the legal terms and, what is even more important, specific aspects of legal systems; the latter being necessary for efficacious intercultural cooperation.

  15. Silage production and quality of pearl millet, sorghum, and corn hybrids grown from seed exposed to low doses of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.W.; Monson, W.G.; Hanna, W.W.; Constantin, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Just before planting, seeds of pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., (formerly P. typhoides) hybrid, ''Tift 23 x L/sub 1/,'' and corn, Zea mays L., hybrids ''Coker 71,'' ''DeKalb 1214,'' and ''Pioneer 3030'' were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 19.2 kR. ''FS26'' hybrid sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., seeds were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 kR. In one 2-yr. experiment, pearl millet, sorghum, and Coker 71 corn gave respective dry matter yields of 12, 166, 6,993, and 6,306 kg/ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) percentages of 45.7, 52.8, and 59.9. The heaviest exposures of ..gamma.. rays generally reduced yields of all species, and lighter exposures failed to increase yield significantly. Seed irradiation did not affect the quality (IVDMD) of the forage. In a 2-yr. corn hybrid experiment, DeKalb 1214 yielded 24 percent more dry matter and tolerated the heavy exposures of ..gamma.. rays better than Pioneer 3030 and Coker 71. None of the lower exposures increased yield significantly. (auth)

  16. Mycological and palynological studies of early medieval cultural layers from strongholds in Pszczew and Santok (western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural layers from early medieval strongholds in Pszczew and Santok have been examined for the presence of pollen grains and spores as well as residues of fungi. The presence of the following remains has been recorded: fossil hyphopodia of Gaeumannomyces, teliospores of Puccinia, spores of Bipolaris, Thecaphora and Tilletia, teliospores of the genus Urocystis, Ustilago and Uromyces, ascocarps (perithecium of the Ascomycota or the pycnidium of Sphaeropsidales. A greater diversity and abundance of fungi spores sensu lato was recorded in Santok, as compared to Pszczew. Both early medieval sites recorded a significant proportion of cereal pollen, including Secale cereale. It remains an undisputed fact that the grains and other plants collected in both strongholds were strongly infected with fungi. The analysis of the cultural layers for the presence of fungi remains provides significant data on the presence of certain species of plants and their growth conditions in natural environments and in agriculture.

  17. Studies on the utilization of a plant SCE test in detecting potential mutagenic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Yang, J; Zhang, Q A; Cao, X S

    1991-09-01

    In this paper a modified procedure for sister-chromatid differentiation in plant cells is reported. Using this procedure some chemicals were tested for SCE induction in Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Secale cereale. The chemicals tested were ethanol, chromium oxide, sodium saccharin, fluorouracil, ascorbic acid (vitamin c), omethoate and phenol. The experimental results showed that most of them induced SCE increases in mouse spleen cells, human lymphocytes and plant cells. The increase of SCEs per cell in plant cells is in agreement with that found in human lymphocytes or in mouse spleen cells. In our opinion, the utilization of SCE in plants is a simple and inexpensive technique for detecting potential mutagenic agents in the environment.

  18. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  19. [Number and structure of actinomycetes complexes in the rhizosphere winter rye, oat and red clover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I G; Zenova, G M; Merzaeva, O V; Lapygina, E V; Lysak, L V

    2006-01-01

    The actinomycetes complexes in the rhizosphere of three agricultural plants by using the methods of luminescense microscopy and cup sowing were investigated. It was established, that concentration of prokaryotic biomass and biomass of actinomycetes mycelium in rhizosphere of plants is higher than in free from the radicals to soil. Rhizosphera of the oat (Avena sativa L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is colonized by Streptomyces, Micromonospora and olygospore species. Dominante actinomycetes of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) are classified into the genera Micromonospora. It was shown that numbers and biomass of actinomycetes mycelium were fond to decreased, diversity of actinomycetes in contrast is increased in the series: "winter rye--oat--red clover". In connection with ecological safety the capability of increase with prokaryotes naturally disease suppressive soil and stability of plants to pathogen is discussed.

  20. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  1. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1998-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.

  2. Photoregulation of Anthocyanin Synthesis : VIII. Effect of Light Pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, A L

    1984-06-01

    A comparative study of the spectral sensitivity of anthocyanin production in dark-grown and light-pretreated systems was carried out in Brassica oleracea L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Secale cereale L. and Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Light pretreatments bring about an enhancement of the inductive, red-far red reversible response in all systems, a decrease of the continuous irradiation response in cabbage, rye, and tomato seedlings, and an enhancement of the continuous irradiation response in cabbage leaf disks. Light pretreatments also bring about a marked change in the spectral sensitivity of the continuous irradiation response. The different effect of light pretreatments on the photosensitivity of the response to short and long wavelength irradiations suggests that two photoreceptors, phytochrome and cryptochrome, may be involved in the photoregulation of anthocyanin production.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Sakagami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  4. Inhibitory serpins from rye grain with glutamine as P-1 and P-2 residues in the reactive center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    (k(a)'similar to 10(6) M-1 s(-1)). Similar but differently organized glutamine-rich reactive centers were recently found in grain serpins cloned from wheat [Ostergaard et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 33272] but not from barley. The prolamin storage proteins of cereal grains contain similar...... sequences in their glutamine-rich repeats. A possible adaption of hypervariable serpin reactive centers late in Triticeae cereal evolution as defence against insects feeding on cereal grains is discussed.......Six of seven serpins detected in grains of rye (Secale cereale) were purified and characterized. The amino acid sequence close to the blocked N-terminus, the reactive center loop sequence and the second order association rate constant (k(a)') for irreversible complex formation with chymotrypsin...

  5. Humus status of soddy-podzolic soil upon application of different green manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripol'Skaya, L. N.; Romanovskaya, D. K.; Shlepetiene, A.

    2008-08-01

    Results of studying the effect of different plant species on the humus status of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil were generalized. It was found that the application of different green manure species ( Lupinus luteus L., Trifolium pratense L., and Raphanus sativus L.) and straw from cereal crops ( Secale cereale, Hordeum L.) under percolative conditions helped to sustain a stable humus budget in grain agrophytocenoses. A significant change in the fractional composition of HAs and FAs occurred under the effect of green manure. The fractions of free HAs and those bound to clay minerals accumulated with the application of Trifolium pratense and Raphanus sativus biomass and cereal straw. Lower amounts of aggressive and free FAs were formed in the soil with the application of straw and fallow plants. The decomposition of green manure and the formation of humic substances also depended on the hydrothermal conditions during application of manure.

  6. Distribution of the Respiratory Pathways in the Isolated Mitochondria from Etiolated Leaves of Winter Wheat and Rye after the Action of Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Borovik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low temperature (2 °С, 7 days on the content of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves and oxidative activity of isolated mitochondria from the etiolated plants of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter rye (Secale cereale L. has been studied. This paper describes the effect of low temperature on the distribution of the respiratory pathways in the isolated mitochondria from etiolated leaves of winter wheat and rye that are different by resistance to cold. With using the different oxidation substrates (malate, malate + rotenone, succinate, NADH and NADPH, we identified changes in the oxidative activity of winter wheat and rye mitochondria. In this work, the dependence of the functioning of cyanide-insensitive oxidase and rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the isolated mitochondria of winter cereals from content of the soluble carbohydrates is discussed.

  7. The Cereal Pollen Sensitivity and Effect of the Asthma Clinics in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to detect the kinds of cereal that cause cereal pollens sensitivity, and to investigate the effects of cereal pollen sensitivity on the asthma clinic. Material and Method: In this study 140 cases from Sanliurfa with asthma (83 women, 57 men, with the mean age of 26.3-7.9 year and sensitivity against cereal pollen demonstrated by skin prick test, who applied to OSM Ortadogu Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic in the period of March-June were evaluated prospectively. The patients’ peak expiratory flow (PEF values measured in the morning and evening, changes in PEF, asthma symptom score and the symptom-relieving therapy used during the 16-weeks study period were recorded and evaluated in the clinic with FEV1 results at the beginning, month 1, 2, 3 and 4. Results: Of the patients with sensitivity against cereals pollens, 25.4% had allergy against Hordeum vulgare, 23.6% against Secale cereale, 20.7% against Triticum sativum, 19,3% against Zea mays and 18.6% against Avena sativa. Prior to the study and at the end of follow up period, morning and evening PEF values, asthma scores and symptom relieving drug usage were same cereals pollens sensitivity (p>0.05. Discussion: Accordance to the vegetation of Sanliurfa region, important ratio of the sensitivities were detected with prick test against Hordeum vulgare, Secale cereale, Triticum sativum, Zea mays and Avena sativa pollens. The effects of cereals pollens were similar rates of asthma clinics.

  8. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  9. THE USE OF SELECTED TRITICALE AND RYE VARIETIES IN RABBIT DIETS: EFFECT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, DIGESTIBILITY AND BALANCE OF NUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Szabóová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work was to compare the quality of two types of cereals. Grains of rye (Secale cereale L. variety Fernando, and triticale (Tritico secale variety Kendo were tested for their suitability for nutrition of monogastric animals. The subjects of biological testing were complete feed mixtures with 22.5% portion of those cereals. The tests were performed with broiler rabbits. Others components in the feed mixture had the same quality. Both complete feed mixtures were different in average content of individual nutrients. Higher content of crude protein, crude fibre and lower content of fat and nitrogen free extract in triticale variety Kendo increased the value of digestible and metabolizable energy in the mixture. Significant differences were in digestibility of dry matter, fat, organic matter (P<0.05 and neutral detergent fibre (P<0.01 in mixture with rye. Results of balance experiment for nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were similar for both tested cereals (% of retention for rye N 68.12 %; Ca 81.6%; P 60.1%, and for triticale N 68.12%; Ca 81.9%; P 69.7%, resp.. With regard to average content of nutrients. There is recommend for practical utilization of mixture containing triticale and rye for the finishing phase of fattening in broiler rabbits. The nutrients composition of mixture with rye or triticale (crude protein 170 - 175 g, fat 18 - 26 g, fibre 154 - 158 g, starch 161 g and metabolizable energy 9.4 – 9.7 MJ. kg -1 are also preferable from a physiological point of view of rabbits.

  10. Lexical bundles in learner language: Lithuanian learners vs. native speakers. Leksinių samplaikų vartojimas mokinių kalboje: kontrastinis lietuvių ir gimtakalbių anglų kalbos vartotojų tyrimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Juknevičienė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpus studies of recurrent word sequences, also known as lexical bundles, have outlined new directions in ELT/EFL research. The fact that naturally produced English consists of prefabricated multi-word units gave rise to the question of chunkiness in learner language. This study was thus designed to compare and contrast language produced by learners of three different levels of proficiency in terms of the use of lexical bundles. The analysis of lexical bundles retrieved from three corpora of written learner English showed that many more different bundles were established in the corpora representing less proficient learners which is interpreted as an indication of a more limited lexical repertoire which leads to more repetition. Furthermore, structural and functional analysis of lexical bundles showed that the language of non-native learners bears more resemblance to spoken English than the language of native speakers. These findings may be particularly useful to EFL practitioners as they seem to give new insights into the development of learner language. ------ Leksinių samplaikų arba pasikartojančių žodžių sekų tyrimai anglų lingvistikoje atvėrė naujų tyrimo krypčių anglų kaip svetimosios kalbos studijoms. Tekstynų tyrinėjimai parodė, jog autentiškoje anglų kalboje itin dažnai pasitaiko pasikartojančių žodžių sekų, kurios produkuojant kalbą atkuriamos kaip nedalomi vienetai. Todėl tikėtina, jog kintant kalbos vartotojų pasiekimams tokių sekų kiekis ir pobūdis jų kalboje taip pat gali kisti. Straipsnyje pristatomas kontrastinis mokinių kalbos (angl. learner language tekstynų tyrimas, analizuojantis leksinių samplaikų vartojimą skirtingų pasiekimo lygių mokinių kalboje. Keliama hipotezė, kad samplaikų vartojimo skirtumai gali lemti kokybinius įvairių lygių mokinių kalbos skirtumus. Tyrimo duomenys rinkti iš trijų tekstynų, kurių du (AFK1 ir LICLE tekstynai reprezentuoja lietuvių gimtosios

  11. Le discours direct dans la presse politique. Politinės spaudos tiesioginė kalba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Leonavičienė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje tiriama viena iš politinės spaudos tekstų heterogeninių formų – tiesioginė kalba. Ji nagrinėjama daugiau kaip 1 000 000 žodžių specialiajame lyginamajame tekstyne, sudarytame iš 2001–2004 metų informacinio ir komentaro žanrų lietuvių ir prancūzų politinės spaudos tekstų. Tyrimo tikslas – aprašyti dabartinėje spaudoje gausiai vartojamą tiesioginę kalbą, ja perteikiamą šnekamąjį stilių, jo kalbinės raiškos ypatumus ir aptarti lietuvių ir prancūzų tiriamųjų spaudos leidinių bendrąsias tekstų kalbos tendencijas, panašumus ir skirtumus. Darbe nagrinėti tiriamųjų spaudos dienraščių pavyzdžiai, atlikta sintaksinė ir leksinė tiesioginės kalbos analizė rodo joje vartojamą šnekamąjį stilių, publicistinio ir šnekamojo stiliaus sandūrą politinėje spaudoje, šnekamosios ir rašytinės kalbos opozicijos neutralizavimą tekstuose. Šie ir kiti straipsnyje aptarti tiriamųjų tekstų kalbos ypatumai perteikia dabartinės lietuvių ir prancūzų politinės spaudos tekstų konversacionalumo tendenciją.Lingvistinis spaudos tekstų tyrimas atliekamas taikant deskriptyvinį, statistinį ir lyginamąjį metodus. Jie leidžia pastebėti ne tik skirtingų šalių (Lietuvos ir Prancūzijos spaudos, bet ir atskirų spaudos leidinių informacinių ir komentaro žanrų tekstų kalbos ypatybes, vartojant tipografiškai žymėtą heterogeninę formą – tiesioginę kalbą.

  12. Dėl lietuvių kalbos mišriųjų veiksmažodžių kamienų santykių ir darybos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Pakerys

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ON LITHUANIAN MIXED TYPE VERBS: STEM RELATIONS AND DERIVATIONSummaryI have argued in this article that Lithuanian mixed type verbs are in fact suffixed verbs with alternating suffixal morphs which sometimes surface as zeroes (see Table l; cf. Andronov 1999, 73-75; 2000a, 42f. According to the morphemic structure of their stems all Lithuanian verbs split into two major classes of non suffixed vs. suffixed. The latter ones make up two subclasses depending on whether their main stems are parisyllabic or imparisyllabic (thematic vowels arc not counted. All imparisyllabic (traditional mixed type verbs have alternating suffixes comparable to non automatic root vowel alternations and are employed in stem distinction, cf. praes. 3 reñka : inf. riñkti, praet. 3 riñko (‘gather’, e : i and praes. 3 kal̃b-ø-a : inf. kalb-ė́-ti, praet. 3 kalb-ė́j-o (‘speak’, ø : ė; alternation ė → ėj /-V can be interpreted as automatic. These alternations are not independent distinctive features and mark verbal stems together with inflectional paradigms. Alternating verbal suffixes and root vowels are in complementary distribution: if a verb has a suffix it will not exhibit non automatic root vowel alternations (and vice versa. This distribution also affects present stem paradigms -n(-a and -sta (e.g. praes. 3 ti-ñ-k-a ‘passes, matches’, gáu-n-a ‘gets’, tir̃p-st-a ‘melts’ which block root vowel alternations (inf. tìkti, gáuti, tir̃pti, praet. 3 tìko, gãvo, tir̃po with some exceptions, e.g. inf. skrìsti, praes. skre-ñ-d-a, praet. skrìdo (‘fly’, i : e plus praes. stem characterised by -n-a.

  13. Frequency Content of Ambient Seismic Noise in North-Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Diaz, I. C.; Carpenter, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    High and low-frequency ground motion vibration measurements were made in DeKalb and Kane Counties, Illinois, to characterize different sources of seismic noise and determine directions and magnitude of motion produced by each source. The Seismic Analysis Code 2000 (SAC2000) was used to process seismic noise data recorded with a low-frequency digital system,, earthquake records downloaded from the WILBER Web site, and noise data recorded by an engineering seismograph with high-frequency geophones. Power-spectral density estimates were computed from an autocorrelation series in most cases. Using the power density spectra routine of SAC2000, selecting autocorrelation windows of 20 s for the low-frequency data and 2 s for the high-frequency data, we have found distinctive seismic noise peaks among the different sites, regardless of the background noise level. The earthquake low-frequency data showed a microseism peak at a frequency of 0.2 Hz for stations located in the Midwestern U.S. Microseism peak frequency did not decrease with increasing distance from Lake Michigan, suggesting the lake is not the primary source of the microseisms, which may be generated in ocean basins. Ambient ground motion recorded by the Northern Illinois University seismic station with a 2 Hz natural period seismometer exhibited peaks around 0.8 and 2.2 Hz. Ground motion from trains, traffic, air-conditioning units and water pumping equipment was recorded with an engineering seismograph. Vertical geophones of natural frequency 2, 8, and 50 Hz were used, as well as a 4.5 Hz horizontal geophone. Train noise exhibits strong peaks in the 5-10 Hz range, both for the vertical and horizontal geophones. Noise peaks at 25, 60, 90 and 115 Hz are probably related to traffic, electrical transformers, and air-conditioning units. Measurements made near a sewage treatment plant in DeKalb showed peaks at 10, 30, 93, and 109 Hz, probably related to pumping and mechanical equipment. Seismic noise collected

  14. 有机溶剂对PEM燃料电池CCM结构和性能的影响%Effects of organic solvents on the structure and performance of catalyst coated membrane used in PEM fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 田建华; 单忠强; 梁宝臣

    2011-01-01

    Catalyst coated membrane (CCM) was prepared by direct spraying deposition of the catalyst on the surface of proton exchange membrane, which was then assembled with carbon paper diffusion layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The mixture solution for preparing CCM was composed of 20% (mass ratio) Pt/C catalyst, 5% (mass ratio) Nafion solution, organic solvent and de-ionized water. The surface morphology and pore structure were characterized by the environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the polarization characteristics of MEA were evaluated by the current-voltage curves of a single PEMFC. The results indicated that the selection of solvent (ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and fert-butyl alcohol) as well as its content and volatility exhibit direct impact on the pore structure of catalyst layers of CCM, which affects the electrochemical performances of MEA. CCM fabricated with isopropyl alcohol solvent and a mass ratio of 4. 28 to Nafion solution under 50 Xl ~ 75 Xl exhibits an improved pore structure and I-V characteristic of MEA obtained.%采用直接喷涂法将催化剂涂覆在质子交换膜上形成CCM(catalyst coated membrane),CCM与碳纸扩散层组成膜电极用于质子交换膜燃料电池.制备CCM的混合液由质量分数20%的Pt/C催化剂、质量分数5%的Nafion溶液、有机溶剂和水组成.不同的有机溶剂(乙醇、异丙醇和叔丁醇)、有机溶剂的含量、溶剂的挥发速率直接影响所制备的CCM孔结构,进而影响膜电极的电化学性能.采用扫描电镜(SEM)表征了膜电极的表面形貌和孔结构;采用单体质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC)的电流密度-电压曲线评价了膜电极的极化特性.实验结果表明,以异丙醇为溶剂,异丙醇与Nafion溶液的质量比为4.28,在 50℃~75℃制备的CCM具有良好的孔结构和膜电极性能.

  15. Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanahan, J.F. [Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

  16. Infliximab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Gall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Gall, Robert E KalbState University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Dermatology, NY, USAAbstract: Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα. It is used in the treatment of a number of inflammatory disorders including severe plaque psoriasis. TNFα is thought to have a major role in psoriasis by promoting an inflammatory infiltrate into the skin and inducing keratinocyte proliferation and preventing keratinocyte apoptosis, which directly contributes to the characteristic plaque skin lesions. Based on four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials and nine open-label uncontrolled trials of the use of infliximab in plaque psoriasis, it was found that infliximab is a highly efficacious, rapid, sustainable, and relatively safe therapy. Yet as with any biologic, caution is recommended in its use as infusion reactions, lupus-like syndromes, infections, malignancies including lymphomas, as well as other rare events have been reported.Keywords: infliximab, psoriasis, plaque

  17. A comparison of PAMS and air toxics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Gopal; Aleksic, Nenad

    One of the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) is that 1-h ozone nonattainment areas that are classified severe or higher category are required to operate a network of photochemical assessment monitors (PAMS) to provide hourly measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprising of Carbon number PAMS are 24-h-integrated canister and cartridge-based measurements of selected air toxic compounds, thereby providing an opportunity for inter-comparison and validation of both sets of data. In this study, we report such a comparison and estimates of trend for benzene, m-, p- and o-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at Bronx, NY. The analysis shows that hourly PAMS and 24-h-integrated air toxics are in good agreement with each other exhibiting similar trends and that the PAMS with the higher temporal resolution offers information on excursions of the toxic compounds that would be quite useful in assessment of acute health effects. These findings were also found to be applicable to other locations such as South De Kalb, GA; Gary, IN and Lynn, MA.

  18. Topological Gravity, the Hierarchy Problem and Axion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C A S; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos; Tahim, Makarius Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    In the last years higher dimensional physics has won importance. Despite the Superstrings, higher dimensional effects, in measurable scales of energy (some TeV), became only possible with Randall-Sundrum's models (RS). In particular, recent studies in neutrino and axion physics have proposed new and interesting questions about neutrino mixings and new scales intermediating the Weak and Planck scales. In this work we discuss field theoretic models that in some aspects are similar to the RS models. Indeed, our models contain domain walls, solitonic-like objects that mimics the branes of the RS models. Applications are discussed ranging from topological field theories in higher dimensions until models containing D=5 space-time torsion in the RS scenario. In particular, we talk about subjects related to topological gravity, the hierarchy problem and axion physics. The topological terms studied are generalizations for $D>4$ of the axion-foton coupling in D=4. Such procedure involves naturally the Kalb-Ramond field...

  19. p-form electromagnetism on discrete spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Derek K [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-09-07

    We investigate p-form electromagnetism-with the Maxwell and Kalb-Ramond fields as lowest-order cases-on discrete spacetimes, including not only the regular lattices commonly used in lattice gauge theory, but also more general examples. After constructing a maximally general model of discrete spacetime suitable for our purpose-a chain complex equipped with an inner product on (p + 1)-cochains-we study both the classical and quantum versions of the theory, with either R or U(1) as gauge group. We find results-such as a 'p-form Bohm-Aharonov effect'-that depend in interesting ways on the cohomology of spacetime. We quantize the theory via the Euclidean path integral formalism, where the natural kernels in the U(1) theory are not Gaussians but theta functions. As a special case of the general theory, we show that p-form electromagnetism in p + 1 dimensions has an exact solution which reduces when p = 1 to the Abelian case of 2D Yang-Mills theory as studied by Migdal and Witten. Our main result describes p-form electromagnetism as a 'chain field theory'-a theory analogous to a topological quantum field theory, but with chain complexes replacing manifolds. This makes precise a notion of time evolution in the context of discrete spacetimes of arbitrary topology.

  20. D-branes and vacuum periodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V; Galtsov, Dmitri; Dyadichev, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    The superstring/M-theory suggests the Born-Infeld type modification of the classical gauge field lagrangian. We discuss how this changes topological issues related to vacuum periodicity in the SU(2) theory in four spacetime dimensions. A new feature, which is due to the breaking of scale invariance by the non-Abelian Born-Infeld (NBI) action, is that the potential barrier between the neighboring vacua is lowered to a finite height. At the top of the barrier one finds an infinite family of sphaleron-like solutions mediating transitions between different topological sectors. We review these solutions for two versions of the NBI action: with the ordinary and symmetrized trace. Then we show the existence of sphaleron excitations of monopoles in the NBI theory with the triplet Higgs. Soliton solutions in the constant external Kalb-Ramond field are also discussed which correspond to monopoles in the gauge theory on non-commutative space. A non-perturbative monopole solution for the non-commutative U(1) theory is pr...

  1. Interrelationships Among Macrophomina phaseolina, Criconemella xenoplax, and Tylenchorhynchus annulatus on Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, I; McGawley, E C; Russin, J S

    1997-06-01

    Microplot experiments were established in 1992, 1993, and 1994 to investigate the relationships among Macrophomina phaseolina, Criconemella xenoplax, mad Tylenchorhynchus annulatus on grain sorghum in Louisiana. A factorial treatment arrangement of two grain sorghum hybrids (De Kalb DK 50 and Pioneer hybrid 8333), three levels of M. phaseolina (0, 10, and 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/g soil), and three nematode inoculum levels (0, 1x, and 2x) were used. Nematode inocula at 1x levels were 929, 1,139, and 1,445 C. xenoplax and T. annulatus/microplot in 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively. Plants were harvested after 90-105 days. In all 3 years, grain sorghum root and head dry weights were suppressed as nematode inoculum level increased. These reductions were detected both in the absence and in the presence of M. phaseolina at 10 CFU/g. Reproduction of both nematode species was suppressed by M. phaseolina. Interactions between M. phaseolina and nematodes were antagonistic with regard to plant dry weights, yield, and nematode reproduction, so that combined effects were less than the sum of the effect of each pathogen alone.

  2. Performance of electroacoustic hearing protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William; Little, Mark

    2002-05-01

    The spectral and temporal response characteristics of five models of electroacoustic earmuffs (Bilsom 707 Impact II, Peltor Tactical 6s, Howard Leight Lightning and Thunder w/ProEars, and Silencio Electronic Low Pro hearing protectors) were measured with noise created by small arms fire from a 0.223 caliber rifle and a 9 mm handgun. Each hearing protector was tested in the fully-amplified (active) and no amplification (passive) conditions. The protectors were measured on an acoustic test fixture designed for high-level noise measurements. The protected and unprotected signals were recorded to digital audio tape and analyzed off-line. The reduction of peak sound pressure levels ranged between 16 and 32 dB for both the active and passive conditions. The time-averaged acoustic waveforms underneath the protectors exhibited little difference between active and passive conditions. The active electroacoustic performance approaches the passive attenuation performance. Auditory damage units were calculated for the unprotected and protected responses using the AHAAH cochlear model [Price and Kalb, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 219-227 (1991)].

  3. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  4. Quantum Vacua of 2d Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Koloğlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the classical and quantum vacua of 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(8,8)$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with $SU(N)$ and $U(N)$ gauge group, describing the worldvolume interactions of $N$ parallel D1-branes with flat transverse directions $\\mathbb{R}^8$. We claim that the IR limit of the $SU(N)$ theory in the superselection sector labeled $M \\pmod{N}$ --- identified with the internal dynamics of $(M,N)$-string bound states of Type IIB string theory --- is described by the symmetric orbifold $\\mathcal{N}=(8,8)$ sigma model into $(\\mathbb{R}^8)^{D-1}/\\mathbb{S}_D$ when $D=\\gcd(M,N)>1$, and by a single massive vacuum when $D=1$, generalizing the conjectures of E. Witten and others. The full worldvolume theory of the D1-branes is the $U(N)$ theory with an additional $U(1)$ 2-form gauge field $B$ coming from the string theory Kalb-Ramond field. This $U(N)+B$ theory has generalized field configurations, labeled by the $\\mathbb{Z}$-valued generalized electric flux and an independent $\\mathbb{Z}_N$-valued 't Hooft flux...

  5. (3+1)D Anomalous Twisted Gauge Theories with Global Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In (3+1)D twisted gauge theories, global symmetry may be imposed on topological currents $\\star\\frac{1}{2\\pi}db^I$ in a hydrodynamical way ($I=1,2,\\cdots$, $\\{b^I\\}$ is a set of Kalb-Ramond gauge fields). This methodology has been applied before in the Chern-Simons theory of fractional quantum Hall liquids. We find that, in some twisted gauge theories (with discrete Abelian gauge group $G_g$), implementing a global symmetry (denoted by $G_s$) is always inconsistent. There are two consequences. First, the symmetry-enriched topological order (SET) of the ground state is anomalous, which cannot exist in (3+1)D system alone. It can exist as a boundary of 4+1D topological phases. Second, if $G_s$ is fully gauged, the resulting new gauge theory has gauge anomaly. A (4+1)D topological phase is required to cancel this anomaly. We elaborate this phenomenon via a concrete example.

  6. Iš kur atsirado senųjų raštų hukis „ūkis“, horas „oras“ ir kt.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmas Zinkevičius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A NOTE ON THE USE OF OLD LITH. hukis ʽŪKIS’, horas ʽORAS’ AND OTHER FORMSSummaryIn the Lithuanian writings of the 16th— 17th century words which began with a vowel were sometimes preceded by h. This phenomenon is accounted for as hypernormalism, i. e. an imitation of the borrowings which in the original had h, but in Folk Lithuanian had lost the sound. As in the writings of the same author we can find both variants (e. g. hadyna ‖ adyna ʽvalanda’, hūtaryti ‖ ūtaryti ʽkalbėti’, one could easily mistake the forms and add h to Lithuanian words beginning with a vowel (e. g. haiškus, herelis, horas, hožys, hūkis, hūžimas instead of the usual forms aiškus, erelis, oras, ožys, ūkis, ūžimas.

  7. Notoph-Graviton-Photon Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V

    2013-01-01

    In the sixties Ogievetskii and Polubarinov proposed the concept of a notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of a photon. Later, Kalb and Ramond (and others) developed this theoretical concept. And, at the present times it is widely accepted. We analyze the quantum theory of antisymmetric tensor fields with taking into account mass dimensions of notoph and photon. It appears to be possible to describe both photon and notoph degrees of freedom on the basis of the modified Bargmann-Wigner formalism for the symmetric second-rank spinor. Next, we proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism in a straightforward way. The symmetric multispinor of the fourth rank is used. It is constructed out of the Dirac 4-spinors. Due to serious problems with the interpretation of the results obtained on using the standard procedure we generalize it and obtain the spin-2 relativistic equations, which are consistent with the general relat...

  8. Race, class, and gender: Debates over the character of social hierarchies in the Netherlands Indies, circa 1600–1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Protschky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Ulbe Bosma, Indiëgangers: Verhalen van Nederlanders die naar Indië trokken. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, 333 pp. ISBN 9789035135017. Price: EUR 26.50 (paperback.Ulbe Bosma and Remco Raben, Being ‘Dutch’ in the Indies: A history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920. Translated from the Dutch by Wendie Shaffer. Athens and Singapore: Ohio University Press, NUS Press, 2008, xx + 439 pp. [Ohio University Research in International Studies Southeast Asia Series No. 116.] ISBN 9780896802612. Price: USD 22.40 (paperback. Eric Jones, Wives, slaves, and concubines: A history of the female underclass in Dutch Asia. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 2010, xi + 186 pp. ISBN 9780875802101. Price: USD 38.00 (hardback. Jean Gelman Taylor, The social world of Batavia: Europeans and Eurasians in colonial Indonesia. Second Edition. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009, xxv + 279 pp. [First edition 1983.] ISBN 9780299232146. Price: USD 29.95 (paperback.Ann Laura Stoler, Along the archival grain: Epistemic anxieties and colonial common sense. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009, xiii + 314 pp. ISBN 9780691015774. Price USD 23.95 (paperback.

  9. Genetic variations alter physiological responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver-Gant, J N; Mack, L A; Dennis, R L; Eicher, S D; Cheng, H W

    2012-07-01

    Heat stress (HS) is a major problem experienced by the poultry industry during high-temperature conditions. The ability to manage the detrimental effects of HS can be attributed to multiple factors, including genetic background of flocks. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variation in HS effects on laying hens' physiological homeostasis. Ninety 28-wk-old White Leghorn hens of 2 strains were used: a commercial line of individually selected hens for high egg production, DeKalb XL (DXL), and a line of group-selected hens for high productivity and survivability, named kind gentle bird (KGB). Hens were randomly paired by strain and assigned to hot or control treatment for 14 d. Physical and physiological parameters were analyzed at d 8 and 14 posttreatment. Compared with controls, HS increased hen's core body temperature (P hens exposed to HS (P hens, KGB hens had higher heat shock protein 70 concentrations (P hens' liver weight decreased following HS, with less of a response in the KGB line (P hens due to genetic variations. These data provide evidence that is valuable for determining genetic interventions for laying hens under HS.

  10. Charged dual string vacua from interacting rotating black holes via discrete and nonlinear symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de FIsica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Mich., CP 58040 (Mexico); Nowakowski, Marek [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No 18A-10, Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2004-02-21

    Using the stationary formulation of the toroidally compactified heterotic string theory in terms of a pair of matrix Ernst potentials we consider the four-dimensional truncation of this theory with no U(1) vector fields excited. Imposing one timelike Killing vector permits us to express the stationary effective action as a model in which gravity is coupled to a matrix Ernst potential which, under certain parametrization, allows us to interpret the matter sector of this theory as a double Ernst system. We generate a web of string vacua which are related to each other via a set of discrete symmetries of the effective action (some of them involve S-duality transformations and possess non-perturbative character). Some physical implications of these discrete symmetries are analysed and we find that, in some particular cases, they relate rotating black holes coupled to a dilaton with no Kalb-Ramond field, static black holes with non-trivial dilaton and antisymmetric tensor fields, and rotating and static naked singularities. Further, by applying a nonlinear symmetry, namely, the so-called normalized Harrison transformation, on the seed field configurations corresponding to these neutral backgrounds, we recover the U(1){sup n} Abelian vector sector of the four-dimensional action of the heterotic string, charging in this way the double Ernst system which corresponds to each one of the neutral string vacua, i.e., the stationary and the static black holes and the naked singularities.

  11. The hospital of The Holy Spirit at Rabat, Malta, and its Latin inscriptions: a review | Lotyniški įrašai Rabato Šv. Dvasios ligoninėje: naujas žvilgsnis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatio Caesar Roger Vella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Šv. Dvasios ligoninė (taip pavadinta 15 a. Rabate buvo pastatyta 13 amžiuje ir funkcionavo iki 20 amžiaus pradžios. Dabar šiose restauruotose patalpose įsikūręs Maltos Nacionalinis archyvas. Darbų metu buvo atidengti ir restauruoti lotyniški 1613–1737 metų įrašai (6 yra pastate, 2 jau yra išnykę ir išlikę tik nuorašuose, kuriuose įamžinti ligoninės mecenatai, administratoriai, ligoninėje atliekami statybos darbai, Maltos ordino Didieji magistrai ir šalies valdytojai. Vienas iš įrašų sukurtas eleginiais distichais. 2002 m., minint ankstesnio Archyvo kuratoriaus John Azzopardi jubiliejų, šie įrašai buvo publikuoti Josepho Ammodio: pateikta jų transkripcija, vertimas į italų kalbą ir komentarai. Spausdinamo straipsnio autoriaus nuomone, tiek J. Ammodio atlikta transkripcija, tiek vertimas turėtų būti tikslinami. Tai ir yra šio straipsnio tikslas.

  12. Towards Unquenched Holographic Magnetic Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Filev, Veselin G

    2011-01-01

    We propose a string dual to the SU(Nc) N=4 SYM coupled to Nf massless fundamental flavors in an external magnetic field. The flavors are introduced by homogeneously smeared Nf D7-branes and the external magnetic field via a non-trivial Kalb-Rammond B-field. Our solution is perturbative in a parameter that counts the number of internal flavor loops. In the limit of vanishing B-field the background reduces to the supersymmetric one obtained in hep-th/0612118. We introduce an additional probe D7--brane and in the supersymmetric limit of vanishing B-field perform a holographic renormalization of its "on-shell" action. We consider also non-supersymmetric probes with fixed worldvolume gauge field corresponding to a magnetic field coupled only to the fundamental fields of the probe brane. We study the influence of the backreacted flavors on the effect of dynamical mass generation. Qualitatively the physical picture remains unchanged. In the next step we consider the case when the magnetic field couples to both the b...

  13. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  14. 基于EST的普通小麦近缘物种第二部分同源群染色体特异分子标记%EST-based specific markers for homoeologous group 2 chromosomes of wheat relative species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃碧; 王海燕; 纪剑辉; 曹爱忠; 黄倬; 王秀娥

    2011-01-01

    There are lots of useful traits in wheat relative species, providing valuable gene resources for wheat improvement.In this research ,55 markers were designed based on the wheat EST sequences, which mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2B.Out of them, 19 markers amplified polymorphic loci in at least one relative species.Totally, 11 markers are specific for 2R chromosome of rye (Secale cereale 'BLANCO' , genome RR) ,8 markers for 2H chromosome of barley (Hordeum vulgare ' BETZES' , genome HH ), 5 markers for 2S1 chromosome of Aegilops longissima( genome S1S1) ,2 markers for 2Mg chromosome of Aegilops geniculata( genome, MgMg ) ,8 markers for 2Sp chromosome of Aegilops peregrina ( genome, SPSPUPUp ) and 3 markers for 2Up chromosome.These ESTderived markers are useful for identifying corresponding chromosomes or chromosome segments of wheat relatives.%小麦近缘属物种中具有许多优良性状,为小麦遗传改良提供非常重要的基因资源.根据定位在普通小麦2B染色体长臂上的EST(expressed sequence tag,EST)序列开发了55个标记,在普通小麦品种中国春、二倍体山羊草(Aegilops longissima,genome S1S1;Aegilops geniculata,genome M8M8)、四倍体山羊草(Aegilops peregrina,genome SpSpUpUp)、黑麦(Secale cereal'BLANCO',genome RR)、大麦(Hordeum yulgare,'BETZES',genome HH)及这些物种在中国春背景下的二体异附加系中进行PCR扩增.结果表明:19个标记(占34.5%)至少能够在1个近缘种中有特异性扩增,筛选出2R、2H、2S1、2Mg、2Sp和2Up染色体的特异标记分别为11、8、5、2、8和3个.这些基于EST序列开发的特异分子标记可以有效地检测和追踪导入小麦背景中的外源第二部分同源群染色体(片段).

  15. A review of triticale uses and the effect of growth environment on grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoverin, Cushla M; Snyders, Franci; Muller, Nina; Botes, Willem; Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2011-05-01

    Triticale (× Triticosecale sp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) is an anthropogenic cereal designed to incorporate the functionality and high yield of wheat (Triticum spp. Linnaeus 1753) and durability of rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus 1753). The potential of triticale has remained largely unrealised, and in the 135 years since A. Stephen Wilson first crossed wheat and rye, triticale has mostly been used as animal feed. Growing demand for food resources has led to an increased interest in triticale development. Efforts to breed cultivars appropriate for baking have met with difficulty, although relatively new approaches to triticale end-use propose greater applicability for human consumption. Further, environmental awareness has generated interest in the use of triticale within biofuel production. We review environmental and genetic effects on triticale yield with a view towards increased demand on a hardy and useful cereal crop. We find triticale could satisfy many of the hopes originally placed upon it, and may be useful in foodstuffs and fuel, but only when growth environment is carefully considered.

  16. Transmission of the Aegilops ovata chromosomes carrying gametocidal factors in hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Majka, M; Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, A; Ponitka, A; Pudelska, H; Belter, J; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of this work was to induce the chromosome rearrangements between Aegilops ovata (UUMM) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR) by expression of the gametocidal factor located on the chromosome 4M. The Aegilops ovata × Secale cereale (UUMMRR) amphiploids and triticale 'Moreno' were used to produce hybrids by reciprocal crosses. Chromosome dynamics was observed in subsequent generations of hybrids during mitotic metaphase of root meristems and first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells. Chromosomes were identified by genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using pTa71, pTa791, pSc119.2 and pAs1 DNA probes. It has been shown that the origin of the genetic background had an influence on Aegilops chromosome transmission. Moreover, it has been reported that the preferential transmission of chromosome 4M appeared during both androgenesis and gynogenesis. It is also hypothesised that the expression of the triticale Gc gene suppressor had an influence on the semi-fertility of hybrids but did not inhibit the chromosome rearrangements. This paper also describes the double haploid production, which enabled to obtain plants with two identical copies of triticale chromosomes with translocations of Aegilops chromatin segments.

  17. Differentiation of triticale cultivars through FISH karyotyping of their rye chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Maia; Ferrari, María Rosa; Espert, Shirley Mary; Ferreira, Víctor; Grassi, Ezequiel; Greizerstein, Eduardo José; Poggio, Lidia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to cytogenetically characterize triticale cultivars through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of their rye chromosomes. In the present work, we studied six cultivars of triticale ('Cayú-UNRC', 'Cumé-UNRC', 'Genú-UNRC', 'Ñinca-UNRC', 'Quiñé-UNRC', and 'Tizné-UNRC'), released by the Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (UNRC), Córdoba, Argentina. The cultivars were obtained from the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) and improved for fresh forage, haymaking, and feed grain at UNRC. The distribution and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences of Secale cereale (pSc74, pSc200, pSc250, and pSc119.2) using FISH analyses revealed a specific localization of the signals for several rye chromosomes, which allowed us to distinguish the cultivars. Cluster analysis showed a great cytogenetic similarity among the rye cultivars used to originate these hybrids. The knowledge of the variability among triticale cultivars is necessary to propose future crosses in breeding programs. This study will also be valuable to identify commercial seeds and to analyze the possible association between agronomic characters and the presence of certain rye chromosomes or specific regions in these chromosomes.

  18. Ultrasound influence on coleoptile length at Poaceae seedlings as valuable criteria in prebreeding and breeding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratovalieva Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study includes research on the effect of ultrasound on the ability of seed germination and coleoptile development of cereal landraces (fam. Poaceae: oat (Avena sativa L. brodski, rye (Secale cereale L. rakotinska, Triticale svetinikolsko and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. govrlevska. The experiment with ultrasound was carried out at frequency of 30-40 kHz on the thermostatic ultrasonic bath. Seeds were sonicated at a constant temperature (25ºC for 15 min. Ultrasound effect is reflected in the length of the coleoptyl and mesocotyl, although in a good deal is genetically predetermined. Coleoptile length was the longest in Triticale (3.3-5.5 cm and approximately the same lengths are evident in rye (3.0-6.1 cm. Concerning the mesocotyl the longest one (5.525 cm ± 0.697 is recorded at rye, even significantly longer than control of oat and Triticale. Longer coleoptile of sonicated seeds indicates faster seedling development, good water supply and rapid development and emergence of first leaves. Correlation coefficient showed very high (0.821 and high R2 (67,472% dependence among variables both, in length of coleoptiles (as dependent variable and mesocotyl (as independent with low standard error (0.225. With the simple use of ultrasound the germination period could be shorten, water supply more efficient, the sowing periods will be shorten and good yields even under conditions of climate change with increased temperatures could be achieved.

  19. Spontaneous and divergent hexaploid triticales derived from common wheat × rye by complete elimination of D-genome chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.

  20. Pattern of aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids differs between rye and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X F; Ma, J F; Matsumoto, H

    2000-08-01

    Al-Induced secretion of organic acids from the roots has been considered as a mechanism of Al tolerance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In this study, the secretion pattern and alteration in the metabolism of organic acids under Al stress were examined in rye (Secale cereale L. cv King) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Atlas 66). Al induced rapid secretion of malate in the wheat, but a lag (6 and 10 h for malic and citric acids, respectively) between the exposure to Al and the secretion of organic acids was observed in the rye. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malate dehydrogenase were not affected by Al in either plant. The activity of citrate synthase was increased by the exposure to Al in the rye, but not in the wheat. The secretion of malate was not suppressed at low temperature in the wheat, but that of citrate was stopped in the rye. The Al-induced secretion of citrate from roots of the rye was inhibited by the inhibitors of a citrate carrier, which transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. All of these results suggest that alteration in the metabolism of organic acids is involved in the Al-induced secretion of organic acids in rye, but only activation of an anion channel seems to be responsible for the rapid secretion of malate in the wheat.

  1. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions in cover crop-based corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian Wesley

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas; the majority of N2O emissions are the result of agricultural management, particularly the application of N fertilizers to soils. The relationship of N2O emissions to varying sources of N (manures, mineral fertilizers, and cover crops) has not been well-evaluated. Here we discussed a novel methodology for estimating precipitation-induced pulses of N2O using flux measurements; results indicated that short-term intensive time-series sampling methods can adequately describe the magnitude of these pulses. We also evaluated the annual N2O emissions from corn-cover crop (Zea mays; cereal rye [Secale cereale], hairy vetch [Vicia villosa ], or biculture) production systems when fertilized with multiple rates of subsurface banded poultry litter, as compared with tillage incorporation or mineral fertilizer. N2O emissions increased exponentially with total N rate; tillage decreased emissions following cover crops with legume components, while the effect of mineral fertilizer was mixed across cover crops.

  3. Spring-Interseeded Winter Rye Seeding Rates Influence Weed Control and Organic Soybean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research in 2002 and 2003 evaluated spring-interseeded winter rye (Secale cereale L. at 67, 134, or 200 kg ha−1 at two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. row spacings (19- and 76-cm on weed control, yield, and gross margins. Based on regression analysis, wide-row (76-cm soybean grain yield and gross margins were greatest when winter rye was interseeded at 114 and 106 kg ha−1, respectively. Yields and gross margins for wide-row soybean were 8 to 55% greater than narrow-row (19-cm soybean seeded at 494,000 or 742,000 seeds ha−1 which was probably due to flexibility for implementing cultivation. As interseeded rye rates increased from 67 to 200 kg ha−1, yields and gross margins for narrow-rows decreased. Soybean row spacing had minimal impacts on specific weed species and total weed biomass or density. The use of wide-row soybean and spring-interseeded rye at 67 kg ha−1 was more cost-effective compared to narrow rows.

  4. Induction of Root Hair Growth in a Phosphorus-Buffered Culture Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-dong; James Dunlop; Thai Phung

    2006-01-01

    A system to control the release of phosphate in water was successfully established, based on solubility product of [Ca2+] and [PO43-] using tricalcium phosphate as P source in the hydroponic solution, and adding CaC12 for supplementing extra Ca2+. The system, similar to soil solutions, was a P nutrient buffer solution with very low bioavailable P. The buffer solution induced the roots of both monocotyledon and dicotyledon species to grow abundant root hairs, 3 mm in maximum length. The monocotyledons were corn (Zea mays L.) (var. Yellow Rose), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (var.Yanzhong 144), Triticale secale L. (var. Jingsong 5), and ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L.) (var. Ruanni), and the dicotyledons were Arabidopsis thaliana L. (var. Columbia), white clover (Trifolium repens) (var. Kopu), Lotus (Lotus peduncucatus Cav. Luliginosus Schkuhr) (var. Grasslands Maku). For these species we proved that the root environment controls the induction of root hair formation. However, the hydroponic buffer solution failed to induce root hairs on the roots of onion (Allium cepa L.). Other investigators have concluded that corn does not form root hairs in hydroponics, but abundant long root hairs on corn were induced by this buffer system. The roots with abundant long root hairs are called "hedgehog roots" because they have hairs everywhere just like a hedgehog.

  5. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of "Petkus" pool in most modern rye varieties as well as "Petkus" × "Carsten" heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil "on farm" diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR).

  6. Genetic distinctiveness of rye in situ accessions from Portugal unveils a new hotspot of unexplored genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Monteiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of ‘Petkus’ pool in most modern rye varieties as well as ‘Petkus’ x ‘Carsten’ heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye’s genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil on farm diversity, which is largely undervalued.Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye’s genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources.

  7. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat-rye 1R addition line with multiple spikelets and resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wujuan; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-04-01

    Alien addition lines are important for transferring useful genes from alien species into common wheat. Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for improving wheat disease resistance, yield, and environment adaptation. A new wheat-rye addition line, N9436B, was developed from the progeny of the cross of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) cultivar Shaanmai 611 and rye (Secale cereal L., 2n = 2x = 14, RR) accession Austrian rye. We characterized this new line by cytology, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular markers, and disease resistance screening. N9436B was stable in morphology and cytology, with a chromosome composition of 2n = 42 + 2t = 22II. GISH investigations showed that this line contained two rye chromosomes. GISH, FISH, and molecular maker identification suggested that the introduced R chromosome and the missing wheat chromosome arms were 1R chromosome and 2DL chromosome arm, respectively. N9436B exhibited 30-37 spikelets per spike and a high level of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) isolate E09 at the seedling stage. N9436B was cytologically stable, had the trait of multiple spikelets, and was resistant to powdery mildew; this line should thus be useful in wheat improvement.

  8. Effects of Tillage Management Systems on Residue Cover and Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZHIGUO; XUQI; 等

    1998-01-01

    The effects of tillage methods on percent surface residue cover remaining and decomposition rates of crop residues were evaluated in this study.The line transect method was used to measure residue cover percentage on continuumous corn(Zea mays L.) plots under no tillage (NT),Conventional tillage(CT),chisel plow(CH),and disk tillage (DT).Samples of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were used for residue decompostion study,Results showed that the percentage of residue cover remaining was significantly higher for NT than for CH and DT and that for CT was the lowest(<10%),For the same tillage system ,the percent residue cover remaining was significantly higher in the higher fertilizer N rate treatments relative to the lower fertilizer N treatments.weight losses of rye and vetch residues followed a similar pattern under CT and DT ,and they were significantly faster in CT and DT than in NT system ,Alo ,the amounts of residue N remaining during the first 16 weeks were alway higher under NT than under CT and DT.

  9. Assessing the Economic Impact of Inversion Tillage, Cover Crops, and Herbicide Regimes in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Infested Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Duzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. producers in Alabama are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers increasingly rely on integrated weed management strategies that raise production costs. This analysis evaluated how tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regime affected net returns above variable treatment costs (net returns for cotton production in Alabama from 2009 to 2011 under pressure from Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.. Annual net returns were compared for two tillage treatments (inversion and noninversion tillage, three cover crops (crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.], cereal rye [Secale cereal L.], and winter fallow, and three herbicide regimes (PRE, POST, and PRE+POST. Results indicate that under heavy Palmer amaranth population densities one year of inversion tillage followed by two years of noninversion tillage, along with a POST or PRE+POST herbicide application had the highest net returns in the first year; however, the economic benefit of inversion tillage, across all herbicide treatments, was nonexistent in 2010 and 2011. Cotton producers with Palmer amaranth infestations would likely benefit from cultural controls, in conjunction with herbicide applications, as part of their weed management system to increase net returns.

  10. Permeability of the Suberized Mestome Sheath in Winter Rye 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol A.; Griffith, Marilyn; Huner, Norman P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Mestome sheath cells of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) deposit suberized lamellae in their secondary cell walls. Histochemical tests including acid digestion and staining with Sudan IV and Chelidonium majus root extract were used to detect the presence of suberin in the primary cell wall. There was no evidence of a Casparian band between adjacent mestome sheath cells. Fluorescent dye techniques were used to trace solute movement through the rye leaf apoplast. Calcofluor white M2R, a fluorescent dye which binds to cell walls as it moves apoplastically, proved to be too limited in its mobility in leaves to test mestome sheath permeability. Trisodium 3-hydroxy-5,8,10 pyrene trisulfonate, a fluorescent dye which is mobile in the apoplast, moved easily up the vascular bundles in the transpiration stream, and diffused outward from the veins to the epidermal cell walls within minutes of reaching a particular level in the leaf. We conclude that the suberized mestome sheath of rye leaves is freely permeable to solutes moving apoplastically through radial primary cell walls. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663999

  11. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B.; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R.; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of “Petkus” pool in most modern rye varieties as well as “Petkus” × “Carsten” heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil “on farm” diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR). PMID:27630658

  12. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  13. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  14. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  15. Phytoclimate of winter rye stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, U. [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Kleinmachnow (Germany); Chmielewski, F.M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The present study describes the microclimate within a winter rye (Secale cereale) stand compared to that above a bare soil at the same height. It is focused on air temperature and humidity. The study is based on long-term measurements (1981-1999) at 0.2 m above ground in the agrometeorological field experiment at Berlin-Dahlem (Humboldt-University of Berlin). The microclimate within a winter rye stand differs significantly from that above a bare soil. Temperature and actual vapour pressure differences between both locations depend on the developmental stage of the plants as well as the time of the day. Their influence is so strong that a detailed analysis of the microclimate makes it necessary to break down the growing time of crop into several developmental periods. So, it was possible to describe and explain the characteristics of the phytoclimate in a relatively detailed and comprehensive manner. Thereby the assessment of potential damages caused by pests and diseases within crop stands becomes more precise. (orig.)

  16. Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de la Cruz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.

  17. Cargols terrestres (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora del Parc Natural de la Muntanya de Montserrat (Barcelona, NE península ibèrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bros, V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora in the Natural Park of Montserrat (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula The inventory of 73 land snails in the Natural Park of Montserrat was updated following the review of 130 publications. Planned field study was also conducted in areas of different habitats on the Montserrat mountain to provide a preliminary description of the communities of land snails in the study area. A total of 342 samples of land snails were studied and 50 species were identified. The most frequent were Pomatias elegans, Helicigona lapicida, Pseudotachea splendida, Abida polyodon and Otala punctata. In this region of the prelittoral Catalan mountain range, the level of endemism was high for Abida secale bofilli, Montserratina bofilliana and Xerocrassa montserratensis.The results of the field work extend the faunistic catalogue of the Natural Park of Montserrat to include references to Hygromia cinctella, Microxeromagna lowei, Paralaoma servilis and Punctum pygmaeum in the area. Finally, investigation and conservation programmes are suggested for the endemic species Xerocrassa montserratensis, protected by the Plan for Areas of Natural Interest (PEIN approved by Decree 328/1992.

  18. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  19. Reakcii rastenij raznyh zhiznennyh form na izmenenija prirodnoj sredy [The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  20. Phytotoxic phenylpropanoids isolated from Ophryosporus charua (Griseb.) Hieron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Margarita M Del M; Vico, Raquel V; Carpinella, Maria C; Ferrayoli, Carlos C; Palacios, Sara M

    2017-03-06

    Bioguided isolation of the EtOH extract from the medicinal native plant, Ophryosporus charua, against Raphanus sativus, yielded three phenylpropanoids, charuol A [(Z)-4-((1S,2R)-3-acetoxy-1,2-dihydroxypropyl)phenyl) 2-methylbut-2-enoate], charuepoxide [(Z)-4-((2S,3R)-3-(acetoxymethyl oxiran-2-yl)phenyl) 2-methylbut-2-enoate] and charuol B [(Z)-4-((1R,2R)-3-acetoxy-1,2-dihydroxypropyl)phenyl) 2-methylbut-2-enoate]. Their structures and absolute configuration were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The effective concentrations for 50% inhibition of germination (ECg50) and root (ECr50) and shoot (ECs50) elongations were determined for these compounds against P. miliaceum (monocot) and Raphanus sativus (dicot). Charuol A was the most active in the inhibition of germination of P. miliaceum (ECg50 = 0.97 mM), followed by charuol B and charuepoxide, although charuol B was the most effective in regulating the root growth of P. miliaceum seedlings, with an ECr50 of 1.0 mM. Charuol A inhibited the germination of R. sativus, while its seedling development was also affected by all three compounds with different effectiveness. Charuol A was also highly effective in the 0.09-0.30 mM range against other test species such as Lactuca sativa, Eruca sativa, Allium ampeloprasum and Secale cereale.

  1. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  2. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  3. Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops.

  4. Long-term effects of deep soil loosening on root distribution and soil physical parameters in compacted lignite mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badorreck, Annika; Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction is a major problem of soils on dumped mining substrates in Lusatia, Germany. Deep ripping and cultivation of deep rooting plant species are considered to be effective ways of agricultural recultivation. Six years after experiment start, we studied the effect of initial deep soil loosening (i.e. down to 65 cm) on root systems of rye (Secale cereale) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and on soil physical parameters. We conducted a soil monolith sampling for each treatment (deep loosened and unloosened) and for each plant species (in three replicates, respectively) to determine root diameter, length density and dry mass as well as soil bulk density. Further soil physical analysis comprised water retention, hydraulic conductivity and texture in three depths. The results showed different reactions of the root systems of rye and alfalfa six years after deep ripping. In the loosened soil the root biomass of the rye was lower in depths of 20-40 cm and the root biomass of alfalfa was also decreased in depths of 20-50 cm together with a lower root diameter for both plant species. Moreover, total and fine root length density was higher for alfalfa and vice versa for rye. The soil physical parameters such as bulk density showed fewer differences, despite a higher bulk density in 30-40cm for the deep loosened rye plot which indicates a more pronounced plough pan.

  5. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

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    Dmitriev A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

  6. Reticulate evolution of the rye genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Mihaela M; Zhou, Ruonan; Haseneyer, Grit; Schmutzer, Thomas; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; König, Susanne; Kugler, Karl G; Scholz, Uwe; Hackauf, Bernd; Korzun, Viktor; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bauer, Eva; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils

    2013-10-01

    Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (~8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny information of three sequenced model grass genomes (Brachypodium distachyon, rice [Oryza sativa], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]). This enabled a genome-wide high-density comparative analysis of rye/barley/model grass genome synteny. Seventeen conserved syntenic linkage blocks making up the rye and barley genomes were defined in comparison to model grass genomes. Six major translocations shaped the modern rye genome in comparison to a putative Triticeae ancestral genome. Strikingly dissimilar conserved syntenic gene content, gene sequence diversity signatures, and phylogenetic networks were found for individual rye syntenic blocks. This indicates that introgressive hybridizations (diploid or polyploidy hybrid speciation) and/or a series of whole-genome or chromosome duplications played a role in rye speciation and genome evolution.

  7. High quality residues from cover crops favor changes in microbial community and enhance C and N sequestration

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    Ileana Frasier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a change in management on the soil microbial community and C sequestration. We conducted a 3-year field study in La Pampa (Argentina with rotation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor in zero tillage alternating with rye (Secale cereale and vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa. Soil was sampled once a year at two depths. Soil organic matter fractions, dissolved organic matter, microbial biomass (MBC and community composition (DNA extraction, qPCR, and phospholipid FAME profiles were determined. Litter, aerial- and root biomass were collected and all material was analyzed for C and N. Results showed a rapid response of microbial biomass to a bacterial dominance independent of residue quality. Vetch had the highest diversity index, while the fertilized treatment had the lowest one. Vetch–sorghum rotation with high N mineralization rates and diverse microbial community sequestered more C and N in stable soil organic matter fractions than no-till sorghum alone or with rye, which had lower N turnover rates. These results reaffirm the importance of enhanced soil biodiversity for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and services. The supply of high amounts of N-rich residues as provided by grass–legume cover crops could fulfill this objective.

  8. Introgression of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Conferred by Chromosome 2R by Crossing Wheat Nullisomic 2D with Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the nullisomic back-cross procedure, four wheat-rye chromosome substitution 2R (2D) lines with different agronomic performance, designated WR02-145-1, WR01-145-2, WR02-145-3, and WR02-145-4, were produced from a cross between 2D nullisomic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Xiaoyan 6") and rye (Secale cereale L. cv. "German White"). The chromosomal constitution of 2n=42=21 in WR02-145 lines was confirmed by cytological and molecular cytogenetic methods. Using genomic in situ hybridization on root tip chromosome preparations, a pair of intact rye chromosomes was detected in the WR02-145 lines. PCR using chromosome-specific primers confirmed the presence of 2R chromosomes of rye in these wheat-rye lines, indicating that WR02-145 lines are disomic chromosome substitution lines 2R (2D). The WR02-145 lines are resistant to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici E. Marchal) isolates prevalent in northern China and may possess gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differ from the previously identified Pm7 gene located on chromosome 2RL. The newly developed "Xiaoyan 6"- "German White"2R (2D) chromosome substitution lines are genetically stable, show desirable agronomic traits, and are expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  9. Early and Late Heat Shock Proteins in Wheats and Other Cereal Species 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Ada; Pogna, Norberto E.; Mapelli, Sergio

    1987-01-01

    Coleoptiles and roots of 3-day-old seedlings from five cereal species (Triticum aestivum L., T. durum Desf., Hordeum vulgare L., Secale cereale L., and Triticale) respond to heat shock at 40°C by synthesizing a new set of 13 strong bands (as revealed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis) as well as some 20°C proteins. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to three different size groups: high molecular mass HSPs in the 103 to 70 kilodalton range, intermediate molecular mass HSPs in the 62 to 32 kilodalton range, and low molecular mass HSPs about 17 to 16 kilodalton in size. At the beginning of the heat shock coleoptiles show a reduced ability to synthesize intermediate molecular mass HSPs but after 4 hours at 40°C they exhibit fully developed HSP patterns identical to that found in roots. Synthesis of early HSPs declines after 7 hours of treatment followed by the appearance of a new set of 12 protein bands (late HSPs) in the ranges 99 to 83, 69 to 35, and 15 to 14 kilodaltons. After 12 hours at 40°C, three other late HSPs of 89, 45, and 38 kilodalton are induced. The induction of late HSPs after 7 hours at 40°C appears to be associated with an enhancement of radioactive methionine incorporation into proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16665614

  10. A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas

    2015-12-16

    Preparation of chromosome spreads is a prerequisite for the successful performance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Preparation of high quality plant chromosome spreads is challenging due to the rigid cell wall. One of the approved methods for the preparation of plant chromosomes is a so-called drop preparation, also known as drop-spreading or air-drying technique. Here, we present a protocol for the fast preparation of mitotic chromosome spreads suitable for the FISH detection of single and high copy DNA probes. This method is an improved variant of the air-dry drop method performed under a relative humidity of 50%-55%. This protocol comprises a reduced number of washing steps making its application easy, efficient and reproducible. Obvious benefits of this approach are well-spread, undamaged and numerous metaphase chromosomes serving as a perfect prerequisite for successful FISH analysis. Using this protocol we obtained high-quality chromosome spreads and reproducible FISH results for Hordeum vulgare, H. bulbosum, H. marinum, H. murinum, H. pubiflorum and Secale cereale.

  11. Characterization of the Fatty Acid and Mineral Compositions of Selected Cereal Cultivars from Turkey

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    Asuman Kan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, crude oil, fatty acid and mineral compositions of wheat (Triticum sp. L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus., rye (Secale cereale L., and oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars, respectively, from Turkey were investigated. Both the distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, and the mineral contents of evaluated cereals were reported. Fatty acid compositions and mineral contents were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES techniques, respectively. The highest crude oil content was found in oat [cv. Seydisehir; 5.35%], whereas the lowest crude oil was in triticale [cv. Aslım-95; 1.19 %]. The results showed that the contents of total UFA in the different cultivars varied between 77.1 - 81.5 %. The major components of the cereal oils were determined as oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. The total macro-, micro- element, and heavy metal contents varied between 8638 - 16108 ppm, 113-180 ppm and 1.8 - 6.9 ppm, respectively. As a conclusion, there were significant (p < 0.01 differences between the cereal cultivars in view of their crude oil contents, fatty acid and mineral compositions of the investigated samples from Turkey.

  12. Rapid plant-cover establishment on gold mine tailings in southern New Zealand: glasshouse screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C; Mains, D; Craw, D

    2005-01-01

    The use of a short-term vegetation cover to temporarily control the negative environmental effects of inactive tailings ponds is notfrequently practiced during operational mining, but could have some merit This article reports on a glasshouse trial designed to examine some of the issues associated with short-term vegetation: fast germination of a high proportion of seed, the ability of seedlings to survive in unamended substrates, and potentially toxic substrate. Five nonindigenous plant species were tested--barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye corn (Secale cereale), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multifiorum), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)--in five different types of substrate: unamended tailings, tailings and fertilizer, tailings and greenwaste, biosolid-blend compost, and local topsoil. The nutrient and heavy metal status (As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) of each substrate type was determined Plant species performance was monitored over 14 wk Substrate metal concentrations were low except for As, which was elevated in all substrate types. Plants in unamended tailings grew less vigorously than plants in tailings and compost or in topsoil. Plant performance in tailings and fertiliser was greatly suppressed following a high fertilization rate. Metal uptake in plants was highest for As (0.4-77 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cu (5.3-50.3 mg kg(-1) DW). Future field trials are necessary to authenticate findings, but barley and rye corn are promising species for a short-term tailings cover.

  13. Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S

    2006-01-01

    Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required.

  14. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  15. Researches on the resistance of certain plants by measuring germ tolerance

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    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of certain plants in young stage concerning their resistance to soil salinity was measured. The plants involved were the following: Secale cereale, Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum vulgare, Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Onobrychis viciaefolia, Cicer arietinum, Helianthus annuus, Carthamus tinctorius and Beta vulgaris. The measurements were done in vegetation pots on two salty soils: solonchak containing chlorides and carbonates (pH 7,6 and 3,16% salinity (1,76 % chlorides at depth of 0-20 cm; solonetz with chlorides and carbonates having, at depth of 0-15 cm, a water pH of 7,5 and 0,53% salinity and at 30-40 cm a 1,26% salinity. Of the plants studied the highest tolerance to salinity, as early as germination stage, was proved by Hordeum vulgare, followed by Beta vulgaris and Carthamus tinctorius. With some plants, such as Helianthus annuus and Cicer arietinum there had been noticed an increased resistance of seedling to salinity as compared with the germination stage.

  16. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity.

  17. Potential for Increased Photosynthetic Performance and Crop Productivity in Response to Climate Change: role of CBFs and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Peter Andrew Huner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that targeting the dwarf phenotype, enhanced photosynthetic performance typically associated with the cold acclimation of winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Brassica napus L. may provide a novel approach to improve crop yield and productivity under abiotic as well as biotic stress conditions. In support of this hypothesis, we provide the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence that the dwarf phenotype induced by cold acclimation is coupled to significant enhancement in photosynthetic performance, resistance to photoinhibition and a decreased dependence on photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching which result in enhanced biomass production and ultimately increased seed yield. These system-wide changes at the levels of phenotype, physiology and biochemistry appear to be governed by the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive family of transcription factors (CBF/DREB1. We relate this phenomenon to the semi-dwarf, gibberellic acid insensitive, cereal varieties developed during the green revolution of the early 1960s and 1970s. We suggest that genetic manipulation of the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 may provide a novel approach for the maintenance and perhaps even the enhancement of plant productivity under conditions of sub-optimal growth conditions predicted for our future climate.

  18. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts. Progress report, May 16, 1992--January 9, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    Our goal is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of freezing injury and cold acclimation from a perspective of the structural and functional integrity of the plasma membrane -- the primary site of freezing injury in winter cereals. We have utilized protoplasts isolated from leaves of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) to study the cryobehavior of the plasma membrane during a freeze/thaw cycle. The focus of our current studies is on lesions in the plasma membrane that result from severe freeze-induced dehydration and result in the alteration of the semipermeable characteristics of the plasma membrane so that the protoplasts are osmotically unresponsive. In protoplasts isolated from non-acclimated rye leaves (NA protoplasts), injury is associated with the formation of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions in the plasma membrane and the subtending lamellae. However, lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions are not observed following severe dehydration of protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated rye leaves (ACC protoplasts). Rather, injury is associated with the ``fracture-jump lesion,`` which, in freeze-fracture electron microscopy studies, is manifested as localized deviations in the fracture face of the plasma membrane. The fracture plane ``jumps`` from the plasma membrane to either subtending aparticulate lamellae or aparticulate regions of various endomembranes (predominantly chloroplast envelopes) that are in close apposition with the plasma membrane.

  19. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts, progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steponkus, P L

    1993-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of freezing injury and cold acclimation from a perspective of the structural and functional integrity of the plasma membrane -- the primary site of freezing injury in winter cereals. We have utilized protoplasts isolated from leaves of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) to study the cryobehavior of the plasma membrane during a freeze/thaw cycle. The focus of our current studies is on lesions in the plasma membrane that result from severe freeze-induced dehydration and result in the alteration of the semipermeable characteristics of the plasma membrane so that the protoplasts are osmotically unresponsive. In protoplasts isolated from non-acclimated rye leaves (NA protoplasts), injury is associated with the formation of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions in the plasma membrane and the subtending lamellae. However, lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions are not observed following severe dehydration of protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated rye leaves (ACC protoplasts). Rather, injury is associated with the fracture-jump lesion,'' which, in freeze-fracture electron microscopy studies, is manifested as localized deviations in the fracture face of the plasma membrane. The fracture plane jumps'' from the plasma membrane to either subtending aparticulate lamellae or aparticulate regions of various endomembranes (predominantly chloroplast envelopes) that are in close apposition with the plasma membrane.

  20. Transcriptionally Active Heterochromatin in Rye B Chromosomes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchilan, Mariana; Delgado, Margarida; Ribeiro, Teresa; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Caperta, Ana; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Jones, R. Neil; Viegas, Wanda; Houben, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genomes of numerous species. Thus far, there is a lack of evidence for any transcripts of Bs in plants, with the exception of some rDNA sequences. Here, we show that the Giemsa banding-positive heterochromatic subterminal domain of rye (Secale cereale) Bs undergoes decondensation during interphase. Contrary to the heterochromatic regions of A chromosomes, this domain is simultaneously marked by trimethylated H3K4 and by trimethylated H3K27, an unusual combination of apparently conflicting histone modifications. Notably, both types of B-specific high copy repeat families (E3900 and D1100) of the subterminal domain are transcriptionally active, although with different tissue type–dependent activity. No small RNAs were detected specifically for the presence of Bs. The lack of any significant open reading frame and the highly heterogeneous size of mainly polyadenylated transcripts indicate that the noncoding RNA may function as structural or catalytic RNA. PMID:17586652

  1. Snow-mold-induced apoplastic proteins in winter rye leaves lack antifreeze activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilovaara-Teijo; Hannukkala; Griffith; Yu; Pihakaski-Maunsbach

    1999-10-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L.) plants secrete antifreeze proteins that are similar to pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In this experiment, the secretion of PR proteins was induced at warm temperatures by infection with pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale), a pathogen of overwintering cereals. A comparison of cold-induced and pathogen-induced proteins showed that PR proteins accumulated in the leaf apoplast to a greater level in response to cold. The PR proteins induced by cold and by snow mold were similar when separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and examined by immunoblotting. Both groups of PR proteins contained glucanase-like, chitinase-like, and thaumatin-like proteins, and both groups exhibited similar levels of glucanase and chitinase activities. However, only the PR proteins induced by cold exhibited antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that the cold-induced PR proteins may be isoforms that function as antifreeze proteins to modify the growth of ice during freezing while also providing resistance to the growth of low-temperature pathogens in advance of infection. Both functions of the cold-induced PR proteins may improve the survival of overwintering cereals.

  2. Efectos de un cultivo de cobertura invernal consociado sobre la dinámica hídrica y la producción del cultivo estival en la región central de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Pietrarelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de cultivos de cobertura es una práctica agroecológica que actúa sobre los problemas generados por la simplificación productiva. Se estudiaron los efectos de un cultivo de cobertura invernal consociado de Vicia dacycarpa y Trititicum secale sobre la dinámica hídrica y el rendimiento del cultivo de soja. La experiencia se desarrolló en sistemas de producción agrícola, en Lozada (Córdoba, Argentina. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados (tres sistemas productivos con dos tratamientos: barbecho y cultivo de cobertura en la secuencia soja-soja. Se calcularon la humedad gravimétrica, volumétrica, disponibilidad de agua útil y porcentaje de agua útil hasta 100 cm, a la siembra del cultivo de cobertura, al momento de su secado y a la siembra del cultivo estival. Se determinó biomasa del cultivo de cobertura y del cultivo de soja posterior. Si bien el contenido hídrico del suelo del cultivo de cobertura al momento del secado fue menor que el testigo, no provocó un efecto negativo en el rendimiento de la soja. Con suficiente precipitación primaveral se logra una acumulación aceptable de biomasa del cultivo de cobertura y una mayor eficiencia en la recarga del perfil superior al momento de la siembra del cultivo estival.

  3. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in wheat and its antigenic determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanqian; ZHANG Xueyong; WANG Hongmei; PANG Binshuang

    2005-01-01

    Wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 1Bx14 and 1By15 isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE are used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. Subcutaneous inoculation of the antigen is performed. The intra-peritoneal injection is completed 3 days before fusion with myeloma cell (SP2/0) via PEG-1500. The fusion cells are selected by indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Positive hybrid cells are further verified three times by limit dilution of the culture cells. A hybridoma cell line is successfully obtained. The monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG1 subclass. In immunoblotting, the antibody binds to all HMW-GS of T.aestivum cultivars, but does not bind to other storage proteins in seeds of wheat. This result is consisting with the high homology in amino acid sequences among the HMW glutenin subunits in wheat. The antibody also binds to HMW-GS storage proteins in Aegilops squarrosa and T. durum (durum wheat). Furthermore, it also binds to HMW storage proteins in Secale cereale (rye),Hordeum vulgare (barley). However, it never binds seed storage proteins in other cereals such as maize, oat, rice, foxtail millet, sorghum etc. The antigen determinant recognized by the antibody has been located within hexapeptide [PGQGQQ] or / and nonapeptide [GYYPTSPQQ] in the central repetitive region of HMW-GS.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  5. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  6. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

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    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  7. High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Wheat Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-li; LI Xiu-quan; YANG Xin-ming; LI Hong-jie; WANG Hui; LI Li-hui

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the high molecular glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and the presence of 1B/1R translocation in newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, which have one or more traits that are useful in wheat improvement. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and acid polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) were used to detect HMW-GS composition and the presence of 1B/1R wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation in the wheat germplasm. Bread-making quality scores of these lines were determined. A high level of variations in HMW-GS encoded by Glu-1 locus was observed. Sixteen major HMW-GS, with 30 combinations, were detected. The percentage of cultivars with more than two desirable subunits was 38.7%. Thirteen cultivars had bread-making quality scores of 10 in combination with one or two desirable agronomical traits, such as high-yield potential, dwarfing stem, resistance to diseases, and/or tolerance to abiotic stress. Sixty-eight (36.6%) cultivars possessed 1B/1R translocation. The newly developed germplasm with HMW-GS for good quality can be promising resources for improving bread-making quality of wheat.

  8. On some morphological properties of the adjective in Gothic. Dėl gotų kalbos būdvardžio morfologinių ypatybių

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    Artūras Ratkus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Gothic, as well as that of other older Germanic languages, has traditionally been analysed in phonological terms, with classifications that reflect earlier stages in the development of Germanic. This paper represents a pioneering attempt at applying the ‘canonical’ approach to the analysis of older Germanic, with a view to producing an adequate synchronic analysis of the morphological properties of the Gothic adjective. It is demonstrated that the traditional separation of strong and weak forms is synchronically unreasonable, and determination represents a non-canonical morphosyntactic feature of the Gothic adjective. Even though the traditional stem-class labels are obsolete from a synchronic point of view, synchronic form variation within Gothic adjective paradigms warrants distinguishing four inflectional classes, a classification which coincides with the traditional philological taxonomy. In addition to inflectional class, Gothic adjectives have been found to have stem indexing and syncretic index features. ------ Gotų kalbos ir kitų senųjų germanų kalbų morfologija tradiciškai nagrinėjama remiantis fonologiniais kriterijais. Tokioje tradicinėje formų klasifikacijoje atsispindi ankstesnieji germanų kalbų raidos etapai; taigi, toks analizės metodas – sinchroniškai neaktualus. Siekiant nuosekliai aprašyti gotų kalbos būdvardžių morfologinius požymius sinchroniniu požiūriu, straipsnyje taikomas kanoninis metodas. Pirmiausia pristatoma „kanono“ sąvoka, apibrėžiamas kanoniškumas fleksijų morfologijoje ir pateikiama grynųjų morfologinių požymių tipologija. Kanonas, tai – abstrakcija, kuri yra daugelio kanoninių kriterijų konvergencijos rezultatas. Nustatant kalbos reiškinio kanoną, išplečiamos reiškinio teorinės ribos ir sukuriama kanoninė erdvė, kurioje galima logiškai ir nuosekliai klasifikuoti reiškinio apraiškas. Remiantis kanonine metodologija straipsnyje

  9. Close or not so close? Provenance studies of megalithic monuments from Alentejo (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, R.; Moita, P.

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant amount of studies about megalithic tombs conducted in the Alentejo region. However the geological provenance of monoliths used in the construction of those tombs usually was not a priority among researchers with rare exceptions (Dehn, Kalb and Vortisch, 1991; Boaventura, 2000). Recent studies of dolmens (Oliveira, 1997 and 2006; Gonçalves, 2003) refer only to a brief characterization of rocks, such as "granite or schist slabs", highlighting certain types if the geological stratum is identical or not to the stone blocks. On the other hand, when the type of raw material appears to be similar with the bedrock, it is common and empirically assumed its local provenance. With the aim of testing and expand the knowledge about the provenance of the slabs used in the construction of megalithic tombs, several lithic samples from dolmen slabs and outcrops in their surroundings were collected for analysis and comparison. The samples were characterized by petrographic studies in thin section as well with a geochemical analyses performed by XRF that gives major elements as well some trace elements. The dolmens tested for this project are located roughly between the northeast to west of the town of Monforte (Upper region of Alentejo, Portugal) and are named, from south to north, as Serrinha, Rabuje group (1 to 5), Geodésico de Besteiros 3 and Velho. The field work and petrographic studies revealed that the slabs are constituted mainly by several types of granitoids (gnaissic, red, white, tonalitic), amphibolites and mottled schist shale. The comparison of chemical analyses between slabs and selected outcrops revealed that the provenances are in most of the cases from the nearby geological stratum. In fact, major elements (e.g. MgO, SiO2, CaO) as well trace elements (e.g. Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) compositions are similar on slab samples and in rocks from the outcrops. If in terms of major elements a similarity was already expectable, or easier to obtain, the

  10. A comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen formulations after single-dose administration in healthy volunteers

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    Metta S.S. Wiria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of ibuprofen 125 mg suppository formulation (Ibukal®, test formulation from PT. Kalbe Farma, Tbk., Jakarta and the ibuprofen suppository comparative formulation (Proris®, from PT. Pharos Indonesia, Jakarta in 12 healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters used in this study were the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to hour 10 (AUC0-t, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinite (AUC0-inf, the maximum concentration (Cmax, and the time needed to reach the maximum concentration (tmax. The study was designed as a random cross-over fashion, single-blinded which included 12 healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers were fasted overnight and in the morning they received a suppository of the test drug (Ibukal® or a suppository of the comparative drug (Proris®. Blood samples were withdrawn on hour 0 (control, 20 min; 40 min; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 4; 6; 8; and 10 time points after the administration of the drug. Following a wash-out period of 1 week, this procedure was repeated using the other drug. The serum concentration of the drug was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The results of the study showed that, the mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the test drug were, respectively, 28.59(3.37 μg.h.mL-1, 30.47(3.56 μg.h.mL-1, 8.24(1.44 μg/mL, and 1.33(0.44 h. The mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the comparative drug were, respectively, 28.13(8.14 μg.h.mL-1, 30.56(8.05 μg.h.mL-1, 8.27(2.88 μg/mL, and 1.79(0.33 h. The geometric means ratio of the test to the comparative drug were 104.38% (CI 90%: 90.38-120.54% for AUC0-t, 101.97% (CI 90%: 89.51-116.16% for AUC0-inf, and 104.02% (CI 90%: 85.73-126.16% for Cmax. There was no side effect of the drug detected in this study. From the results we can conclude that the 125 mg of ibuprofen suppository of PT Kalbe Farma

  11. Educational Outreach for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K.

    2009-12-01

    Astrobiology, the search for life in the universe, has fascinating research areas that can excite students and teachers about science. Its integrative nature, relating to astronomy, geology, oceanography, physics, and chemistry, can be used to encourage students to pursue physical sciences careers. Since 2004, the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) team scientists have shared their research with secondary teachers at our ALI’I national teacher program to promote the inclusion of astrobiology topics into science courses. Since 2007, our NAI team has co-sponsored the HI STAR program for Hawaii’s middle and high school students to work on authentic astronomy research projects and to be mentored by astronomers. The students get images of asteroids, comets, stars, and extrasolar planets from the Faulkes Telescope North located at Haleakala Observatories on the island of Maui and owned by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network. They also do real time observing with DeKalb Observatory telescope personally owned by Donn Starkey who willing allows any student access to his telescope. Student project results include awards at the Hawaii State Science Fair and the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. We believe that research experience stimulates these students to select STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) majors upon entering college so a longitudinal study is being done. Plans are underway with California and Hawaii ALI’I teachers cooperating on a joint astronomy classroom project. International collaborations with Brazil, Portugal, and Italy astronomers have begun. We envision joint project between hemispheres and crossing time zones. The establishment of networking teachers, astronomers, students and educator liaisons will be discussed.

  12. AMPAR peptide values in blood of nonathletes and club sport athletes with concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambinova, Svetlana A; Shikuev, Alexey V; Weissman, Joseph D; Mullins, John D

    2013-03-01

    α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) peptide, a product of the proteolytic degradation of AMPA receptors in healthy nonathletes and athletes with concussions, is assessed. The detection of AMPAR peptide in conjunction with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging is undertaken. Persons (n = 124, 19-23 years) are enrolled in the pilot-blinded study according to approved Institutional Review Board protocols at Kennesaw State University and DeKalb Medical. AMPAR peptide plasma assay was performed using magnetic particles-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All participants had neurocognitive tests (ImPACT); selected subjects with concussions were followed-up with magnetic resonance imaging and neurologic consultations. Athletes (n = 33) with clinically defined single or multiple concussions were compared to 91 age and gender matched controls without a history of concussion. AMPAR peptide values of 0.05-0.40 ng/mL for controls and 1.0-8.5 ng/mL for concussions are found. The biomarker sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 92% (0.4 ng/mL cut off) to assess concussions are calculated. Poorer ImPACT scores correlated with abnormal levels of the biomarker. In athletes with multiple concussions, increased AMPAR peptide values (2.0-12.0 ng/mL) were associated with minor findings on magnetic resonance imaging. AMPAR peptide assay combined with ImPACT and neuroimaging is a promising tool for assessment of concussions. Additional clinical validation studies are required. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. No association between perfluoroalkyl chemicals and hypertension in children

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    Geiger SD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Dee Geiger,1 Jie Xiao,2 Anoop Shankar31Department of Public Health, Northern Illinois University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, DeKalb, IL, 2Registration and Records, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USABackground: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS are perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs used in the manufacture of common consumer products and detected in the blood of the majority of Americans. Emerging biological data suggest that PFC exposure may have a role in the development of hypertension. However, the association between PFCs and hypertension has not yet been explored in humans. Therefore, we examined this association in a representative sample of US children.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,655 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2000 and 2003–2008. The main outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as age, height, and sex specific systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure level at the 95th percentile.Results: We found no association between serum levels of PFOA and PFOS and hypertension in either unadjusted or multivariable-adjusted analyses controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, body mass index, annual household income, moderate activity, total serum cholesterol, and serum cotinine. Compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension in the highest quartile of exposure was 0.69 (0.41–1.17 for PFOA and 0.77 (0.37–1.61 for PFOS (all P-trend values >0.30.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that exposure to PFOA or PFOS is not significantly associated with hypertension in children at the lower PFC exposure levels typical of the general population.Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane

  14. Social cognition: empirical contribution. The developmental building blocks of psychopathic traits: revisiting the role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Vanwoerden, Salome

    2014-02-01

    In the context of personality disorder development, theories of typical and atypical development both emphasize social cognition as an important building block for personality development. Prior claims of intact theory of mind (ToM) abilities in psychopathic individuals have relied upon a narrow conception of ToM as equivalent to "cognitive empathy." In this article, the authors make use of a broader conception of ToM comprising top-down and bottom-up processing, as well as the fractionation of ToM in terms of reduced or excessive ToM function, to examine relationships between ToM and psychopathic traits. A total of 342 adolescents (ages 12-17; Mage 15.39; SD = 1.45; 61.5% females) completed the Movie Assessment for Social Cognition (Dziobek, Fleck, Kalbe, et al., 2006) and the Child Eyes Test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001) in addition to three measures of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated unique relations between the affective components of psychopathy (callous-unemotional traits [CU traits]) and impairment in both top-down and bottom-up ToM. In addition, excessive ToM related to affective components of psychopathy, while reduced or no ToM related to behavioral components of psychopathy. In mediational analyses, bottom-up ToM was shown to be necessary for top-town ToM in its relation with CU traits. Taken together, these results from the study lend support to revisiting the link between ToM and psychopathy.

  15. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

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    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  16. Absence, extended absence, and repeat tardiness related to asthma status among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizan, Samina S; Shendell, Derek G; Rhoads, George G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine potential associations between absence, extended (repeated) absence, tardiness, and repeated tardiness from school and doctor-diagnosed asthma. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data collected in fall 2007 on 914 4th and 5th grade school children from seven randomly selected participating schools in DeKalb County, GA. ANOVA was used to compare attendance metrics for race, gender, and asthma status groups. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were also done because distributions of attendance metrics were skewed. We tallied daily absence data during the study period and examined absence by day of week. We also compared the variation of the weekly rate of absence and tardiness for students with asthma versus students without asthma over the study period. The mean days of absence in 86 students with asthma was 2.73 days compared with 1.89 days for 828 children without asthma (p = .004). There was no significant difference in mean days of tardiness by asthma status. The difference in the number of instances of 2+ consecutive days of absence (extended absence) by asthma status was not significant. Students with asthma were more likely to be absent on Mondays (p = .005), Tuesdays (p = .001), and Fridays (p = .02) than students without asthma. The weekly rate of tardiness for students with asthma trended with the general student study population over the study period, whereas the weekly rate of absence did not. Asthma was associated with increased 1-day absences but not longer absences or tardiness.

  17. Use of physical properties to predict the effects of tillage practices on organic matter dynamics in three Illinois soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gayoung; Nissen, Todd M; Wander, Michelle M

    2006-01-01

    This work builds on a previous study of long-term tillage trials that found use of no-tillage (NT) practices increased soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration at Monmouth, IL (silt loam soil) by increasing the soil's protective capacity, but did not alter SOC storage in DeKalb, IL (silty clay loam), where higher clay contents provided a protective capacity not affected by tillage. The least limiting water range (LLWR), a multi-factor index of structural quality, predicted observed soil CO2 efflux patterns. Here we consider whether LLWR can predict sequestration trends at a third site, Perry, IL (silt loam soil) where SOC content is lower and bulk density is higher than in previously considered sites, and determine whether pore size characteristics can help explain the influence use of NT practices has had on SOC sequestration at all three locations. At Perry, LLWR was again related with differences in specific soil organic carbon mineralization rates (RESPsp) (2000-2001). Reduced RESPsp rates explain increases in SOC storage under NT management observed only after 17 yr. Trends in RESPsp suggest use of NT practices only enhance physical protection of SOC where soil bulk density is relatively high (approximately 1.4 g cm(-3)). In those soils (Monmouth and Perry), use of NT management reduced the volume of small macropores (15-150 microm) thought to be important for microbial activity. Physical properties appear to determine whether or not use of NT practices will enhance C storage by increasing physical protection of SOC. By refining the functions used to compute the LLWR and our understanding of the interactions between management, pore structure, and SOC mineralization, we should be able to predict the influence of tillage practices on SOC sequestration.

  18. Spatial Soil Temperature and Moisture Monitoring Across the Transylvanian Plain, in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Weindorf, David; Haggard, Beatrix; Moraru, Paula Ioana; Sopterean, Mara Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The Transylvanian Plain, Romania is an important region for agronomic productivity. However, limited soils data and adoption of best management practices hinder land productivity. Soil temperatures of the Transylvanian Plain were evaluated using a set of twenty datalogging stations positioned throughout the plain. Soil temperatures were monitored at the surface and at 10, 30, and 50 cm depths, and soil moisture was monitored at 10 cm. Preliminary results indicate that most soils of the Transylvanian Plain will have a mesic temperature regime. However, differences in seasonal warming and cooling trends across the plain were noted. These have important implications for planting recommendations. Growing degree days (GDDs) are preferred over maturity ratings, because they can account for temperature anomalies. The crop being considered for this study was corn. The base temperature (BT) was set at 10oC, and the upper threshold was 30oC. Two methods were used to calculate GDDs; 1) minimum and maximum daily temperatures, and 2) 24 h of averaged temperature data. Growing degree days were run from 110-199 day of year (DOY) to represent approximate planting date to tasseling. The DOY that 694 accumulated growing degree days (AGDDs) was reached at each site was then analyzed to identify differences across the TP. Three sites failed to reach 694 AGDDs by DOY 199, and were excluded from comparisons to other results. Averaged values were used to create spline interpolation maps with ArcMap 9.2 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). The southeastern portion of the TP was found to tassel a month earlier assuming a planting date of 109 DOY. Four DeKalb® corn hybrids were then selected based on GDDs to tasseling, drydown, drought tolerance, and insect resistance. With a better understanding of the GDD trends across the TP, more effective planting and harvesting could be accomplished by Romanian farmers to maximize agronomic production.

  19. References to Isocrates in Aristotle‘s Art of Rhetoric. Nuorodos į Isokratą Aristotelio Retorikos mene

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    Tomas Veteikis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje nagrinėjamos nuorodos į Isokratą Aristo­telio Retorikoje kaip vienas iš jo pažiūrų refleksijos akademikų ir peripatetikų retorinės tradicijoje šal­tinių. Nors Isokrato citatos bei jo kalbų parafrazė­mis iliustruotos retorinės priemonės jau seniai buvo apžvelgtos ne vieno mokslininko, vis dėlto ligi šiol nėra aiškaus ir sistemingo jų tyrimo. Dalis moksli­ninkų gilinosi tik į citatų Aristotelio tekste identifika­vimą ir kodifikavimą, dalis lygino tam tikras abiejų autorių vartotas sąvokas (pvz., metafora, entimema, topas, išskirdami jų reikšminius skirtumus, dar kiti gretino jų pedagoginę veiklą, įžvelgdami tarpusavio konkurenciją ir edukacinių tikslų skirtumą. Nepai­sant to, Isokrato nuorodų reikšmė Aristotelio raštų korpuse vis dar nėra aiškiai nustatyta. Šiuo straipsniu siekiama aptarti pagrindinius Isokrato retorinių prie­monių ir jo kalbų citavimo atvejus Aristotelio Reto­rikoje bei suvesti juos į tam tikrą pradinę sistemą, kurios pagrindu būtų galima atlikti gilesnius Isokrato recepcijos Aristotelio ir peripatetikų retorikos moks­lo tradicijoje tyrimus. Straipsnyje aprašoma dešimt svarbesnių Isokrato nuorodų pasirodymo Stagiriečio veikale atvejų, iš kurių kiekvienas reprezentuojamas skirtingo kieko ir kokybės citatomis, parafrazėmis ar užuominomis, kreipiamas dėmesys į citavimo tiks­lumą, nuorodos eksplikatyvumą, Isokrato stiliaus ir loginių metodų vertinimą. Kad analizė būtų trumpes­nė, citatos ir nuorodos grupuojamos teminiu princi­pu, išskiriant sąlygines Aristotelio veikalo struktūri­nes dalis pagal vėlesnės retorikos teorijos tradicijos suformuluotas retorinės veiklos sritis (heuresis, le­xis, taxis ir kiekvienoje iš jų aptariant pavienes bei grupines citatas. Grupinės citatos traktuojamos kaip viena didelė nuoroda (šitaip aptartos dvi pirmos nuorodos iš heuresis, antroji ir trečioji grupė citatų iš lexis ir prakti

  20. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

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    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  1. Matéria seca de plantas de cobertura, produção de cebola e atributos químicos do solo em sistema plantio direto agroecológico Dry matter of cover crops, onion yield and soil chemical attributes in agroecological no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    2013-01-01

    treatments was implanted in April: weed vegetation (T1, Hordeum vulgare L. (2010/Avena strigosa L. (2011 (T2, Secale cereale L. (T3, Raphanus sativus L. (T4, Secale cereale L + Raphanus sativus L. (T5 e Hordeum vulgare L. (2010/Avena strigosa L. (2011 + Raphanus sativus L. (T6. At 60, 80 and 95 days after sowing (DAS of winter species, the cover crops were collected to determine the dry matter yield. In July the onion seedlings were transplanted and in November the yield was evaluated. After the rolling of winter cover crops and after onion harvest, soil was collected at 0-10cm for the evaluation of chemical attributes. The cultivation and deposition of waste from cover crops in no-tillage contributed to the growth and maintenance of the total production of onion over the years. The soil chemical attributes in 0-10cm layer, with the exception of exchangeable K, available P and CTCpH7,0 saturation values for bases, were not affected by cover crops cultivation and deposition of waste.

  2. Spatial distribution of Pseudaletia sequax Franclemlont in triticale under no-till management Distribuição espacial de Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont na cultura do triticale, em plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Grego

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the spatial distribution of insect populations in crops allows the estimation of the population density in space, the classification of damage impact on yield as well as decisions to be made about control measures. To evaluate the spatial distribution of the wheat armyworm Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, in relation to the development and yield of triticale (Triticum secale Wittmack under no-till management, samplings were taken at 302 points in a square grid measuring 10 x 10 m, in Campinas, SP, Brazil. The caterpillar population was evaluated by counting their number per meter at the base of triticale plants. Grain yield (kg ha-1, cover of the above-ground part (kg ha-1, mean plant height (m, and ground cover percentage were evaluated after the triticale crop was mechanically harvested, with the measurement of the mass of straw left on soil surface. Geostatistics was used to analyze spatial variability, by means of semivariogram analysis, and interpolation of data by both ordinary and indicator kriging, considering the injury threshold level of ten caterpillars per square meter to construct isoline maps. Spatial dependence occurred for all variables, demonstrating an aggregate spatial distribution pattern of the caterpillar in triticale. Random sampling in this area would fail to reveal that grain yield was affected at the location with the greatest occurrence of the caterpillar. At that location, the economic injury level was exceeded, which would justify the adoption of control measures against the pest.O conhecimento da distribuição espacial de populações de insetos de uma cultura permite estimar a densidade populacional no espaço, classificar seus danos causados à produção e tomar uma decisão sobre a medida de controle. Assim, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição espacial da lagarta do trigo Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, em relação ao desenvolvimento e produção do

  3. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

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    C. A. Rosolem

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2, sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare, aveia preta (Avena strigosa, triticale (Triticum secale, crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens foram cultivados em vasos com terra, em casa de vegetação, em Botucatu (SP. Aos 45 dias da emergência, as plantas foram cortadas na altura do colo, secas em estufa e submetidas a chuvas simuladas de 4,4, 8,7, 17,4, 34,9 e 69,8 mm, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1. A máxima retenção de água pela palha corresponde a uma lâmina de até 3,0 mm, independentemente da espécie, praticamente não ocorrendo lixiviação do potássio com chuvas da ordem de 5 mm. A máxima liberação de K por unidade de chuva ocorre com lâminas de até 20 mm, decrescendo a partir deste ponto. A quantidade de K liberado da palha logo após o manejo depende da espécie vegetal, não ultrapassando, no entanto, 24 kg ha-1 com chuvas da ordem de 70 mm, apresentando correlação positiva com a concentração do nutriente no tecido vegetal. O triticale e a aveia são mais eficientes na ciclagem do potássio.Besides protecting soil from erosion, plant residues left on the soil surface by green cover crops in no-till cropping systems represent a considerable nutrient source of nutrients that can be made available for the following crop. Potassium leaching from the straw of six cover crop species was evaluated, in relation to the amount of rain on the residues. Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, guinea sorghum (Sorghum

  4. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop Resíduos da cultura de amendoim como fonte de nitrogênio para uma cultura de cobertura de centeio

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    Kipling Shane Balkcom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults at Headland, AL USA during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 34, 67 and 101 kg ha-1 applied in the fall. Peanut residue had minimal to no effect on rye biomass yields, N content, carbon (C /N ratio, or N, P, K, Ca and Zn uptake. Additional N increased rye biomass yield, and N, P, K, Ca, and Zn uptakes. Peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a rye cover crop grown as part of a conservation system, but retaining peanut residue on the soil surface could protect the soil from erosion early in the fall and winter before a rye cover crop grows sufficiently to protect the typically degraded southeastern USA soils.Culturas leguminosas de inverno tem sido utilizadas em sistemas conservacionistas para suprimento parcial das necessidades de nitrogênio (N de culturas subseqüentes de verão, mas o potencial destas culturas leguminosas de verão no sentido de reduzir as necessidades de N de gramíneas anuais de inverno, utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, ainda não foi extensivamente estudado. Este trabalho avaliou a contribuição dos resíduos de uma cultura de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. sobre as necessidades de N de uma cultura subsequente de centeio (Secale cereale L. como cobertura desenvolvida dentro de um sistema conservacionista, em um

  5. Fitomassa e decomposição de resíduos de plantas de cobertura puras e consorciadas Biomass and decomposition of cover crop residues in monoculture and intercropping

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    Alexandre Doneda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de plantas de cobertura, no outono/inverno, na região do Planalto do Rio Grande Sul contribui para o sucesso do sistema plantio direto. No entanto, informações relativas à produção de fitomassa e decomposição de resíduos dessas espécies ainda são escassas para a região, sobretudo para espécies consorciadas. O experimento foi conduzido em Não-Me-Toque, RS, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, avaliando-se nove tratamentos, sendo quatro constituídos por plantas de cobertura em culturas puras [centeio (Secale cereale L., aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha forrageira (Pisum sativum subesp. arvense e nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg] e cinco por consórcios [(centeio + ervilha forrageira, centeio + nabo forrageiro, aveia + nabo forrageiro, centeio + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e aveia + ervilhaca]. A dinâmica de decomposição dos resíduos culturais das plantas de cobertura foi avaliada em bolsas de decomposição, as quais foram distribuídas na superfície do solo e coletadas aos sete, 14, 21, 28, 57, 117 e 164 dias. O consórcio entre leguminosas e crucífera com gramíneas resultou em maior produção de fitomassa em relação ao cultivo destas em culturas puras. O nitrogênio (N acumulado na parte aérea dos consórcios formados por ervilha forrageira e nabo com centeio e aveia foi semelhante ao da leguminosa e da crucífera em culturas puras e superou em 220,4 % os valores de N observados para as gramíneas em culturas puras. Por meio do consórcio entre as espécies de cobertura foi possível reduzir a taxa de decomposição dos resíduos culturais, em comparação com as culturas puras da leguminosa e da crucífera.The use of cover crops in autumn/winter, in the Planalto region of Rio Grande do Sul, contributes to the success of the no-tillage system. However, information about the biomass production and decomposition of such species in the region is still scarce, especially

  6. Respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium sp. Response of different varieties of cereals to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp.

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    Carlos José Bécquer Granados

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos de campo durante 2009, en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (2 1º 53' 00" latitud norte, 79° 21' 25" longitud oeste y 40 msnm, para determinar la respuesta de diferentes variedades de cereales a la biofertilización con Bradyrhizobium sp. La preparación de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas, se efectuaron según metodologías prestablecidas para este campo de estudio. El diseño experimental fue a través de parcelas divididas y 4 réplicas por tratamiento. Al control fertilizado se le aplicó nitrógeno (150 kg N ha-¹ y se evaluaron diferentes variables agronómicas. Se aplicó análisis de varianza bifactorial; las diferencias entre medias se determinaron por la dócima de comparación de Duncan y t-student. En el experimento con Triticum se concluye que los tratamientos con mejores respuestas, fueron Triticale-inoculado y a IRM37-inoculado y que Triticum secale superó en peso seco raíz y en longitud del tallo a T. aestivum, lo que hace a esta primera especie promisoria para condiciones de sequía. En el experimento con Zea mays se concluye que aunque en peso seco aéreo los mejores tratamientos correspondieron a la fertilización química, en peso seco de la mazorca el tratamiento Canilla-inoculado, presentó valores estadísticamente iguales al de los tratamientos fertilizados, por lo que se considera positiva la respuesta de esta variedad a la biofertilización. No obstante, no se descarta la influencia de las bacterias rizosféricas autóctonas en algunas de las variables estudiadas.Two field experiments were performed in 2009 at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (21° 53' 00" north, 79° 21' 25" west longitude and 40 m to determine the response of different varieties of cereals to bio-fertilization with Bradyrhizobium sp. The preparations of inocula and seed inoculation were made according to preset methodologies

  7. Effect of cover crops management in aggregate stability of a vineyard in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

    2010-05-01

    Our research focuses in cover crop treatments used to avoid soil degradation in hillsides. The soil-plant interaction can influence the soil structure. In this study we pay special attention to the soil aggregates in a hillside vineyard (average slope of 14%), under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions (average annual temperature 14°C, annual rainfall around 400 mm), in the South East of Madrid located at an altitude of 800 masl. The soil classification according to USDA (2006) is Calcic Haploxeralf. Its particle size yields 58% sand, 18% silt and 24% clay, so that according to USDA classification it is a sandy clay loam soil. The bulk density of the first 10 cm of topsoil is 1.2 g cm-3 and its real density is 2.4 g cm-3. It has low organic matter content: 1.3 ± 0.1% (Walkley and Black, 1934). Three treatments were tested: i) traditional tillage ii) soil covered by Brachypodium distachyon allowing self-sowing, and iii) soil covered by Secale cereale, mown in early spring. In each treatment the aggregate stability was measured. These cover crops were established in a 2m wide strip at the center of the rows. We have collected samples of soil for each treatment along 2 years and we analyzed the aggregates, trying to find changes in their stability. Aggregates of 4 to 4.75 mm diameter were selected by dry sieving. The stability was measured with Drop-test: CND and TDI (Imeson and Vis, 1984). An improvement in the stability of aggregates was observed after two years of cover crop treatment. There are significant differences among the treatments analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, being Brachypodium distachyon the treatment with more stable aggregates, it is necessary a mean higher than 8 drops to disintegrate every aggregate completely. Organic carbon was also measured by Loss on Ignition method (Schulte and Hopkins, 1996). This method can lead to an overestimation of the organic matter in soil samples but is considered suitable for aggregates. Again, those

  8. Cereais de inverno submetidos ao corte no sistema de duplo propósito Winter cereals submitted to cuts in double purpose system

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    Patrícia Cambrussi Bortolini

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de cereais de inverno no sistema de duplo propósito permite fornecer aos animais forragem verde no período crítico de carência alimentar, além de aumentar a estabilidade da receita da produção pela melhoria na qualidade e produtividade dos grãos dos cereais de inverno. O experimento foi conduzido no período de abril de 1994 a setembro de 1996 em Guarapuava, Paraná, a fim de avaliar o potencial de utilização para forragem e grãos de aveia branca (Avena sativa L., trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (X. Triticosecale Witt., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, centeio (Secale cereale L. e cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., visando sua utilização em condições de duplo propósito. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com tratamentos distribuídos em parcelas subdivididas, em três repetições. Nas parcelas foram estudados os sistemas de produção (sem corte, um e dois cortes e nas subparcelas, os genótipos. O sistema de dois cortes foi superior aos demais quanto ao rendimento de matéria seca, principalmente para a aveia. Para o rendimento de grãos, os sistemas sem corte e um corte foram superiores, apesar da maior produção dos genótipos de aveia sob dois cortes. Em todos os genótipos, houve melhoria do peso do hectolitro e redução da massa de mil sementes, quando se realizaram cortes. Sob condições de manejo adequadas, pode-se alcançar considerável produção de forragem, sem afetar a posterior produção de grãos para cereais de inverno.The winter cereals utilization in double purpose system allows to provide forage in critical food conditions periods and also to increase the income of production stablility by improving quality and produtivity of winter cereal grains. The experiment was conducted from April 1994 to September 1996, in Guarapuava, Paraná, to evaluate the potential for forage and grains of white oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum, triticale (X. Triticosecale

  9. Cytogenetic identification of wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid × triticale progenies for English grain aphid resistance

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    Quan Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available English grain aphid (EGA, Sitobion avenae Fabricius is an important pest in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. To develop EGA-resistant varieties, introducing the desirable genes from related species is regarded as an efficient avenue. In this study, the F1, F2 and F3 plants derived from the cross of EGA-susceptible wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo amphiploid (PHW-SA, AABBDDNsNs and EGA-resistant triticale (Zhongsi 828, AABBRR were analyzed for EGA resistance. Consequently, PHW-SA was moderately susceptible while Zhongsi 828 and their F1 hybrids were immune, suggesting that the resistance is dominant. All the F2 plants showed high resistance or immunity over two years, indicating that EGA resistance genes are more likely carried by the rye (Secale cereale L. chromosomes rather than the genomes A or B of Zhongsi 828. In the F3 generation, 25 of 239 lines became susceptible. Giemsa C-banding patterns revealed that these F3 lines had 38-40 chromosomes, including complete rye genome except 5R (and 2R in five lines. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis confirmed this result. During meiosis, all the chromosomes formed bivalents. Six bivalents in 20 lines and five bivalents in five lines were characterized from rye. In contrast, their F2 parental lines had 42 chromosomes (21 bivalents, containing 1R-7R of rye. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected. Therefore, we propose that the rye chromosome 5R may be related to EGA resistance.

  10. Molecular markers as a complementary tool in risk assessments: quantifying interspecific gene flow from triticale to spring wheat and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Vanessa B; Hills, Melissa J; Goyal, Aakash; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Topinka, A Keith; Eudes, Francois; Hall, Linda M

    2013-08-01

    Triticale is being considered as a bioindustrial crop in Canada using genetic modification. Because related spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. durum) may exhibit synchronous flowering and grow in proximity, determination of interspecific gene flow when triticale is the pollen donor is necessary to evaluate potential risk. Pollen-mediated gene flow risk assessments generally rely on phenotypic markers to detect hybridization but DNA markers could be powerful and less ambiguous in quantifying rare interspecific gene flow. Six cultivars representing four species [spring wheat, durum wheat, triticale and rye (Secale cereale)] were screened with 235 spring wheat and 27 rye SSR markers to evaluate transferability and polymorphism. Fifty-five polymorphic markers were used in conjunction with morphological characterization to quantify interspecific gene flow from a blue aleurone (BA) triticale line to two spring wheat cultivars (AC Barrie and AC Crystal) and one durum wheat cultivar (AC Avonlea). Approximately 1.9 Million seeds from small plot experiments were visually screened in comparison with known hybrid seed. In total 2031 putative hybrids were identified and 448 germinated. Morphological analysis of putative hybrid plants identified five hybrids while molecular analysis identified 11 hybrids and two were common to both. Combined, 14 hybrids were confirmed: 10 spring wheat × triticale (0.0008 % of harvested seed): seven AC Barrie × BA triticale (0.001 %) and three AC Crystal × BA triticale (0.0005 %); and four durum wheat × triticale (0.0006 %). The occurrence of rare hybrids does not present a substantial risk to the development of GM triticale.

  11. Development and assessment of DArT markers in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, A; Eudes, F; Salmon, D; Tuvesson, S; Vrolijk, A; Larsson, C-T; Caig, V; Huttner, E; Kilian, A; Laroche, André

    2011-05-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) is a hybrid derived by crossing wheat (Triticum sp.) and rye (Secale sp.). Till date, only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers have been used in triticale molecular analyses and there is a need to identify dedicated high-throughput molecular markers to better exploit this crop. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in triticale. DArT marker technology offers a high level of multiplexing. Development of new markers from triticale accessions was combined with mining the large collection of previously developed markers in rye and wheat. Three genotyping arrays were used to analyze a collection of 144 triticale accessions. The polymorphism level ranged from 8.6 to 23.8% for wheat and rye DArT markers, respectively. Among the polymorphic markers, rye markers were the most abundant (3,109) followed by wheat (2,214) and triticale (719). The mean polymorphism information content values were 0.34 for rye DArT markers and 0.37 for those from triticale and wheat. High correlation was observed between similarity matrices derived from rye, triticale, wheat and combined marker sets, as well as for the cophenetic values matrices. Cluster analysis revealed genetic relationships among the accessions consistent with the agronomic and pedigree information available. The newly developed triticale DArT markers as well as those originated from rye and wheat provide high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and might be exploited in a range of molecular breeding and genomics applications in triticale.

  12. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications

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    Hunt, E. Raymond; Daughtry, Craig S.T.; Mirsky, Steven B.; Hively, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare information obtained from two different pixel sizes, one about a meter (the size of a small vegetation plot) and one about a millimeter. Cereal rye (Secale cereale) was planted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center for a winter cover crop with fall and spring fertilizer applications, which produced differences in biomass and leaf chlorophyll content. UAS imagery was simulated by placing a Fuji IS-Pro UVIR digital camera at 3-m height looking nadir. An external UV-IR cut filter was used to acquire true-color images; an external red cut filter was used to obtain color-infrared-like images with bands at near-infrared, green, and blue wavelengths. Plot-scale Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was correlated with dry aboveground biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.58$ ), whereas the Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) was not correlated with chlorophyll content. We used the SamplePoint program to select 100 pixels systematically; we visually identified the cover type and acquired the digital numbers. The number of rye pixels in each image was better correlated with biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.73$ ), and the average TGI from only leaf pixels was negatively correlated with chlorophyll content ( ${mbi {r}} = -0.72$ ). Thus, better information for crop requirements may be obtained using very small pixel sizes, but new algorithms based on computer vision are needed for analysis. It may not be necessary to geospatially register large numbers of photographs with very small pixel sizes. Instead, images could be analyzed as single plots along field transects.

  13. Enzyme activities and arylsulfatase protein content of dust and the soil source: biochemical fingerprints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Martínez, V; Zobeck, T M

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the potential of enzyme activities, which are sensitive to soil properties and management, for the characterization of dust properties. Enzyme activities may be among the dust properties key to identifying the soil source of dust. We generated dust (27 and 7 microm) under controlled laboratory conditions from agricultural soils (0-5 cm) with history of continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or cotton rotated with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], rye (Secale cereale L.), or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional) systems. The 27- and 7-microm dust samples showed activities of beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase, which are related to cellulose degradation and phosphorus and sulfur mineralization in soil, respectively. Dust samples generated from a loam and sandy clay loam showed higher enzyme activities compared with dust samples from a fine sandy loam. Enzyme activities of dust samples were significantly correlated to the activities of the soil source with r > 0.74 (P < 0.01). The arylsulfatase proteins contents of the soils (0.04-0.65 mg protein kg(-1) soil) were lower than values reported for soils from other regions, but still dust contained arylsulfatase protein. The three enzyme activities studied, as a group, separated the dust samples due to the crop rotation or tillage practice history of the soil source. The results indicated that the enzyme activities of dust will aid in providing better characterization of dust properties and expanding our understanding of soil and air quality impacts related to wind erosion.

  14. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  15. Tree-based intercropping systems increase growth and nutrient status of hybrid poplar: a case study from two Northeastern American experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tree-based intercropping is considered to be a potentially useful land use system for mitigating negative environmental impacts from intensive agriculture such as nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. Rapid early growth of trees is critical for rapidly accruing environmental benefits provided by the trees. We tested the hypothesis that intercropping increases the growth and nutrient status of young hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), compared to a harrowing alley treatment (i.e., no intercrop), in two experimental sites (St-Rémi and St-Edouard) in southern Québec, Canada. Three hybrid poplar clones (TD3230, Populus trichocarpa x deltoides; DN3308, P. deltoides x nigra; and NM3729, P. nigra x maximowiczii) were planted at St-Rémi. Clones DN3333 and DN3570 were planted at St-Edouard. At St-Rémi, intercropping comprised a 4-year succession of three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). At St-Edouard, intercropping comprised a 3-year succession of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). At St-Rémi, four years after treatment began, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was 37% higher compared to that in the harrowing treatment. At St-Edouard, after the third growing season, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was significantly higher by 40%. Vector analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations and comparison with critical concentration values showed that N (both sites) and K (St-Edouard) were the most limiting nutrients. Hybrid poplar clones responded similarly to treatments, with no consistent differences in tree growth observed between clones. We conclude that tree-based intercropping systems may offer an effective means of improving the early growth of hybrid poplars planted to provide both environmental services and high-value timber.

  16. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  17. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  18. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P

    2004-01-01

    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  19. On the consequences of aluminium stress in rye: repression of two mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Moneim, D; Contreras, R; Silva-Navas, J; Gallego, F J; Figueiras, A M; Benito, C

    2015-01-01

    Plants have developed several external and internal aluminium (Al) tolerance mechanisms. The external mechanism best characterised is the exudation of organic acids induced by Al. Rye (Secale cereale L.), one of the most Al-tolerant cereal crops, secretes both citrate and malate from its roots in response to Al. However, the role of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) genes in Al-induced stress has not been studied in rye. We have isolated the ScMDH1 and ScMDH2 genes, encoding two different mitochondrial MDH isozymes, in three Al-tolerant rye cultivars (Ailés, Imperial and Petkus) and one sensitive inbred rye line (Riodeva). These genes, which have seven exons and six introns, were located on the 1R (ScMDH1) and 3RL (ScMDH2) chromosomes. Exon 1 of ScMDH1 and exon 7 of ScMDH2 were the most variable among the different ryes. The hypothetical proteins encoded by these genes were classified as putative mitochondrial MDH isoforms. The phylogenetic relationships obtained using both cDNA and protein sequences indicated that the ScMDH1 and ScMDH2 proteins are orthologous to mitochondrial MDH1 and MDH2 proteins of different Poaceae species. The expression studies of the ScMDH1 and ScMDH2 genes indicate that it is more intense in roots than in leaves. Moreover, the amount of their corresponding mRNAs in roots from plants treated and not treated with Al was higher in the tolerant cultivar Petkus than in the sensitive inbred line Riodeva. In addition, ScMDH1 and ScMDH2 mRNA levels decreased in response to Al stress (repressive behaviour) in the roots of both the tolerant Petkus and the sensitive line Riodeva.

  20. Characterization and expression analyses of the H ⁺ -pyrophosphatase gene in rye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANG-SHUI WANG; QIAN-TAO JIANG; JIAN MA; XIU-YING WANG; JI-RUI WANG; GUO-YUE CHEN; PENG-FEI QI; YUAN-YING PENG; XIU-JIN LAN; YOU-LIANG ZHENG; YU-MING WEI

    2016-09-01

    The H+-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺ -PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. ‘Qinling’). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺ − PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses. ScHP1 cDNA included a 2289 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 762 amino acid residues with 14 transmembrane domains. The genomic ScHP1 DNA was 4354 bp and contained eight exons and seven introns.ScHP1 was highly homologous with other members of the H⁺ -PPase gene family. When the full-length ORF was inserted into the expression vector pA7-YFP, the fluorescent microscopy revealed that ScHP1-YFP fusion protein was located in the plasma membrane. Rye plants that were subjected to N deprivation, cold and high-salt stresses, ScHP1 expression was higher in the leaves than roots. Conversely, plants subjected to P and K deprivation and drought stress,ScHP1 expression was higher in the roots than leaves. Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than in the leaves and roots. Our results imply that ScHP1 functions under abiotic stress response.

  1. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels.

  2. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of plaggic Anthrosols; the identification of stable fillings used for the production of plaggic manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan M.; Wagner, Thomas V.; Geert de Boer, J.; Jansen, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Plaggic Anthrosols are the result of historical forms of land management in cultural landscapes on chemically poor sandy substrates. Application of plaggic manure was responsible for the development of the plaggic horizons of these agricultural soils. Pollen diagrams reflect aspects of the environmental development but the interpretation of the pollen spectra is complicated due to the mix of the aeolian pollen influx of crop species and species in the surroundings, and of pollen occurring in the used stable fillings. Pollen diagrams and radiocarbon dates of plaggic Anthrosols suggested a development period of more than a millennium. Calluna is present in almost all the pollen spectra, indicating the presence of heath in the landscape during the whole period of soil development. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the plaggic horizon made clear that the deposition of plaggic covers started in the 16th century and accelerated in the 18th century. The stable fillings, used for the production of plaggic manure and responsible for the rise of the soil surface, cannot be identified with pollen diagrams alone. Biomarker analyses provide more evidence about the sources of stable fillings. The oldest biomarker spectra of the plaggic horizons of three typical plaggic Anthrosols examined in this study were dominated by biomarkers of forest species such as Quercus and Betula while the spectra of middle part of the plaggic horizons were dominated by biomarkers of stem tissue of crop species such as Secale and Avena. Only the youngest spectra of the plaggic horizons were dominated by biomarkers of Calluna. This indicates that the use of heath sods as stable filling was most likely introduced very late in the development of the Anthrosols. Before the 19th century the mineral component in plaggic manure cannot be explained by the use of heath sods. We conclude that other sources of materials, containing mineral grains must have been responsible for the raise of the plaggic

  3. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaoguo An

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization, mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mc-GISH (multicolor GISH and EST (expressed sequence tag-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering.

  5. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection.

  6. What does the 5S rRNA multigene family tell us about the origin of the annual Triticeae (Poaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B R; Edwards, T; Johnson, D A

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the complex relationships among the annual genera within the tribe Triticeae through phylogenetic analyses of the 5S rRNA multigene family. Cloned sequences were assigned to groups of orthologous sequences, called unit classes, that were subjected to several analyses including BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) searches to assess possible ancestral relationships with perennial genera; phylogenetic analyses using parsimony (Pars), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods; and minimum reticulation networks from the Pars, ML, and Bayesian trees. In this study, we included genera with both annual and perennial species, such as Dasypyrum, Hordeum, and Secale. BLAST pointed to Pseudoroegneria (carrier of the St genome) and possibly Thinopyrum (carrier of the J genome) as the potential next of kin. However, Thinopyrum and Pseudoroegneria have never fallen together on the individual trees with the former generally associated with Crithopsis, Aegilops, Triticum, and Dasypyrum, while the latter is usually associated with the rest of the genera within Triticeae. The "long" unit classes placed Dasypyrum breviaristatum together with Dasypyrum villosum, whereas the "short" unit classes put them far apart on the trees. None of the gene trees alone was able to summarize the complex relationships among the genera, in line with previous results in the Triticeae. However, the application of tools designed to display phylogenetic networks was able to depict the complex links among the genera based on the short and the long gene trees, including the close link between Thinopyrum and Pseudoroegneria suggested by the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, our analyses provide support for the hypothesis that at least some annual Triticeae taxa are derived from their perennial relatives.

  7. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  8. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  9. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  10. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  11. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  12. Rye cover crop and gamagrass strip effects on NO3 concentration and load in tile drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, T C; Jaynes, D B; Parkin, T B; Moorman, T B

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or "tiles." Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concentrations in subsurface drainage to acceptable levels; therefore, additional approaches need to be devised. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainage water for a no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) management system. In one treatment, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) was grown in permanent 3.05-m-wide strips above the tiles. For the second treatment, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was seeded over the entire plot area each year near harvest and chemically killed before planting the following spring. Twelve 30.5x42.7-m subsurface-drained field plots were established in 1999 with an automated system for measuring tile flow and collecting flow-weighted samples. Both treatments and a control were initiated in 2000 and replicated four times. Full establishment of both treatments did not occur until fall 2001 because of dry conditions. Treatment comparisons were conducted from 2002 through 2005. The rye cover crop treatment significantly reduced subsurface drainage water flow-weighted NO3 concentrations and NO3 loads in all 4 yr. The rye cover crop treatment did not significantly reduce cumulative annual drainage. Averaged over 4 yr, the rye cover crop reduced flow-weighted NO3 concentrations by 59% and loads by 61%. The gamagrass strips did not significantly reduce cumulative drainage, the average annual flow-weighted NO3 concentrations, or cumulative NO3 loads averaged over the 4 yr. Rye winter cover crops grown after corn and soybean have the potential to reduce the NO3 concentrations and loads delivered to surface waters by subsurface drainage systems.

  13. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  14. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest.

  15. Simple method for estimating soil mass loading onto plant surface using magnetic material content as a soil indicator - Influence of soil adhesion to vegetation on radioactive cesium concentration in forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yoshihito; Harada, Hisatomi

    2016-11-01

    A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg(-1) dry plant material including soil. Samples of different Japanese cultivated soils were tested and showed a range of magnetic contents of 1.27-16.1 g kg(-1) on a dry weight basis. These levels are considered adequate for determining soil contamination in plant materials. Then, we applied this method for confirming the effect of soil adhesion on radioactive cesium concentrations in plant samples obtained at the area affected by the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. The mean soil mass loading (±standard deviation) on forage rye (Secale cereale L.) showing mild lodging was 0.8 ± 0.6 g kg(-1), but was 7.4 ± 5.0 g kg(-1) for plants with serious lodging. No soil loading was detected on rye plants that showed no lodging. Radioactive cesium concentrations in the rye samples increased linearly with the increase in soil mass loading caused by plant lodging, and consequently mean radioactive cesium concentration for rye plants with serious lodging was about 2.7 times higher than that with no lodging. Cesium radioactivity in forage was affected by variations in soil mass loading onto forage plants caused by changes in plant growth and differences between plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Approaches for Deuterium Incorporation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium (2H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40 50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H2H-NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30 40 % deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium.

  17. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  18. Variation of Microbial Rhizosphere Communities in Response to Crop Species, Soil Origin, and Inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti L33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethling, R; Wieland, G; Backhaus, H; Tebbe, C C

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study with soil-plant microcosms was conducted in order to compare the effect of crop species, soil origin, and a bacterial inoculant on the establishment of microbial communities colonizing plant roots. Two crop species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and rye (Secale cereale), were grown separately in two soils collected from agricultural fields at different locations and with differing histories of leguminous crop rotation. A subset of microcosms was inoculated at 10(6) cfu g(-1) soil with the luciferase marker gene-tagged Sinorhizobium meliloti strain L33, a symbiotic partner of M. sativa. Microbial consortia were collected from the rhizospheres of alfalfa after 10 weeks of incubation and from rye after 11 weeks. S. meliloti L33 populations were one to two orders of magnitude higher in the rhizospheres of alfalfa than of rye. In soil with previous alfalfa cultivation, 80% of the alfalfa nodules were colonized by indigenous bacteria, while in the other soil alfalfa was colonized almost exclusively (>90%) with S. meliloti L33. Three community-level targeting approaches were used to characterize the variation of the extracted microbial rhizosphere consortia: (1) Community level physiological profiles (CLPP), (2) fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME), and (3) diversity of PCR amplified 16S rRNA target sequences from directly extracted ribosomes, determined by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). All approaches identified the crop species as the major determinant of microbial community characteristics. Consistently, the influence of soil was of minor importance, while a modification of the alfalfa-associated microbial community structure after inoculation with S. meliloti L33 was only consistently observed by using TGGE.

  19. Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfalĺs water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.

  20. Association analysis of frost tolerance in rye using candidate genes and phenotypic data from controlled, semi-controlled, and field phenotyping platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frost is an important abiotic stress that limits cereal production in the temperate zone. As the most frost tolerant small grain cereal, rye (Secale cereale L. is an ideal cereal model for investigating the genetic basis of frost tolerance (FT, a complex trait with polygenic inheritance. Using 201 genotypes from five Eastern and Middle European winter rye populations, this study reports a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis in rye using 161 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and nine insertion-deletion (Indel polymorphisms previously identified from twelve candidate genes with a putative role in the frost responsive network. Results Phenotypic data analyses of FT in three different phenotyping platforms, controlled, semi-controlled and field, revealed significant genetic variations in the plant material under study. Statistically significant (P ScCbf15 and one in ScCbf12, all leading to amino acid exchanges, were significantly associated with FT over all three phenotyping platforms. Distribution of SNP effect sizes expressed as percentage of the genetic variance explained by individual SNPs was highly skewed towards zero with a few SNPs obtaining large effects. Two-way epistasis was found between 14 pairs of candidate genes. Relatively low to medium empirical correlations of SNP-FT associations were observed across the three platforms underlining the need for multi-level experimentation for dissecting complex associations between genotypes and FT in rye. Conclusions Candidate gene based-association studies are a powerful tool for investigating the genetic basis of FT in rye. Results of this study support the findings of bi-parental linkage mapping and expression studies that the Cbf gene family plays an essential role in FT.

  1. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  2. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  3. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  4. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  5. Proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Dahlem Ziech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na proteção do solo, na região Sudoeste do Paraná, em função da taxa de cobertura, da produção de matéria seca (MS, da relação C/N e da manutenção da MS remanescente dos resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo. Foram utilizados como cobertura do solo: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, azevém (Lolium multiflorum, centeio (Secale cereale, tremoço-branco (Lupinus albus, ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e consórcios entre aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum (A+E e aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum + nabo forrageiro (A+E+N. O experimento foi avaliado durante os anos agrícolas 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. A decomposição das plantas de cobertura foi determinada com uso de bolsas de decomposição ("litter bags". A aveia-preta e os consórcios proporcionaram maiores taxas de cobertura do solo aos primeiros 50 dias após a semeadura, com aporte de MS superior a 2.600 kg ha-1 na superfície do solo. O consórcio entre A+E+N apresentou relação C/N equilibrada e decomposição intermediária em relação ao cultivo solteiro, tendo promovido 1.045 kg ha-1 de palhada sobre o solo, 120 dias após seu manejo. Gramíneas puras e consórcios com gramíneas apresentam maior potencial de proteção do solo

  6. Movement behaviour of the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in crops and at a habitat interface explains patterns of population redistribution in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Allema

    Full Text Available Animals may respond to habitat quality and habitat edges and these responses may affect their distribution between habitats. We studied the movement behaviour of a ground-dwelling generalist predator, the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger. We performed a mark-recapture experiment in two adjacent habitats; a large plot with oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus and a plot with rye (Secale cereale. We used model selection to identify a minimal model representing the mark-recapture data, and determine whether habitat-specific motility and boundary behaviour affected population redistribution. We determined movement characteristics of P. melanarius in laboratory arenas with the same plant species using video recording. Both the field and arena results showed preference behaviour of P. melanarius at the habitat interface. In the field, significantly more beetles moved from rye to oilseed radish than from radish to rye. In the arena, habitat entry was more frequent into oilseed radish than into rye. In the field, movement was best described by a Fokker-Planck diffusion model that contained preference behaviour at the interface and did not account for habitat specific motility. Likewise, motility calculated from movement data using the Patlak model was not different between habitats in the arena studies. Motility (m2 d-1 calculated from behavioural data resulted in estimates that were similar to those determined in the field. Thus individual behaviour explained population redistribution in the field qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The findings provide a basis for evaluating movement within and across habitats in complex agricultural landscapes with multiple habitats and habitat interfaces.

  7. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

    2004-07-01

    The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

  8. Genome size and genome evolution in diploid Triticeae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, T; Anikster, Y; Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Sagi-Assif, O; Feldman, M

    2007-11-01

    One of the intriguing issues concerning the dynamics of plant genomes is the occurrence of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA amount. The aim of this work was to assess the ranges of intraspecific, interspecific, and intergeneric variation in nuclear DNA content of diploid species of the tribe Triticeae (Poaceae) and to examine the relation between life form or habitat and genome size. Altogether, 438 plants representing 272 lines that belong to 22 species were analyzed. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry. Very small intraspecific variation in DNA amount was found between lines of Triticeae diploid species collected from different habitats or between different morphs. In contrast to the constancy in nuclear DNA amount at the intraspecific level, there are significant differences in genome size between the various diploid species. Within the genus Aegilops, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.84 pg in A. caudata to 7.52 pg in A. sharonensis; among genera, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.18 pg in Heteranthelium piliferum to 9.45 pg in Secale montanum. No evidence was found for a smaller genome size in annual, self-pollinating species relative to perennial, cross-pollinating ones. Diploids that grow in the southern part of the group's distribution have larger genomes than those growing in other parts of the distribution. The contrast between the low variation at the intraspecific level and the high variation at the interspecific one suggests that changes in genome size originated in close temporal proximity to the speciation event, i.e., before, during, or immediately after it. The possible effects of sudden changes in genome size on speciation processes are discussed.

  9. Characterization and expression analyses of the H⁺-pyrophosphatase gene in rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Shui; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Qi, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺-PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. 'Qinling'). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺-PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses. ScHP1 cDNA included a 2289 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 762 amino acid residues with 14 transmembrane domains. The genomic ScHP1 DNA was 4354 bp and contained eight exons and seven introns. ScHP1 was highly homologous with other members of the H⁺-PPase gene family. When the full-length ORF was inserted into the expression vector pA7-YFP, the fluorescent microscopy revealed that ScHP1-YFP fusion protein was located in the plasma membrane. Rye plants that were subjected to N deprivation, cold and high-salt stresses, ScHP1 expression was higher in the leaves than roots. Conversely, plants subjected to P and K deprivation and drought stress, ScHP1 expression was higher in the roots than leaves. Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than in the leaves and roots. Our results imply that ScHP1 functions under abiotic stress response.

  10. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  11. Human utilization of triticale: technological and nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, L; Acs, E; Lantos, Cs; Tomoskozi, S; Lango, B

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that triticale is not subject of the EU intervention, its acreage shows a continuously growing trend. Albeit, both parental species (sp. Triticum, sp. Secale) are used for human food, the utilization of triticale as human food is still uncertain. The main focus of this paper was to study and compare technological and nutritional values of triticale and its parental species. Triticale (cultivars and experimental lines) along with one wheat and one rye varieties were used in the tests. Most of the grain and flour technological properties (Kernel diameter, Test Weight, flour yield, gluten content, Zeleny volume) of the triticale entries positioned in between the parental wheat and rye attributes. However, thousand kernel weight (TKW) of triticale cultivar GK Szemes and grain hardness of cv. GK Idus surpassed all other entries. The study revealed that--having considerable variation--triticale grains are very rich in beneficial elements such us Ca, Mg, P, Cu and Zn. Dietary fiber (DF) content of triticales were between the rye and wheat controls (10-15%). Total arabinoxylan content (TOTAX) of triticales were much closer to rye (6%), and in some genotypes considerably expanded it (6,5-7%). Health conscious consumers trend to use increasingly novel, valuable grain sources and products in their daily based diets. The inappropriate nature of triticale per se flours for baking industry seems to hinder the human utilization. Blends exploiting favorable attributes of triticale may be a suitable way to use this valuable crop in milling products and in larger food industrial scale.

  12. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  13. Dynamics of rye chromosome 1R regions with high or low crossover frequency in homology search and synapsis development.

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    Nohelia T Valenzuela

    Full Text Available In many organisms, homologous pairing and synapsis depend on the meiotic recombination machinery that repairs double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs produced at the onset of meiosis. The culmination of recombination via crossover gives rise to chiasmata, which locate distally in many plant species such as rye, Secale cereale. Although, synapsis initiates close to the chromosome ends, a direct effect of regions with high crossover frequency on partner identification and synapsis initiation has not been demonstrated. Here, we analyze the dynamics of distal and proximal regions of a rye chromosome introgressed into wheat to define their role on meiotic homology search and synapsis. We have used lines with a pair of two-armed chromosome 1R of rye, or a pair of telocentrics of its long arm (1RL, which were homozygous for the standard 1RL structure, homozygous for an inversion of 1RL that changes chiasma location from distal to proximal, or heterozygous for the inversion. Physical mapping of recombination produced in the ditelocentric heterozygote (1RL/1RL(inv showed that 70% of crossovers in the arm were confined to a terminal segment representing 10% of the 1RL length. The dynamics of the arms 1RL and 1RL(inv during zygotene demonstrates that crossover-rich regions are more active in recognizing the homologous partner and developing synapsis than crossover-poor regions. When the crossover-rich regions are positioned in the vicinity of chromosome ends, their association is facilitated by telomere clustering; when they are positioned centrally in one of the two-armed chromosomes and distally in the homolog, their association is probably derived from chromosome elongation. On the other hand, chromosome movements that disassemble the bouquet may facilitate chromosome pairing correction by dissolution of improper chromosome associations. Taken together, these data support that repair of DSBs via crossover is essential in both the search of the homologous partner

  14. Genetic mapping of a 7R Al tolerance QTL in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, A; Bednarek, P T; Labudda, M; Mańkowski, D R; Anioł, A

    2014-02-01

    Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a relatively new cereal crop. In Poland, triticale is grown on 12 % of arable land ( http://www.stat.gov.pl ). There is an increasing interest in its cultivation due to lowered production costs and increased adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, it has an insufficient tolerance to the presence of aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil. The number of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in triticale and their chromosomal location is not known. Two F2 mapping biparental populations (MP1 and MP15) segregating for aluminum (Al) tolerance were tested with AFLP, SSR, DArT, and specific PCR markers. Genetic mapping enabled the construction of linkage groups representing chromosomes 7R, 5R and 2B. Obtained linkage groups were common for both mapping populations and mostly included the same markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) allowed identification of a single QTL that mapped to the 7R chromosome and explained 25 % (MP1) and 36 % (MP15) of phenotypic variation. The B1, B26 and Xscm150 markers were 0.04 cM and 0.02 cM from the maximum of the LOD function in the MP1 and MP15, respectively and were highly associated with aluminum tolerance as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Moreover, the molecular markers B1, B26, Xrems1162 and Xscm92, previously associated with the Alt4 locus that encoded an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ScALMT1) that was involved in Al tolerance in rye (Secale cereale) also mapped within QTL. Biochemical analysis of plants represented MP1 and MP15 mapping populations confirmed that the QTL located on 7R chromosome in both mapping populations is responsible for Al tolerance.

  15. Dose-Response—A Challenge for Allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G.; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O.

    2005-01-01

    The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions. PMID:19330161

  16. Dose-response-a challenge for allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-04-01

    The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions.

  17. PRODUTIVIDADE E COMPOSIÇÃO DOS GRÃOS DE SOJA APÓS O APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO COM O USO DE CULTURAS DE COBERTURA EM SISTEMA DE SEMEADURA DIRETA

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    BRANCALIÃO, Sandro Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At soybean production system, the interference of biotic and abiotic factors in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen during the reproductive phase are the main determinants of grain yield and nitrogen input on cover crops justifies this management strategy.The aim of this work was evaluate at No-Tillagem System (NTS, with cover-crops and a soyben rotation, the contribution of the nitrogen fertilization to the improve of the straw, the yield and soybean grain composition. The treatments were: T1: triticum secale-IAC-2 (Zero N; T2: triticum secale (30 kg N ha-1 in coverage; T3: triticum secale (60 kg N ha-1 in coverage; T4: Chícharo (Latyrus sativum and T5: fallow in winter.We adjust the statical model analyzis in a design with randomized blocks and with four replications, at the Experimental Station Center (ESC-IAC-Santa Elisa above a Oxisol. The protein amount and the measures in the grains show that with added nitrogen in gains over fallow for yield and protein are obtained. Fallow has lower productivity of soybeans, valuing, even more the importance of maintaining the soil covered. Due to four years of implementation of the direct sowing system, the use of crops in the off season effectively demonstrates positive differences in soybean yield in relation to fallow (only spontaneous vegetation. The fact that well drive the system with dry matter intake in coverage for other crops in autumn-winter, already values the development of soybean in this system, when sown in summer. Na cultura de soja, a interferência de fatores bióticos e abióticos na assimilação de carbono e de nitrogênio na fase reprodutiva são os principais determinantes da produtividade de grãos, e aporte de nitrogênio em plantas de cobertura justifica esta estratégia de manejo. Com o objetivo de avaliar em sistema de semeadura direta (SSD culturas de cobertura em rotação com a soja e a contribuição da adubação nitrogenada para a formação de palhada além do

  18. Polilingvali Vilniaus jaunimo raiška: socialinės tapatybės paieškos. Polylingual behaviour of Vilnius youth: Searching for social identity

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    Inga Vyšniauskienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the problem of polilingual behaviour of Vilnius teenagers. The aim of this study is to reveal the frequency of linguistic features in the language of Vilnius teenagers of two age groups (13—14 and 15—17 as well as identify reasons for the informants’ polylingual behaviour. Extracts of spontaneous interactions from the corpus of the language of Vilnius youth have been chosen for the analysis. The results of the quantitative analysis have revealed that the elderly informants’ and younger boys’ polylingual behaviour is characterised by frequent, repetitive Russian features and nonrecurrent occurences of English features. The predominant use of English features in younger girls’ speech may imply that they have not yet mastered the Russian slang as well as point to their positive attitudes towards the English language. Within the framework of interactional sociolinguistics, the analysis of younger informants’ speech has revealed a link between English, German, Polish features and language play. Differently from the elderly teenagers, younger teenagers tend to change identities, e.g. an experienced player, an expert at love affairs, an adult who can evaluate youth language, via the play with English items. Russian items, which make a major part of slang in elderly teenagers’ speech, are used for sociopsychological purposes, as a means to display peer group identity. The study has revealed a varied polylingual production of Vilnius teenagers, which serves as a means of negotiating the social identity of a peer group member, creative and innovative teenager. ------ Straipsnyje keliama iki šiol Lietuvoje nenagrinėta jaunimo polilingvalaus elgesio problema. Tyrimo duomenis sudaro Vilniaus paauglių kalbos tekstynas, sukauptas renkant savanorių informantų įrašus ir atliekant etnografinius stebėjimus. Darbo tikslas – palyginti kitų kalbų elementų vartojimo dažnumą ir funkcijas jaunesniųjų (13–14 m. ir

  19. The Analysis of Some Contemporary Computer Mikrosystems

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    Angelė Kaulakienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In every language a twofold process could be observed: 1 a huge surge of new terms and 2 a big part of these new terms make their way into the common language. The nucleus of the vocabulary and the grammatical system of the common language make the essence of a language and its national originality. Because of such an intensive development in the future terminological lexis can become a basis of a common language and it ought to be not a spontaneously formed sum of terminological lexis, but an entirety of consciously created terms, which meet the requirements of language, logic and terminology. Computer terminology, by comparison with terminology of other fields, is being created in a slightly unusual way. The first computation institutions in Lithuania were established in early sixties and a decade later there were a few computation centres and a number of key-operated and punch machines working. Together with the new computational technology many new devices, units, parts, phenomena and characteristics appeared, which needed naming. Specialists faced an obvious shortage of Lithuanian terms for computing equipment. In 1971 this gap was partly filled by „Rusų-lietuvių-anglų kalbų skaičiavimo technikos žodynas“ (Russian-Lithuanian-English dictionary of computing equipment, which for a long time (for more than 20 years was the only one terminological dictionary of this field. Only during nineties a few dictionaries of different scope appeared. Computer terminology from ten dictionaries, which are presently available, shows that 35 year period of computer terminology is a stage of its creation, the main features of which are reasonable synonymy (when both international term are being used to name the concept and variability. Such state of Lithuanian computer terminology is predetermined by some linguistic, interlinguistic and sociolinguistic factors. At present in Lithuania terminological dictionaries of various fields are being given to

  20. Acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a prospective gene x environment study of a university campus shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristina B; Orcutt, Holly K; Quinn, Jeffrey F; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Conneely, Karen N; Barfield, Richard T; Gillespie, Charles F; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) has been associated with several stress-related syndromes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The ability to detect meaningful associations is largely dependent on reliable measures of preexisting trauma. To study the association of genetic variants within SLC6A4 with acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a civilian cohort with known levels of preexisting trauma and PTSD symptoms collected prior to a shared index traumatic event. Ongoing longitudinal study. On February 14, 2008, a lone gunman shot multiple people on the campus of Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, killing 5 and wounding 21. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study on that campus, a cohort of female undergraduate students, interviewed prior to the shooting, completed follow-up trauma-related measures including PTSD symptom severity (follow-up survey was launched 17 days postshooting; n = 691). To obtain DNA, salivary samples were collected from a subset of the original study population based on willingness to participate (n = 276). Two hundred four undergraduate women. SLC6A4 polymorphisms STin2, 5-HTTLPR, and rs25531 were genotyped in 235 individuals. We found that although the STin2 variant and 5-HTTLPR alone did not associate with increased PTSD symptoms, rs25531 and the 5-HTTLPR multimarker genotype (combined 5-HTTLPR and rs25531) were associated with significantly increased acute stress disorder symptoms at 2 to 4 weeks postshooting (n = 161; P < .05). This association remained significant when controlling for race and for level of shooting exposure (n = 123; P < .007). The association was most robust with the 5-HTTLPR multimarker genotype and avoidance symptoms (P = .003). These data suggest that differential function of the serotonin transporter may mediate differential response to a severe trauma. When examined in a relatively homogenous sample with shared trauma and known prior levels of child and adult trauma

  1. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A B A; Campbell, D L M; Karcher, D M; Siegford, J M

    2016-11-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens' expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens' spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen.

  2. Utility of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth for Estimating PM2.5 Exposure in Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Rickman, Doug; Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maury; Adeniyi, Kafayat; Qualters, Judith; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(2.5)) HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM(2.5) concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. From 1999-2000 there were over 9,400 hospitalizations per year in Georgia with asthma as the primary diagnosis. The majority of these hospitalizations occurred in medical facilities in the five most populous Metro-Atlanta counties. Hospital charges resulting from asthma in Georgia are approximately $59 million dollars annually. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors

  3. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. B. A.; Campbell, D. L. M.; Karcher, D. M.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens’ expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens’ spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen. PMID:27444438

  4. The order of thought and the order of words. Minties eiga ir žodžių tvarka

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    Eglė Petronienė

    2007-01-01

    . ----- Šiame straipsnyje pateikiama vertimo analizė, atsižvelgiant į kalbų struktūrinius skirtingumus ir galimybes, kurias suteikia funkcinės sakinio perspektyvos (FSP realizavimas. Pateikiami lietuvių grožinės literatūros tekstai ir jų angliškieji vertimai, siekiant nustatyti, kokią rolę funkcinės sakinio perspektyvos perteikime vaidina žodžių tvarka. Analizė atskleidžia nepanaudotų galimybių sritis, o antra vertus, ir priemones, kurios įgalina išreikšti funkcinę lietuviškojo sakinio perspektyvą, arba minties eigą, vertime.

  5. Relativistic thermodynamics, a Lagrangian field theory for general flows including rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Christian

    Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, Lagrangian field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier approach to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to phenomenology, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.

  6. Der deutsche Expressionismus in der litauischen Literaturkritik der Zwischenkriegszeit. Vokiečių ekspresionizmas tarpukario lietuvių literatūros kritikoje

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    Jadvyga Bajarūnienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vokiečių ekspresionizmo recepcijos lietuvių literatūros kritikoje pradžia susijusi su lietuvių poetais, kurie, susižavėję ekspresionizmu, bandė sekti šios srovės maniera. Vertindami jų kūrybą, kritikai kartu polemizavo ir su ekspresionizmu. Pats ekspresionizmas buvo suprantamas nevienodai, sąvoka dažnai vartojama kaip „futurizmo“ ar „avangardo“ sinonimas.Galima išskirti tris vokiečių ekspresionizmo recepcijos fazes. Pirmoji susijusi su grupės „Keturi vėjai“ veikla – vertindami poetų kūrybą, kritikai kartu svarstė ekspresionizmo galimybes ir ribas. Lietuvių kritikų požiūris į ekspresionizmą greičiau neigiamas, manoma, jog jis lietuvio mentalitetui yra svetimas.Antroji, žymiai produktyvesnė fazė sutampa su trečiojo dešimtmečio pabaiga. Literatūriniuose žurnaluose (Židinys ir kt. pasirodo informatyvių straipsnių, kurie vokiečių ekspresionizmą mėgina vertinti objektyviai. Tačiau vis tik formuojamas gana vienpusis jo vaizdas, dominuoja neigiamos nuostatos. Ekspresionizmo „žlugimas“ suvokiamas kaip nauja vokiečių literatūros pradžia (Skrupskelis.Galima kalbėti ir apie trečiąją fazę – žurnale Trečias frontas nemažai rašoma apie vokiečių literatūrą, tačiau autorius (ypač paskutiniuosiuose numeriuose domino vien kairiųjų pažiūrų rašytojai, skelbę revoliucines idėjas. Dėmesys vokiečių ekspresionizmui lietuvių literatūros kritikoje neatslūgsta iki šių dienų. Todėl tarpukaris vertintinas kaip svarbus etapas, pradėjęs ir įtvirtinęs ekspresionizmo diskursą Lietuvoje.

  7. Effects of cognitive training with additional physical activity compared to pure cognitive training in healthy older adults

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    Rahe J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Julia Rahe,1 Annette Petrelli,1 Stephanie Kaesberg,2 Gereon R Fink,3 Josef Kessler,3 Elke Kalbe1 1Psychological Gerontology and Center for Neuropsychological Diagnostics and Interventions, Institute of Gerontology, University of Vechta, Vechta, Germany; 2Cognitive Neurology Section, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany Introduction: Cognitive training (CT has been reported to improve cognition in older adults. Its combination with protective factors such as physical activity (CPT has rarely been studied, but it has been suggested that CPT might show stronger effects than pure CT.Materials and methods: Healthy older adults (aged 50–85 years were trained with CPT (n=15 or CT (n=15. Interventions were conducted in 90-minute sessions twice weekly for 6.5 weeks. Cognitive functions were assessed before and immediately after the interventions, and at 1-year follow-up.Results: The main finding was an interaction effect on attention, with comparable gains from CPT and CT from pre- to post-test, but stronger effects of CPT to follow-up (P=0.02. Significant effects were found in subjects in terms of cognitive state (P=0.02, letter verbal fluency (P=0.00, and immediate (P=0.00 and delayed (P=0.01 verbal memory. Post hoc analyses indicated that these latter domains were affected differentially by CPT and CT. No significant between-subject effects were found.Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPT might lead to stronger long-term effects on attention. However, as the difference between CT and CPT was only evident at follow-up, these effects cannot be interpreted as a direct consequence of CPT; they may have been related to sustained physical activity after the training. Other domains were improved by both interventions, but no typical pattern could be identified. Possible underlying mechanisms are discussed, and directions for future

  8. Rytų aukštaičių vilniškių mišriųjų dvigarsių [il], [ir], [ul], [ur] priegaidės: audicinis tyrimas

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    Jolita Urbanavičienė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rytų aukštaičių vilniškių šnektose atvirųjų dvigarsių ([a], [e] + R priegaidės dėl ryškių kiekybinių ir kokybinių pirmųjų dėmenų skirtumų nesunkiai skiriamos iš klausos. Uždarųjų dvigarsių ([i], [u] + R priegaidžių skirtumai labiau niveliuoti dėl prigimtinio [i], [u] uždarumo ir kokybinio stabilumo. Siekiant nustatyti, ar tarmės vartotojai girdi akūto ir cirkumflekso skirtumus uždaruosiuose dvigarsiuose, buvo atliktas audicinis priegaidžių tyrimas. Tyrimui pasirinkti keturi vilniškių punktai, esantys Švenčionių̃ rajone: Adùtiškis, Svìrkos, Sariaĩ ir Vidutìnė. Kiekviename punkte buvo įrašyta po vieną diktorių, kurio įskaitytų minimaliųjų porų bei sakinių klausėsi 4 atskiros auditorių grupės (po 7 auditorius. Statistiniai eksperimento rezultatai vertinti programa Ukr2.exe. Šiame straipsnyje laikomasi nuomonės, kad jei teisingi atsakymai siekia 50%, jie rodo fonologinės opozicijos nebuvimą; 50% – 67% teisingų atsakymų intervalas rodo „pusiau fonologinę“ opoziciją; rezultatai, viršijantys 67% ribą, rodo, kad tiriamus reiškinius sieja aiški fonologinė opozicija.Tyrimo metu nustatyta, kad geriausiai mišriųjų dvigarsių priegaides skyrė Adùtiškio ir Sarių̃ auditoriai: teisingai atpažinta 79–80% porų. Svìrkų punkte priegaidės skiriamos šiek tiek prasčiau – teisingai atpažinta 73% porų. Vidutìnės punkto duomenys balansuoja tarp 50% (spėliojimo ir 67% (žinojimo ribos: teisingai identifikuota 63% pateiktų porų, vadinasi, galima kalbėti apie priegaidžių „pusiau fonologinę“ opoziciją.Atlikus mišriųjų dvigarsių priegaidžių audicinį tyrimą keturiuose vilniškių punktuose ir gautus rezultatus palyginus su analogiškais monoftongų priegaidžių tyrimais, padarytos šios išvados:Iš klausos auditoriai užfiksavo mišriųjų dvigarsių priegaidžių trukmės, kokybės, intensyvumo ir pagrindinio tono skirtumus.Mišriųjų dvigarsi

  9. Kai kurie akustiniai lietuvių kalbos ritmiškumo parametrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Kazlauskienė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Šio tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti skaitomos lietuvių kalbos ritmiškumo rodiklius, susijusius su garsinių segmentų trukme. Analizuojama penkių profesionalių diktorių (trijų vyrų ir dviejų moterų perskaitytos ištraukos iš grožinių kūrinių (kiekvienas jų skaitė vidutiniškai po 10 min.. Tyrimas atliktas dviem etapais. Pirmiausia matuota ir lyginta skiemenų ir pėdų bei tarpkirtinių intervalų absoliuti trukmė. Vėliau, remiantis užsienio mokslininkų metodika, skaičiuotas standartinis priebalsinių intervalų trukmės nuokrypis (ΔC, balsinių intervalų trukmės procentas (%V, priebalsinių intervalų variacijos koeficientas (varcoC, poriniai variantiškumo indeksai (r-PVI, n-PVI ir kontrolės bei kompensacijos indeksai (CCI-V, CCI-C.Tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad lietuvių skaitomoje kalboje skiemenų, pėdų ir tarpkirtinių intervalų absoliuti trukmė nemažai įvairuoja. Didžioji dalis (91 proc. fonologinių skiemenų ir fragmentų nuo balsio pradžios iki kito balsio telpa į 200 ms intervalą (nuo 80 iki 280 ms.Tirtoje medžiagoje vyrauja pėdos nuo 210 ms iki 600 ms, jos sudaro 75 proc. Tai gana ilgas laiko intervalas, todėl pėdų trukmė, kaip ir skiemenų, tikrai nėra apylygė.Kirčiuoti skiemenys išsidėsto taip pat nevienodais intervalais. 75 proc. tarpkirtinių intervalų yra nuo 110 iki 500 ms. Todėl skiemenų ar pėdų, tarpkirtinių intervalų trukmė nėra pagrindiniai ir tikrai ne vieninteliai lietuvių kalbos ritmiškumo rodikliai.Akustinių požymių, susijusių su balsinių ir priebalsinių segmentų trukme, analizės rezultatai daugeliu atvejų rodo skirtumą tarp lietuvių ir japonų kalbų. Tačiau negalima nustatyti, kuriai – kirtinio ar skiemeninio – ritmo grupei artimesnė lietuvių kalba. Tiriamųjų lietuvių kalbos fragmentų duomenys rodo, kad ΔC svyruoja nuo 42 iki 54, %V – nuo 41 iki 45, varcoC – nuo 43 iki 55. Jie apima visą diapazoną, būdingą ir skiemeninėms, ir kirtin

  10. Graphic Novels: a new literary genre in the English-speaking world. Grafinis romanas: naujas anglosaksų kultūros reiškinys

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    Milda Danytė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Šio straipsnio tikslas yra pristatyti naują naratyvinį žanrą – grafinį romaną (angl. graphic novel, kilusį iš komiksų tradicijų. Komiksų vieta Šiaurės Ameri­kos kultūroje paradoksali; nors jie nuo XX a. pra­džios spausdinami beveik visuose JAV ir Kanados laikraščiuose, nevertinami nei kaip menas, nei kaip literatūra. Tik paskutiniame XX a. dešimtmetyje li­teratūrologai atkreipė dėmesį į komiksus, kaip savitą naratyvinį žanrą: aiškinama, kad būtina analizuoti žodžių ir vaizdų sąryšį, kuris sukuria išskirtinę nara­tyvinę kalbą. Šią kalbą meistriškai naudoja grafinių romanų kūrėjai – pritaiko ją visai naujoms temoms. Pavyzdžiui, amerikiečio Arto Spiegelmano romanas Maus („Pelė“, išvertus iš vokiečių kalbos pasako­ja apie žydų holokausto siaubą. Iš pirmo žvilgsnio atrodo beveik šventvagiška, kad autorius apie žydų kančias Aušvico lageryje pasakoja naudodamasis ži­noma komiksų „kalbančių gyvulių“ tradicija. Tačiau A. Spiegelmanas sugeba tragiškus ��vykius perteikti ironišku komiksų stiliumi. Jo romane išryškinama antrosios kartos paveldėta kančia, kuri komplikuo­ja tėvo ir sūnaus santykius. 1992 m. romanas Maus pelnė autoriui prestižinę Amerikos „Pulitzer“ lite­ratūros premiją. Kitas amerikiečių grafinio romano kūrėjas Joe Sacco taip pat domisi istorinių katastrofų poveikiu paprastų žmonių gyvenimui. Romanas Pa­lestinas vaizduoja autoriaus klaidžiojimą per palesti­niečių pabėgėlių gyvenvietes. Romano įtampa kyla iš autoriaus bendravimo su palestiniečiais – ironijos objektu dažniausiai tampa jis pats, naivus svečias iš turtingų Vakarų. Žinomiausi Kanados grafinio roma­no kūrėjai Chesteris Brownas ir Seth (rašytojo Gre­gory Gallanto slapyvardis taip pat linkę naudoti au­tobiografinę medžiagą. C. Brownas romane Tu man niekad nepatikai (išleistas 2002 m. galima įžvelgti bildungsromano bruo

  11. Benzoxazinoids in rye allelopathy - from discovery to application in sustainable weed control and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Macias, Francisco A; Molinillo, Jose M G

    2013-02-01

    The allelopathic potency of rye (Secale cereale L.) is due mainly to the presence of phytotoxic benzoxazinones-compounds whose biosynthesis is developmentally regulated, with the highest accumulation in young tissue and a dependency on cultivar and environmental influences. Benzoxazinones can be released from residues of greenhouse-grown rye at levels between 12 and 20 kg/ha, with lower amounts exuded by living plants. In soil, benzoxazinones are subject to a cascade of transformation reactions, and levels in the range 0.5-5 kg/ha have been reported. Starting with the accumulation of less toxic benzoxazolinones, the transformation reactions in soil primarily lead to the production of phenoxazinones, acetamides, and malonamic acids. These reactions are associated with microbial activity in the soil. In addition to benzoxazinones, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) has been investigated for phytotoxic effects in weeds and crops. Exposure to BOA affects transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome patterns of the seedlings, inhibits germination and growth, and can induce death of sensitive species. Differences in the sensitivity of cultivars and ecotypes are due to different species-dependent strategies that have evolved to cope with BOA. These strategies include the rapid activation of detoxification reactions and extrusion of detoxified compounds. In contrast to sensitive ecotypes, tolerant ecotypes are less affected by exposure to BOA. Like the original compounds BOA and MBOA, all exuded detoxification products are converted to phenoxazinones, which can be degraded by several specialized fungi via the Fenton reaction. Because of their selectivity, specific activity, and presumably limited persistence in the soil, benzoxazinoids or rye residues are suitable means for weed control. In fact, rye is one of the best cool season cover crops and widely used because of its excellent weed suppressive potential. Breeding of benzoxazinoid resistant crops and of rye with high

  12. Conceptual model of management the vital state plant eсomorрhs by the criteria of adaptation mechanisms

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    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of representatives of the tribe Triticеae (Triticum аestivum L., T. trispecies Shulind, Secale cereale L. we have developed a conceptual model of management of the vital state of anthropogenically transformed ecosystems by the criteria of adaptation mechanisms, that are important for improving the controls of the vitality of culturivated plant species within certain ecosystems. Morpho-physiological and ontogenetic features of plants are considered as exogenous manifestation of adaptation to certain amplitude of ecological factors. According to preferences of the representatives of the tribe Triticeae for environmental conditions the plants were ranked by hygo-, helio-, trophomorphous affiliation as ecomorphs and subecomorphs. We established that an exogenous manifestation of high levels of adaptability of plant organisms to a variety of stress winter conditions was high photoperiodic sensitivity, which is manifested in morphological and physiological mechanisms, including weak growth in autumn and late spring vegetation restoration. The criteria of frost and winter resistance of plants are the accumulation of high overall sugar content in the node tillering (26–38 mg/g as cryoprotectants and energy sources and their economical expenditure during the autumn-winter period. In drought resistant ecotypes growing in various habitats we detected smaller length, width and therefore area of flag leaf, however, the high index of leaf lamina, compared to leaves from less drought-prone areas. Expression was manifested of adaptive morphological and physiological changes (high index of leaf, glossy sheen, long duration of green colorin the flag leaf, the presence of awns, significant increase in dry mass for arid conditions caused by presence of alleles of genes of drought-resistant Dreb 1 glutenin Glu-D1, gliadin Gli and high protein in the grain (14.2–18.0%. The more drought-resistant plants have an inherent ability to mobilize their

  13. New wheat-rye 5DS-4RS·4RL and 4RS-5DS·5DL translocation lines with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Ren, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Fu, Tihua; Tang, Zongxiang

    2014-11-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2 n = 6 × = 42, genomes AABBDD). Rye (Secale cereale L., 2 n = 2 × = 14, genome RR) offers a rich reservoir of powdery mildew resistant genes for wheat breeding program. However, extensive use of these resistant genes may render them susceptible to new pathogen races because of co-evolution of host and pathogen. Therefore, the continuous exploration of new powdery mildew resistant genes is important to wheat breeding program. In the present study, we identified several wheat-rye addition lines from the progeny of T. aestivum L. Mianyang11 × S. cereale L. Kustro, i.e., monosomic addition lines of the rye chromosomes 4R and 6R; a disomic addition line of 6R; and monotelosomic or ditelosomic addition lines of the long arms of rye chromosomes 4R (4 RL) and 6R (6 RL). All these lines displayed immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, we concluded that both the 4 RL and 6 RL arms of Kustro contain powdery mildew resistant genes. It is the first time to discover that 4 RL arm carries powdery mildew resistant gene. Additionally, wheat lines containing new wheat-rye translocation chromosomes were also obtained: these lines retained a short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) on which rye chromosome 4R was fused through the short arm 4 RS (designated 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL; 4 RL stands for the long arm of rye chromosome 4R); or they had an extra short arm of rye chromosome 4R (4 RS) that was attached to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) (designated 4 RS-5 DS · 5 DL; 5 DL stands for the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D). These two translocation chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably, and the wheat lines containing 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL chromosome also displayed immunity to powdery mildew. The materials obtained in this study can be used for wheat powdery mildew resistant breeding program.

  14. Potencial alelopático de plantas de cobertura verde de inverno sobre o crescimento do porta-enxerto VR043-43

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    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem-se verificado aumento no uso da adubação verde de inverno na cultura da videira. Essa adubação proporciona ao vinhedo melhor controle da erosão e manutenção da fertilidade, aumento da macro e microporosidade do solo pela penetração e decomposição das raízes e aumento do teor de matéria orgânica, além da possibilidade de diminuição do uso de herbicidas. Algumas espécies vêm sendo utilizadas, mesmo sem se conhecerem os efeitos secundários para a videira, e poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados para avaliação desses efeitos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito alelopático de diferentes espécies de plantas de cobertura verde de inverno sobre o desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto VR 043-43. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com 19 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram preparados extratos das partes aérea e radicular de nove espécies, utilizadas como cobertura verde de inverno. As estacas enraizadas foram colocadas em vasos com areia e, durante 45 dias, duas vezes por semana, foram regadas com solução aquosa de cada extrato e fertilizante. Após esse período, foi avaliado o comprimento das raízes, o número de raízes por estaca, a matéria fresca do sistema radicular e a matéria fresca das brotações. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que, dentre os extratos das espécies estudadas, o que apresentou maior efeito alelopático foi o extrato da parte aérea da gorga (Spergula arvensis, seguido pelo extrato da parte aérea do dente-de-leão (Taraxacum officinale L.. O centeio (Secale cereale L. e o nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. não apresentaram efeito alelopático.

  15. Phytoextraction of heavy metal from sewage sludge by plants

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    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, studies made contents of cadmium and lead in the soil and their uptake by non-traditional plants were studied in a small-plot trial. At the same time also the effect of bio-algeen preparations on phytoextraction of heavy metals by these plants was investigated. Experimental plots were established on the reclaimed land after closing down mining operations in the town of Žacléř (North-East Bohemia where a layer of sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant 0.6–0.8 m thick was subsequently applied. The locality is situated in the altitude of 612 m, its average annual temperature is about 6.8 °C and the mean annual precipitations are 857 mm. Analyses revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in the applied sewage sludge. The average concentrations of lead and cadmium were 180 mg . kg−1 and 6.89 mg . kg−1, respectively. The experiment had two variants: Variant 1 – sewage sludge without any other substances, and Variant 2 – sewage sludge + bio-algeen preparations (B. A. S-90 or B. A. Root Concentrate. To find the most suitable plant species for the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead, the following non-traditional plants were cultivated in both variants: fodder mallow (Malva verticillata L., rye (Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF. and white sweet clover (Melilotus alba MEDIC.. The highest accumulation of cadmium and lead in the aboveground biomass was found out in rye, viz 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM and 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively., As compared with other plants under study, white sweet clover exhibited the significantly lowest capability to extract both heavy metals from soil (viz 0.22 and 3.20 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively. A positive effect of bio-algeen on phytoextraction of cadmium and lead was evident in all plants. The highest yield of aboveground biomass was recorded on the plot with white sweet clover with added

  16. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

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    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  17. Carbon supply and storage in tilled and nontilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Singh, Bharat P; Whitehead, Wayne F; Wang, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)], biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops (or winter weeds)} and three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 60 to 65, and 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1)) on C inputs from cover crops, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)], and soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 0- to 120-cm depth in tilled and nontilled areas. A field experiment was conducted on Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults) from 1999 to 2002 in central Georgia. Total C inputs to the soil from cover crops, cotton, and sorghum from 2000 to 2002 ranged from 6.8 to 22.8 Mg ha(-1). The SOC at 0 to 10 cm fluctuated with C input from October 1999 to November 2002 and was greater from cover crops than from weeds in no-tilled plots. In contrast, SOC values at 10 to 30 cm in no-tilled and at 0 to 60 cm in chisel-tilled plots were greater for biculture than for weeds. As a result, C at 0 to 30 cm was sequestered at rates of 267, 33, -133, and -967 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for biculture, rye, vetch, and weeds, respectively, in the no-tilled plot. In strip-tilled and chisel-tilled plots, SOC at 0 to 30 cm decreased at rates of 233 to 1233 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). The SOC at 0 to 30 cm increased more in cover crops with 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) than in weeds with 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), regardless of tillage. In the subtropical humid region of the southeastern United States, cover crops and N fertilization can increase the amount of C input and storage in tilled and nontilled soils, and hairy vetch and rye biculture was more effective in sequestering C than monocultures or no cover crop.

  18. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  19. Fitomassa e decomposição de resíduos de plantas de cobertura puras e consorciadas

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    Alexandre Doneda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de plantas de cobertura, no outono/inverno, na região do Planalto do Rio Grande Sul contribui para o sucesso do sistema plantio direto. No entanto, informações relativas à produção de fitomassa e decomposição de resíduos dessas espécies ainda são escassas para a região, sobretudo para espécies consorciadas. O experimento foi conduzido em Não-Me-Toque, RS, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, avaliando-se nove tratamentos, sendo quatro constituídos por plantas de cobertura em culturas puras [centeio (Secale cereale L., aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha forrageira (Pisum sativum subesp. arvense e nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg] e cinco por consórcios [(centeio + ervilha forrageira, centeio + nabo forrageiro, aveia + nabo forrageiro, centeio + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e aveia + ervilhaca]. A dinâmica de decomposição dos resíduos culturais das plantas de cobertura foi avaliada em bolsas de decomposição, as quais foram distribuídas na superfície do solo e coletadas aos sete, 14, 21, 28, 57, 117 e 164 dias. O consórcio entre leguminosas e crucífera com gramíneas resultou em maior produção de fitomassa em relação ao cultivo destas em culturas puras. O nitrogênio (N acumulado na parte aérea dos consórcios formados por ervilha forrageira e nabo com centeio e aveia foi semelhante ao da leguminosa e da crucífera em culturas puras e superou em 220,4 % os valores de N observados para as gramíneas em culturas puras. Por meio do consórcio entre as espécies de cobertura foi possível reduzir a taxa de decomposição dos resíduos culturais, em comparação com as culturas puras da leguminosa e da crucífera.

  20. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    The finds of remains of useful plants in archaeological objects were drawing attention already in the last century. However, it was not until after the World War II, in relation with renovation of historical cores of the towns, when a separate branch of the botany--archaeobotany constituted. In the Czech Republic it was E. Opravil who was the first to become engaged in a systematic archaeobotanical research at the beginning of the 60's. All the vegetal remains--fruits and seeds on the first place as well as pollen grains from prehistoric times to the post-medieval period, are the subjects of archaeobotany. The medieval waste pits are the richest sources of the vegetal remains. They contain a lot of diasporas of cultural as well as wild plants. The remains of useful plants are an authentic document of the vegetal component of diet. Even though some vegetal species, such as for example garlic, onion or stalk-plants, about whose cultivation we are informed from literature, occur only seldom, there appeared also the species not mentioned in literature. All the basic cereals have been known in our country already since the early Middle Ages. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale), as well as millet (Panicum miliaceum) that, along with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), were replaced by potatoes in the modern times were the most important. Also leguminous plants were of great importance in the diet even though their charred seeds seldom preserved. Remains of oil plants such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) preserved well. It was successfully proved that cucumber (Cucumis sativus), among other numerous kinds of vegetables, was introduced by the Slavs already in the 8th century in Moravia and in the 9th century in Bohemia. The assortment of fruit was rich--especially the assortment of cultivated fruit. Among the imported kinds of fruit the first place occupied figs (Ficus carica), from the numerous finds it can

  1. 华北平原7种人工牧草不同气候条件下的耗水规律%Water Consumption of Seven Forage Cultivars under Different Climatic Conditions in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国艳; 欧阳竹; 罗群英; 于强; 王吉顺

    2011-01-01

    本文主要目的是研究华北平原不同气候条件下7种人工牧草的耗水规律.试验于2005-2009年在中国科学院禹城综合试验站进行,牧草品种有一年生牧草黑麦(Secale cereale L.)、小黑麦(×Triticosecle Wittmack)、高丹草(Sorghum biolor×Sorghum Sudanense c.v.)、青饲玉米(Zea mays L.)和籽粒苋(Amaranthus paniculatus L.),多年生牧草苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)和串叶松香草(Silphium perfoliatum L.).结果显示,苜蓿的Kc值为1.08,其他牧草在0.79-0.94.不同气候条件下的Kc值大小规律为,越年生牧草:湿润>干旱>平常;一年生牧草:干旱>平常>湿润;多年生牧草:平常>干旱>湿润.本文建议青饲玉米和高丹草为夏季播牧草的优选牧草,籽粒苋对气候变化最敏感,干旱和平常季节会减产一半以上.黑麦和小黑麦蒸是冬闲田种植的优选牧草,小黑麦因为耗水量较小,优于黑麦.苜蓿在干旱季节的表现优于串叶松香草,但当降雨达592.9mm以上反而会引起减产.该研究的结果能为牧草在华北平原的种植布局提供科学依据.

  2. Residual soil nitrate content and profitability of five cropping systems in northwest Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiteman, Matthew A.; Vos, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    Many communities in the Midwestern United States obtain their drinking water from shallow alluvial wells that are vulnerable to contamination by NO3-N from the surrounding agricultural landscape. The objective of this research was to assess cropping systems with the potential to produce a reasonable return for farmers while simultaneously reducing the risk of NO3-N movement into these shallow aquifers. From 2009 to 2013 we conducted a field experiment in northwest Iowa in which we evaluated five cropping systems for residual (late fall) soil NO3-N content and profitability. Soil samples were taken annually from the top 30 cm of the soil profile in June and August, and from the top 180 cm in November (late fall). The November samples were divided into 30 cm increments for analysis. Average residual NO3-N content in the top 180 cm of the soil profile following the 2010 to 2013 cropping years was 134 kg ha-1 for continuous maize (Zea mays L.) with a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop, 18 kg ha-1 for perennial grass, 60 kg ha-1 for a three year oat (Avena sativa L.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-maize rotation, 85 kg ha-1 for a two year oat/red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-maize rotation, and 90 kg ha-1 for a three year soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize rotation. However, residual NO3-N in the 90 to 180 cm increment of the soil profile was not significantly higher in the oat-alfalfa-maize cropping system than the perennial grass system. For 2010 to 2013, average profit ($ ha-1 yr-1) was 531 for continuous corn, 347 for soybean-winter wheat-maize, 264 for oat-alfalfa-maize, 140 for oat/red clover-maize, and -384 (loss) for perennial grass. Considering both residual soil NO3-N and profitability data, the oat-alfalfa-maize rotation performed the best in this setting. However, given current economic pressures widespread adoption is likely to require changes in public policy. PMID:28248976

  3. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  4. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

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    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  5. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands); Park, Chi Kyu [Hamyang-gun Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Hamyang 676-806 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH{sub 4}), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH{sub 4} production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH{sub 4} production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH{sub 4} dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt{sup −1} on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH{sub 4} productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH{sub 4} productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH{sub 4} production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH{sub 4} production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

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    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  7. Multigenic phylogeny and analysis of tree incongruences in Triticeae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhaumon Claire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgressive events (e.g., hybridization, gene flow, horizontal gene transfer and incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms are a challenge for phylogenetic analyses since different genes may exhibit conflicting genealogical histories. Grasses of the Triticeae tribe provide a particularly striking example of incongruence among gene trees. Previous phylogenies, mostly inferred with one gene, are in conflict for several taxon positions. Therefore, obtaining a resolved picture of relationships among genera and species of this tribe has been a challenging task. Here, we obtain the most comprehensive molecular dataset to date in Triticeae, including one chloroplastic and 26 nuclear genes. We aim to test whether it is possible to infer phylogenetic relationships in the face of (potentially large-scale introgressive events and/or incomplete lineage sorting; to identify parts of the evolutionary history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner; and to decipher the biological causes of gene-tree conflicts in this tribe. Results We obtain resolved phylogenetic hypotheses using the supermatrix and Bayesian Concordance Factors (BCF approaches despite numerous incongruences among gene trees. These phylogenies suggest the existence of 4-5 major clades within Triticeae, with Psathyrostachys and Hordeum being the deepest genera. In addition, we construct a multigenic network that highlights parts of the Triticeae history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner. Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium and genera of clade V, grouping Secale, Taeniatherum, Triticum and Aegilops, have evolved in a reticulated manner. Their relationships are thus better represented by the multigenic network than by the supermatrix or BCF trees. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that gene-tree incongruences increase with genetic distance and are greater in telomeric than centromeric genes. Together, our results suggest that recombination is the main factor

  8. Cloning of a conserved receptor-like protein kinase gene and its use as a functional marker for homoeologous group-2 chromosomes of the triticeae species.

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    Bi Qin

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs play broad biological roles in plants. We report on a conserved receptor-like protein kinase (RPK gene from wheat and other Triticeae species. The TaRPK1 was isolated from the Triticum aestivum cv. Prins - Triticum timopheevii introgression line IGVI-465 carrying the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm6. The TaRPK1 was mapped to homoeologous chromosomes 2A (TaRPK1-2A, 2D (TaRPK1-2D and the Pm6-carrier chromosome 2G (TaRPK1-2G of IGVI-465. Under the tested conditions, only the TaRPK1-2G allele was actively transcribed, producing two distinct transcripts via alternative splicing. The predicted 424-amino acid protein of TaRPK1-2G contained a signal peptide, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain, but lacked a typical extracellular domain. The expression of TaRPK1-2G gene was up-regulated upon the infection by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA, but down-regulated in response to treatments of SA and ABA. Over-expression of TaRPK1-2G in the powdery mildew susceptible wheat variety Prins by a transient expression assay showed that it slightly reduced the haustorium index of the infected Bgt. These data indicated that TaRPK1-2G participated in the defense response to Bgt infection and in the JA signaling pathway. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TaRPK1-2G was highly conserved among plant species, and the amino acid sequence similarity of TaRPK1-2G among grass species was more than 86%. Based on its conservation, the RPK gene-based STS primers were designed, and used to amplify the RPK orthologs from the homoeologous group-2 chromosomes of all the tested Triticeae species, such as chromosome 2G of T. timopheevii, 2R of Secale cereale, 2H of Hordeum vulgare, 2S of Aegilops speltoides, 2S(l of Ae. longissima, 2M(g of Ae. geniculata, 2S(p and 2U(p of Ae. peregrina. The developed STS markers serve as conserved functional markers for the

  9. A Mutant with Expression Deletion of Gene Sec-1 in a 1RS.1BL Line and Its Effect on Production Quality of Wheat.

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    Zhi Li

    Full Text Available The chromosome arm 1RS of rye (Secale cereal L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistant improvement. However, the 1RS arm in wheat has end-use quality defects that are partially attributable to the presence of ω-secalins, which are encoded by genes at the Sec-1 locus. Various attempts in removing the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosome have been made. In the present study, two new primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines, T917-26 and T917-15, were developed from a cross between wheat variety "A42912" and Chinese local rye "Weining." The lines T917-15 and T917-26 carried a pair of intact and homogeneous 1RS.1BL chromosomes. The line T917-26 also harbored an expression deletion of some genes at the Sec-1 locus, which originated from a mutation that occurred simultaneously with wheat-rye chromosome translocations. These results suggest that the accompanying mutations of the evolutionarily significant translocations are remarkable resources for plant improvement. Comparison of translocation lines with its wheat parent showed improvements in the end-use quality parameters, which included protein content (PC, water absorption (WA, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS, wet gluten (WG, dry gluten (DG and dough stickiness (DS, whereas significant reduction in gluten index (GI and stability time (ST were observed. These findings indicate that 1RS in wheat has produced a higher amount of protein, although these comprised worse compositions. However, in the T917-26 line that harbored an expression deletion mutation in the Sec-1 genes, the quality parameters were markedly improved relative to its sister line, T917-15, especially for GI and DS (P < 0.05. These results indicated that expression deletion of Sec-1 genes significantly improves the end-use quality of wheat cultivars harboring the 1RS.1BL translocation. Strategies to remove the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation in wheat improvement are

  10. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  11. Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Michael; Barskey, Albert; Baughman, Wendy; Barker, Lawrence; Whitney, Cynthia G; Shaw, Kate M; Orenstein, Walter; Stephens, David S

    2007-07-20

    Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or >or=3 doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Prevnar (PCV7), containing serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. From 1994 to 2003, cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were prospectively identified in Georgia Health District-3 (eight metropolitan Atlanta counties) by Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). From 2000 to 2003, vaccine coverage levels of PCV7 for children aged 19-35 months in Fulton and DeKalb counties (of Atlanta) were estimated from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). Based on incidence data and the estimated average number of doses received by 15 months of age, a Poisson regression model was fit, describing the trend in invasive pneumococcal disease in groups not targeted for vaccination (i.e., adults and older children) before and after the introduction of PCV7. Highly significant declines in all the serotypes contained in PCV7 in all unvaccinated populations (5-19, 20-39, 40-64, and >64 years) from 2000 to 2003 were found under the model. No significant change in incidence was seen from 1994 to 1999, indicating rates were stable prior to vaccine introduction. Among unvaccinated persons 5+ years of age, the modeled incidence of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes as a group dropped 38.4%, 62.0%, and 76.6% for 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, received on average by the population of children by the time they are 15 months of age. Incidence of serotypes 14 and 23F had consistent significant declines in all unvaccinated age groups. In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent. Increasing trends of non

  12. Committees and organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chairman:Jozef Spałek (Kraków) Program Committee:Stephen Blundell (Oxford), J Michael D Coey (Dublin), Dominique Givord (Grenoble), Dariusz Kaczorowski (Wrocław), Roman Micnas (Poznań), Marek Przybylski (Halle), Ludiwig Schultz (Dresden), Vladimir Sechovsky (Prague), Jozef Spałek (Kraków), Henryk Szymczak (Warszawa), Manuel Vázquez (Madrid) Publication Committee:Dariusz Kaczorowski, Robert Podsiadły, Jozef Spałek, Henryk Szymczak, Andrzej Szytuła Local committee:Maria Bałanda, Anna Majcher, Robert Podsiadły, Michał Rams, Andrzej Ślebarski, Krzysztof Tomala Editors of the Proceedings:Jozef Spałek, Krzysztof Tomala, Danuta Goc-Jagło, Robert Podsiadły, Michał Rams, Anna Majcher Plenary, semi-plenary and tutorial speakers:Ernst Bauer (Wien)Stephen Blundell (Oxford)J Michael D Coey (Dublin)Russell P Cowburn (London)Burkard Hillebrands (Kaiserslautern)Claudine Lacroix (Grenoble)Lluís Mañosa (Barcelona)María del Carmen Muñoz (Madrid)Bernard Raveau (Caen)Pedro Schlottmann (Tallahassee)Frank Steglich (Dresden)Oliver Waldmann (Freiburg) Invited speakers within symposia: R Ahuja (Uppsala)A Kirilyuk (Nijmegen) M Albrecht (Vienna)L Theil Kuhn (Roskilde) K Bärner (Göttingen)J Liu (Dresden) U Bovensiepen (Duisburg)G Lorusso (Modena) V Buchelnikov (Chelyabinsk)M M Maska (Katowice) B Chevalier (Bordeaux)Y Mukovskii (Moscow) O Chubykalo-Fesenko (Madrid)M Pannetier-Lecoeur (Saclay) A V Chumak (Kaiserslautern)G Papavassiliou (Athens) J M D Coey (Dublin)K R Pirota (Campinas) B Dabrowski (DeKalb)P Przyslupski (Warszawa) S Das (Aveiro)M Reiffers (Košice) A del Moral (Zaragoza)K Sandeman (London) V E Demidov (Muenster)D Sander (Halle) B Djafari-Rouhani (Lille)M Sawicki (Sendai/Warsaw) H A Dürr (Menlo Park)J Schaefer (Würzburg) J Fassbender (Dresden)H Schmidt (Wetzikon) J Fontcuberta (Barcelona)J Spałek (Kraków) V Garcia (Orsay)L Straka (Helsinki) J N Gonçalves (Aveiro)A Szewczyk (Warszawa) M E Gruner (Duisburg)Y Taguchi (Wako) G Gubbiotti (Perugia)A Thiaville

  13. Benzene and MTBE Sorption in Fine Grain Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Lenczewski, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    The practice of adding methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to gasoline started in the late 1970s and increased dramatically in the 1990s. MTBE first was added as a substitute for tetra-ethyl lead then later as a fuel oxygenate. Although the use of MTBE has resulted in significant reduction in air pollution, it has become a significant groundwater contaminant due to its high solubility in water, high environmental mobility, and low potential for biodegradation. A recent report (1999-2001) by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California in collaboration with United State Geological Survey and the Oregon Health and Science University found that MTBE was the second most frequent detected volatile organic compound in groundwater. In Illinois, MTBE has been found in 26 of the 1,800 public water supplies. MTBE has also been blended in Mexico into two types of gasoline sold in the country by the state oil company (PEMEX) but is not monitored in groundwater at this time. Early research on MTBE considered it unable to adsorb to soils and sediments, however, by increasing the organic matter and decreasing the size of the grains (silts or clays) this may increase sorption. The objective of this study is to determine if fine grained materials have the potential for sorption of MTBE due to its high specific surface area (10-700 m 2/g) and potentially high organic matter (0.5-3.8%). The experiment consisted of sorption isotherms to glacial tills from DeKalb, Illinois and lacustrine clays from Chalco, Mexico. Experiments were performed with various concentrations of MTBE and benzene (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 ug/L) at 10° C and 25° C. Results showed a range of values for the distribution coefficient (Kd, linear model). At 10° C the Kd value for MTBE was 0.187 mL/g for lacustrine clay while the glacial loess had a value of 0.009 mL/g. The highest Kd values with MTBE were 0.2859 mL/g for organic rich lacustrine clays and 0.014 mL/g for glacial loess at 25° C. The highest

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF LETÂİF-NÂME IN TERMS OF THE NOVEL TECHNIQUE ABSTRACT LETÂİF-NÂME ADLI ESERİN ROMAN TEKNİĞİ AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener DEMİREL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Latife/letâif, meaning pleasant and nice statement humouring and cheering people, especially joking and humor, is conceptually an elusive and delicate meaning, a feeling coming to heart, or an amusing and weird statement and story. And letâif-nâme, derived from the word latife, can be composed of many different texts within itself (e.g. story, tale, joke and epigram, and can be written as a long-running story consisting of a separate text and a certain plot.The story Letâif-nâme, which is the subject of this paper and the author of which is not known, is an example of the latter kind of texts, and stands out as a work including eleven distinct stories / tales / jokes within a framework. This work was published in H.1268/ A.D.1851-52 in İstanbul. The work, comprising 153 pages, tells about the experiences of a hero called Yousuf Shah in the 17th century during the reign of Sultan Murad the fourth. This paper, focusing on the work Letâif-nâme, deals with the title, theme, summary, plot, characters, setting, time, narrator and the point of view of the work, and its linguistic and style characteristics within the framework of the story / novel analysis. İnsanları güldüren, neşelendiren hoş söz ve güzel söz; özellikle şaka, espri anlamına gelen latife/letâif, kavram olarak sözle ifade edilmesi güç, ince mana, kalbe doğan duygu; güldürecek tuhaf söz ve hikâye demektir. Latife kelimesinden türetilen letâif-nâme ise kendi içinde birçok ayrı metinden (hikâye, masal, fıkra ve nükte gibi oluşabildiği gibi, müstakil bir metin, belli bir olay örgüsünden oluşan uzun soluklu hikâye hâlinde de kaleme alınmış olabilmektedir. Bu yazıya konu olan ve yazarı bilinmeyen Letâif-nâme adlı hikâye, ikinci tip metinlere örnektir ve bir çerçeve içinde birbirinden farklı on bir hikâye/masal/fıkrayı içeren bir eser olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Eser, H.1268/M.1851-52 yılında İstanbul’da bas

  15. Anglų kalbos vartojimas ir kodų kaita Lietuvos televizijų reklamose. Use of English and code-mixing in TV commercials in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Vaicekauskienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of language domain loss and sets out to examine the relationship between Lithuanian and English in TV commercials in Lithuania. The aim of the research is to determine the spread of English, together with the functions of English elements in the commercials and code-mixing. The data consists of a corpus of TV commercials recorded in 2003 and in 2009; in total, more than 1200 commercials, broadcasted during the most popular TV programs in one week each year. The analysis has shown that TV advertising as a domain of Lithuanian language use is not being lost and the situation hasn’t changed over the years. There are almost no only English commercials. Most of the commercials are a mix of Lithuanian and English codes, while English is mostly used in the product names. There are few English slogans and not much other information in English in the corpus. It turned out that there might be a special strategy for the localization of commercials in Lithuania. The oral form of the commercials is more Lithuanized than the written form. The slogans and the product names are presented in translation or explained in Lithuanian. At the same time, the written part of the commercials can have more information in English. Some English insertions most likely have a symbolic function to make an impression that the product advertised is valuable or modern. The use of English in commercials may have the purpose of communicating prestige and especially targeting at an audience with a high social status or young people.------ Straipsnyje keliama Lietuvoje iki šiol labai mažai tirta kalbos domenų praradimo problema ir analizuojami anglų ir lietuvių kalbų santykiai televizijos reklamoje. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti anglų kalbos vartojimo apimtis ir plitimą, angliškų elementų funkcijas bei kodų kaitos pobūdį. Medžiaga rinkta 2003 m. ir 2009 m., vieną savaitę įrašinėjant Lietuvos televizijų transliuojamų

  16. Pasenusi leksika ir naujažodžiai dvikalbiuose žodynuose. Les mots vieux et les neologismes dans les dictionnaires bilingues lituaniens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Melnikienė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudarant naujų dvikalbių žodynų antraštynus, didžiausia paspara jos autoriams turėtų būti abiejų gretinamų kalbų vienakalbiai žodynai. Tačiau iki šiol Lietuvoje aktyviųjų dvikalbių žodynų rengėjai neturi patikimo, dabartinę lietuvių kalbos būklę atspindinčio leksikografinio šaltinio – bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas iki šiol nėra neišleistas. Taigi jie yra priversti tapti lietuvių kalbos normintojais, t. y. įtraukti ne tik „Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodyne“ esančią pagrindinio žodyninio fondo leksiką, bet ir iš įvairių pirminių šaltinių atrinkti žodžių, kurie plačiai vartojami visuomenėje, tačiau kol kas nėra legalizuoti. Kita vertus, leksikografams tenka atmesti kai kuriuos ankstesniuose žodynuose užfiksuotus, bet dabar jau nebevartojamus lietuvių kalbos žodžius. Vadinasi, kiekviename dvikalbiame žodyne neišvengiamai susiduriama su subjektyviuoju faktoriumi, dėl kurio leidinyje gali atsirasti tam tikras disbalansas tarp jame teikiamos pasenusios ir neseniai vartosenoje atsiradusios leksikos kiekio. Šio darbo tikslas – panagrinėti, kokios tendencijos vyrauja lietuviškuose dvikalbiuose leidiniuose, į jų antraštynus įtraukiant archaizmus ir naujažodžius, aptarti šio tipo leksikos svarbą ir funkcijas žodynų makrostruktūroje. Analizės objektu yra pasirinkti devyni didelės apimties dvikalbiai žodynai, išleisti mūsų šalies leidyklose 2000-2006 metais. ------ La nomenclature d’un dictionnaire de langue peut être toujours considérée comme l’archive d’un état de langue. Quel que soit le projet lexicographique, le lexicographe est obligé tout d’abord de se présenter nettement l’épaisseur synchronique de son corpus, c’est-à-dire, savoir définir ses limites sur l’axe du temps. Donc au moment d’établir sa nomenclature, il doit mesurer ce qu’on appelle la variation diachronique du lexique et déterminer le fonds homogène qu’il souhaite

  17. Prepozicinė ir postpozicinė modifikacija: trižodžių angliškų ir lietuviškų terminų gretinamoji analizė. Pre- and Post-Nominal Modification: A Contrastive Investigation of English and Lithuanian Three-Word Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Džežulskienė

    2010-01-01

    einančių modifikatorių pozicija, pobūdžiu, sudaromųjų elementų ryšiais ir raiška, telekomunikaciniai terminai klasifikuojami į tris grupes, kurių kiekviena turi įvairių konfigūracijų. Abiejų kalbų trikomponentėse struktūrose modifikatoriai dažniausiai išsirikiuoja prieš pagrindinį dėmenį, t. y. prepozicijoje. Tokią modifikacijos realizavimo raišką sąlygoja mokslo kalboje vartojamų terminų loginis apibrėžtumas, informacijos koncentracija ir kalbos išteklių ekonomija. Nors specialiojoje telekomunikacijų srityje vartojamos panašių struktūrų angliškos ir lietuviškos daiktavardinės konfigūracijos, gretinamoji analizė rodo, kad didžioji dauguma trižodžių angliškų telekomunikacijų terminų turi dėmenų kiekiu nesutampančius lietuviškus atitikmenis, pakitusią žodžių tvarką struktūrose ar žodžių klasių neatitikimų.

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Bryant

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available - R.H. Barnes, Janet Hoskins, Biographical objects; How things tell the stories of people’s lives. London: Routledge, 1998, x + 213 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Ann Kumar, Java and modern Europe; Ambiguous encounters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1997, vii + 472 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Lenore Manderson, Sickness and the state; Health and illness in colonial Malaya, 1870-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xix + 315 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Bambang Widoyo, Gapit; 4 naskah drama berbahasa Jawa: Rol, Leng, Tuk dan Dom. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Benteng Budaya, 1998, xiv + 302 pp. - James T. Collins, Bernd Nothofer, Reconstruction, classification, description; Festschrift in honor of Isidore Dyen. Hamburg: Abera, 1996, xiv + 259 pp. - J.R. Flenley, Kristina R.M. Beuning, Modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate in lowland East Java, Indonesia. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1996, 51 pp. + 49 plates. [Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 14.] - Gregory Forth, Karl-Heinze Kohl, Der Tod der Riesjungfrau; Mythen, Kulte und Allianzen in einer ostindonesischen Lokalkultur. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1998, 304 pp. [Religionsethnologische Studien des Frobenius-Instituts Frankfurt am Main, Band I.] - J. van Goor, Brook Barrington, Empires, imperialism and Southeast Asia; Essays in honour of Nicholas Tarling. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1997, v + 250 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 43.] - Mies Grijns, Penny van Esterik, Women of Southeast Asia. DeKalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 1996, xiv + 229 pp. ‘Monographs on Southeast Asia, Occasional Paper 17; Second, revised edition.] - Hans Hagerdal, Alfons van der Kraan, Bali at war; A history of the Dutch-Balinese conflict of 1846-49. Clayton, Victoria: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1995, x + 240 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 34]. - Volker Heeschen, Jurg Wassmann, Das Ideal des leicht gebeugten Menschen; Eine ethnokognitive

  19. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  20. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  1. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the

  2. Influência da calagem no rendimento de matéria seca de plantas de cobertura e adubação verde, em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Ernani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de solos degradados é lenta e onerosa. Plantas de cobertura de solo e adubação verde têm sido amplamente utilizadas nesse processo de recuperação, pois promovem alta produção de fitomassa com baixo custo, especialmente se forem tolerantes à acidez. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da calagem no rendimento de matéria seca de dezesseis dessas espécies, em casa de vegetação. Oito espécies de inverno (Lollium multiflorum, Avena strigosa, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus angustifolius, Pisum sativum, Secale cereale, Vicia sativa e Vicia villosa e oito de verão (Stizolobium niveum, Stizolobium aterrinum, Stizolobium deeringianum, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria retusa, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformes foram cultivadas em amostras da camada arável de dois solos ácidos catarinenses (Latossoso Bruno e Cambissolo Húmico, em Lages (SC, em 1997. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de doses de calcário equivalentes a 0, 0,25, 0,50, 1,00 e 1,50 vezes a quantidade recomendada pelo método SMP para elevar o pH dos solos a 6,0. Os valores de Ca e Mg trocáveis aumentaram linearmente com a calagem e na mesma magnitude, ao redor de 3,0 mmol c kg-1 para cada incremento de 0,1 unidade de pH. O efeito da calagem no rendimento de matéria seca variou com o solo e, principalmente, com a espécie. Dez das 16 espécies não apresentaram aumento no rendimento de matéria seca com o aumento do pH, em pelo menos um dos solos, e somente cinco espécies responderam à calagem de forma semelhante nos dois solos. O pH no qual as espécies tiveram a produção máxima de matéria seca foi igual ou inferior a 5,5 em qualquer dos solos e foi normalmente menor no Cambissolo do que no Latossolo, provavelmente pelo efeito benéfico da matéria orgânica em minimizar a toxidez do Al. Essas espécies podem, portanto, ser cultivadas com sucesso como melhoradoras das propriedades físicas, químicas e biol

  3. 华北地区几种冬闲覆盖作物碳氮蓄积及其对土壤理化性质的影响%Carbon-nitrogen fixation and effects on the physical and chemical properties in winter cover crop in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋; 高贤彪; 宁晓光; 曹卫东

    2011-01-01

    充分利用华北地区冬季空闲耕地及光热资源,以冬闲耕地为对照,研究二月兰(Orychophragmus violaceus)、毛苕(Vicia uillosa Roth.)、黑麦草(Secale cereale L.)、草木樨(Melilotus officinalis)、紫花苜蓿(Medicago satiua L.)5种不同冬闲覆盖作物地上部、地下部以及总碳、氮的蓄积量及其对土壤理化性质的影响.结果表明:5种覆盖作物总干物质质量在4.6~8.82t·hm-2之间,是冬闲田干物质质量的1.6~3.1倍.5种覆盖作物全碳蓄积量在1.80~3.14 t·hm-2之间,是冬闲田碳蓄积量的1.9~3.3倍.与对照相比,各覆盖处理均明显提高氮素蓄积,尤以苜蓿最佳,达到了202.8 kg·hm-2,差异显著.试验选择5种肥覆盖均可提高土壤有机质质量分数(0.90~2.86 g·kg);黑麦草覆盖可明显降低土壤容重(0.08 g·cm3);毛苕和苜蓿栽培均可显著降低土壤pH,但同时土壤盐分有所增加;二月兰和黑麦草栽培在提高土壤水分含量方面表现最好.%In this paper, using idle farmland and light and beat resources in winter in North China, compared winter idle land, effect of five cover crops planted in China's north region as winter cover crops on carbon-nitrogen fixation and effects on the physical and chemical properties. Results showed that dry matter yield of five crops were 4.6-8.82 t·hm-2, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of a fallow field. Carbon fixation of five crops were 1.80-3.14 t·hm-2, Compared with fallow, planting winter cover crops increased Carbon fixation. Compared with fallow, planting winter cover crops increased nitrogen fixation, the better crop was alfalfa, its yield was 202.8 kg·hm-2, respectively. The treatments of five cover crops got significantly higher organic matter contents.Ryegrass cover can significantly reduce soil bulk density; vetch and alfalfa cultivation could significantly reduce soil pH, but increased soil salt; Orychophragmus Violaeeus and ryegrass have shown to

  4. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  5. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  6. The comparison of growth dynamic and decomposing characteristics of two kinds of winter green manure%两种禾本科冬绿肥生长规律及腐解特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常帅; 闫慧峰; 杨举田; 张永春; 孙艳茹; 贺远; 石屹

    2015-01-01

    在山东临沂研究了冬播绿肥黑麦(冬牧70)和大麦的生长发育、养分吸收规律,并通过原位培养法比较了绿肥翻压后腐解及养分释放的差异。结果表明,冬牧70和大麦在返青后均迅速积累干物质,大麦的快速生长期在3月下旬,冬牧70的快速生长期在4月上旬,冬牧70进入快速生长期后的生长速率高于大麦。两种绿肥的养分吸收规律与干物质积累规律一致,冬牧70和大麦的氮、磷、钾吸收量基本一致。两种绿肥在翻压30 d内快速腐解,腐解率和氮素释放率达到了80%以上,大麦的腐解速率高于冬牧70,而矿质营养元素的释放率低于冬牧70,根据腐解和养分释放规律确定两种禾本科绿肥的适宜翻压时间为4月上旬。%In this study, winter grass 70 rye ( Secale cereale L. ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) was selected as the two winter green manures to compare the differences on growth dynamic, nutrient absorption and utilization, decomposition changes and nutrients release after incubation. The results showed that dry matter accumulated rapidly after reviving for both of them. The fast growth rate of barley height and winter grass 70 rye were happened in late March and early April, respectively, and the growth rate of winter grass 70 rye was higher than barley in the fast growth period. The dynamic of nutrient accumulation characteristics were similar with the dry matter accumulation for both winter green manures. NPK absorption in both green ma-nures were at the same level. Both green manure decomposed fastly in the first 30 days after incubation and the decomposition rate were higher than 80%. In this stage, decomposition rate of barley was higher than winter grass 70 rye, but the mineral nutrition release rate was less than winter grass 70 rye. According to the decomposition and nutrient release rules, it was con-cluded that the suitable pressure over time of two kinds of gramineous green manure was in early

  7. STUDY ON POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE TRANSFER FROM S. CEREALE L.cv. WEILING RYE INTO WHEAT%威岭栽培黑麦抗白粉病特性导入小麦的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀渝; 任正隆

    2007-01-01

    接种鉴定,改良的染色体C-分带和基因组原位杂交技术(GISH,Genomic in situ hybridization)被用于鉴定小麦和黑麦的染色质,酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(APAGE)被用于鉴定黑麦醇溶蛋白1RS特异条带,11个黑麦种属特异性标记SCM(Secale cereale mayker)引物被用于扩增分析黑麦特异性简单重复序列(SSR).研究结果证实No.147是一个新的高抗白粉病的1BL/1RS小麦-黑麦染色体易位系,并对其产生的细胞学机制进行了分析.论文对中国栽培黑麦抗性基因资源的利用和该易位系在小麦遗传育种改良中的利用价值进行了讨论.

  8. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus `Giganteus` (M. `Giganteus`) and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substituion for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO{sub 2} reduction

  9. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  10. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

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    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  11. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    (Cannabis-type) and rye (Secale-type). From the 15th to the 19th century AD, pollen diagrams are similar at three sites and differ from the fourth. At Assenoncourt, St Jean and Römersberg, the contribution of Quercus, Carpinus and Fagus remains almost constant: 40%, 10% and 10%. This pattern may be related to short rotation forestry management applied in order to provide fuel wood to the local salt industry. At the fourth site (Sarrebourg), pollen assemblage varies with successive Quercus and Carpinus phases, following a natural sylvicultural evolution. Finally, the present-day forest extension took place during the 19th century with the replacement of wood by coal in the salt industry and the recent collapse of this salt industry during the 20th century. This study confirms, in the context of low altitude forests with heavy soils, what had been observed on shallow calcareous soils of the Lorrain plateau. Most of our state forests, that were thought to be "very ancient" or "immemorial" forest, have been managed for agriculture in the deep past. Because agriculture lands were often limed, fertilized, and eroded, this former agriculture use may to a large extent explain present soil properties and, as a consequence, present biodiversity.

  12. Influence of pore structure on carbon retention/loss in soil macro-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Michelle; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Rivers, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Carbon protection within soil macro-aggregates is an important component of soil carbon sequestration. Pores, as the transportation network for microorganisms, water, air and nutrients within macro-aggregates, are among the factors controlling carbon protection through restricting physical accessibility of carbon to microorganisms. The understanding of how the intra-aggregate pore structure relates to the degree of carbon physical protection, however, is currently lacking. This knowledge gap can lead to potentially inaccurate models and predictions of soil carbon's fate and storage in future changing climates. This study utilized the natural isotopic difference between C3 and C4 plants to trace the location of newly added carbon within macro-aggregates before and after decomposition and explored how location of this carbon relates to characteristics of intra-aggregate pores. To mimic the effect of decomposition, aggregates were incubated at 23˚ C for 28 days. Computed micro-tomographic images were used to determine pore characteristics at 6 μm resolution before and after incubation. Soil (0-10 cm depth) from a 20 year continuous corn (C4 plant) experiment was used. Two soil treatments were considered: 1) "destroyed-structure", where 1 mm sieved soil was used and 2) "intact-structure", where intact blocks of soil were used. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) (C3 plant) was grown in the planting boxes (2 intact, 3 destroyed, and one control) for three months in a greenhouse. From each box, ˜5 macro-aggregates of ˜5 mm size were collected for a total of 27 macro-aggregates. Half of the aggregates were cut into 5-11 sections, with relative positions of the sections within the aggregate recorded, and analyzed for δ13C. The remaining aggregates were incubated and then subjected to cutting and δ13C analysis. While there were no significant differences between the aggregate pore size distributions of the two treatments, the roles that specific pores sizes played in

  13. Spécificités de l'accentologie

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    Paul Garde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AKCENTOLOGIJOS SPECIFIKASantraukaAkcentologija (ypač diachroninė dažnai laikoma ezoteriniu dalyku, o jos tyrimai, palyginti su kitomis ide. kalbų istorinės ir lyginamosios kalbotyros sritimis, yra kiek atsilikę. Taip yra todėl, kad ilgą laiką buvo taikomi XIX a. kalbininkų, taip pat ir jaunagramatikių, daugiausia siekusių formuluoti fonetinius dėsnius, metodai – tinkamesni opozicinių (tiek segmentinių, tiek prozodinių, o ne kontrastinių prozodinių požymių (tokių kaip, pvz., kirtis pakitimams nagrinėti. Šitaip buvo įmanoma pastebėti tik bendrus visos akcentinės sistemos pakitimus, pvz.: kirčio fiksaciją (lotynų k., kirčio vietos apribojimą (graikų k., bendro pobūdžio kirčio perkėlimo dėsnius (štokavų tarmė; taip pat kai kuriuos retus kirčiavimo nulemtus segmentinius pakitimus (Vernerio dėsnis, tačiau laisvojo kirčio kalbose kirčiavimą daugiau lemiant ne fonologijai, o morfologijai, šia metodika nebuvo įmanoma aprašyti ir paaiškinti daugumos tokio tipo kalboms būdingų reiškinių.Svarbiausias minėtojo metodo pasiekimas buvo „Saussure’o dėsnio“ atradimas 1896 m. Tai klasikinio tipo fonetinis dėsnis, kuriuo pirmąsyk paaiškintas visą kalbos (lietuvių sistemą apimantis tam tikro prozodinio opozicinio požymio (priegaidės nulemtas kirčio perkėlimas. Netikėta šio atradimo (taip pat ir jo pseudodvynio – visiškai kitokio, bendresnio ir mažiau pagrįsto, „Fortunatovo dėsnio“ – paskelbimo 1897 m. pasekmė buvo tai, kad XX a. pirmojoje pusėje dauguma akcentologų bandydavo priegaidžių skirtumais paaiškinti bet kokį kirčio perkėlimą. Kadangi „laisvojo“ (t. y. morfologiškai nulemto kirčio kalbose gali įvykti daugybė kirčio perkėlimų, tekdavo postuluoti ir daugybę priegaidžių pasikeitimo (metatonijos atvejų, kurių rezultatas turėjo būti daugybės priegaidžių sistema. Todėl šie mokslininkai buvo pavadinti „metatonininkų mokykla“ (Hamm, o j

  14. Extração do fósforo do solo pelo método de Neubauer e por métodos químicos Extraction of phosphorus from the soil by the neubauer and chemical methods

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    R. A. Catani

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Nêste trabalho são apresentados dados sôbre a extração do fósforo de alguns solos do Estado de São Paulo, obtidos pelo método biológico de Neubauer e por diversos métodos químicos. Foram empregados três tipos de solo : massapé-salmourão, terra roxa misturada e arenito Bauru. As amostras de solo foram submetidas à extração do fósforo por arroz (Oryza sativa L., usando a técnica de Neubauer, com pequenas modificações. Ao mesmo tempo o fósforo foi extraído das referidas amostras com os seguintes extratores : água distilada; solução de ácido acético 0,25 normal; solução de ácido sulfúrico 0,05 normal; solução 0,025 ncrmal de fluoreto de amônio e 0,05 normal de ácido sulfúrico ; solução 0,25 normal de ácido oxálico e 0,75 normal de oxalato de potássio.The present work is an attempt to correlate the results obtained in the extraction of soil phosphorus by various chemical methods with those obtained by the biological seedling method of Neubauer. The soil samples investigated represent three of the main soil types of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Physico-chemical properties of these soils are given in the Portuguese text. Two samples of each soil type were prepared. To one of the samples superphosphate was added at the rate of 115 kg of P2O5 per hectare before being tested. Aliquots of the two samples were then extracted with the following extractors : distilled water ; 0.25 normal acetic acid ; 0.05 normal sulfuric acid ; 0.025 normai ammonium fluoride and 0.05 normal sulfuric acid ; 0.25 normal oxalic acid and 0.75 normal potassium oxalate. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L. were used for the Neubauer test instead of rye (Secale cereale L. because they had been found to be more satisfactory in previous tests. The results, representing the average of three replications, are summarized in table 1. Figures in column 4 represent the differences between the phosphorus absorbed from 100 g of soil and from the blank

  15. Wheat stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanquan; Wellings, Colin; Chen, Xianming; Kang, Zhengsheng; Liu, Taiguo

    2014-06-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a serious disease of wheat occurring in most wheat areas with cool and moist weather conditions during the growing season. The basidiomycete fungus is an obligate biotrophic parasite that is difficult to culture on artificial media. Pst is a macrocyclic, heteroecious fungus that requires both primary (wheat or grasses) and alternate (Berberis or Mahonia spp.) host plants to complete its life cycle. Urediniospores have the capacity for wind dispersal over long distances, which may, under high inoculum pressure, extend to thousands of kilometres from the initial infection sites. Stripe rust, which is considered to be the current major rust disease affecting winter cereal production across the world, has been studied intensively for over a century. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the Pst-wheat pathosystem, with emphasis on the life cycle, uredinial infection process, population biology of the pathogen, genes for stripe rust resistance in wheat and molecular perspectives of wheat-Pst interactions. The stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Ps), is classified in kingdom Fungi, phylum Basidiomycota, class Urediniomycetes, order Uredinales, family Pucciniaceae, genus Puccinia. Ps is separated below the species level by host specialization on various grass genera, comprising up to nine formae speciales, of which P. striiformis f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst) causes stripe (or yellow) rust on wheat. Uredinial/telial hosts: Pst mainly infects common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (T. turgidum var. durum L.), cultivated emmer wheat (T. dicoccum Schrank), wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides Korn) and triticale (Triticosecale). Pst can infect certain cultivated barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but generally does not cause severe epidemics. In addition, Pst may infect naturalized and improved pasture grass species, such

  16. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags-Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences(EST-CAPS) for Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr45%小麦抗叶锈病基因Lr45的表达序列标签-酶切扩增多态性(EST-CAPS)分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭楠; 刘春燕; 赵盼盼; 杨文香; 闫红飞; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

    amplified with BE426158 in TcLr45 and converted successfully to a stable STS(sequence tagged site) marker,LR45-1.The linkage distance of the LR45-1 with Lr45 was 8.2 cM based on the data of a F2 population derived from TcLr45 × Thatcher.The specificity and stability were validated by testing the wheat leaf rust resistance near isogenic lines and rye(Secale cereale) varieties.The results described above indicate that the EST-CAPS markers can be used in analysising of polymorphisms and development of molecular markers in wheat leaf rust resistance genes.

  17. The analysis of plant remains from the fortress Ras - the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century

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    Borojević Ksenija

    2002-01-01

    archaeobotanical investigation from a Medieval site in Serbia. The previous information that we have about the agriculture in medieval Serbia was based solely on the written sources including documents from monasteries and/or from archives Similarly, the Byzantine sources do not give any information about the agriculture of southeast Serbia in this period. The written documents are thus, either later than the existence of the fortress of Ras or are not concerning the region of Ras. Therefore, macro plant remains from Ras are the only direct evidence providing information about agricultural activities and plant food practices of the inhabitants of the territory that was to become the center of the newly formed Serbian state. The analysis of macro plant remains has shown that cereals were stored at the fortress. The most represented is bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. Besides wheat, rye (Secale cereale, barley (Hordeum vulgare, oats, (Avena sativa and millet (Panicum miliaceum were also found. The differences in quantity of various cereals present per sample indicates that some cereals were sown together, e.g wheat and rye from a sample in feature 50. Sowing two crops together, in a "maslin" fashion is traditionally explained as a risk-reducing strategy Although millet was not highly regarded as a human food source according to the Byzantine sources, millet has been identified at Ras and other contemporaneous sites in Bulgaria, Poland, and Russia, providing direct evidence that it was grown and eaten among the Slavs. Millet and oats are both spring sown crops and their presence indicates that probably crop ration was practiced with winter cereals like wheat, rye, or barley. The identified weed seeds from the cereal samples reveal that cereals were grown locally and that some were grown in the fields that were used for longer period of time while others might have been grown on newly cleared land. There are no internodes or cereal glumes present in the samples, indicating that the

  18. Screening of New Resistance Sources of Wheat Leaf Rust%小麦叶锈病新抗源筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 闫红飞; 宫文萍; 李光蓉; 刘大群; 杨足君

    2013-01-01

    gene(s) which could be transferred to wheat for wheat breeding purpose.In this research,we screened and characterized new leaf rust resistance sources from wheat-relatives amphidiploids,additions,substitutions and translocations for further using these germplasm.Leaf rust complex isolates (Lrcomp) (from Kansas State) and 09-9-1441-1 etc.five leaf rust isolates (from China),were inoculated to germplasm at seedling stage,and were scored for infection types.Total 31 from 116 germplasm are immune or highly resistant to Lrcomp.Part of germplasm included Aegilops searsii,Ae.caudate,Ae.speltoide,Ae.biuncialis,Ae.geniculata,Ae.sharonensis,Ae.peregrina,Ae.comosa,Ae.umbellulata,Ae.ventricosa,Thinopyrum intermedium,Th.intermedium ssp.trichophoru,Th.elongatum,Elymus trachycaulus,Secale cereale,S.africanum or Triticum timopheevii chromatin are immune or highly resistant to Lrcomp,while germplasm which contain Ae.bicornis,Ae.mutica,Agropyron scirpeum,Dasypyrum breviaristatum or D.villosum chromatin are susceptible to Lrcomp.Aegilops searsii 4Ss chromosome,Ae.caudate C#1 and D#1 chromosmes,and Ae.biuncialis,Ae.comosa may harbor new wheat leaf rust resistance gene which need further research.Wheat-E.trachycaulus Robertsonian translocation line 1 HtS.1 BL,nearly immune to Lrcomp and other five leaf rust isolates indicating that it is worth to make small chromosome translocation by chromosome engineering for wheat breeding purpose.

  19. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    degradation, resulting in the second extension of sand drifting. To improve our knowledge about the evolution of plaggen soils we can combine data of pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of plaggic deposits. Species, present in pollen spectra of plaggic deposits, can have three sources: 1. Pollen, already present in sods, used in the stable to produce manure. 2. Pollen, originating from flowering crop species. 3. Pollen, originating from flowering species in the surroundings. Species, present in biomarker spectra, can have three sources: 1. Biomarkers from tissues, present in sods, used for manure production. 2. Biomarkers from decomposed roots of crop species. 3. Biomarkers from straw of crop species, used in the stable for manure production. Comparison pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of a regular Anthrosol (Posteles, NE-Netherlands) and a Buried (Nabbegat, SE-Netherlands, buried around 1800 AD) Plaggic Anthrosol yielded some interesting features: a. The biomarker spectra of the 2Ap horizons (agricultural layer below the plaggic deposits) are dominated by biomarkers of deciduous trees (dominated by Quercus), indicating the use of organic litter from the forests. These trees are also present in the pollen spectra. b. The biomarker spectra of the plaggic deposits are dominated by crop species (Avena, Secale, Fagpyrum), Calluna is absent in most of the spectra. This is different from pollen spectra where Calluna is present, together with crop species and transported pollen of other species. Only the biomarker spectra of the upper 10 cm of the plaggic horizons are dominated by Calluna. c. Comparison of the spectra of the buried and regular Plaggic Anthrosols show the contribution of biomarkers of roots of Zea mais (introduced around 1950 AD), suppressing the other species. The negligible percentages of Calluna in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggest an overestimating of the use of heath sods in the traditional interpretation of the genesis of plaggic horizons

  20. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    degradation, resulting in the second extension of sand drifting. To improve our knowledge about the evolution of plaggen soils we can combine data of pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of plaggic deposits. Species, present in pollen spectra of plaggic deposits, can have three sources: 1. Pollen, already present in sods, used in the stable to produce manure. 2. Pollen, originating from flowering crop species. 3. Pollen, originating from flowering species in the surroundings. Species, present in biomarker spectra, can have three sources: 1. Biomarkers from tissues, present in sods, used for manure production. 2. Biomarkers from decomposed roots of crop species. 3. Biomarkers from straw of crop species, used in the stable for manure production. Comparison pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of a regular Anthrosol (Posteles, NE-Netherlands) and a Buried (Nabbegat, SE-Netherlands, buried around 1800 AD) Plaggic Anthrosol yielded some interesting features: a. The biomarker spectra of the 2Ap horizons (agricultural layer below the plaggic deposits) are dominated by biomarkers of deciduous trees (dominated by Quercus), indicating the use of organic litter from the forests. These trees are also present in the pollen spectra. b. The biomarker spectra of the plaggic deposits are dominated by crop species (Avena, Secale, Fagpyrum), Calluna is absent in most of the spectra. This is different from pollen spectra where Calluna is present, together with crop species and transported pollen of other species. Only the biomarker spectra of the upper 10 cm of the plaggic horizons are dominated by Calluna. c. Comparison of the spectra of the buried and regular Plaggic Anthrosols show the contribution of biomarkers of roots of Zea mais (introduced around 1950 AD), suppressing the other species. The negligible percentages of Calluna in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggest an overestimating of the use of heath sods in the traditional interpretation of the genesis of plaggic horizons

  1. Cultivos de cobertura,¿una alternativa viable para la región semirárida pampeana? Cover crops: a viable alternative for the semiarid Pampa region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto que tienen los cultivos de cobertura (CC en términos de proveer cobertura al suelo, acumular N y P en su biomasa y favorecer la acumulación de agua útil y el rendimiento de los cultivos de verano, se estableció un ensayo con los siguientes tratamientos: barbecho (B sin CC, centeno (Secale cereale L. sin fertilizar como CC testigo (CT y centeno fertilizado con nitrógeno (CF, en un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con tres repeticiones. Al momento de secado del CC el arreglo de los tratamientos fue en parcelas dividas con la fertilización como tratamiento principal y el momento de secado como subtratamiento: secado del CC en julio (CTJ y CFJ respectivamente y en agosto (CTA y CFA respectivamente. Sobre todos los tratamientos se establecieron cultivos de verano (CV, maíz y sorgo, luego de un barbecho, a fines de noviembre. Se determinó humedad de suelo y N-NO3- a la siembra del CC, durante su ciclo y a la siembra del cultivo de verano y en floración de maíz y sorgo. Se calculó el uso consuntivo (UC y la eficiencia de uso de agua (EUA en la producción de biomasa del CC y en la producción de granos (rendimiento de los CV. En ambos momentos de secado del CC, julio (J y agosto (A, a la siembra, floración y cosecha de los cultivos de verano se determinó la cantidad de residuos del CC y su contenido de carbono, nitrógeno y fósforo. A la siembra del cultivo de verano el tratamiento B tuvo menos cantidad de agua útil que los tratamientos con CC. En CT y CF, la fecha de secado más temprana almacenó mayor cantidad de agua que la más tardía. La producción total de materia seca del CC fue mayor cuando se secó en A y en tratamientos fertilizados. Los CC fijaron importantes cantidades de C y retuvieron en sus tejidos P y N contribuyendo a disminuir potenciales pérdidas de nitratos por lixiviación durante el barbecho. El N proveniente de la mineralización de los residuos aumentó los niveles de

  2. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  3. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  4. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    László, M., 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42, 81-93. László, M., 2001. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M., Imre, K., Jose, E. M., 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. In press László, M., Silva, J. B. C., José, A. B., 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. In press László, M., Silva, J. B. C., Jose, A. B., 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton, L., 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely. Márton, L., 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely. Márton, L., 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, 21. p. Márton, L., 2001b. Climate change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. In press Márton, L., 2001c. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő. Márton, L., Kádár, I., Estáquio, M. J., 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Szemes, I., Kádár, I., 1990. Műtrágyázás és meszezés tartamhatásának vizsgálata savanyú homoktalajon. Növénytermelés. 39: 147-155.

  5. Environmental Change: Precipitation and N, P, K, mg Fertilization Influences on Crop Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, Dd. M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Agroecological quality has a well estabished dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. Therefore, there is, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant, nutrition, rotation, protection etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally, among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980s have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports of the climate changes (rainfall); soil (acidic sandy brown forest) properties, mineral N, P, K, Mg fertilisation level and plant interactions on rye (Secale cereale L.), on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. Results are summarised from 1962 to 1990. Main conclusions were as follows: 1. Rye: a, Experimental years were characterised by frequent extremes of precipitation variabilities and changes. b, By an average year, at a satisfactory fertilisation level (N: 90 kg ha-1 and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations) the maximum yield reached 3.8 t ha-1. But yield was decreased by 17% and by 52% due to drought and excess rainfall, respectively

  6. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -600 mm growth period rainfall. References Harnos, Zs. 1993. Időjárás és időjárás-termés összefüggéseinek idősoros elemzése. In: Aszály 1983 (Szerk.: Baráth, Cs-né., Győrffy, B., és Harnos, Zs.). KÉE. Budapest Johnston, A. E. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. José, A. B., Estáquio, M. J., and Márton, L. 2001. Results of Crotalaria ssp. effects on soil conservation. In: Congress on Conservation Agriculture, (Eds Armando, M. V.), ECAF., Madrid, 5, pp 1-4. Márton, L. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, p. 9. Márton, L. 2001b. Climate change, N-fertilisation effect on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. In: Rural development-Ecologically farming-Agriculture, (Eds Palkovics, M.), University Veszprém, Keszthely, pp 924-929. Márton, L. 2002a. Climate-Rainfall Change (CRC) and mineral fertilisation (MF) effects on different crop production. In: Challenges of the new millennium our joint responsibility. (Eds A. Borhidi). MTA ÖBKI. Budapest. 1, pp 110-111. Márton, L. 2002b. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Production 51: 529-542. Márton, L. 2003. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of triticale. Plant Production. In press Márton, L., and Pekli, J. 2003. Plant production under sub-arctical and temperate climate conditions. SZIU. Gödöllő Acknowledgement This research was supported by Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-Budapest Adderss of the author Dr. Márton László Ph.D Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1022 H-Budapest, Herman O. u. 15. E-mail:marton@rissac.hu