WorldWideScience

Sample records for kalahari reserve responses

  1. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Fertilization Along the Kalahari Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Caylor, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Ries, L.; Okin, G.; Swap, R.; Shugart, H.; Scanlon, T.; Macko, S.

    2006-12-01

    To better understand how soil nutrients and soil moisture interactively control vegetation dynamics in savanna ecosystems, a large-scale stable isotope fertilization experiment was conducted using four study sites with different mean annual precipitation (MAP), along the Kalahari Transect (KT). KT in southern Africa traverses a dramatic aridity gradient (from 200 mm to more than 1000 mm MAP, through the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia), on relatively homogenous soils (deep Kalahari sands). The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four 21 m x 13 m plots at each site. Each plot was divided into four 10 m x 6 m subplots with a 1 m buffer zone between each subplot. Four treatments (N addition, P addition, N+P addition and control) were randomly applied to the subplots. The N and N+P additions were enriched with 15N to a signature of 10.3 ‰. Grass foliar 15N was significantly higher in the N and N+P addition than in the control or P-addition during following growing season. The differences disappeared in the second growing season. Soil 15N and soil surface CO2 fluxes were not different between treatments in both seasons for all four locations. Herbaceous biomass responses to fertilization were different in different locations. Significantly higher biomass was observed in N+P addition in driest site and in P addition in wetter site. The 15N results provide evidence of N uptake limitation and we also see evidence of productivity limitation. These results suggest that there is a complex feedback between soil and vegetation in savanna ecosystems.

  2. The response of ungulates to rainfall along the riverbeds of the Southern Kalahari

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    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The responses of springbok Antidorcas marsupialis, gemsbok Oryx gazella, blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and red hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus to rainfall along the riverbeds of the southern Kalahari are analysed. Springbok reacted most rapidly to rainfall along the riverbeds and, by browsing in dry times, maintained a fairly stable presence throughout the year, although the actual number present in any one year was dependent on annual rainfall. Gemsbok responded more slowly to rainfall and reached their highest numbers in years of high rainfall when the grasses were tall and mature, after which they rapidly departed from the riverbeds. Red hartebeest also reached their highest numbers during the rainy season, but departed slightly more slowly than gemsbok. In dry years, they too, failed to come into the riverbeds. Blue wildebeest in the vicinity of the riverbeds tended to be more sedentary than the other species. The presence of potable artificial water appeared to be more important for wildebeest than for the other species and, although rainfall was undoubtedly an important factor in regulating their numbers along the riverbeds, they depended to a greater extent on breeding success and mortality factors, than on emigration and immigration. The overall seasonal pattern of ungulate abundance along the riverbeds in the southern Kalahari was one of wet season concentrations and dry season dispersion.

  3. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

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    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  4. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  5. Notes on some Edible wild plants found in the Kalahari

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    M.E. Keith

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited work done on edible, indigenous plants to date, mainly concerns seasonal species. To develop a more reliable guide on food-plant sources for survival conditions in the field, a study directed at a survey of non-seasonal plants is conducted in the Kalahari. Descriptions of six edible non-seasonal plants for the Kalahari are given.

  6. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

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    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  7. Avian adaptations to the Kalahari environment: A typical continental semidesert

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    G. L Maclean

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird species adapted to the Kalahari are generally either (a sedentary, insectivorous (or carnivorous and non-gregarious, or (b nomadic, granivorous and gregarious even when breeding. Ground-dwelling birds predominate numerically and are cryptically coloured to avoid predation. Many species have nasal glands which secrete hypertonic solutions in response to the intake of fluids with high solute concentrations, as an adaptation to water conservation. Thermoregulation is discussed especially in relation to high ambient temperatures. Breeding is initiated in most species by rainfall or associated ecological effects, correlated with improved body condition of the females; lag periods between rain and egglaying are related to diet and time of year. Nest orientation is also related to season and capitalizes on maximal shade in summer. Parental care in sandgrouse is discussed.

  8. Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo

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    F. C Eloff

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

  9. Multivariate analysis of the hunting tactics of Kalahari leopards

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    J. du P. Bothma

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The hunting tactics of male and female leopards in the southern Kalahari were analysed for prey-specific patterns. The field study was based on tracking leopard spoor in the sandy substrate of the Kalahari. Visual profiles for each type of prey were compiled for various facets of hunting. Data sets were analysed further, using Correspondence Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis. The results indicate that multivariate analysis can be used to demonstrate prey-specific hunting tactics in Kalahari leopards. In using a scarce prey base, Kalahari leopards seem to be number maximisers as they are unselective of prey type, age or sex. The presence of prey-specific hunting tactics may indicate a move along a continuum towards some degree of energy maximisation.

  10. Lithostratigraphy of the Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Heike; Wanke, Ansgar

    2007-08-01

    The Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia consists of terrestrial sediments deposited in a tectonically active basin that was formed by flexural uplift of the African continental margin and independent structures related to rifting. The thickness of the sequence varies from a few meters to around 400 m. Greatest thicknesses occur where the NW-SE trending Kalahari basin axis conjugates with NE-SW trending grabens. Repeated phases of flooding and desiccation dominate the depositional environments of the Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia. Associations of lithofacies allow recognition of distinct depositional settings such as proximal debris flows, braided streams and sand fans, and pans and sandflats. The northeastern Namibian Kalahari Group rests unconformable on the pre-Kalahari surface which showed a relatively pronounced relief in the Epukiro area. The succession starts with conglomerates, breccias and pebbly sandstones, followed by carbonates, sandstones of various maturities, and silcretes. Ferruginous sandstones and ferricretes occur locally. The onset of Kalahari Group deposition was likely a basin-wide event and therefore the basal lithostratigraphic units can be correlated with confidence. Conversely, the correlation of the succeeding lithostratigraphic units remains fairly speculative.

  11. Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi

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    F.C. Eloff

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacterial soil crusts in the Kalahari: Implications for soil surface properties

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    Thomas, A. D.; Dougill, A. J.

    2007-03-01

    Localised patterns of erosion and deposition in vegetated semi-arid rangelands have been shown to influence ecological change and biogeochemical cycles. In the flat, vegetated Kalahari rangelands of Southern Africa the factors regulating erodibility of the fine sand soils and the erosivity of wind regimes require further investigation. This paper reports on the spatial and temporal patterns of cyanobacterial soil crust cover from ten sites at five sampling locations in the semi-arid Kalahari and discusses the likely impact on factors regulating surface erodibility and erosivity. Cyanobacterial soil crust cover on Kalahari Sand varied between 11% and 95% of the ground surface and was higher than previously reported. Cover was inversely related to grazing with the lowest crust cover found close to boreholes and the highest in the Game Reserve and Wildlife Management Zone. In grazed areas, crusts form under the protective canopies of the thorny shrub Acacia mellifera. Fenced plot data showed that crusts recover quickly from disturbance, with a near complete surface crust cover forming within 15 months of disturbance. Crust development is restricted by burial by wind blown sediment and by raindrop impact. Crusts had significantly greater organic matter and total nitrogen compared to unconsolidated surfaces. Crusts also significantly increased the compressive strength of the surface (and thus decreased erodibility) and changed the surface roughness. Establishing exactly how these changes affect aeolian erosion requires further process-based studies. The proportion of shear velocity acting on the surface in this complex mixed bush-grass-crust environment will be the key to understanding how crusts affect erodibility.

  13. The soils of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    Theo H Van Rooyen

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations made during a reconnaissance soil survey of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park showed that a variety of soils occur within the broad group of so-called Kalahari sands. For discussion purposes, the soils were classified into five main groups of which the red and yellow sands took precedence over the other soils because of their geographical distribution and pedological significance. The soils are discussed with special reference to their classification, site and parent material, their morphological, chemical and mineralogical properties and drainage characteristics. Attention was also given to the relationship between the soils and landforms, and a brief note on the inherent fertility status of the soils has been included.

  14. Symposium on the Kalahari Ecosystem summary and conclusions

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    A. J Hall-Martin

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available This symposium has dealt largely with the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP, an area which has been under the control of the National Parks Board of Trustees since 1931. The park, which covers some 9 600 km2 is part of an international conservation area which includes the adjoining 26 600 km2 Gemsbok National Park in Botswana and adjoining wildlife management areas.

  15. The geology of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    S. J Malherbe

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The floor rocks of the Kalahari Group are only known from boreholes. It consists of rocks of the Karoo Sequence with its associated intrusions of dolerite. The pre-Kalahari topography was dissected by rivers which drained in the direction of the present Botswana. The distribution of the oldest formation of the Kalahari Group, the Wessels Formation (clayey gravel, and the overlying Budin Formation (clay was also determined from borehole records. The Karoo Sequence was probably the source of these rocks. The overlying Eden Formation (sandstone, grit and conglomerate had a source which could yield much sand. All these formations were deposited under fluviatile conditions. The Mokalanen Formation (calcrete and the Gordonia Formation (sand indicate a change from a humid to an arid environment. The Lonely Formation (clayey diatomaceous limestone was deposited in a lacustrine environment. It also indicates a higher rainfall in an otherwise arid period. The Goeboe Goeboe Formation consists of clay and sand in the pans and rivers.

  16. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  17. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-02-01

    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies.

  18. Evaluating ecohydrological theories of woody root distribution in the Kalahari.

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    Abinash Bhattachan

    Full Text Available The contribution of savannas to global carbon storage is poorly understood, in part due to lack of knowledge of the amount of belowground biomass. In these ecosystems, the coexistence of woody and herbaceous life forms is often explained on the basis of belowground interactions among roots. However, the distribution of root biomass in savannas has seldom been investigated, and the dependence of root biomass on rainfall regime remains unclear, particularly for woody plants. Here we investigate patterns of belowground woody biomass along a rainfall gradient in the Kalahari of southern Africa, a region with consistent sandy soils. We test the hypotheses that (1 the root depth increases with mean annual precipitation (root optimality and plant hydrotropism hypothesis, and (2 the root-to-shoot ratio increases with decreasing mean annual rainfall (functional equilibrium hypothesis. Both hypotheses have been previously assessed for herbaceous vegetation using global root data sets. Our data do not support these hypotheses for the case of woody plants in savannas. We find that in the Kalahari, the root profiles of woody plants do not become deeper with increasing mean annual precipitation, whereas the root-to-shoot ratios decrease along a gradient of increasing aridity.

  19. A habitat map of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    J. Du P. Bothma

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The Kalahari Gemsbok National Park exhibits some six major habitats. Away from the river beds the tree savanna is limited to the northern corner of the park, consisting of Acacia girajfae woodland and scattered dunes. The Nossob and Auobriverbeds and adjacent areas also harbour A. girqffae except in the south where A. haematoxylon becomes dominant, and where the Karoo flora increases. The dunes covered with trees and shrubs usually support Boscia albitrunca, A. mellifera and an occasional A. girqffae. Where the dunes are superficially without shrub vegetation, Stipagrostis amabilis is dominant, although low, shrub-like A. haematoxylon also occurs. The plains also contain low A. haematoxylon shrub and several dominant grasses. Pans are abundantand their vegetation is usually characterized by stands of Rhigozum trichotomum and Monechma incanum.

  20. Springbok behaviour as affected by environmental conditions in the Kalahari

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    Hein Stapelberg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Springbok behavioural ecology in the Kalahari was examined with the use of public questionnaires and field forms. Springbok favoured grass and forbs overall more than shrubs and trees, but diet selection was influenced by time of day and season. Feeding was the most common activity and the frequency of occurrence varied during the day and between seasons. Weather and microhabitat conditions were found to have a significant effect on the feeding behaviour. Springbok fed in direct sunlight in the mornings and moved into the shade during the afternoon. More time was spent feeding in the shade during the warmer months than during the colder months, especially under northerly to northeasterly wind directions. Natural licks were commonly utilised. Herd sizes were found to increase during the cold-dry season and decrease during the hot-wet season. Springbok and blue wildebeest appeared to avoid competition by niche separation. The study showed that springbok behaviour was significantly affected by environmental conditions. These results imply that changes in climatic conditions, such as those predicted by climate change, or changes in vegetation structure due to degradation, can negatively affect springbok behaviour.

  1. A Check List of Flowering Plants of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    N. Van Rooyen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A check list containing 397 plant species has been compiled for the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park which occupies an area of approximately 9 600 km2. These species represent 191 genera and 51 families. The Monocotyledonae are represented by 98 species (24,7 of the total number of species and the Dicotyledonae by 299 species (75,3 of the total number of species. According to the life form spectrum the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is a therophyte-hemicryptophyte area.

  2. Nitrogen cycling in the soil-plant system along a precipitation gradient in the Kalahari sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aranibar, JN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available NO emissions increased with temperature and moisture and were therefore estimated to be lower in drier areas. The isotopic pattern observed in the Kalahari (N-15 enrichment with aridity) agrees with the lower soil organic matter, soil C/N, and N-2 fixation...

  3. A revised check-list of birds in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    M. G. L. Mills

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A more complete list of the birds in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is given, including the results of three and a half years of observations. A total of 214 species have now been identified for the Park, among which 75 are resident throughout the year, 37 are migrants, 14 are nomads and 88 are vagrants.

  4. South African Acari. V. Some mites of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    Magdalena K.P. Smith Meyer

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A check list of phytophagous and predaceous mites collected from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is given. Data on the habitat and distribution of the 12 known species are presented. The following 10 species are described for the first time: Typhlodromus eremicus, Bryobia orycustodia, B. birivularis, B. deserticola, Aplonobia plinthi, Neopetrobia burchelliae, N. convolvuli, N. lerichei, Aegyptobia odontipilis and Abrolophus spiculosus.

  5. Spirituality, shifting identities and social change: Cases from the Kalahari landscape

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    Mary E. Lange

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling, art and craft can be considered aesthetic expressions of identities. Kalahari identities are not fixed, but fluid. Research with present-day Kalahari People regarding their artistic expression and places where it has been, and is still, practised highlights that these expressions are informed by spirituality. This article explores this idea via two Kalahari case studies: Water Stories recorded in the Upington, Kakamas area, as well as research on a specific rock engraving site at Biesje Poort near Kakamas. The importance of the Kalahari People’s spiritual beliefs as reflected in these case studies and its significance regarding their identities and influence on social change and/or community development projects is discussed. The article thus highlights ways in which spirituality can be considered in relation to social change projects that are characterised by partnerships between local community, non-government and tertiary education representatives and researchers and that highlight storytelling as an integral part of people’s spirituality.

  6. Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats

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    Anas AlMajali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve.

  7. Some population characteristics of the Lion Panthera Leo in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    M.G.L. Mills

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of estimating the number of lions in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa, are described; the first gives a minimum figure (113 and the second a more realistic one (140. Data are presented on sex and age ratios and pride composition. The factors contributing to the low density are briefly discussed and some management practices in connection with lions trespassing out of the Park are suggested.

  8. Anticipating Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Pastoral Systems: Using Dynamic Systems Models for the Kalahari

    OpenAIRE

    Dougill, AJ; Fraser, EDG; Reed, MS

    2010-01-01

    It is vitally important to identify agroecosystems that may cease functioning because of changing climate or land degradation. However, identifying such systems is confounded on both conceptual and methodological grounds, especially in systems that are moving toward thresholds, a common trait of dryland environments. This study explores these challenges by analyzing how a range of external pressures affect the vulnerability of dryland pastoral systems in the Kalahari. This is achieved by empl...

  9. The rodents and other small mammals of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    J. A. J Nel

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of knowledge pertaining to the biology of small mammals occurring in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is reviewed with reference to completed and ongoing projects. Aspects of daily activity rhythms, habitat selection, diet, population fluctuations and changes in community structure, as well as reproduction are discussed. The zoogeography of the park is alluded to, and aspects which need ad- ditional attention are mentioned.

  10. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

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    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  11. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

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    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  12. Anticipating Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Pastoral Systems: Using Dynamic Systems Models for the Kalahari

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    Andrew J. Dougill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vitally important to identify agroecosystems that may cease functioning because of changing climate or land degradation. However, identifying such systems is confounded on both conceptual and methodological grounds, especially in systems that are moving toward thresholds, a common trait of dryland environments. This study explores these challenges by analyzing how a range of external pressures affect the vulnerability of dryland pastoral systems in the Kalahari. This is achieved by employing dynamic systems modeling approaches to understand the pathways by which communities became vulnerable to drought. Specifically, we evaluate how external pressures have changed: (1 different agroecosystems' abilities to tolerate drought, i.e., ecosystem resilience; (2 rural communities' abilities to adapt to drought, mediated via their access to assets; and (3 the ability of institutions and policy interventions to play a role in mediating drought-related crises, i.e., socio-political governance. This is done by reanalyzing ecological and participatory research findings along with farm-scale livestock offtake data from across the Kalahari in Botswana. An iterative process was followed to establish narratives exploring how external drivers led to changes in agroecosystem resilience, access to assets, and the institutional capacity to buffer the system. We use "causal loop diagrams" and statistical dynamic system models to express key quantitative relationships and establish future scenarios to help define where uncertainties lie by showing where the system is most sensitive to change. We highlight how that greater sharing of land management knowledge and practices between private and communal land managers can provide 'win-win-win' benefits of reducing system vulnerability, increasing economic income, and building social capital. We use future scenario analyses to identify key areas for future studies of climate change adaptation across the Kalahari.

  13. The impact of protest responses in choice experiments: an application to a Biosphere Reserve Management Program

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    M. Barrio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To identify protest responses and compute welfare estimates with and without the inclusion of such responses using follow-up statements in a choice experiment exercise. To our knowledge, this is one of the first empirical applications that, following the conventional treatment used in contingent valuation methodology, explicitly deals with the treatment and identification of protest responses in choice experiments.Area of study: the Eo, Oscos y Terras de Burón Biosphere Reserve sited between the regions of Galicia and Asturias. We are interested in the influence of such responses on preference elicitation for alternative management actions in this Reserve.Materials and methods: A face-to-face survey conducted in a sample of residents and non-residents of this Reserve. In total, more than 450 surveys were collected.Main results show that protest responses are fairly common in choice experiments, and their analysis affects the statistical performance of the empirical models as well as the valuation estimates. In fact, when the sample is corrected by protest responses, its size decreases to 303 individuals. Furthermore, we can observe that protest responses are triggered by a less positive attitude towards the wolf.Research highlight: Protest responses are a common issue in choice experiments and, therefore, future exercises should consider them explicitly, as earlier contingent valuation studies have.Key words: Biosphere Reserve; choice experiments; protest responses; willingness to pay.

  14. Provenance of the Quaternary Southern Kalahari sediments: A wetland that became dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Shlomy; Erel, Yigal; Matmon, Ari

    2017-04-01

    The ca. 140 Ma vast Kalahari basin is characterized by uplifted margins, terrestrial sedimentation within semi endorheic sub-basins, subdued morphology and tectonic quiescence. This intracratonic basin has been subjected to a prolonged period of subsidence affecting its sedimentary fill by changing plate motion and climatic cycles. Provenance studies of Kalahari Group sediments mainly focused on the easily accessible uppermost part that represents only the last phase of sedimentation, leaving unresolved questions for the rest of the strata. The Southern Kalahari Group succession exposed along the walls of the Mamatwan Mine, Northern Cape, South Africa, reveals three main depositional environments; a bottom pluvial, low-energy water body, a middle fluvial, high-energy environment and an upper aeolian sandy unit. The entire section, which was deposited within the Quaternary, records significant environmental and depositional changes suggesting a highly dynamic landscape. The fully exposed section (55 m) of the Kalahari Group at Mamatwan Mine was analysed for its mineralogy, elemental composition, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios and iron species. Mineralogical assemblage imply that a saline and alkaline shallow water-body existed during the early-middle Pleistocene contemporaneous with relative dense hominine occupation of the area. Isotopic ratios were used to determine the source of the sediments, which was found to be mainly of mafic rocks located to the north-east of Mamatwan. Weathering sensitive indices of both elemental ratios and iron phases show that sediments carried to the basin underwent considerable weathering indicative to a greater availability of surface water than the present. The lacustrine environment was rapidly filled with clasts that were derived mainly from the surrounding hills and experienced limited degree of chemical weathering during transport, but underwent subsequent groundwater alteration by iron-rich solution and precipitation of celcrete

  15. The diet of the brown hyaena hyaena brunnea in the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Four methods for studying the diet of the brown hyaena are discussed. A combination of direct observations (of individuals Fitted with radio collars and beta lights and faecal analysis yielded the best information. Analysis of food items found at dens was also useful, but tracking spoor had severe limitations. The brown hyaena in the southern Kalahari is predominantly a scavenger of all kinds of vertebrate remains, supplementing its diet with insects, wild fruits, birds' eggs and the occasional small animal which it kills. It is thus well adapted to the harsh conditions of this arid region where large ungulates are thinly distributed.

  16. New records of flowering plants and ferns from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Rooyen

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available A supplementary list of 101 new records of plant species, as well as an updated alphabetical check list comprising a total of 489 plant species, were compiled for the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. The area covers approximately 9 593 km2. These species rep- resent 214 genera and 55 families. The Pteridophyta is represented by two species (0.4 of the total number of species, the Monocotyledonae by 116 species (23.7 and the Dicotyledonae by 371 species (75.9 .

  17. Trends in savanna structure and composition along an aridity gradient in the Kalahari

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available . Elsewhere, they occupy clayey, alkaline soils derived either from Triassic shales and mudstones, in the valleys of the Zambezi, Limpopo and Cunene rivers and their major tributaries, or from Jurassic basalts. Table 3. Woody plant basal area, canopy cover.... FAO, Rome, IT. Childes, S.I. & Walker, B.H. 1987. Ecology and dynamics of the woody vegetation on the Kalahari sands in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetatio 72: 111-128. Cole, M.M. & Brown, R.C. 1976. The vegetation of the Ghanzi area of western...

  18. Further records of smaller mammals from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Rautenbach

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available An earlier paper (Rautenbach 1971 summarized documented distributional data on the smaller mammals in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa. Since then continued field- work in this Park (e.g. Nel and Rautenbach in press has yielded more information on the distribution of some previously recorded species,whilst other species have been recorded for the first time. Collecting hasbeen concentrated on two localities in the vicinity of Twee Rivieren, two near Nossob Camp, as well as at Dankbaar in the north-central portion of the Park.

  19. Kalahari salt pans as sedimentary archives for reconstruction of Quaternary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Irka; Belz, Lukas; Wilkes, Heinz; Wehrmann, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Environmental changes in southern Africa come along with variations in atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as anthropogenic caused landuse changes. The reconstruction of the paleoenvironment is complicated by the fact that continuous geoarchives are rare in the semiarid to arid parts of this region. In the south-western Kalahari lacustrine systems with constant sedimentary records are absent due to the low precipitation. Salt pans are common geomorphological structures in the Kalahari which are temporarily flooded during summer season when isolated showers occur in their local catchment area. So, they are potential archives preserving environmental signals in phases of sedimentation. However, marginal dunes on their leeward sides represent phases of deflation. The principle processes in salt pan formation are complex and so far under discussion. Our study follows a multidisciplinary approach integrating sedimentological, geochemical and microbiological methods to understand the formation of salt pans as a prerequisite for using them as geoarchives in reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental condition during phases of sedimentation and erosion. Sediment cores from five salt pans were analysed using XRD, XRF and grain size analyses. Additionally, age models can be given for four salt pans, based on δ14C from bulk sediment TOC. As palynological material is lacking, different methods in organic geochemistry were applied (plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures) to reconstruct variations in local vegetation assemblages. Our results allow a better understanding of the sedimentology of salt pans and their interpretation as discontinuous archives.

  20. Aspects of the ecology and the behaviour of the Leopard Panthera pardus in the Kalahari desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J du P Bothma

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracking in sand revealed data on hunting and kill rates, range, movements, activity, cover and water use, reproduction and interactions with other carnivores, by the leopard Panthera pardus in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. For leopards in the interior, 812,5 km of tracks were followed for 54 days, and 205,1 km for 15 days for females with cubs. In the Nossob riverbed 30,2 km of tracks were folowed in eight days. Medium-sized mammals featured prominently in the diet of all leopards, with prey used influenced by habitat type. Leopards in the interior moved greater distances than those in the Nossob riverbed. Leopards rested frequently at the onset and end of activity and used dense vegetation and aardvark Orycteropus afer and porcupine Hystrix africaeaustralis burrows as daytime cover. Leopards are independent of water, and females apparently have no definite breeding season. Lions Panthera leo dominate leopards, but the outcome of leopard/spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta encounters depend on the size of the leopard and the number of hyaenas in the pack. Leopards in the Kalahari Desert are opportunists which occupy this harsh envi- ronment successfully.

  1. The impact of residential demand response on the costs of a fossil-free system reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Balyk, Olexandr; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a better understanding of the system value of residential demand response, we study the potential impact of flexible demand on the costs of system reserves in a fossil-free electricity supply. Comparing these costs with traditional means of regulation our analysis aims...... to contribute to determining the least-cost options for regulation in a fossil-free power system. We extend an existing energy system model with demand response and reserve modelling and analyse the impact for the case of Denmark in 2035 to reflect a system based on renewable resources for electricity...

  2. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-24

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 4.5 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, Africa.

  3. Variations in the Foraging Behaviour and Burrow Structures of the Damara Molerat Cryptomys damarensis in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Lovegrove

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of two habitat-specific foraging behaviours of the social subterranean rodent Cryptomys damarensis, are discussed in terms of burrow structure, resource dispersion patterns, sand moisture content, burrow temperature regimes, and predatory pressures, in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa.

  4. Notes on food and foraging of the Honey Badger Mellivora capensis in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kruuk

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Contents of faeces indicated that honey badgers in the Kalahari eat mostly rodents, followed by lizards and scorpions, all of which are caught by digging. Larger mammals (aardwolf, bat-eared fox, springhare and large snakes are also eaten. Foraging behaviour is described and individual differences in foraging strategies are discussed.

  5. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    operators, utilities and consumers must adopt strategies and methods to take full advantage of demand response and distributed generation. This requires that all the involved players consider all the market opportunities, as the case of energy and reserve components of electricity markets. The present paper...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...... the probability of actually using the reserve and the distribution network constraints. Its application is illustrated in this paper using a 32-bus distribution network with 66 DG units and 218 consumers classified into 6 types of consumers....

  6. The importance of myocardial contractile reserve in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Mariëlle; Damman, Kevin; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Rienstra, Michiel; Maass, Alexander H

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To perform a meta-analysis and systematic review of published data to assess the relationship between contractile reserve and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane for all papers published

  7. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  8. Assessing Fractional Tree, Grass, and Bare Soil Cover from NDVI and Rainfall Time Series along the Kalahari Transect, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, T. M.; Albertson, J. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Williams, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are water-limited, a characteristic that can be exploited to estimate fractional cover of trees, grass, and bare soil over large-scale areas from synthesis of remote sensing and rainfall measurements. A method is presented to estimate fractional cover components along the Kalahari Transect (KT), an aridity gradient in southern Africa, based upon the differing ways in which grasses and trees respond to rainfall. Mean wet season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the sensitivity of the NDVI to variation in wet season rainfall are used as input into a linear unmixing model, and end-members for this analysis are extracted on the basis of best fit to the observed data. The end-members for the mixing analysis are consistent with the qualitative characteristics of trees (high NDVI, low sensitivity of NDVI to interannual variations in rainfall), bare soil (low NDVI, low sensitivity), and the transient grass/ bare soil area (moderate NDVI, high sensitivity). Sensitivity of NDVI to rainfall was based upon the relationship between NDVI and the standardized anomalies, or z-score, of the wet season precipitation, resulting in a 22% improvement in the number of significant relationships (parea is limited by the tree fractional cover on the wetter end of the transect, peaks at approximately 450 mm of mean wet season rainfall, and is limited by rainfall on the more arid portion of the transect. With NDVI for grass inferred from the data, predictions of yearly tree, grass, and bare soil fractional cover can be derived. No calibration or training sets were required for this unmixing procedure, and an additional advantage of this method over traditional unmixing approaches is that cover components can be predicted for future rainfall scenarios. This remote sensing-based model framework, together with a tree/grass interaction submodel, could be used to predict long-term migration of the cover components along this gradient in response to climate

  9. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  10. Kwaliteit van water wat aan wild in die Kalahari-gemsbok Nasionale Park voorsien word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. van A. Dreyer

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Kwaliteit van boorgatwater in die Kalahari-gemsbok Nasionale Park wissel van vars (<5 dele per duisend totale opgeloste soute tot hoogs gemineraliseerd (>10 dpd. Water in krippe waaruit wild drink, het altyd 'n swakker kwaliteit as die uit 'n boorgat of uit 'n dam. Die hoe konsentrasie van soute in kripwater, wat tot gevolg het dat die water van 'n groOt aantal waterpunte as ondrinkbaar vir vee geklassifiseer kan word, word veroorsaak deur volgehoue verdamping uit damme en krippe. Damwater word egter gereeld met "varser" water vanuit boorgate aangevul, maar 'n viotterklep verhoed dit by krippe. Die belangrikste minerale en ione wat in hoe konsentrasies in hierdie waters voorkom, is Na4', SO -, CF, en in enkele gevalle ook C^i++.

  11. Prey selection and feeding habits of the large carnivores in the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Prey selection and feeding habits of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus and leopards Panthera pardus are investigated. Lions kill mainly adult gemsbok Oryx gazella and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, tending to select older animals of both species and males in the case of gemsbok. Spotted hyaenas also prey mainly on gemsbok and wildebeest, but select for juveniles, particularly from gemsbok. Cheetahs prey heavily on springbok Antidorcas marsupialis lambs and then on adult males and older individuals. Leopards also prey relatively heavily on springbok, but appear to have a wider diet than cheetahs do. It is concluded that predators generally have a small impact on their prey populations in the southern Kalahari, although in the case of springbok they do appear to influence the structure of the population.

  12. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  13. In-vitro screening of Kalahari browse species for rumen methane mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Johannes Francois Theart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of browse foliage from the Thorny Kalahari Dune Bush veld of South Africa is not characterized. Most of this browse species is rich in tannin, but still palatable, and is consumed by ruminants during the dry season, as well as having a role to play in mitigating enteric methane emission from ruminants. In this study, the rumen methane mitigation potential of 19 browse species foliage collected from the Thorny Kalahari Dune Bush veld, was analyzed in terms of chemical composition, in vitro fermentation, digestibility and methane production. In vitro gas and methane production and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD were determined by using rumen fluid collected, strained and anaerobically prepared. A semi-automated system was used to measure gas production (GP from each browse species by incubating 400 mg samples in a shaking incubator at 39 °C with or without inclusion of 400 mg of polyethylene glycol (PEG. Data for all the parameters collected were statistically analyzed using the SAS (9.0 general linear model (GLM procedure, and differences between foliage species were determined using Duncan’s multiple-range test. Acacia luederitziiand Monechma incanumshowed the best potential for decreasing methane production by up to 90 % after 48 h of incubation. The secondary components (mainly tannins of the browse species appeared to have a significant effect on volatile fatty acids (VFA, methane and gas production as judged by the comparison of samples incubated with or without PEG inclusion. The substantial amount of crude protein (CP content coupled with their anti-methanogenic effect during fermentation would make these browses a potential mitigation option for small scale farmers and pastoralists in sub-Sahara Africa. However, it is also very important that systematic and strategic supplementation in a mixed diet should be looked at as the way forward in terms of best utilization.

  14. Fluvial landscape development in the southwestern Kalahari during the Holocene - Chronology and provenance of fluvial deposits in the Molopo Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisch, Arne; Bens, Oliver; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Eden, Marie; Heine, Klaus; Hürkamp, Kerstin; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    The southern Kalahari drainage network is in a key position to analyze spatiotemporal changes in the tropical easterly and the temperate westerly circulation over the Southern African subcontinent. However, due to the prevailing aridity, paleoenvironmental archives within the southwestern Kalahari are sparse and often discontinuous. Hence, little is known about Holocene environmental change in this region. This study focuses on reconstructing paleoenvironmental change from the timing and provenance of fluvial deposits located within the Molopo Canyon, which connects the southern Kalahari drainage to the perennial flow regime of the Orange River. To gain insight into temporal aspects of fluvial morphodynamics within the Molopo Canyon, the entire variety of fluvial landforms consisting mainly of slope sediments, alluvial fans and alluvial fills were dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). We additionally applied a provenance analysis on alluvial fill deposits to estimate potential sediment source areas. Source areas were identified by analyzing the elemental and mineralogical composition of tributaries and eolian deposits throughout the course of the lower Molopo. The results allow the first general classification of fluvial landscape development into three temporally distinct deposition phases in the southern Kalahari: (1) A phase of canyon aggradation associated with short lived and spatially restricted flash floods during the early to mid-Holocene; (2) a phase of fan aggradation indicating a decrease in flood intensities during the mid- to late Holocene; and (3) a phase of canyon aggradation caused by the occurrence of supra-regional flood events during the Little Ice Age. We interpret the observed spatiotemporal deposition patterns to latitudinal shifts of the tropical easterly circulation in the early to mid-Holocene and the temperate westerly circulation in the late Holocene. However, despite marked changes in the provenance and timing of fluvial

  15. GPS-corrected and GIS-based remapping of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent area in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available GPS-equipment was used to map the interior roads, major pans and the location of all windmills and solar-equipped boreholes in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent areas of Botswana. The final map was generated with GIS-equipment, and supplies managers and planners with the first error-free map of the area. The major errors of previous maps are indicated.

  16. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Parker, Eric; Bernier, Clark; Young, Paul; Sheehan, Dave; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan

    2009-04-30

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneering demonstration showing that existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as spinning reserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinning reserve as demonstrated in this project will give grid operators at the California Independent System Operator (CA ISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful new tool to improve reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lower grid operating costs.In the first phase of this demonstration project, we target marketed SCE?s air-conditioning (AC) load-cycling program, called the Summer Discount Plan (SDP), to customers on a single SCE distribution feederand developed an external website with real-time telemetry for the aggregated loads on this feeder and conducted a large number of short-duration curtailments of participating customers? air-conditioning units to simulate provision of spinning reserve. In this second phase of the demonstration project, we explored four major elements that would be critical for this demonstration to make the transition to a commercial activity:1. We conducted load curtailments within four geographically distinct feeders to determine the transferability of target marketing approaches and better understand the performance of SCE?s load management dispatch system as well as variations in the AC use of SCE?s participating customers;2. We deployed specialized, near-real-time AC monitoring devices to improve our understanding of the aggregated load curtailments we observe on the feeders;3. We integrated information provided by the AC monitoring devices with information from SCE?s load management dispatch system to measure the time required for each step in the curtailment process; and4. We established connectivity with the CA ISO to explore the steps involved in responding to CA ISO-initiated requests for dispatch of spinning reserve.The major findings from

  17. Nitrogen Limitation Along The Kalahari Transect: Preliminary Results From A Stable Isotope Fertilization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Macko, S.; D'Odorico, P.; Ries, L.

    2005-12-01

    Globally, savannas cover ~ 20% of the Earth's land area. Nutrients and soil moisture interactively control vegetation dynamics in many savannas although it is unclear how the relative importance of water and nutrient limitations (especially nitrogen) change with the mean climatic conditions. The Kalahari Transect (KT) in southern Africa traverses a dramatic aridity gradient (from ~ 200 mm to more than 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP), through the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia), on relatively homogenous soils (deep Kalahari sands). This transect offers the ideal setting to study nutrient and vegetation dynamics without confounding soil effects. To improve the understanding of nitrogen and water controls on savanna vegetation, this study tested the hypothesis that the savannas in the Kalahari switch from conditions of water limitation in the dry areas to nutrient limitation in the wet areas. To this end, we conducted a large-scale stable isotope fertilization experiment using four study sites with different MAP. The transect included sites in Mongu, Zambia (MAP ~950mm), Pandamatenga, Ghanzi, and Tshane, Botswana with MAP ranging between 700 mm and 300 mm. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four 21 m x 13 m plots at each site. Each plot was divided into four 10 m x 6 m subplots with 1 m buffer zone between each subplot. Four treatments (N addition, P addition, N+P addition and control) were randomly applied to the subplots. The experiment began during the dry season, in August, 2004, when 39g/m2 of Ca(NO3)2 (3.3g-N/ m2 ) was evenly applied to the N and N+P subplots, and 7.5g/m2 of Ca(H2PO4)2 (1.7g-P/m2) was applied to the P and N+P subplots, while the control subplots were left with no treatment. The N and N+P additions were enriched with 15N (Ca(15NO3)2 ) to a signature of 10.3 ‰. Before application, soil samples from two different layers (0cm and 50cm) outside the plots and foliar samples of the

  18. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.

    2016-01-01

    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  19. Viable Reserve Networks Arise From Individual Landholder Responses To Conservation Incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation in densely settled biodiversity hotspots often requires setting up reserve networks that maintain sufficient contiguous habitat to support viable species populations. Because it is difficult to secure landholder compliance with a tightly constrained reserve network design, attention has shifted to voluntary incentive mechanisms, such as purchase of conservation easements by reverse auction or through a fixed-price offer. These mechanisms carry potential advantages of transparency, simplicity, and low cost. However, uncoordinated individual response to these incentives has been assumed incompatible with the conservation goal of viability, which depends on contiguous habitat and biodiversity representation. We model such incentives for southern Bahia in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the biologically richest and most threatened global biodiversity hotspots. Here, forest cover is spatially autocorrelated and associated with depressed land values, a situation that may be characteristic of long-settled areas with forests fragmented by agriculture. We find that in this situation, a voluntary incentive system can yield a reserve network characterized by large, viable patches of contiguous forest, and representation of subregions with distinct vegetation types and biotic assemblages, without explicit planning for those outcomes.

  20. Pollen analysis of hyena coprolites and sediments from Equus Cave, Taung, southern Kalahari (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Louis

    1987-07-01

    Equus Cave, in Quaternary tufa near Taung in the semiarid woodland of the southern Kalahari, yielded 2.5 m of sediment in which a rich assemblage of bones and coprolites was preserved. The fossils were accumulated mainly by hyenas during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Pollen from coprolites reflects diet as well as vegetation over relatively large areas visited by hyenas, while pollen from sediments represents more local sources. The pollen sequence derived from coprolites and sediments demonstrates how the vegetation evolved from open grassland with small shrubs and occasional trees during the late Pleistocene, to open savanna with more small shurbs, then, during the last 7500 yr, to modern savanna. Temperatures were not more than 4°C cooler and it was slightly moister than today during the late Pleistocene phase; it became gradually warmer but relatively dry before optimal temperature and moisture conditions developed around 7500 yr B.P. Climatic conditions slightly less favorable for woodland occurred during part of the late Holocene.

  1. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  2. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  3. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  4. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to

  5. Fluvial landscape development in the southwestern Kalahari during the Holocene - Chronology and provenance of fluvial deposits in the Molopo Canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramisch, Arne; Bens, Oliver; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    general classification of fluvial landscape development into three temporally distinct deposition phases in the southern Kalahari: (1) A phase of canyon aggradation associated with short lived and spatially restricted flash floods during the early to mid-Holocene; (2) a phase of fan aggradation indicating...... a decrease in flood intensities during the mid- to late Holocene; and (3) a phase of canyon aggradation caused by the occurrence of supra-regional flood events during the Little Ice Age. We interpret the observed spatiotemporal deposition patterns to latitudinal shifts of the tropical easterly circulation...

  6. Estimating aboveground biomass in Kalahari woodlands: inferring soil erosional and distributional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    Maps which accurately quantify vegetation carbon, or above ground biomass (AGB) and its changes, are not only essential for ecosystem monitoring, but also for understanding controls on ecosystem carbon, associated soil organic carbon (SOC) and the global carbon cycle. Throughout the rangelands of Namibia, two vegetation cover change processes are widespread, firstly, deforestation and forest degradation, and secondly, the encroachment of the herbaceous and grassy layers by woody strata. Both processes effect a range of key ecosystem services, including SOC dynamics by facilitating erosion and altering soil re-distributional processes. Yet, the spatial and temporal intensity of these vegetation change processes and hence their effect on SOC, remain poorly quantified. This study therefore aims to distinguish and map the extent of both deforestation and woody thickening and associated AGB changes, and gain an understanding of the spatial distribution of land degradation risk areas. We map AGB at two periods (2007 and 2015) for part of the Namibian Kalahari woodland savannah, by modelling forest inventory measurements as a function of a fusion of radar and optical satellite imagery. We then process a change detection and validate both individual and change maps using independent field and satellite data. Results show widespread increases and declines in both areal extent and quantity of AGB, suggesting (i) important vegetation change processes (i.e. both deforestation and woody thickening), and (ii) associated changes in soil quality. Indeed, woody thickening has been found to mask land degradation, through the replacement of herbaceous layers with hardy shrubs, leading to increases in erosional processes. These results are in agreement with previous studies, which identify both extensive greening and small-scale deforestation. Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon, Erosion, deposition, Above Ground Biomass; Savannah; Rangeland; Carbon; Remote Sensing; Change detection

  7. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and climate change in the Middle Kalahari, Lake Ngami, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Carlos E.; Scott, Louis; Chase, Brian M.; Chevalier, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Pollen, spores, and microscopic charcoal from a sediment core from Lake Ngami, in the Middle Kalahari, reflect paleovegetation and paleoclimatic conditions over the last 16,600 cal years BP. The location of Lake Ngami allows for the receipt of moisture sourced from the Indian and/or Atlantic oceans, which may have influenced local rainfall or long distance water transport via the Okavango system. We interpret results of statistical analyses of the pollen data as showing a complex, dynamic system wherein variability in tropical convective systems and local forcing mechanisms influence hydrological changes. Our reconstructions show three primary phases in the regional precipitation regime: 1) an early period of high but fluctuating summer rainfall under relatively cool conditions from ∼16,600-12,500 cal BP, with reduced tree to herb and shrub ratio; 2) an episode of significantly reduced rainfall centered around c. 11,400 cal BP, characterized by an increase in xeric Asteraceae pollen, but persistent aquatic elements, suggesting less rainfall but cool conditions and lower evaporation that maintained water in the basin; and 3) a longer phase of high, but fluctuating rainfall from ∼9000 cal BP to present with more woody savanna vegetation (Vachellia (Acacia) and Combretaceae). We propose a model to relate these changes to increased Indian Ocean-sourced moisture in the late Pleistocene due to a southerly position of the African rain belt, a northerly contraction of tropical systems that immediately followed the Younger Dryas, and a subsequent dominance of local insolation forcing, modulated by changes in the SE Atlantic basin.

  8. A probabilistic risk-based approach for spinning reserve provision using day-ahead demand response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayesteh, E. [Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar (Iran); Yousefi, A.; Parsa Moghaddam, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Spinning Reserve is one of the ancillary services which is essential to satisfy system security constraints when the power system faces with a contingency. In this paper, Day Ahead Demand Response Program as one of the incentive-based Demand Response programs is implemented as a source of spinning reserve. In this regard, certain number of demands are selected according to a sensitivity analysis, and simulated as virtual generation units. The reserve market is cleared for Spinning Reserve allocation considering a probabilistic technique. A comparison is performed between the absence and existence of Day Ahead Demand Response Program from both economical and reliability viewpoints. Numerical studies based on IEEE 57 bus test system is conducted for evaluation of the proposed method. (author)

  9. Mississippi Medical Reserve Corps: Moving Mississippi From Emergency Planning to Response Ready.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lisa C; Fifolt, Matthew; Mercer, Caroline; Pevear, Jesse; Wilson, Jonathan

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that might impact a Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) volunteer's decision to respond to an emergency event. The 2 primary goals of this survey were to (1) establish realistic planning assumptions regarding the use of volunteers in health care emergency responses, and (2) determine whether barriers to volunteer participation could be addressed by MRC units to improve volunteer response rates. An anonymous online survey instrument was made available via Qualtrics through a customized URL. For the purpose of distribution, the Mississippi State Department of Health sent an electronic message that included the survey link to all MRC volunteers who were registered with the Mississippi Responder Management System (MRMS) as of September 2014. Approximately 15% of those surveyed indicated they would be available and able to deploy within 24 hours. The most common factors reported in terms of respondent decisions to deploy included risk to personal health (61.2%), length of deployment (58.8%), and the security of the deployment area (55.3%). In addition, 67% of respondents indicated that extended periods of deployment would have a negative financial impact on their lives. Respondents who have had training or previous deployment experience reported having greater knowledge of potential response roles, increased comfort in their ability to respond with the MRC, and increased confidence in responding to differing public health emergencies. Barriers to MRC volunteers being able to deploy should be addressed by each MRC unit. Issues such as risk to personal safety while on deployment, site security, and length of deployment should be considered by planners and those solutions communicated to MRC members during trainings. Emergency plans utilizing MRC volunteers will require significant evaluation to assess the risk of relying on an expected resource that could be severely limited during an actual emergency.

  10. Standard process for the roles and responsibilities for facility reuse of DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A.S.; Trost, D.G.; Pastel, J.A.; Payne, S.G.; Fleenor, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of the standard process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, and real property for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objective of this process is to facilitate the reindustrialization of the ORR for the Department of Energy (DOE). The roles and responsibilities in this standard, as defined in the attached narrative and flow diagrams, were agreed upon among various representatives from the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). Reindustrialization for the DOE encompasses several areas which include: facilities reuse, materials and equipment recycling, and worker transition activities. The DOE-ORO`s vision for the ORR is to have completed the reindustrialization activities for the K-25 Site by the year 2010. Several steps have already been taken to aggressively pursue this vision, such as determining the most efficient and cost-effective ways to expedite the facilities reuse process. This report provides the time-phased, step-by-step, process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, land, and suggestions on streamlining the required regulatory processes.

  11. Reserve capacity of public and private hospitals in response to demand uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Ana; Roibás, David; Wall, Alan

    2012-07-01

    A feature of hospitals is that they face uncertain demand for the services they offer. To cover fluctuations in demand, they need to maintain reserve service capacity in the form of beds, equipment, personnel, etc. to minimize the probability of excess queuing or turning away patients, creating a trade-off between reserve service capacity and economic costs. Using a simple theoretical framework, we show how the reserve capacity established depends on institutional characteristics that can affect the objective of the hospital. In particular, we show that private and public hospitals may provide different levels of reserve capacity. In an empirical application using a panel data set of Spanish hospitals over the period 1996-2006, we model reserve service capacity using a distance frontier approach. Our results show that private hospitals generally react to a lesser extent to demand uncertainty than public hospitals.

  12. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of climate change represent a major threat to sustainable development and growth in Southern Africa. Understanding the impact on the geo- and biosphere is therefore of great importance in this particular region. In this context the Kalahari salt pans (also known as playas or sabkhas) and their peripheral saline and alkaline habitats are an ecosystem of major interest. They are very sensitive to environmental conditions, and as thus hydrological, mineralogical and ecological responses to climatic variations can be analysed. Up to now the soil composition of salt pans in this area have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale. Furthermore, the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. High spectral resolution remote sensing can estimate evaporite content and mineralogy of soils based on the analyses of the surface reflectance properties within the Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR 400-1000 nm) and Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR 1000-2500 nm) regions. In these wavelength regions major chemical components of the soil interact with the electromagnetic radiation and produce characteristic absorption features that can be used to derive the properties of interest. Although such techniques are well established for the laboratory and field scale, the potential of current (Hyperion) and upcoming spaceborne sensors such as EnMAP for quantitative mineralogical and salt spectral mapping is still to be demonstrated. Combined with hyperspectral methods, multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent dynamic of these salt pans and link the mineralogical analysis of the pan surface to major physical processes in these dryland environments. In this study we focus on the analyses of the Namibian Omongwa salt pans based on satellite hyperspectral imagery and multispectral time-series data. First, a change detection analysis is applied using the Iterative

  13. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Starr

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.

  14. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Richard M; Wendt, Dean E; Barnes, Cheryl L; Marks, Corina I; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L; Hall, Nathan C; Yochum, Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.

  15. Attenuated ventricular β-adrenergic response and reduced repolarization reserve in a rabbit model of chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob Dahl; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    mortality but profound structural, functional, and electrical remodeling and compare with nonpaced controls. Pacing increased heart weight/body weight ratio and decreased left ventricular fractional shortening in tachypaced only. Electrocardiogram recordings during sinus rhythm revealed QTc prolongation...... remodeling but very low mortality. Isokalemic and hyperkalemic responses indicate downregulation of functional IKs. Increased short-term variability during hypokalemia unmasks a reduced repolarization reserve....

  16. Spatial structure induced by marine reserves shapes population responses to catastrophes in mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray

    2011-06-01

    Catastrophic events such as oil spills, hypoxia, disease, and major predation events occur in marine ecosystems and affect fish populations. Previous evaluations of the performance of spatial management alternatives have not considered catastrophic events. We investigate the effects of local and global catastrophic events on populations managed with and without no-take marine reserves and with fishing mortality rates that are optimized accounting for reserves. A spatial population dynamics model is used to explore effects of large, catastrophic natural mortality events. The effects of the spatial spread, magnitude, probability of catastrophe, and persistence of a catastrophic event through time are explored. Catastrophic events affecting large spatial areas and those that persist through time have the greatest effects on population dynamics because they affect natural mortality nonlinearly, whereas the probability and magnitude of catastrophic events result in only linear increases in natural mortality. The probability of falling below 10% or 20% of unfished abundance was greatest when a no-take marine reserve was implemented with no additional fishing regulations and least when a no-take marine reserve was implemented in addition to the maintenance of optimal fishing mortality in fished areas. In the absence of implementation error, maintaining abundance across space using restrictions on fishing mortality rates, regardless of the existence of a no-take marine reserve, decreased the probability of falling below 10% or 20% of unfished abundance.

  17. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironmental context of Wonderwerk Cave in the southern Kalahari, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Louis; Avery, Margaret; Bamford, Marion; Berna, Francesco; Brink, James; Brook, George; Chazan, Michael; Ecker, Michaela; Fernandez-Jalvo, Yolanda; Goldberg, Paul; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Rossouw, Lloyd; Thackeray, Francis; Horwitz, Liora

    2014-05-01

    Wonderwerk Cave, located in the arid southern Kalahari in South Africa, is an exceptional site, since it preserves a two million year long record of human occupation. While research on older levels in various excavation sections of the cave deposits is ongoing, we focus here on the younger levels that span the last 35,000 years. We present the results of past and recent work on zooarchaeology, macrobotany, palynology, phytoliths, stable isotopes, micromorphology and speleothem growth, which track marked diachronic environmental fluctuations. Except for a hiatus of ~33-23 ka, growth and isotope data for a speleothem near the cave entrance suggests moist conditions from ~35-33, and ~22-14 ka with brief, dry episodes at ~34, ~22 and ~15 ka. Temperatures were cool except for an increase ~16-14 ka after which cold conditions equivalent to the Younger Dryas event occurred. In Stratum 5 (>12.5 ka in Excavation 1), relatively low carbon isotope (δ13C) values, pollen in the speleothem, and pollen in dung deposits indicate that the vegetation included a large C3 component during this phase. While the climate experienced sharp fluctuations in moisture when stalagmite growth was interrupted, more severe drying occurred by ~12 ka as indicated by dung pollen. Pollen in Stratum 4d (undifferentiated by stratum sub-phases) suggest that warmer grassy conditions developed before 11 ka, which is supported by δ13C values in OES that suggest a greater C4plant component in Stratum 4dII associated with the Oakhurst-like archaeological industry. Undifferentiated Stratum 4d indicates moderate moisture availability (pollen) but sub-phase 4dII suggest drying (OES δ18O). C3-presence (OES δ13C) in the vegetation became stronger again in Stratum 4dI (Oakhurst) and Stratum 4cII (Wilton). This is supported by Asteraceae pollen especially ~8.5 ka. Except for a fluctuation in OES δ18O values in Stratum 4cII, δ18O and pollen and micromammal composition suggest progressive aridity until ~6 ka

  18. Southern African continental climate since the late Pleistocene: Insights from biomarker analyses of Kalahari salt pan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Lukas; Schüller, Irka; Wehrmann, Achim; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The climate system of sub-tropical southern Africa is mainly controlled by large scale atmospheric and marine circulation processes and, therefore, very sensitive to global climate change. This underlines the importance of paleoenvironmental reconstructions in order to estimate regional implications of current global changes. However, the majority of studies on southern African paleoclimate are based on the investigation of marine sedimentary archives and past climate development especially in continental areas is still poorly understood. This emphasizes the necessity of continental proxy-data from this area. Proxy datasets from local geoarchives especially of the southwestern Kalahari region are still scarce. A main problem is the absence of conventional continental climatic archives, due to the lack of lacustrine systems. In this study we are exploring the utility of sediments from western Kalahari salt pans, i.e. local depressions which are flooded temporarily during rainfall events. An age model based on 14C dating of total organic carbon (TOC) shows evidence that sedimentation predominates over erosional processes with respect to pan formation. Besides the analyses of basic geochemical bulk parameters including TOC, δ13CTOC, total inorganic carbon, δ13CTIC, δ18OTIC, total nitrogen and δ15N, our paleo-climatic approach focuses on reconstruction of local vegetation assemblages to identify changes in the ecosystem. This is pursued using plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. Results show prominent shifts in n-alkane and n-alkanol distributions and compound specific carbon isotope values, pointing to changes to a more grass dominated environment during Heinrich Stadial 1 (18.5-14.6 ka BP), while hydrogen isotope values suggest wetter phases during Holocene and LGM. This high variability indicates the local vulnerability to global change.

  19. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    230  2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members DMDC ix b.  Feeling down, depressed , or hopeless... Depression scale: Constructed from Q59. Depression is a common mental disorder characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure...graffiti, music , stories) which were racist or showed your race/ethnicity negatively

  20. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    3 gender , relationship status, and race/ethnicity. 2. Time Reference— Important key events to provide frame of reference for respondents on the time...enforcing sexual harassment or Equal Opportunity regulations (Q63c/Q63d). NR: Not reportable NA: Not applicable 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations... Equal Opportunity regulations (Q63c/Q63d). NR: Not reportable NA: Not applicable 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component

  1. Sexual Assault: Better Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    ensure it has the staff needed to complete investigations within 3 weeks, as required by OCI guidance. Eligibility for follow-up or long-term health ...long-term mental and medical health -care services. DOD’s sexual assault prevention and response instruction requires the commander of the Army...correct or mitigate the challenges of funding behavioral health care for Army Reserve soldiers, particularly those who require coverage for trauma

  2. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    event in the power system with a high penetration of wind power. An energy storage system (ESS) might be a viable solution for providing inertial response and primary frequency regulation. A methodology has been presented here for the sizing of the ESS in terms of required power and energy. It describes...

  3. The "Fetal Reserve Index": Re-Engineering the Interpretation and Responses to Fetal Heart Rate Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Robert D; Evans, Mark I; Evans, Shara M; Schifrin, Barry S

    2017-06-08

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) correlates poorly with neonatal outcome. We present a new metric: the "Fetal Reserve Index" (FRI), formally incorporating EFM with maternal, obstetrical, fetal risk factors, and excessive uterine activity for assessment of risk for cerebral palsy (CP). We performed a retrospective, case-control series of 50 term CP cases with apparent intrapartum neurological injury and 200 controls. All were deemed neurologically normal on admission. We compared the FRI against ACOG Category (I-III) system and long-term outcome parameters against ACOG monograph (NEACP) requirements for labor-induced fetal neurological injury. Abnormal FRI's identified 100% of CP cases and did so hours before injury. ACOG Category III identified only 44% and much later. Retrospective ACOG monograph criteria were found in at most 30% of intrapartum-acquired CP patients; only 27% had umbilical or neonatal pH <7.0. In this initial, retrospective trial, an abnormal FRI identified all cases of labor-related neurological injury more reliably and earlier than Category III, which may allow fetal therapy by intrauterine resuscitation. The combination of traditional EFM with maternal, obstetrical, and fetal risk factors creating the FRI performed much better as a screening test than EFM alone. Our quantified screening system needs further evaluation in prospective trials. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The Medical Reserve Corps as part of the federal medical and public health response in disaster settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Dominic R

    2010-09-01

    The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), coordinates federal Emergency Support Function (ESF) #8 preparedness, response, and recovery actions. To address these needs, the ASPR can draw on trained personnel from a variety of sources, both from within and outside HHS. Among the resources under the domain of HHS is the Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), directed by the Office of the Civilian Volunteer Medical Reserve Corps (OCVMRC) in the Office of the Surgeon General. MRC units are community based and function as a way to locally organize and utilize medical and public health professionals, such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, veterinarians, and epidemiologists. Nonclinical volunteers, such as interpreters, chaplains, office workers, legal advisors, and others, can fill logistical and support roles in MRC units. This article discusses locally controlled (Hurricanes Gustav and Ike) and federalized (Hurricanes Katrina and Rita) MRC activations, and it describes the advantages of using medical volunteers in a large-scale disaster response setting.

  5. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  6. Analyses of Recent Sediment Surface Dynamic of a Namibian Kalahari Salt Pan Based on Multitemporal Landsat and Hyperspectral Hyperion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Milewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study combines spaceborne multitemporal and hyperspectral data to analyze the spatial distribution of surface evaporite minerals and changes in a semi-arid depositional environment associated with episodic flooding events, the Omongwa salt pan (Kalahari, Namibia. The dynamic of the surface crust is evaluated by a change-detection approach using the Iterative-reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD based on the Landsat archive imagery from 1984 to 2015. The results show that the salt pan is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous landform. A change gradient is observed from very stable pan border to a highly dynamic central pan. On the basis of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion images, the current distribution of surface evaporite minerals is characterized using Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA. Assessment of field and image endmembers revealed that the pan surface can be categorized into three major crust types based on diagnostic absorption features and mineralogical ground truth data. The mineralogical crust types are related to different zones of surface change as well as pan morphology that influences brine flow during the pan inundation and desiccation cycles. These combined information are used to spatially map depositional environments where the more dynamic halite crust concentrates in lower areas although stable gypsum and calcite/sepiolite crusts appear in higher elevated areas.

  7. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  8. Polymorphisms in gonadotropin and gonadotropin receptor genes as markers of ovarian reserve and response in in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Casarini, Livio; Volpe, Annibale; Simoni, Manuela

    2013-03-15

    Since gonadotropins are the fundamental hormones that control ovarian activity, genetic polymorphisms may alter gonadal responsiveness to glycoproteins; hence they are important regulators of hormone activity at the target level. The establishment of the pool of primordial follicles takes place during fetal life and is mainly under genetic control. Consequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gonadotropins and their receptors do not seem to be associated with any significant modification in the endowment of nongrowing follicles in the ovary. Indeed, the age at menopause, a biological characteristic strongly related to ovarian reserve, as well as markers of functional ovarian reserve such as anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicle count, are not different in women with different genetic variants. Conversely, some polymorphisms in FSH receptor (FSHR) seem to be associated with modifications in ovarian activity. In particular, studies suggest that the Ser680 genotype for FSHR is a factor of relative resistance to FSH stimulation resulting in slightly higher FSH serum levels, thus leading to a prolonged duration of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, some FSHR gene polymorphisms show a positive association with ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropin administration, hence exhibiting some potential for a pharmacogenetic estimation of the FSH dosage in controlled ovarian stimulation. The study of SNPs of the FSHR gene is an interesting field of research that could provide us with new information about the way each woman responds to exogenous gonadotropin administration during ovulation induction.

  9. Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Kumar, Vinod; Chandrasekhar, Mithileshwari; Malviya, Manjari; Ganswindt, Andre; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

  10. Use of advanced earth observation tools for the analyses of recent surface changes in Kalahari pans and Namibian coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Robert; Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The remote sensing analyses in the BMBF-SPACES collaborative project Geoarchives - Signals of Climate and Landscape Change preserved in Southern African Geoarchives - focuses on the use of recent and upcoming Earth Observation Tools for the study of climate and land use changes and its impact on the ecosystem. It aims at demonstrating the potential of recently available advanced optical remote sensing imagery with its extended spectral coverage and temporal resolution for the identification and mapping of sediment features associated with paleo-environmental archives as well as their recent dynamic. In this study we focus on the analyses of two ecosystems of major interest, the Kalahari salt pans as well as the lagoons at Namibia's west coast, that present high dynamic caused by combined hydrological and surface processes linked to climatic events. Multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent surface dynamic of the salt pans and also provide opportunities to get a detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal development of the coastal lagoons. Furthermore spaceborne hyperspectral analysis can give insight to the current surface mineralogy of the salt pans on a physical basis and provide the intra pan distribution of evaporites. The soils and sediments of the Kalahari salt pans such as the Omongwa pan are a potentially significant storage of global carbon and also function as an important terrestrial climate archive. Thus far the surface distribution of evaporites have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale, but the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. For the salt pan analyses a change detection is applied using the Iterative-reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) method to identify and investigate surface changes based on a Landsat time-series covering the period 1984-2015. Furthermore the current spatial distribution of

  11. Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengfei; Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Yunbing; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    How a nonhuman primate mother responds to her dead infant is an indication of maternal behavior and perspectives on death. Here we describe three cases of a mother's response toward her dead infant in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. The mother, whose infant died at 1 month of age, showed strong maternal affection to the corpse and carried it for 4 days. A mother with a stillborn infant showed similar maternal behavior to her dead offspring, but only held it for 1 day. The mother of an aborted infant abandoned the carcass without carrying it or displaying other forms of maternal behavior. Our results suggest that the mother-infant bond in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is strongly influenced by the infants' age. Postdeath infant-carrying behavior could be affected by the combined action of reproductive hormones and the emotional response of the mother. This manuscript represents the first detailed report of a mother carrying her dead infant in this endangered monkey species.

  12. Receptor Reserve Moderates Mesolimbic Responses to Opioids in a Humanized Mouse Model of the OPRM1 A118G Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Elliott; Vardy, Eyal; DiBerto, Jeffrey F; Chefer, Vladimir I; White, Kate L; Fish, Eric W; Chen, Meng; Gigante, Eduardo; Krouse, Michael C; Sun, Hui; Thorsell, Annika; Roth, Bryan L; Heilig, Markus; Malanga, C J

    2015-01-01

    The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism is the most widely studied μ-opioid receptor (MOR) variant. Although its involvement in acute alcohol effects is well characterized, less is known about the extent to which it alters responses to opioids. Prior work has shown that both electrophysiological and analgesic responses to morphine but not to fentanyl are moderated by OPRM1 A118G variation, but the mechanism behind this dissociation is not known. Here we found that humanized mice carrying the 118GG allele (h/mOPRM1-118GG) were less sensitive than h/mOPRM1-118AA littermates to the rewarding effects of morphine and hydrocodone but not those of other opioids measured with intracranial self-stimulation. Reduced morphine reward in 118GG mice was associated with decreased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and reduced effects on GABA release in the ventral tegmental area that were not due to changes in drug potency or efficacy in vitro or receptor-binding affinity. Fewer MOR-binding sites were observed in h/mOPRM1-118GG mice, and pharmacological reduction of MOR availability unmasked genotypic differences in fentanyl sensitivity. These findings suggest that the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism decreases sensitivity to low-potency agonists by decreasing receptor reserve without significantly altering receptor function. PMID:25881115

  13. Flowering plant biodiversity of Augrabies Falls National Park: a comparison between Augrabies Falls National Park, Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Vaalbos National Park and Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Zietsman

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A list of flowering plants has been compiled for the Augrabies Falls National Park, which occupies an area of approximately 18 600 ha. This list of 364 species represents 210 genera and 74 families. The Monocotyledonae are represented by 76 species (20.9 of the total number of species and the Dicotyledonae by 288 (79.1 . Approximately 54 of these species occur only in the Augrabies Falls National Park and not in one of the other conservation areas with which it was compared. According to the life form spectrum, the Augrabies Falls National Park is a therophyte-hemicryp- tophyte area. Five of these spesies are endemic to the Southern African floristic region. One of them is a rare species.

  14. Behavioral responses to tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James B; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2009-09-01

    Severe dental wear and tooth loss is often assumed to impede the processing, breakdown, and energetic conversion of food items, thereby negatively impacting individual health, reproduction, and survival. Ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve demonstrate exceptionally high frequencies of severe dental wear and antemortem tooth loss, yet often survive multiple years with these impairments. To test the hypothesis that these lemurs mitigate tooth loss through behavioral adjustments, we collected 191 h of observational data from 16 focal subjects, eight without tooth loss and eight with between 3% and 44% loss. These data indicate dentally-impaired ring-tailed lemurs show compensatory behaviors consistent with the demands of living in a social group. During early afternoon (12:00-14:30 h) individuals with loss showed trends towards higher frequencies of foraging and grooming, while individuals without loss rested significantly more often. Individuals with >10% loss (n = 7) showed higher frequencies of feeding, foraging, and grooming, and lower frequencies of resting during this period than individuals with <10% loss (n = 9). Individuals with tooth loss maintained relatively higher levels of feeding and foraging throughout the day. These individuals licked tamarind fruit at higher frequencies, likely spending more time softening it before ingestion. These individuals did not demonstrate longer feeding bouts overall, although bouts involving tamarinds were significantly longer. Individuals with marked toothcomb wear engaged in higher rates of certain types of allogrooming, demonstrating that social behaviors are used to compensate for reduced grooming efficiency. These data have implications for interpreting behavioral responses to dental impairment in the fossil record. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  16. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  17. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...... to energy price changes and get incentives in return. In this paper, we study the effect of various time-based rate (TBR) programs on the stochastic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling in residential islanded microgrids (MGs). An effective approach is presented to schedule both energy and reserve...... in presence of renewable energy resources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs). An economic model of responsive load is also proposed on the basis of elasticity factor to model the behavior of customers participating in various DR programs. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed accordingly...

  18. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  19. Sustainability Evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: From Local People's Responses to Ecological Effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project’s impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  20. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  1. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...... in presence of renewable energy resources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs). An economic model of responsive load is also proposed on the basis of elasticity factor to model the behavior of customers participating in various DR programs. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed accordingly...... to minimize the expected cost of MG under different TBR programs. To verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach, a number of simulations are performed under different scenarios using real data; and the impact of TBR-DR actions on energy and reserve scheduling are studied and compared...

  2. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  3. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  4. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Chen

    2015-10-01

    increased in microsporidian infected gammarids exposed to cadmium. P. minutus did not affect the stress response of its host. Lipid levels were correlated negatively with hsp70 response, and indicated a possible increased stress susceptibility of individuals with depleted energy reserves. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the importance of parasitic infections, especially of microsporidians, for ecotoxicological research.

  5. Hypothyroid patients showing shortened responsiveness to oral iodized oil have paradoxically low serum thyroglobulin and low thyroid reserve. Thyroglobulin/thyrotropin ratio as a measure of thyroid damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contempre, B; Duale, G L; Gervy, C; Alexandre, J; Vanovervelt, N; Dumont, J E

    1996-03-01

    In Central Africa, all of northern Zaire is very severely deficient in iodine. A peculiar feature of this endemia is that iodine deficiency and the ensuing thyroid gland stimulation not only leads to goitre formation but also to progressive thyroid involution and to myxoedematous cretinism. An iodine supplementation trial based on oral administration of small doses of iodine was made in 81 schoolchildren. All of them received a small dose of iodine (0.1 ml containing 48 mg) per os and the thyroid status was followed during 4 months. Blood and urine samples were collected at the start of the study, then 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after iodine administration. Before iodine supplementation the mean urinary iodine level was 0.18 +/- 0.02 micromol/l, and 10% of the subjects had a urinary iodine level below 0.08 micromol/l. Fifty-two percent of the subjects had a serum thyrotropin (TSH) level above 10 mU/l. All the subjects responded to the administration of iodine. and all of them recovered a euthyroid status. Most of them were still euthyroid at the end of the study. However. within 4 or even 2 months, some subjects (15 % of the total) reverted to hypothyroidism. At the entry of the study these subjects were all hypothyroid and had elevated TSH and paradoxically low serum thyroglobulin (TG) values. In myxoedematous cretins living in the same area, even lower serum TG levels were found. Together with the absence of goitre, a paradoxically low serum TG Suggests a low thyroid reserve, and in the present case a reduced amount of functional thyroid tissue. We show that the serum TG/TSH ratio may be used as a predictive index of thyroid reserve and of positive response to iodine administration. These data further suggest that thyroid damage is not confined to myxoedematous cretins. but is widely distributed in the phenotypically normal population. Widely distributed thyroid damage may render iodine prophylaxis based on oral administration unpredictable.

  6. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  8. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  9. Exploring the Importance of Back-barrier Marsh Deposits in Barrier Island Response to Sea Level Rise, Virginia Coast Reserve, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, O. T.; Moore, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    As sea level rises, many barrier islands respond by migrating landward via storm-driven overwash processes. Through landward migration, sediment is extracted from the shoreface to supply sand to the island while, at the same time, the island moves to higher elevations. In this way, landward migration may allow an island to persist even as sea level rise rates increase. Intricate geometric relationships dictate both the distance an island must migrate and the amount of sediment required to maintain a subaerial barrier. Our objective is to explore the late-Holocene and potential future response of Metompkin Island (one of the most rapidly migrating barrier island within the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR)) to sea level rise in order to better understand the role of back-barrier marsh deposits in island evolution. We hypothesize that because the extent of subaerial marsh behind a barrier island partially determines how much sand is required to maintain subaerial exposure, the presence or absence of back-barrier marsh is critical in determining how an island system evolves. More specifically, we hypothesize that the absence of marsh behind southern Metompkin Island contributes to higher observed migration rates relative to the northern half of the island where a substantial marsh is present. We use GEOMBEST (Geomorphic Model of Barrier, Estuarine, and Shoreface Translations), a 2-d cross shore numerical morphological-behavior model, to simulate the evolution of Metompkin Island over the last 4600 years and into the future. We use recent NOAA bathymetry and USGS lidar data to develop a cross-shore profile representing average modern shoreface morphology and stratigraphy (extending 45km offshore) for the study area. Using modern geometric relationships as a guide, we then create a cross-shore profile representing a plausible initial morphology and stratigraphy for model simulations dating back to the oldest evidence of island existence (4600yrs BP). Additional model inputs

  10. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  11. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  12. Mordovia State Nature Reserve's 80th anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Elena V. Vargot

    2016-01-01

    Brief physical-geographical characteristics, history of creation and development of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve territory are presented. We listed aims and objectives assigned for the Mordovia Reserve in different periods. During the first years of the Mordovia Reserve the forest conservation was aimed at reforestation of the southern area of the taiga zone; the investigation of harmful insect fauna to timely response on infection foci of trees; enriching of the fauna of the Reserve. At...

  13. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  14. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  15. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. Forex Reserve Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China faces pressure of preserving the value of its $3 trillion foreign exchange reserves While already under pressure to revalue its currency,the yuan,against the U.S.dollar,China also faces the challenge of stifling vast losses to its foreign exchange reserve,mostly denominated in U.S.dollars.These losses to foreign exchange

  18. Blueprint for Energy Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhenying

    2008-01-01

    @@ The government is drafting a strategic reserve blueprint to ensure energy security-the move coming close on the heels of the construction of four oil reserve bases, according to Ma Fucai, deputy director of the Office of the National Energy Leading Group.

  19. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  20. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  1. 31 CFR 210.7 - Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Reserve Banks. 210.7 Section... CLEARING HOUSE General § 210.7 Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Fiscal Agents. Each Federal Reserve Bank serves... under this part. As Fiscal Agent, each Federal Reserve Bank shall be responsible only to the...

  2. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  3. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  4. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  5. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  6. Comparison of the marketing of demand response capacity and of power plant capacity in the minutes reserve market; Vergleich der Vermarktung von Demand-Response- und Kraftwerksleistung auf dem Minutenreservemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marz, Waldemar; Tzscheutschler, Peter [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Henle, Markus [Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany). Energiewirtschaft

    2013-03-15

    The greatest challenge in integrating renewable energies into the German and European power supply system lies in levelling out the imbalances between the fluctuating supply of energy from the wind and sun on the one side and the steady demand of the consumers on the other. Aside from the expansion of supra-regional transmission systems and storage power plants one instrument that has raised great hopes is the possibility of adapting demand to supply. These methods are known by the names of demand response (DR) or demand side management (DSM) and are at the core of the ''smart grid'' concept.

  7. Payment of Interest on Reserves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Stuart E

    1985-01-01

    .... These reserve requirements, in conjunction with control over the reserve supply, effectively place an upper limit on deposit creation and thus help the Federal Reserve System control the growth of money...

  8. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of... Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week...

  9. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  10. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  11. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  12. In Plain English: Making Sense of the Federal Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, MO.

    The Federal Reserve was created in 1913 in response to recurring banking panics in the United States. Its mission has since expanded into fostering a healthy economy. The Federal Reserve consists of three parts: (1) the Board of Governors; (2) Reserve Banks; and (3) the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors is the federal…

  13. 5 CFR 214.402 - Career reserved positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Career reserved positions. 214.402... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Types of Positions § 214.402 Career reserved positions. (a) The head of each agency is responsible for designating career reserved positions in accordance with the regulations in this section....

  14. 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] controls growth plate development by inhibiting apoptosis in the reserve zone and stimulating response to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in hypertrophic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, B D; Hurst-Kennedy, J; Denison, T A; Schwartz, Z

    2010-07-01

    Previously we showed that costochondral growth plate resting zone (RC) chondrocytes response primarily to 24R,25(OH)2D3 whereas prehypertrophic and hypertrophic (GC) cells respond to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 increases RC cell proliferation and inhibits activity of matrix processing enzymes, suggesting it stabilizes cells in the reserve zone, possibly by inhibiting the matrix degradation characteristic of apoptotic hypertrophic GC cells. To test this, apoptosis was induced in rat RC cells by treatment with exogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi). 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocked apoptotic effects in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, apoptosis was induced in ATDC5 cell cultures and 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocked this effect. Further studies indicated that 24R,25(OH)2D3 acts via at least two independent pathways. 24R,25(OH)2D3 increases LPA receptor-1 (LPA R1) expression and production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and subsequent LPA R1/3-dependent signaling, thereby decreasing p53 abundance. LPA also increases the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, 24R,25(OH)2D3 acts by increasing PKC activity. 24R,25(OH)2D3 stimulates 1-hydroxylase activity, resulting in increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, and it increases levels of phospholipase A2 activating protein, which is required for rapid 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent activation of PKC in GC cells. These results suggest that 24R,25(OH)2D3 modulates growth plate development by controlling the rate and extent of RC chondrocyte transition to a GC chondrocyte phenotype.

  15. Harpagoside: from Kalahari Desert to pharmacy shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Ivanovska, Nina; Alipieva, Kalina; Dimitrova, Petya; Verpoorte, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Harpagoside is an iridoid glycoside that was first isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw, Pedaliaceae), a medicinal plant in which it is the major constituent of the iridoid pool. Both the pure compound and devil's claw extracts have potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. According to the European Pharmacopoeia commercial devil's claw products should contain at least 1.2% harpagoside. However, the compound has also been isolated from several other plant species and in vitro plant culture systems. Recent advances in knowledge of harpagoside distribution, biosynthesis/accumulation and pharmacology are summarized in this review. We also discuss the possible synergism and/or antagonism between major constituents in harpagoside-containing phytopharmaceutical products. Finally, future perspectives for its potential application are highlighted.

  16. Reserve requirements: A modern perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Hein; Jonathan D. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The discussion in many money and banking textbooks would suggest that the Federal Reserve requires depository institutions to hold a minimum level of non-interest-earning reserves because (1) reserve requirements are a monetary policy tool that allows the Fed to expand the money supply and lower interest rates, and (2) reserve requirements improve the safety and soundness of depository institutions. This article argues that this "conventional wisdom" view is too narrow. ; The Fed often uses r...

  17. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  18. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  19. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... 3. One commentator also agreed with the change to the reserve account requirements as the change... regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing... Development based its reserve account on a set percentage of a property's total development cost (TDC). With...

  20. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  1. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all depository...

  2. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Lindenmayer, David

    2005-09-01

    To help manage the fluctuations inherent in fish populations scientists have argued for both an ecosystem approach to management and the greater use of marine reserves. Support for reserves includes empirical evidence that they can raise the spawning biomass and mean size of exploited populations, increase the abundance of species and, relative to reference sites, raise population density, biomass, fish size and diversity. By contrast, fishers often oppose the establishment and expansion of marine reserves and claim that reserves provide few, if any, economic payoffs. Using a stochastic optimal control model with two forms of ecological uncertainty we demonstrate that reserves create a resilience effect that allows for the population to recover faster, and can also raise the harvest immediately following a negative shock. The tradeoff of a larger reserve is a reduced harvest in the absence of a negative shock such that a reserve will never encompass the entire population if the goal is to maximize the economic returns from harvesting, and fishing is profitable. Under a wide range of parameter values with ecological uncertainty, and in the 'worst case' scenario for a reserve, we show that a marine reserve can increase the economic payoff to fishers even when the harvested population is not initially overexploited, harvesting is economically optimal and the population is persistent. Moreover, we show that the benefits of a reserve cannot be achieved by existing effort or output controls. Our results demonstrate that, in many cases, there is no tradeoff between the economic payoff of fishers and ecological benefits when a reserve is established at equal to, or less than, its optimum size.

  3. Major Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010,China had 2,588 nature reserves,covering 14.9 percent of its land area.These nature reserves have effectively protected more than 90 percent of land ecosystems,85 percent of wild animals and 65 percent of higher plant species

  4. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  5. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  6. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  7. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  8. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  9. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  10. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  11. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2017-09-06

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  12. The Coal Reserves Database Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonskowski, R. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) initiated the Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program in October, 1990 in order to update and improve the inherent applicability of EIA's national coal reserves database. Currently, EIA's database is derived from the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal, a compilation of data from published sources, unified by adherence to standardized physical criteria of minability, but never intended for the detailed coal supply and policy analyses demanded today. The CRDB Program is designed to engage the expertise available at State geological surveys in compiling best current State-level estimates of both quantities and quality of available coal reserves through cooperative agreements with EIA. The CRDB emphasizes integration of more data on coal quality, use of data from unpublished sources, cooperation with industry and other government sources, and flexibility of criteria to take into account local accessibility and mining conditions and utilize computerized geographic information systems or coal resource software. The results of pilot projects in Ohio and Wyoming are summarized. Areas nominated for support in the program include 15 additional priority coal regions in 14 States, which comprise 95 percent of the current reserve estimates and most of the coal-bearing areas of low sulfur potential. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    capabilities, forces for large-scale conventional campaigns, balance stress across the Total Force, include a larger portion of American citizenry defending...Integration will also relieve stress on the Active Duty force and provide a cost-effective force multiplier. Finally, it will leverage the high...heavily.18 Other identified organizational challenges included cross- acculturation between active and reserve component career

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  15. Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology.

  16. China's Ultimate Recoverable Reserves Calculated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong

    2003-01-01

    @@ A nationwide project is being launched to assess the potential capacity of China's oil and natural gas resources, a senior official from the Ministry of Land and Resources said in early December. Based on the existing data, China's oil and natural gas reserves are estimated at 106.9 billion tons and 53trillion cubic meters respectively at the present time.

  17. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  18. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  19. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...

  20. THE EFFECT OF CHANGES IN RESERVE REQUIREMENTS DURING THE 1930s:

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mayer; Cargill, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    The differential response of cash reserves of member banks and nonmember banks not subject to the 1936-37 increase in reserve requirements is estimated to determine whether the 1937-38 recession was caused by the increase in reserve requirements. We identify 17 states that maintained constant reserve requirements from June 1934 to June 1941. While member banks increased their cash reserve ratios relative to nonmember banks, the magnitude of the adjustment is too small to have contributed to t...

  1. THE EFFECT OF CHANGES IN RESERVE REQUIREMENTS DURING THE 1930s:

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mayer; Cargill, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    The differential response of cash reserves of member banks and nonmember banks not subject to the 1936-37 increase in reserve requirements is estimated to determine whether the 1937-38 recession was caused by the increase in reserve requirements. We identify 17 states that maintained constant reserve requirements from June 1934 to June 1941. While member banks increased their cash reserve ratios relative to nonmember banks, the magnitude of the adjustment is too small to have contributed to t...

  2. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  3. Neurotransplantation therapy and cerebellar reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendelin, Jan; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Manto, Mario

    2017-08-10

    Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity. On the other hand, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that the self-recovery capacity is still preserved even if the cerebellum is affected by a diffuse and progressive pathology. We put forward the period with intact recovery capacity as "restorable stage" and the notion of reversal capacity as "cerebellar reserve". The concept of cerebellar reserve is particularly relevant, both theoretically and practically, to target recovery of cerebellar deficits by neurotransplantation. Reinforcing the cerebellar reserve and prolonging the restorable stage can be envisioned as future endpoints of neurotransplantation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  5. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  6. Optimal Reserve Management Pattern for Turkish Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Talasli; Suheyla Ozyildirim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we model a representative bank’s optimal reserve management pattern by adopting institutional aspects of the Turkish required reserve regime. The cost minimization problem, in general, takes into account the expected opportunity cost of holding reserves and penalty costs for not fulfilling the liability of reserve requirement. We extend this problem for reserve carry-over provision and use of late liquidity window facility and compute the optimal reserve pattern by dynamic progr...

  7. Multi-formal and Information-based Emergency Resource Reserve System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua; He Jinsheng; Zhu Xianmin

    2008-01-01

    Emergency resources are an important basis of effective eraergency response. But there are many disadvantages of the Chinese traditional material reserve method in which the resources are separately reserved in different regions and sections according to the kinds of disasters. So there comes the Multi-formal and Information-based Emergency Resource Reserve System (MIERRS) in China. The reserve body and method change from the single into the multiple forms, that is, the main reserve body changes from the single government agency into the organizations combining with the military, enterprise and society, and the reserve method changes from single material reserve into the reserve combining with market reserve, talents and technology reserve, and production capacity reserve. The content of the reserve change from material to information means to develop the Emergency Resource Management Information System realizing real-time control of resource characteristics and relevant reserve information. The MIERRS leads to a reserve system with rapid response and flexible schedule. It provides a convenient platform for resource sharing, thus avoiding duplication and waste, improving the utilization of resources, reducing the reserve loss and optimizing the structure of resource reserve.

  8. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  9. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Lavín, Miguel F; Marinone, Silvio G; Raimondi, Peter T; Shaw, William W

    2009-01-01

    Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  10. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  11. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  12. Biomarkers of ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Heather Gibson

    2013-11-01

    Recent years have seen an acceleration of research on biomarkers of ovarian reserve, with most inquiries targeted toward what these markers tell us about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. However, in the patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), ovarian reserve markers may provide information about the condition itself. This review will consider the use of common markers of functional ovarian reserve, including antral follicle count, ovarian volume, and anti-Müllerian hormone in the PCOS population for the purposes of diagnosing PCOS, characterizing the PCOS phenotype, and predicting response to fertility treatment.

  13. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  14. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  15. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  16. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  17. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  18. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  19. Political economy of marine reserves: understanding the role of opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N; Wilson, James A

    2010-10-26

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen's behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen's responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves.

  20. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  1. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  2. Bandwidth Reservations in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelis, Jelle; Verslype, Dieter; Develder, Chris

    2010-01-01

    in a heterogeneous home network. We outline how it both relieves the end user from troublesome configuration and still offers control to the service provider. We particularly present performance assessment results for UPnP-QoS v3, based on a fully operational experimental implementation. The quantitative measurement...... results are further used in extensive simulations demonstrating acceptable response times and clear QoS admission differentiation....

  3. Detecting larval export from marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, R A; Warner, R R; Gaines, S D; Paris, C B

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves.

  4. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    exer- cise to understand why certain decisions and actions unfolded as they did ( Salter , 2007). It has also been used successfully in other contexts...Operations, October 28, 2004. Salter , Margaret S., After Action Reviews: Current Observations and Recommendations, U.S. Army Research Institute for the

  5. 2012 Survey of Reserve Components Spouses (RCSS): Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    120  o.  Loneliness ...472  63.  Identification scale : Constructed from Q63a-d. The Identification scale indicates how much a spouse identifies with the...482  64.  Perceived Stress scale : Constructed from Q64a-d. Perceived Stress can be defined as spouses’ stress

  6. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; La Poutré, J.A.; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flex

  7. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han); K. Strunz

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work

  8. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  9. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  10. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management.

  11. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  12. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under § 35.2025. The Regional Administrator may waive this reserve requirement where a State can... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserves. 35.2020 Section 35.2020... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves. In developing its priority list the...

  13. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  14. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general insu

  15. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of...

  16. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  17. 5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any, of the contingency reserve over the preferred minimum balance. OMP must authorize this payment... charge consists of the rate approved by OPM for payment to the plan for each enrollee, plus 4 percent, of... charge set aside for the administrative reserve. The administrative reserve is available for payment of...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  19. Army Reserve (AR) Educational Assistance (EA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army TRADOC Analysis Center Ft. Lee, VA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Programs REAP: Reserve Education Assistance Program; MGIB-SR: Montgomery GI Bill – Selected Reserve; SRK: Selected Reserve Kicker ; OFF: Officer; EM

  20. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  1. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take MPAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Irene; Ambrose, Richard F

    2007-12-01

    Although many papers report the effects of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs or reserves), scientifically rigorous empirical studies are rare, particularly for temperate reef fishes. We evaluated the responses of fish populations to protection from fishing in reserves by comparing densities and sizes inside and outside of five no-take reserves in southern California, USA. Our results are robust because we compared responses across multiple rocky-reef reserves in two different years and controlled for possible site differences by (a) ensuring that habitat characteristics were the same inside and outside reserves, and (b) sampling species that are not targeted, which would not be expected to have a direct response to fishing. We compared fish density and size and calculated biomass and egg production across all five sites. Fishes targeted by recreational and/or commercial fisheries consistently exhibited increases in mean density (150%), size (30%), biomass (440%), and egg production (730%) inside reserves. Reserve effects were greatest for legal-sized targeted fishes: significantly greater densities were found exclusively inside reserves for targeted species (580%), the largest size classes existed only inside reserves, and mean biomass was 1000% higher. These responses were unlikely to have been caused by habitat differences because there were no significant differences in habitat characteristics between reserve and control locations. Densities of non-targeted species did not differ between reserve and non-reserve locations, further supporting the conclusions that differences in targeted species between reserve and control locations were due to harvesting rather than site-specific effects. Although MPAs cannot replace traditional fisheries management, the concentration of increased biomass and egg production is a unique MPA benefit that serves both reserves and fisheries. Scientifically rigorous studies that include multiple reserves, such as this study, are

  2. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  3. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  4. Evolving science of marine reserves: new developments and emerging research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

    2010-10-26

    The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks.

  5. How to Maintain an Operational Reserve? Further Engaging Army Reserve Component Forces in the Coming Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    with mobilizing Reserve Component units for overseas missions. This flexibility will allow the Army to meet ongoing mission requirements , while... reserve will impose an increased cost on the Army. First (and most obviously), the Army will have to fund the additional pay and allowances required ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW TO MAINTAIN AN OPERATIONAL RESERVE ? FURTHER ENGAGING ARMY RESERVE COMPONENT FORCES IN

  6. China has proven 2974 iron ore reserve and 1248 copper reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently national mineral resource evaluation has achieved preliminary progress. At present a total of 2974 iron ore reserves have been proven, including 121 large-scale reserves; as well as 1248 copper reserves, including 37 large-scale reserves. Preliminary findings of the evaluation have indicated that retained iron re-

  7. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  8. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Sala

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  9. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  10. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  11. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  12. CHINA'S RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: PRACTICES, EFFECTS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GUONAN MA; XIANDONG YAN; XI LIU

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of reserve requirements as a cheaper substitute for the open-market operations of the People's Bank of China (PBC) to sterilize foreign exchange interventions in recent years. China's reserve requirements have also been used to address a range of other policy objectives, not least macroeconomic management, financial stability, and credit policy. The preference for reserve requirements reflects the size of China's FX sterilization and the associated costs, in a qua...

  13. The Euro as a Reserve Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Marzena

    2010-01-01

    There has been an unusual accumulation of foreign exchange reserves in recent years. Central banks have to diversify their reserves away from the US dollar, especially towards the euro. The same situation is in a private sector, where investors reduce the share of dollar denominated assets. This process has progressed gradually, but it is possible that the euro’s role as a reserve currency will continue to increase. The purpose of ...

  14. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  15. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  16. Naval Reserve: an organization in transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Richard Charles

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine the issues facing the Naval Reserve as it transitions from its cold war mission to new and, possibly, expanded roles under the New National Military Strategy. The thesis further provides an overview of the changed strategic environment and budgetary concerns that serve as drivers for change within the Naval Reserve. The evolution of the present Naval Reserve organization, manpower an...

  17. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  18. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  19. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  20. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  2. Reserves and trade jointly determine exposure to food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  3. Decreased myocardial perfusion reserve in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, Mustafa; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for increased cardiovascular mortality in diabetic autonomic neuropathy are unknown. To investigate the effect of autonomic neuropathy on myocardial function, we performed dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging during baseline...... conditions and after Dipyridamole-induced vasodilatation in nine type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy (AN+), defined by cardiovascular tests, as well as in 10 type 1 diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN-) and 10 healthy control subjects. Baseline myocardial perfusion index (K...... blood pressure response to Dipyridamole and myocardial perfusion reserve index. We conclude that type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy have a decreased myocardial perfusion reserve capacity when challenged with a vasodilatator, a finding that may in part be the pathophysiological substrate...

  4. 21 CFR 216.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 216.23 Section 216.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PHARMACY COMPOUNDING Compounded Drug Products § 216.23 [Reserved] ...

  5. The dynamics of the primordial follicle reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jeffrey B; Myers, Michelle; Anderson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    The female germline comprises a reserve population of primordial (non-growing) follicles containing diplotene oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase. By convention, the reserve is established when all individual oocytes are enclosed by granulosa cells. This commonly occurs prior to or around birth, according to species. Histologically, the 'reserve' is the number of primordial follicles in the ovary at any given age and is ultimately depleted by degeneration and progression through folliculogenesis until exhausted. How and when the reserve reaches its peak number of follicles is determined by ovarian morphogenesis and germ cell dynamics involving i) oogonial proliferation and entry into meiosis producing an oversupply of oocytes and ii) large-scale germ cell death resulting in markedly reduced numbers surviving as the primordial follicle reserve. Our understanding of the processes maintaining the reserve comes primarily from genetically engineered mouse models, experimental activation or destruction of oocytes, and quantitative histological analysis. As the source of ovulated oocytes in postnatal life, the primordial follicle reserve requires regulation of i) its survival or maintenance, ii) suppression of development (dormancy), and iii) activation for growth and entry into folliculogenesis. The mechanisms influencing these alternate and complex inter-related phenomena remain to be fully elucidated. Drawing upon direct and indirect evidence, we discuss the controversial concept of postnatal oogenesis. This posits a rare population of oogonial stem cells that contribute new oocytes to partially compensate for the age-related decline in the primordial follicle reserve.

  6. A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

  7. Marine reserves demonstrate trophic interactions across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Timothy J; Anderson, Marti J; Babcock, Russell C; Kato, Shin

    2006-02-01

    Several infaunal bivalve taxa show patterns of decreased biomass in areas with higher densities of adjacent reef-associated predators (the snapper, Pagrus auratus and rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii). A caging experiment was used to test the hypothesis that patterns observed were caused by predation, using plots seeded with a known initial density of the bivalve Dosinia subrosea to estimate survivorship. The caging experiment was replicated at several sites inside and outside two highly protected marine reserves: predators are significantly more abundant inside these reserves. Survivorship in fully caged, partially caged and open plots were then compared at sites having either low (non reserve) or high (reserve) predator density. The highest rates of survivorship of the bivalve were found in caged plots inside reserves and in all treatments outside reserves. However, inside reserves, open and partially caged treatments exhibited low survivorship. It was possible to specifically attribute much of this mortality to predation by large rock lobsters, due to distinctive marks on the valves of dead D. subrosea. This suggests that predation by large rock lobster could indeed account for the distributional patterns previously documented for certain bivalve populations. Our results illustrate that protection afforded by marine reserves is necessary to investigate how depletion through fishing pressure can change the role of upper-level predators and trophic processes between habitats.

  8. 75 FR 6539 - Healthy Forests Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 625 RIN 0578-AA52 Healthy Forests Reserve Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... amends Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for the Healthy Forests Reserve Program... benefit cost assessment has not been undertaken. Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of...

  9. CNGC Secured More Copper Reserves in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to China Land and Resources Newspaper, the reporter learnt from the work- ing conference of China National Gold Group Corporation (CNGC) that the corporation has again achieved great achievements in terms of its reserve increase strategy in 2011. The corporation increased its reserves by 215 tons of gold, 370,000 tons of copper and 580,000 tons

  10. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  11. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  12. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account. (a) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and...

  13. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  14. Federal Reserve Credibility and the Term Structure of Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lakdawala, Aeimit; Wu, Shu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how the degree of central bank credibility influences the level, slope and curvature of the term structure of interest rates. In an estimated structural model, we find that historical yield curve data are best matched by the Federal Reserve conducting policy in a loose commitment framework, rather than the commonly used discretion and full commitment assumptions. The structural impulse responses indicate that the past history of realized shocks play a crucial role in d...

  15. On the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve's new liquidity facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of the new liquidity facilities that the Federal Reserve established in response to the recent financial crisis. I develop a no-arbitrage based affine term structure model with default risk and conduct a thorough factor analysis of the counterparty default risk among major financial institutions and the underlying mortgage default risk. The new facilities' effectiveness is examined, by first separately examining their effects in relieving financial instit...

  16. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  17. The phenological patterns of dominant plants in Xinglongshan Natural Reserve and the response to the regional climate change%兴隆山自然保护区优势植物的物候格局对气候变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁军; 王静; 潘世成; 刘瑞; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    have the signiifcant change, especially for Sorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana. The former species has shorter grow season for later spring phenophase and earlier autumn phenophases, reaching 15.49 d ∙ a−1, and for the later species, the whole phenological period delay.Discussion The result of regional climate change in this research is similar with the former research result, namely have the same change tendency of increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation. However, because Xinglongshan National Natural Reserve is located at the Qinghai, Tibet and Mengxin Plateau, the coastal area of these plateaus, affected by the factors such as topography, its temperature change rate is a bit slow than the average rate in China. What is more, the research scope, Yuzhong County is located in the southeast of Lanzhou City, the southern part of Gansu Province, where is in the scale that arid and semi-arid move to south, and the annual precipitation decreased. The change pattern of phenophases is identical with the former research in northern part of China from 1982 — 1999. Sorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana show different change tendency and response to regional climate change because its own characteristics, especially the cold tolerance of the later one.Conclusions The regional climate change in Xinglongshan National Natural Reserve have the tendency of increasing in temperature and decrease in precipitation, which is similar with most former study on relative area, and the change of phenophases of 14 observed plants, also the dominant plants in this study area, showing the tendency of delaying or in advance because of own characters. There are two plants, namelySorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana, showing significant change among 14 observations. The former one has a shorter growing season caused by higher temperature and less precipitation, while the later one has the tendency of delaying on all kinds of phenophases because of its better resistant ability against cold. Recommendations and

  18. On the optimal size of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenane, M; Moussaoui, A; Auger, P

    2013-03-01

    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include reserve size as control variable to maximize catch at equilibrium. A continuous time model is used to simulate the effects of reserve size on fishing catch. Fish movements between the sites is assumed to take place at a faster time scale than the variation of the stock and the change of the fleet size. We take advantage of these two time scales to derive a reduced model governing the dynamics of the total fish stock and the fishing effort. Simulation results suggest that the establishment of a protected marine reserve will always lead to an increase in total fish biomass, an optimal size of a marine reserve can achieve to maximize the catch at equilibrium.

  19. US coal reserves: A review and update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  20. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  1. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  2. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  3. CRISIS FOCUS Forex Reserves to The Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Premier Wen Jiabao told this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos that the Chinese Government was explor- ing more efficient ways to use its massive foreign exchange (forex) reserves to boost the domestic economy, he empha- sized that the reserves could only be used overseas. Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of Beijing-based China Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd., recently wrote an article in the Securities Times explaining why the country’s forex reserves can only be used overseas and how they can help stimulate domestic development. Edited excerpts follow:

  4. Contradictions of capitalism in the South African Kalahari

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, Stasja Patoelja

    2016-01-01

    The question of who controls Indigenous tourism is of wide and growing relevance in post-colonial societies, especially in so-called transition economies, that are moving from state-led economies to mostly market-based economies. This paper explores such global–local dynamics for an Indigenous

  5. Vegetation structure characteristics and relationships of Kalahari woodlands and savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Privette, JL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available show that CC and PAI increase with increasing mean annual precipitation. Canopy clumping, defined by the deviation of the gap size distribution from that of randomly distributed foliage, was fairly constant along the gradient. We provide empirical...

  6. Contradictions of capitalism in the South African Kalahari

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, Stasja Patoelja

    2016-01-01

    The question of who controls Indigenous tourism is of wide and growing relevance in post-colonial societies, especially in so-called transition economies, that are moving from state-led economies to mostly market-based economies. This paper explores such global–local dynamics for an Indigenous gr

  7. Historical beginnings.. the Federal Reserve System

    OpenAIRE

    Roger T. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the banking system in the United States from 1789, discusses the banking problems of the 19th century, and describes the legislation that led to the formation of the Federal Reserve System.

  8. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  9. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  10. Scientists Call for Strengthening Nature Reserve Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has more than 10% of the total species of vascular plants and terrestrial vertebrates in the world, of which about half are endemic to this country. To protect its biodiversity, China has made remarkable achievements in nature reserve establishment.

  11. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information regarding the acreages of land currently (as of 2004) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) distributed by county and...

  12. 75 FR 67731 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...://www.fdic.gov/news/news/press/2010/pr10229.html . Table 6 shows the imputed PSAF elements, including... Advantage , FedLine Web , FedMail , and FedPhone .\\45\\ The Reserve Banks package these channels into...

  13. Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marv

    1979-01-01

    Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)

  14. Angiosperms, Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandujano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Los Tuxtlas Reserve has been heavily deforested and fragmented since the 1970’s. Although the floraof Los Tuxtlas has been described previously, most floristic lists come from the large forest reserve of the Los Tuxtlasfield station. Here we present a check list of Angiosperms recorded in 45 rainforest fragments (< 1 to 266 ha located inthree landscapes with different levels of deforestation. We sampled all trees, shrubs, lianas, palms and herbs withdiameter at breast height (dbh

  15. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  16. Required reserves as a credit policy tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mimir, Yasin; Sunel, Enes; Taskin, Temel

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative investigation of the role of reserve requirements as a macroprudential policy tool. We build a monetary DSGE model with a banking sector in which (i) an agency problem between households and banks leads to endogenous capital constraints for banks in obtaining funds from households, (ii) banks are subject to time-varying reserve requirements that countercyclically respond to expected credit growth, (iii) households face cash-in-advance constraints, requiring ...

  17. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  18. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  19. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report also includes an appendix with a brief comparative analysis of reserve force transformation in other countries (Finland, Singapore, Japan ...retention.18 Barring developments that offer Taiwan a substantive role in the emerging Asian security architecture and that make available, with...forces of other countries, we briefly reviewed the reserve forces of Finland, Singapore, Japan , and Georgia. We find that Finland and Singapore

  20. Anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism--the Reserve Bank's supervisory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Hamish

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, a Bulletin article set out the Reserve Bank of New Zealand's role and responsibilities with regard to the Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Financing of Terrorism Act 2009 ("the Act...

  1. Statistical Method of Estimating Nigerian Hydrocarbon Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey O. Oseh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon reserves are basic to planning and investment decisions in Petroleum Industry. Therefore its proper estimation is of considerable importance in oil and gas production. The estimation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been very popular, and very successful, in the Nigerian oil and gas industry for the past 50 years. In order to fully estimate the hydrocarbon potentials in Nigerian Niger Delta Region, a clear understanding of the reserve geology and production history should be acknowledged. Reserves estimation of most fields is often performed through Material Balance and Volumetric methods. Alternatively a simple Estimation Model and Least Squares Regression may be useful or appropriate. This model is based on extrapolation of additional reserve due to exploratory drilling trend and the additional reserve factor which is due to revision of the existing fields. This Estimation model used alongside with Linear Regression Analysis in this study gives improved estimates of the fields considered, hence can be used in other Nigerian Fields with recent production history

  2. Consistent multi-level trophic effects of marine reserve protection across northern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Graham J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Thomson, Russell J.; Freeman, Debbie J.

    2017-01-01

    Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished. Reserve sites were characterised by higher abundance and biomass of large fishes than fished sites, most notably for snapper Chrysophrys auratus, with forty-fold higher observed biomass inside relative to out. In agreement with conceptual models, significant reserve effects not only reflected direct interactions between fishing and targeted species (higher large fish biomass; higher snapper and lobster abundance), but also second order interactions (lower urchin abundance), third order interactions (higher kelp cover), and fourth order interactions (lower understory algal cover). Unexpectedly, we also found: (i) a consistent trend for higher (~20%) Ecklonia cover across reserves relative to nearby fished sites regardless of lobster and urchin density, (ii) an inconsistent response of crustose coralline algae to urchin density, (iii) low cover of other understory algae in marine reserves with few urchins, and (iv) more variable fish and benthic invertebrate communities at reserve relative to fished locations. Overall, reef food webs showed complex but consistent responses to protection from fishing in well-enforced temperate New Zealand marine reserves. The small proportion of the northeastern New Zealand coastal zone located within marine reserves (~0.2%) encompassed a disproportionately large representation of the full range of fish and

  3. Consistent multi-level trophic effects of marine reserve protection across northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Thomson, Russell J; Freeman, Debbie J

    2017-01-01

    Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished. Reserve sites were characterised by higher abundance and biomass of large fishes than fished sites, most notably for snapper Chrysophrys auratus, with forty-fold higher observed biomass inside relative to out. In agreement with conceptual models, significant reserve effects not only reflected direct interactions between fishing and targeted species (higher large fish biomass; higher snapper and lobster abundance), but also second order interactions (lower urchin abundance), third order interactions (higher kelp cover), and fourth order interactions (lower understory algal cover). Unexpectedly, we also found: (i) a consistent trend for higher (~20%) Ecklonia cover across reserves relative to nearby fished sites regardless of lobster and urchin density, (ii) an inconsistent response of crustose coralline algae to urchin density, (iii) low cover of other understory algae in marine reserves with few urchins, and (iv) more variable fish and benthic invertebrate communities at reserve relative to fished locations. Overall, reef food webs showed complex but consistent responses to protection from fishing in well-enforced temperate New Zealand marine reserves. The small proportion of the northeastern New Zealand coastal zone located within marine reserves (~0.2%) encompassed a disproportionately large representation of the full range of fish and

  4. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  5. Repolarization reserve, arrhythmia and new drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Repolarization-related lethal arrhythmias have led to the concept of “repolarization reserve”, which may help elucidate the relationship between K+ currents and other components of repolarization. Pharmacological manipulation as well as congenital and cardiac disease may affect repolarization and alter the repolarization reserve, leading to the development of arrhythmias. Pharmacological enhancement of outward currents or suppression of inward currents has been shown to be of therapeutic value. A number of newly found selective ion channel inhibitors or agonists have been investigated for their ability to enhance repolarization reserve and decrease the incidence of arrhythmia. In this paper we review the development, potential mechanisms, clinical application, and pharmacological significance of repolarization reserve in order to better understand, predict and prevent unexplained adverse cardiac events.

  6. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lewis A K; Baskett, Marissa L

    2015-12-01

    The goals of ecosystem-based management (EBM) include protecting ecological resilience, the magnitude of a perturbation that a community can withstand and remain in a given state. As a tool to achieve this goal, no-take marine reserves may enhance resilience by protecting source populations or reduce it by concentrating fishing in harvested areas. Here, we test whether spatial management with marine reserves can increase ecological resilience compared to non-spatial (conventional) management using a dynamic model of a simplified fish community with structured predation and competition that causes alternative stable states. Relative to non-spatial management, reserves increase the resilience of the desired (predator-dominated) equilibrium state in both stochastic and deterministic environments, especially under intensive fishing. As a result, spatial management also increases the feasibility of restoring degraded (competitor-dominated) systems, particularly if combined with culling of competitors or stock enhancement of adult predators.

  7. Are All Measures of International Reserves Created Equal? An Empirical Comparison of International Reserve Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Yuk-Pang Wong, Clement

    2007-01-01

    Using available annual data of 174 economies since 1957, we examine the similarities and differences of seven international reserve ratios. While individual international reserve ratios display substantial variations across economies, they are associated with an economy?s characteristics including geographic location, income level, stage of development, degree of indebtedness, and exchange rate regime. The association pattern varies across time and type of international reserve ratios. Intere...

  8. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  9. A critique of full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Montagnoli, A; S Dow; Johnsen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Proposals for full reserve banking have been put forward as a radical way of preventing further financial crises. They rest on the argument that crises are caused by excessive money supply growth brought about by inadequately controlled bank credit creation. Our aim is to provide a critique of the theoretical assumptions underlying the plans for full reserve banking. In particular some of the plans rely on the view that the money supply is a key causal variable and that it is feasible for cen...

  10. Working marginal reserves using Auger technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada Tamames, B.

    1988-03-01

    Following up an idea put forward at a meeting of the PEN (National Energy Plan) R and D working party held in Ponferrada in the province of Leon, Ocicarbon contracted Geocontrol SA to carry out a study on the possible use of Auger technology for working marginal coal reserves. This article summarises the most important points in the final report on this project: current state of Auger technology, inventory of marginal coal reserves in Spain and the use of Auger technology in Spain. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  12. Oil Reserve Project Picks Up Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China will ratchet up its efforts to construct the second phase of the national crude oil reserve base project in 2011, as part of the country's endeavor to secure strategically important natural resources and stabilize the petroleum market."We will accelerate the construction pace of the project and ensure its quality, aiming to put it into operation as early as possible," the National Energy Administration (NEA) said in its annual energy work target for 2011.The agency, which is under China's top economic planner, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), will strengthen supervision to guarantee the safe operation of oil reserve bases.

  13. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  14. Cognitive reserve and cognitive impairments: drug and nondrug treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Dainikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses concepts, such as cognitive reserve (CR and cognitive impairments (CI. It presents the controlled and uncorrectable factors that influence CR and considers the factors of increasing CR and reducing the risk of dementia. The mechanisms responsible for the development of vascular CIs and the role of vascular factor in the occurrence of neurodegenerative disease, primarily Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, are covered. The issues of correcting CIs in cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. The conception of CR is shown to be of value in the planning of management tactics for each patient to prevent dementia by drug and non-drug treatments.

  15. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  16. 25 CFR 162.500 - Crow Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crow Reservation. 162.500 Section 162.500 Indians BUREAU... sections of this part 162, Crow Indians classified as competent under the Act of June 4, 1920 (41 Stat. 751...), as amended by the Act of March 15, 1948 (62 Stat. 80). However, at their election Crow Indians...

  17. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  18. 49 CFR 193.2003 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2003 Section 193.2003 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2015 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2015 Section 193.2015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  20. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  1. Energy Law to Highlight Corporate Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The proposed Energy Law is expected to focus on fuel security by regulating commercial oil reserves at the corporate level, according to the reports extensively released by news media. As known to all, the law is being drafted as the country's energy demand, and dependency on imports, is increasing.

  2. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  3. The Location Model with Reservation Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a variant of the standard Hotelling model of spatial competition where firms first choose locations along the line and then, given these locations, compete in prices.Consumers have a finite reservation price and incur a quadratic transportation cost.We show that there exist

  4. Is a Forex Reserves Handout Feasible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s rapid economic development over the past decades has brought in huge social wealth, amassing the largest foreign exchange (forex) reserves in the world at $2 trillion. When financial turbulence crippled the global economy, the mammoth foreign currency holdings quickly shrank in value as a result of the U.S. dollar’s devaluation.

  5. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  6. 7 CFR 1940.590 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1940.590 Section 1940.590 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940...

  7. Appropriate reserves in the health care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Helden, G.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Organizations in the health care sector are increasingly managed and judged on the basis of economic criteria. At the same time they are faced with growing risks which necessitate ‘appropriate’ reserves. Various major risks are mentioned in this paper. Health care organizations are allowed to form p

  8. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    align reserve capabilities with active component requirements. See prepared statement of Vice Admiral John C. Harvey , Chief of Naval Personnel...before the Senate Armed Services Personnel Subcommittee, February 27, 2008, p. 5, http://armed-services.senate.gov/ statemnt/2008/February/ Harvey %2002-27...security and disaster relief missions in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

  9. 31 CFR 308.5 - Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservations. 308.5 Section 308.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING FULL-PAID...

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  11. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  12. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of... role of reserve requirements in the implementation of monetary policy. The Board believes that these... institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy). \\7\\ The exemption amount is the amount of an...

  13. Mosses from Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve, Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of Bryophyte in Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve has never reported before. Recent floristic study recorded 14 species belong to 12 genus and 8 families occur in this area. Five species of them indicated as a new record for Sulawesi.

  14. Indigenous, colonist, and government Impacts on Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Anthony; McMahan, Benjamin; Taber, Peter

    2007-12-01

    We studied the impacts of colonists, two groups of indigenous residents (Miskitu and Mayangna), and management by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) on the forest of the Bosawas International Biosphere Reserve. Indigenous people and colonists subsist on the natural resources of the reserve, and MARENA is responsible for protecting the area from colonization and illicit exploitation. Using geostatistical procedures and Landsat images at three different time periods, we compared per capita deforestation and boundary stabilization in areas with colonists and areas with indigenous peoples. We also examined whether the Mayangna deforested less than the Miskitu and whether the Nicaraguan government has effectively defended the Bosawas boundary against the advance of the agricultural frontier. In addition, we analyzed the current distribution of land uses within the reserve and its contiguous indigenous areas with a supervised classification of current land cover. Indigenous demarcations protected the forest successfully, whereas the Bosawas boundary itself did not inhibit colonization and consequent deforestation. Indigenous farmers deforested significantly less per capita than colonists, and the two indigenous groups in Bosawas did not differ significantly in their effects on the forest. Our results show that indigenous common-property institutions and indigenous defense of homeland have been powerful factors in protecting the forests of Bosawas and that the difficult evolution of a nested cross-scale governance system in Bosawas-under pressure from indigenous peoples-is probably the key to the forest's survival thus far.

  15. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves. (a) In determining the reserve requirement under this part, the amount of cash items in process of... reserves are computed by applying the reserve requirement ratios below to net transaction...

  16. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of brain in healthy aging: A MEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia eLopez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently healthy aging is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve.21 subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of cognitive reserve; one group comprised subjects with high cognitive reserve (9 members and the other contained those with low cognitive reserve (12 members. To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg´s Task. We then applied two algorithms (Phase Locking Value & Phase-Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower cognitive reserve presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher cognitive reserve.These results may indicate that participants with low cognitive reserve needed a greater 'effort' than those with high cognitive reserve to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that cognitive reserve contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.

  17. Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Halit AKTURK; Gocen, Hasan; Duran, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalized money (M2) multiplier formula to the literature for a monetary system with Reserve Option Mechanism (ROM). Various features of the proposed multiplier are then explored using monthly Turkish data during the decade 2005 to 2015. We report a step increase in the magnitude and a slight upward adjustment in the long-run trend of the multiplier with the adoption of ROM. We provide evidence for substantial change in the seasonal pattern of the multiplier, cash ra...

  18. Liquidity and reserve requirements in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Robitaille

    2011-01-01

    The international reform initiative that followed the global financial crisis of 2008-09 has resulted in the introduction of liquidity requirements for banks. Under one requirement, the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), banks will need to hold enough highly liquid assets to survive for a month in a stress scenario. Banks' required reserve balances can be used to fulfill this liquidity requirement and this may be seen as an attractive option for emerging market economies, where financial sectors...

  19. OVARIAN RESERVE IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Buralkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preserving reproductive health of girls is a pressing issue for the modern healthcare industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the metrics of ovarian reserve in healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 in the Republic of Mordovia. 49 healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 were examined in the study. A medical and social audit was conducted at the first state to study their medical history and hereditary factors. Their physical and sexual development (sexual form, characteristic of menstrual cycle, general and gynecological exam was assessed at the second stage. Hormonal status and ovarian reserve metrics were examined at the third stage. Ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs was conducted and concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in blood were determined. The study results obtained suggest that a reduced size of ovary in girls aged 16 compared with 15-year-old girls is accompanied with the tendency toward a reduced level of AMH and increased concentration of FSH in blood serum. A significant increase in the average size of both ovaries in 17-year-old adolescents is accompanied with the tendency toward increased AMH, and, by contrast, the tendency toward a reduced level of FSH. The level of estradiol significantly increases over age, i.e. over the period from 15 to 17 years. Hence, at ages 15 and 16 all reproductive system components continue to actively adjust to cyclical functioning. By age 17, a close relationship between ovarian reserve and hormonal status is established.Key words: reproductive health, ovarian reserve, hormonal status, girls. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:38-43

  20. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  1. Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov; Zarahn, Eric; Hilton, H John; Flynn, Joseph; DeLaPaz, Robert; Rakitin, Brian

    2003-08-01

    There is epidemiologic and imaging evidence for the presence of cognitive reserve, but the neurophysiologic substrate of CR has not been established. In order to test the hypothesis that CR is related to aspects of neural processing, we used fMRI to image 19 healthy young adults while they performed a nonverbal recognition test. There were two task conditions. A low demand condition required encoding and recognition of single items and a titrated demand condition required the subject to encode and then recognize a larger list of items, with the study list size for each subject adjusted prior to scanning such that recognition accuracy was 75%. We hypothesized that individual differences in cognitive reserve are related to changes in neural activity as subjects moved from the low to the titrated demand task. To test this, we examined the correlation between subjects' fMRI activation and NART scores. This analysis was implemented voxel-wise in a whole brain fMRI dataset. During both the study and test phases of the recognition memory task we noted areas where, across subjects, there were significant positive and negative correlations between change in activation from low to titrated demand and the NART score. These correlations support our hypothesis that neural processing differs across individuals as a function of CR. This differential processing may help explain individual differences in capacity, and may underlie reserve against age-related or other pathologic changes.

  2. 76 FR 2083 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... requirement and sets a course for successful implementation of the goals and objectives of the Reserve. Since... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including standardized futures prices or management's own forecasts. (3) If the registrant provides...) Preparation of reserves estimates or reserves audit. Disclose and describe the internal controls...

  4. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS) or 100...

  5. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    33 Stephen Everett and L. Martin Kaplan, Department of the Army Historical Summary: Fiscal Year 1993, Center of...1992 and 1993, Public Law 102- 190, 102nd Cong. (December 5, 1991): 1352-1353. 35 Dennis Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve...not acronyms. These terms are referenced in Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve Components,” 1-4; 6-9; 11-12. 40 Chapman , “Planning

  6. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    border with Mexico in southern San Diego county as part of project Task Force Grizzly Border Road. In New York’s Operation Straight Shoot, the...1992, which was signed by six states: Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico , Nevada, and Utah. The third such compact was the Southern Regional...Reserve par- ticipated in the 1999 Copa Telemundo, a youth soccer tournament and fiesta for boys age 15 to 19. The Naval Reserve is actively

  7. Reserve Officer Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer andReserve Personnel Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    Cleared for Public Release DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Reserve Officer...Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer and Reserve Personnel Readiness Jennifer Griffin and Michelle Dolfini-Reed April 2017 This work was...performed under Federal Government Contract No. N00014-16-D-5003. Copyright © 2017 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of

  8. Root carbon reserve dynamics in aspen seedlings: does simulated drought induce reserve limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2011-03-01

    In a greenhouse study we quantified the gradual change of gas exchange, water relations and root reserves of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings growing over a 3-month period of severe water stress. The aim of the study was to quantify the complex interrelationship between growth, water and gas exchange, and root carbon (C) dynamics. Various growth, gas exchange and water relations variables in combination with root reserves were measured periodically on seedlings that had been exposed to a continuous drought treatment over a 12-week period and compared with well-watered seedlings. Although gas exchange and water relations parameters significantly decreased over the drought period in aspen seedlings, root reserves did not mirror this trend. During the course of the experiment roots of aspen seedlings growing under severe water stress showed a two orders of magnitude increase in sugar and starch content, and roots of these seedlings contained more starch relative to sugar than those in non-droughted seedlings. Drought resulted in a switch from growth to root reserves storage which indicates a close interrelationship between growth and physiological variables and the accumulation of root carbohydrate reserves. Although a severe 3-month drought period created physiological symptoms of C limitation, there was no indication of a depletion of root C reserve in aspen seedlings.

  9. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-González, Carmina E; Gómez-Ramírez, Miguel A; López-González, Carlos A; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca) population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i) private reserve creation ii) later reserve expansions, and iii) cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively) in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively). Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  10. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  11. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  12. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    with great enthusiasm from all DFR project members who have shown a memorable dedication to their work. Active control of electricity demand is a key technology when creating a more dynamic, wind power friendly energy system. In this demonstration project, we have developed and tested devices, which use...... electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  13. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  14. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  15. Forty Defective Criticisms of Full Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The basics of full reserve banking (FR) are set out below, followed by forty defective criticisms of FR. Each of those forty sections has: 1. A heading. 2. Where the heading does not adequately capture the nature of the criticism, there is a paragraph below the heading starting “I.e…”, which expands on the heading. 3. There are references to one or more economists who have put the relevant criticism. 4. The answer to each criticism which starts with a paragraph beginning with the wo...

  16. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  17. Untangling natural seascape variation from marine reserve effects using a landscape approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Huntington

    Full Text Available Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5x and commercially important biomass (1.75x inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  19. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  20. Engineering, geology hike Black Bayou reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1971-01-04

    New wells drilled in strategic locations, combined with well-engineered attic-oil recovery projects, have added more than 20 million bbl of recoverable oil to Shell Oil Co's reserves in Black Bayou field, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Development wells discover the small reservoirs in the highly faulted field and up dig gas injection assures Shell of getting all the oil possible. A continuous review of the field's geology, constantly updated with information from each new well, contributes to the program's sucess. In the last 10 yr, the combination of reservoir engineering and geology came up with 71 new wells, added 20 million bbl to the field's reserves, and increased production rate from 1,000 to 9,000 bpd. All this from a field that is celebrating its forty-first anniversary. Black Bayou is the oldest Shell-discovered field in Louisiana. It is a piercement-type salt dome with production confined to narrow bands around the periphery of the salt. The dome is bisected by a major NW.-dipping fault, and is further complicated by at least 30 radial faults. There are 26 productive oil sands of sands of Miocene and Oligocene age. Cumulative production from the field as of Nov. 1, 1970, is approx. 34 million bbl oil. Ultimate recovery for the field is estimated at 50 million bbl oil.

  1. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its highest aggregate reserve by taking State A's requirement of 10 against its life insurance business and adding it to State B's requirement of 7 against its annuity business. (b) Reserves required by...) The reasons for the change in basis of such reserve; and (6) Whether such change in the reserve has...

  2. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... waives the penalty for failing to satisfy a liquidity requirement, the Reserve Bank in the District where... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  3. 24 CFR 81.95 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of..., Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars, this subpart H, and procedures established by the...

  4. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  5. 7 CFR 981.51 - Requirements for reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for reserve. 981.51 Section 981.51... Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.51 Requirements for reserve. Each handler may satisfy his reserve... include grade requirements for reserve almonds delivered to human consumption outlets....

  6. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9 Emergency reserve requirement. (a..., additional reserve requirements on depository institutions at any ratio on any liability upon a finding by...

  7. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is separated from civilian service because of ceasing to qualify as a member of a military reserve component...

  8. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  9. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  10. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  11. AMH: An ovarian reserve biomarker in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, C; Fonseca, F L A; Rodart, I F; Cavalcanti, V; Gastaldo, G; Christofolini, D M; Barbosa, C P; Bianco, B

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian reserve tests provide knowledge of a possible response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, allowing management and alteration of treatment protocol with the appropriate dose of gonadotrophin. Several parameters have been used as predictors of ovarian response. The basal FSH serum level on the third day of the menstrual cycle seemed to be the best predictor, but with significant intraindividual variability from one cycle to another. Thus, the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) emerges as a new ovarian test marker. AMH is produced exclusively in the gonads, by the granulosa cells, and plays an important role in folliculogenesis, acting on the modulation of follicular recruitment in the granulosa cells in order to limit the number of recruited oocytes and to regulate the number of growing follicles and their selection for ovulation. It has been suggested that AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and could therefore be capable of predicting the ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos. In this review, we discuss the role of AMH in assisted reproduction outcomes.

  12. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  13. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  14. Beurteilungsmöglichkeiten der ovariellen Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebl O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Überprüfung der Funktionstüchtigkeit der Ovarien ist für die Beratung und Planung einer IVF-Behandlung von besonderer Bedeutung. Die Funktionstüchtigkeit wird im Allgemeinen als ovarielle Reserve bezeichnet. Diese setzt sich aus der Anzahl der im Rahmen einer kontrollierten ovariellen Stimulation gewonnenen Eizellen und der Qualität eben dieser zusammen. Es gibt verschiedene Möglichkeiten, diese zu bestimmen, jedoch keinen Parameter, der beide Kriterien optimal erfüllt. Auch zeigen sich viele Parameter als nicht unabhängig voneinander oder als zu aufwendig für die routinemäßige Verwendung bei Frauen mit Kinderwunsch. Die Kombination einzelner Parameter erlaubt jedoch eine gute Aussage über die zu erwartende Antwort der Ovarien auf eine kontrollierte ovarielle Stimulation und somit die Anpassung der Stimulation.

  15. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans...... %, and reliability 0.97. Agreement with MFR of the LAD territory (n = 35) was without significant bias and overall LOA were (-1.40;1.46). Agreement was best for examinations performed within 1-week of participants without MI of the LAD-territory (n = 12); LOA = (-0.68;0.88). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR was highly feasible...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

  18. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  19. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  20. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  1. World fertilizer nutrient reserves: a view to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixen, Paul E; Johnston, Adrian M

    2012-03-30

    The increasing need for food production in subtropical regions likely translates to a need for additional plant nutrients. As a consequence, knowledge of world fertilizer nutrient reserves is of particular relevance to sustainable agriculture in the subtropics. The stewardship responsibilities of agriculture include the wise use of the raw materials from which commercial fertilizers are produced. Development and implementation of fertilizer best management practices with focus on the 4Rs-right source, right rate, right time, right place-are timely not only for short-term economic and environmental reasons, but also for the wise stewardship of the non-renewable nutrient resources upon which food, feed, fiber, and fuel production depend.

  2. Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick; Cinner, Joshua E; Dalton, Tracey; Daw, Tim M; Forrester, Graham E; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserves are increasingly recognized as having linked social and ecological dynamics. This study investigates how the ecological performance of 56 marine reserves throughout the Philippines, Caribbean, and Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is related to both reserve design features and the socioeconomic characteristics in associated coastal communities. Ecological performance was measured as fish biomass in the reserve relative to nearby areas. Of the socioeconomic variables considered, human population density and compliance with reserve rules had the strongest effects on fish biomass, but the effects of these variables were region specific. Relationships between population density and the reserve effect on fish biomass were negative in the Caribbean, positive in the WIO, and not detectable in the Philippines. Differing associations between population density and reserve effectiveness defy simple explanation but may depend on human migration to effective reserves, depletion of fish stocks outside reserves, or other social factors that change with population density. Higher levels of compliance reported by resource users was related to higher fish biomass in reserves compared with outside, but this relationship was only statistically significant in the Caribbean. A heuristic model based on correlations between social, cultural, political, economic, and other contextual conditions in 127 marine reserves showed that high levels of compliance with reserve rules were related to complex social interactions rather than simply to enforcement of reserve rules. Comparative research of this type is important for uncovering the complexities surrounding human dimensions of marine reserves and improving reserve management.

  3. Estimation of in situ resources, recoverable reserves and marketable reserves from a coal quality perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B.; Whitby, K.; Meyers, A. [A & B Mylec Pty. Ltd., Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    The competitive nature of the coal industry currently has meant that attention to detail in estimating coal resources, and recoverable and marketable reserves is of greater importance now than probably at any other time in the history of the Australian coal industry. This paper describes the mechanisms applied in deriving the best possible resource and reserve estimates in evaulating a coal lease, largely from the coal quality perspective. It attempts to show one way of uniting the geological model of a coal deposit to quality aspects such as in situ density and tonnage and ultimately to the anticipated product coal tonnes. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  5. 19 CFR 111.22 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 111.22 Section 111.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.22...

  6. 49 CFR 172.444 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 172.444 Section 172.444 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.444...

  7. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  8. Standards for Teaching about the Federal Reserve System: An Initiative by Two Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, William D.; Grimes, Paul W.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and St. Louis began a systematic evaluation of their economic and personal finance educational outreach programs. Both banks were interested in developing tools to assess the success of their existing economic and financial education programs. However, before any assessment could begin, a…

  9. Investigating Textbook Reserves: A Case Study of Two Models for Reserves Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Noggle, Stephanie; Rafferty, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the behaviors and preferences of medical and nursing students in relation to their required textbooks and library reserves. The findings are based on an April 2015 survey at the University of Illinois-Chicago satellite Library of the Health Sciences in Urbana, where the library provides access to textbooks through traditional…

  10. Marginal reserves of energy and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveloson, E.A.; Rakotomaria, E. [Universite d`Antananarivo (Madagascar); Gazerian, J.P. [Universite d`Aix-Marseille (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Madagascar is a country which has a variety of energy fields that present limited reserves in quantity and quality. Up till now, these fields were not economically viable. When and how to change this situation? In the classical project management approach, there will not be any chance to drive up the development of these energy fields. Nowadays, the economical crisis is general at a world-wide level, but for each developing country it appears that poverty is closely linked to environmental problems. Drought, starvation, deforestation, intensive migration of population without taking into account the standard constraints of under-development, non existence of roads or of modern agriculture and industry, limitation of financing availability, etc. The preliminary conditions to answer efficiently the common problems of development and of environment should be the reduction of the project size to a reasonable investment, the splitting of the field to a small zones of {open_quotes}development and environment,{close_quotes} identifying the economic potential (agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and consumer centers), then determining the model of energy production adapted to the in situ available raw material. Project management methods and competitive intelligence methods should be combined to find the right solution in due time for the southern part of Madagascar. From the logical framework method, the Logiframe software has been designed to be an efficient tool for developing countries project managers and decision makers to solve the projects integratability problems on behalf of a regional development program.

  11. Measures of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Sobral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve (CR, a hypothetical construct used to obtain information about cognitive aging, describes the capacity of the adult brain to cope with the effects of neurodegenerative processes. This study evaluated CR using a CR questionnaire (CRQ and a set of variables (education, leisure activities, lifelong occupation that inform CR. It also developed a CR index, validated the CRQ, and examined the correlation between the different CR measures.METHODS: Functional and neuropsychological capacities of 75 outpatients (mean age: 80.2 years with a probable AD diagnosis were evaluated. Socio-demographic data and clinical variables were collected. Patients completed two questionnaires: the Participation in Leisure Activities throughout Life questionnaire, and the CRQ.RESULTS: Participants with a greater CR had higher scores in cognitive tests than the elderly with a lower CR. A CR index was developed. CRQ reliability was 0.795 (Cronbach's alpha. There was a close association between the CR Index and the CRQ.CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between CR measures and education, occupation and participation in leisure activities. The CRQ seems to be a suitable instrument to measure CR in Portuguese populations.

  12. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  13. Amyloid positron emission tomography and cognitive reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Bauckneht; Agnese Picco; Flavio Nobili; Silvia Morbelli

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is characterized by a nonlinear progressive course and several aspects influence the relationship between cerebral amount of AD pathology and the clinical expression of the disease. Brain cognitive reserve(CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain damage in order to minimize symptomatology. CR phenomenon contributed to explain the disjunction between the degree of neurodegeneration and the clinical phenotype of AD. The possibility to track brain amyloidosis(Aβ) in vivo has huge relevance for AD diagnosis and new therapeutic approaches. The clinical repercussions of positron emission tomography(PET)-assessed Aβ load are certainly mediated by CR thus potentially hampering the prognostic meaning of amyloid PET in selected groups of patients. Similarly, amyloid PET and cerebrospinal fluid amyloidosis biomarkers have recently provided new evidence for CR. The present review discusses the concept of CR in the framework of available neuroimaging studies and specifically deals with the reciprocal influences between amyloid PET and CR in AD patients and with the potential consequent interventional strategies for AD.

  14. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management for a range of taxa. We recommend that: (i) marine reserves should be more than twice the size of the home

  15. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachadoorian, R.; Crory, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been charged with the responsibility of evaluating the petroleum potential of the national Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). To help fulfill its responsibility, the USGS in February 1977 started an engineering geology program to provide the geotechnical support necessary for the exploration program. The USGS requested the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station (WES) at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) at Hanover, New Hampshire, to conduct studies to obtain the physical parameters required to evaluate and solve some of the geotechnical and engineering problems. All of the NPRA is underlain by permafrost, and thus virtually all of the engineering and geotechnical problems encountered during the construction of the well sites and subsequent drilling were associated with permafrost. The widespread occurrence of permafrost containing large amounts of near-surface ground ice in the form of wedges, masses, and intergranular ice required that construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, because such disturbance could lead to thawing of permafrost. Once the permafrost was thawed, ground subsidence, sediment flow, and impassable conditions would result. Construction problems were compounded by the necessity that all construction in the NPRA be done during the winter months to meet the environmental requirements. Therefore, the engineering geology program consistently addressed the impact of the environment on the facilities and the effect of the facilities on the environment.

  16. 40 CFR 255.33 - Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations. 255.33 Section 255.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Responsibilities of Identified Agencies and Relationship to Other Programs § 255.33 Inclusion of Federal facilities...

  17. Patterns of Marine Corps Reserve Continuation Behavior: Pre- and Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    motivation behavior in the reserves is McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory . McClelland contends that individuals have learned and acquired certain needs...53 1. Human Motivation Theory ...............................................................53 D. SUMMARY...responsibilities are not a detrimental shock to Marine reservists but rather a fulfillment in met expectations. C. PERSONAL FACTORS 1. Human Motivation Theory

  18. How the Reserve Bank of New Zealand manages liquidity for monetary policy implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parekh, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    ... Introduction The implementation of monetary policy is an important part of a central bank's role in the economy. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (the Bank) has a number of responsibilities which include the implementation of monetary policy, the operation of the inter-bank payments and settlements system, and the promotion of a sound and efficient banki...

  19. Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Indicators of Leadership Development in Undergraduate Military Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The selection and retention assessment process is dynamic. Dipboye, Smith, and Howell (1994) argued that the most influential portion of the final hiring process is the result of the interviewer's impression of the applicants. The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program is responsible for selecting, retaining and ultimately hiring…

  20. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Component Members (2015 WGRR). Mr. Tim Markham, mathematical statistician within the Statistical Methods Branch, used the DMDC Sampling Tool to...and the relationship (covariance) between response propensities and the estimated statistics (i.e., sexual assault rate), and takes the following...2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report

  1. Marine ecological reserves research program: research results 1996-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    This is a collection of results of research done through the Marine Ecological Reserves Research Program, a competitive, peer-review research program focusing on the four new marine ecological reserves...

  2. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September 1...

  3. Relaxed resource advance reservation policy in grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; HU Zhi-gang

    2009-01-01

    The advance reservation technique has been widely applied in many grid systems to provide end-to-end quality of service (QoS). However, it will result in low resource utilization rate and high rejection rate when the reservation rate is high. To mitigate these negative effects brought about by advance reservation, a relaxed advance reservation policy is proposed, which allows accepting new reservation requests that overlap the existing reservations under certain conditions. Both the benefits and the risks of the proposed policy are presented theoretically. The experimental results show that the policy can achieve a higher resource utilization rate and lower rejection rate compared to the conventional reservation policy and backfilling technique. In addition, the policy shows better adaptation when the grid systems are in the presence of a high reservation rate.

  4. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas.

  5. Marine Ecology: Reserve Networks Are Necessary, but Not Sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R

    2015-04-20

    New work reveals that the large network of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef is working splendidly. However, bold, global action is needed to eliminate threats that reserves cannot guard against.

  6. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve... accordance with the annual marketing policy and with § 930.54....

  7. Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, J.T.; Kammerer, P.A.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, were investigated during the period October 1981 through September 1987. The report presents baseline data and some interpretation of ground- and surface-water hydrology and quality of the Reservation.

  8. The petroleum reserves: a peak oil or a plate?; Les reserves de petrole: pic ou plateau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-09-15

    With 1100 to 1200 Gbl of proved petroleum reserves, the world can still consume petroleum for 35 to 40 years; if we add 1000 to 1200 Gbl of reserves potentially recoverable and if the politico economical conditions allow it, it is 35 supplementary years that can be considered. In this context and while hydrocarbons will still represent 50% of the world 'energetic mixing' in 2030, the production capacity will reach its maximum at about 100 Mbl/day in 2020-2030 with a potential problem in 2015 due to the investment delays resulting of the crisis. Nevertheless, the detection, exploitation and disposal of these resources will imply non only gigantic investments (about 6000 milliards of dollars from now to 2030) but advanced experts and technologies too. (O.M.)

  9. Development and Status of Forestry Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The primary conservation objective in China is to establish nature reserves to protect biological resources and natural heritage, protect ecosystems which are of global importance or have unique regional features, protect endangered and threatened species and their habitat, and safeguard the genetic resources. By 2000, the number of nature reserves increased to 1,276, while at the same time, the total area protected in nature reserves was up to 123 million ha. Of the total number of reserves, 908 sites ...

  10. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  11. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  12. International Reserve Holdings with Sovereign Risk and Costly Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Nancy P. Marion

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the international reserve-holding behavior of developing countries. It shows that political-economy considerations modify the optimal reserve level determined by efficiency criteria. A country characterized by volatile output, inelastic demand for fiscal outlays, high tax collection costs and sovereign risk will want to accumulate international reserves as well as external debt. Efficiency considerations imply that reserves are optimal when the benefits they provide for in...

  13. VO2 Reserve vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Tanner J; Keller, Brad G; Fountaine, Charles J

    VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. During which VO2 and HR were monitored to determine max values. Upon completion of the maximal test, calculations were made to determine the % grade expected to yield approximately 50% of the subjects VO2R. Subjects then returned to complete the submaximal test (50%R) at least two days later. The %VO2R and %HRR were calculated and compared to the predicted value as well as to each other. Statistical analysis revealed that VO2 at 50%R was significantly greater than the actual VO2 achieved, p VO2 could be more accurately predicted than HR during moderate intensity exercise. The weak correlation between VO2R and HRR indicates that caution should be used when relying on a HR to determine VO2.

  14. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  15. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of stock on merger or change in location—(1) Merger of member banks in the same Federal Reserve... any Reserve Bank's capital stock in any calendar year, unless the Board waives these requirements. ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3...

  16. 75 FR 9093 - Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... CFR Part 201 Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... primary credit rate at each Federal Reserve Bank. ] The secondary credit rate at each Reserve Bank automatically increased by formula as a result of the Board's primary credit rate action. DATES: The...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve requirement. 615.5134 Section... requirement. (a) Each Farm Credit bank must maintain a liquidity reserve, discounted in accordance with... and other borrowings of the bank at all times. The liquidity reserve may only be funded from...

  18. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... institutions are Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  20. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  1. 12 CFR 811.1 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 811.1 Section 811.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.1 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized, in accordance with...

  2. 39 CFR 761.2 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 761.2 Section 761.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.2 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby...

  3. 18 CFR 1314.3 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Banks. 1314.3 Section 1314.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES FOR TVA POWER SECURITIES ISSUED THROUGH THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.3 Authority of Reserve Banks. (a) Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of TVA to perform the...

  4. 50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tortugas marine reserves. 640.26 Section... Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited within the Tortugas marine reserves: Fishing for any species and anchoring by fishing vessels. (a) EEZ portion of...

  5. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  6. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice...

  7. 24 CFR 904.111 - Nonroutine Maintenance Reserve (NRMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the annual reserve requirement, and (3) show the total reserve requirements for all the listed items... reserve requirements for 90 days the LHA shall invest the excess in federally insured savings accounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroutine Maintenance...

  8. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve pool requirements. 985.57 Section 985.57... Reserve pool requirements. (a) On November 1, or such other date as the Committee, with the approval of the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in...

  9. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad debts. (a) Allowance of deduction. A taxpayer who has established the reserve method of treating...

  10. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727... Construction Landing Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in § 23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests, the drop height may not be...

  11. 78 FR 26617 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  12. 78 FR 53732 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  13. Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS BY...PROJECT SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS by Lieutenant Colonel Roy...Colonel Roy M. Jewell TITLE: Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems FORMAT: Strategy Research

  14. Integrating power and reserve trade in electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; Noot, H.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In power markets, the trade of reserve energy will become more important as more intermittent generation is traded. In this work, we propose a novel bidding mechanism for the integration of power and reserve markets. It adds expressivity to reserve bids and facilitates planning.

  15. 76 FR 77229 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  16. 78 FR 62633 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  17. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  18. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will...

  19. 32 CFR 101.4 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PARTICIPATION IN RESERVE TRAINING PROGRAMS § 101.4 Responsibilities. The Secretaries of the Military Departments... Reserve training programs by members of Reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and exceptions...

  20. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    contribute to the total amount of Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) required by TSOs, reserves which are released during transients. To realize this PVPPs have to operate below their maximum available power and operate in Frequency Sensitive Mode (FSM). The reserve can also be used to fulfill future grid...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...... codes (GCs) requirements such as Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) during high slopes of irradiance....

  1. [Cognitive reserve and neuronal changes associated with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    The severity of brain lesions is not a perfect predictor of the severity of cognitive deficits in age-related brain disorders, an observation which has led to the cognitive reserve hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, cognitive reserve modulates the relationship between cerebral lesions and their clinical manifestations by limiting the negative impact of cerebral lesions on cognition. Thus, individuals with high cognitive reserve could sustain a greater amount of neuropathological lesions before they reach the criteria for dementia. The goal of this review is to present and discuss the notion of cognitive reserve, a hypothesis that brings a novel perspective to the complexity of normal and pathological cognitive aging. The present article describes the neuronal mechanisms proposed to underlie cognitive reserve and the factors that increase and decrease reserve. In addition, influent studies that have measured the cognitive reserve hypothesis in clinical populations are presented.

  2. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance.

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of marine reserves on unsustainably harvested long-lived sessile invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim; Hereu, Bernat; Diaz, David; Marschal, Christian; Sala, Enric; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-02-01

    Although the rapid recovery of fishes after establishment of a marine reserve is well known, much less is known about the response of long-lived, sessile, benthic organisms to establishment of such reserves. Since antiquity, Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) has been harvested intensively for use in jewelry, and its distribution is currently smaller than its historical size throughout the Mediterranean Sea. To assess whether establishment of marine reserves is associated with a change in the size and number of red coral colonies that historically were not harvested sustainably, we analyzed temporal changes in mean colony diameter and density from 1992 to 2005 within red coral populations at different study sites in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (established in 1992) and in adjacent unprotected areas. Moreover, we compared colony size in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve, where recreational diving is allowed and poaching has been observed after reserve establishment, with colony size in three other marine protected areas (Banyuls, Carry-le-Rouet, and Scandola) with the enforced prohibition of fishing and diving. At the end of the study, the size of red coral colonies at all sampling sites in the Medes Islands was significantly smaller than predicted by growth models and smaller than those in marine protected areas without fishing and diving. The annual number of recreational dives and the percent change in the basal diameter of red coral colonies were negatively correlated, which suggests that abrasion by divers may increase the mortality rates of the largest red coral colonies within this reserve . Our study is the first quantitative assessment of a poaching event, which was detected during our monitoring in 2002, inside the marine reserve. Poaching was associated with a loss of approximately 60% of the biomass of red coral colonies.

  4. 1984 Survey of National Guard and Reserve Members: Description and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 122 b TELEPHONE (lncludl Area Code) 1 22, OFFICE SYMBOL "nr+nag Ayn c~wo.r I I2~.4AI S41 1 iI~ .- DO FORM 1473, 84...items. The 1979 Reserve Force Studies Surveys (Doering, Grissmer, & Hawes, 1981)1 was completed by the Rand Corporation under the general sponsorship...Design, Sample Design and Administrative Procedures," The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA: 1981. 5 (Manpower Reserve Affairs and Logistics). This survey

  5. Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS, analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18-64 years and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years. All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77. No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611, and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = -2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07 and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33. Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898. In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish-Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009, sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000, short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002 and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018, Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027 and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029. No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05. The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence.

  6. Dynamic changes in the leaf proteome of a C3 xerophyte, Citrullus lanatus (wild watermelon), in response to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hoshiyasu, Saki; Inagaki, Naoyuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2011-05-01

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a xerophyte native to the Kalahari Desert, Africa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in this plant, we examined changes in the proteome in response to water deficit. Wild watermelon leaves showed decreased transpiration and a concomitant increase in leaf temperature under water deficit conditions. Comparison of the proteome of stressed plants with that of unstressed plants by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the intensity of 40 spots increased in response to the stress, and the intensity of 11 spots decreased. We positively identified 23 stress-induced and 6 stress-repressed proteins by mass spectrometry and database analyses. Interestingly, 15 out of the 23 up-regulated proteins (65% of annotated up-regulated proteins) were heat shock proteins (HSPs). Especially, 10 out of the 15 up-regulated HSPs belonged to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family. Other stress-induced proteins included those related to antioxidative defense and carbohydrate metabolism. Fifteen distinct cDNA sequences encoding the sHSP were characterized from wild watermelon. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the representative sHSP genes revealed strong transcriptional up-regulation in the leaves under water deficit. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed that protein abundance of sHSPs was massively increased under water deficit. Overall, these observations suggest that the defense response of wild watermelon may involve orchestrated regulation of a diverse array of functional proteins related to cellular defense and metabolism, of which HSPs may play a pivotal role on the protection of the plant under water deficit in the presence of strong light.

  7. Characteristics of sediment particle size and their response to storm surge in the Zhanjiang Mangrove Nature Reserve%湛江红树林保护区现代沉积物粒度特征及其对风暴事件的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 王拓夫

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove forest sediment in different landforms reflects different hydrodynamic conditions because of the different sedimentary environments and different sediment particle size characteristics. Mangroves in different stages of development have different ability to resist the effects of waves; therefore, there are mangrove sedimentary records of storm surge. There has been little research on the particle size characteristics of mangrove sediment in coastal wetlands. In this work, surface sediment samples were collected in the Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve in August, 2009, and then analyzed using a Mastersizer 2000 ( analysis range of 0.02 to 2 000 μm).The Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve has a wide mangrove distribution; in this study, different geomorphic units of mangrove sediment particle size characteristics are analyzed. The mangrove sediment in the estuary is mainly composed of well-sorted silt and clay. The mangrove sediment in the bay is mainly composed of silt,but a sediment section at the Gaoqiao sampling site has high sand content. There are two possible reasons for this:one is that the region experienced a strong storm surge disaster in that period of sedimentation, which resulted in an instant rise in the water level and brought much coarse sand to be accumulated; and the other is that the region at that time was unvegetated beach in an intertidal zone without mangrove protection or with only poorly developed mangrove protection, and the sediment is normal tidal flat sand. Different particle grades and changes in clay, silt and sand contents at the Tongming sampling site can reflect the history of local sangrove development. Dating sediment using the average deposition rate can indicate the approximate time that the storm surge occurred and provide an important theoretical foundation and method for systematic research on sediment in the mangrove wetlands. Analysis shows that from 1963 to 2002, the timing of the storm surge is

  8. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  9. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm, and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53% in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  10. Marine reserve design theory for species with ontogenetic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Models for marine reserve design have been developed primarily with 'reef fish' life histories in mind: sedentary adults in patches connected by larval dispersal. However, many fished species undertake ontogenetic migrations, such as from nursery grounds to adult spawning habitats, and current theory does not fully address the range of reserve options posed by that situation. I modelled a generic species with ontogenetic migration to investigate the possible benefits of reserves under three alternative scenarios. First, the fishery targets adult habitat, and reserves can sustain yields under high exploitation, unless habitat patches are well connected. Second, the fishery targets the nursery, and reserves are highly effective, regardless of connectivity patterns. Third, the fishery targets both habitats, and reserves only succeed if paired on adjacent, well-connected nursery and adult patches. In all cases, reserves can buffer populations against overexploitation but would not enhance fishery yield beyond that achievable by management without reserves. These results summarize the general situations in which management using reserves could be useful for ontogenetically migrating species, and the type of connectivity data needed to inform reserve design.

  11. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  12. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  13. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  14. Spillover effects of a community-managed marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marques da Silva

    Full Text Available The value of no-take marine reserves as fisheries-management tools is controversial, particularly in high-poverty areas where human populations depend heavily on fish as a source of protein. Spillover, the net export of adult fish, is one mechanism by which no-take marine reserves may have a positive influence on adjacent fisheries. Spillover can contribute to poverty alleviation, although its effect is modulated by the number of fishermen and fishing intensity. In this study, we quantify the effects of a community-managed marine reserve in a high poverty area of Northern Mozambique. For this purpose, underwater visual censuses of reef fish were undertaken at three different times: 3 years before (2003, at the time of establishment (2006 and 6 years after the marine reserve establishment (2012. The survey locations were chosen inside, outside and on the border of the marine reserve. Benthic cover composition was quantified at the same sites in 2006 and 2012. After the reserve establishment, fish sizes were also estimated. Regression tree models show that the distance from the border and the time after reserve establishment were the variables with the strongest effect on fish abundance. The extent and direction of the spillover depends on trophic group and fish size. Poisson Generalized Linear Models show that, prior to the reserve establishment, the survey sites did not differ but, after 6 years, the abundance of all fish inside the reserve has increased and caused spillover of herbivorous fish. Spillover was detected 1 km beyond the limit of the reserve for small herbivorous fishes. Six years after the establishment of a community-managed reserve, the fish assemblages have changed dramatically inside the reserve, and spillover is benefitting fish assemblages outside the reserve.

  15. Rethinking Fast Growth in China's Foreign Exchange Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Wang

    2006-01-01

    The sustained surpluses in the current and capital accounts of balance of payments are the main reason for the continuing rapid expanse of China's foreign exchange reserves in recent years. However, flaws in the formation of the renminbi exchange rate regime are the institutional root cause of the sustained high growth in foreign exchange reserves. Various theoretical misconceptions about the scale of foreign exchange reserves have swayed policies and contributed to its sustained fast growth. Sustained high growth of China's foreign exchange reserves, and its extraordinary large scale, carry tremendous risks.Because the security of foreign exchange reserves affects a country's financial safety, China urgently needs to adjust its foreign exchange reserve policies.

  16. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...... imbalances caused due to high penetration of wind power. An algorithm is proposed and developed to estimate the power imbalances due to wind power forecast error following activation of different operating reserves. Frequency containment reserve requirements for mitigating these power imbalances...... are developed through this methodology. Furthermore, the probability of reducing this frequency containment reserve requirement is investigated through this methodology with activation of different volumes and speed of frequency restoration reserve. Wind power generation for 2020 and 2030 scenarios...

  17. Analyzing the layout of China's strategic petroleum reserve base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    With the development of China's economy, its dependence on foreign oil increases every year. Therefore, oil reserves play a vital role in ensuring China's energy security. The selection of a base site for the construction of strategic oil reserves is a priority. This study analyzes the status quo as well as future development trends for oil processing conditions, pipeline transportation conditions, consumption and production in the base radiation area, crude oil loading and unloading capacity of the port, reserve modes, and other factors. Preliminary planning of the spatial layout of the petroleum strategic reserve base is also detailed in this study. Strategic oil reserve bases can be positioned at the Pearl River Delta, the crude oil pipelines of Central and Southwest China and the large refineries and locations near the crude oil port terminals. Meanwhile, ground and underground reserve modes should be combined.

  18. Reserves and Valuation using Multiples for Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the effect of oil and gas reserve increases on firm market value. The estimates are based on Olson’s market value prediction model – that nests the multiples P/E (price-earnings, P/B (price-book value and in the oil industry, the P/R (price-reserves ratio. Reserves are an important characteristic of these firms, but they are not part of equity under usual accounting practices. Using data from firms listed on NYMEX, the results suggest that reserves are positively correlated with firm equity market price. Yet, reserve increases without profit or equity expansions will be penalized by the market, if the reserve increases do not boost profits or the book value of the firm. The evaluation using price multiples appears inefficient, as earnings (or equity and price proportionality is rejected in our empirical model.

  19. Marine reserves lag behind wilderness in the conservation of key functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'agata, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David; Wantiez, Laurent; Friedlander, Alan M; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent

    2016-06-29

    Although marine reserves represent one of the most effective management responses to human impacts, their capacity to sustain the same diversity of species, functional roles and biomass of reef fishes as wilderness areas remains questionable, in particular in regions with deep and long-lasting human footprints. Here we show that fish functional diversity and biomass of top predators are significantly higher on coral reefs located at more than 20 h travel time from the main market compared with even the oldest (38 years old), largest (17,500 ha) and most restrictive (no entry) marine reserve in New Caledonia (South-Western Pacific). We further demonstrate that wilderness areas support unique ecological values with no equivalency as one gets closer to humans, even in large and well-managed marine reserves. Wilderness areas may therefore serve as benchmarks for management effectiveness and act as the last refuges for the most vulnerable functional roles.

  20. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Chollett

    Full Text Available Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1 recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2 using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3 including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4 assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  1. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Enríquez, Susana; Mumby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1) recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2) using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3) including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4) assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  2. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  3. Closing the gap in reserves replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A compilation of extended abstracts are provided. Abstract titles listed: The Norwegian continental shelf- future exploration potential; stratigraphic traps - learning and mapping techniques from Ringhorn West - Norwegian North Sea; depth migration of electromagnetic seabed logging data; acquisition independent 3D SRME by wave field modelling; seismic attenuation and hybrid attributes to reduce exploration risk - North Sea case study; the role of rock physics in oil and gas exploration. Linking geological processes, seismic amplitudes and electromagnetic data in the next generation exploration work flows; oil discovery in PL281, deep water Norwegian Sea; towards a second exploration well; seismic mapping of reservoir quality on ultra far offsets; examples from the Njord Field, offshore Norway; long offset simultaneous inversion for seismic reservoir characterization - a case study: the Gryphon Field; case studies in advanced multiple removal; volume model building - a hierarchical segmentation approach; 3D PP/PS pre stack depth migration on the Volve Field; re-developing Europe's largest onshore oil field: how to justify new 3D seismic for the Schoonebeek; reservoir characterization on the Goliat Field: the use of integrated well-driven seismic processing and inversion; efficient RD in geophysics through partnership with academia, service companies and oil companies; 3D high-resolution V{sub p}/V{sub s} inversion of 4C seismic: application in processing, exploration and reservoir characterization; high-resolution reservoir characterization through AVA joint inversion of partially stacked seismic amplitude data and well logs: application to deep water hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Central Gulf of Mexico; depletion induces stresses and strain - a broad perspective; real time update of a reservoir property model in geo steering applications; modelling the seismic response to production: a closer look at the sensitivity to overburden, survey, rock physics model

  4. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  5. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  6. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorenza Micheli; Andrea Saenz-Arroyo; Ashley Greenley; Leonardo Vazquez; Jose Antonio Espinoza Montes; Marisa Rossetto; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine pop...

  7. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    requirements through maximizing the strengths of each component, maintain relevancy for the Active, Guard and Reserve , and cost savings. The...water faucet. The faucet cannot be turned on to meet ever changing requirements for reserve manning and turned off when those demands are met. The...Senior leadership has advocated for integrating the active and reserve forces to maximize capabilities and execute the mission in a more efficient, cost

  8. Mental Health Among Reserve Component Military Service Members and Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gregory H.; Fink, David S.; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset of psychiatric disorders among reserve component forces and a meta-analysis of prevalence est...

  9. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  10. Measuring the policy effects of changes in reserve requirement ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph H. Haslag; Scott E. Hein

    1995-01-01

    The monetary base is the sum of high-powered money and an adjustment factor that measures changes in reserve requirement ratios. This adjustment factor is calculated so that it responds to changes in deposit levels in addition to changes in reserve requirements. Consequently, researchers and policymakers using the monetary base are seeing a mixture of changes implemented through open market operations, discount window borrowings, and reserve requirements, together with nonpolicy actions actin...

  11. Răspunsul comparativ al fagului şi stejarului la secetă în Rezervaţia Naturală Codrii (R. Moldova [Comparative response of beech and oak to drought in Codrii Natural Reserve (R. Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ionel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is main climatic risk factor in Republic of Moldova with major effects on economic and ecologic level. Regional climatic models indicate for Moldova an increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation during the summer in the future decades. We evaluated the response of beech and oak to cumulative water deficit using SPEI index at different time scales. Results of climate-growth correlations indicate a higher sensitivity of beech to drought comparing with oak. Maximum correlation for beech is observed at 18-20 month SPEI scale (0.60 and for oak at time scale of 12-18 month, but lower (0.45. Earlywood growth index of oak are low correlated with SPEI. Oak, a more tolerant drought species, is more adapted compared with beech under the forescasted climatic changes in this region.

  12. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  13. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  14. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  15. Relationship Among Reserve Ratio, Government Spending and Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Sheng-Wu

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among reserve ration, government spending and economic growth was analyzed. A monetary endogenous growth model is well developed by taking into account the growth-enhancing effects of reserve-augmenting seigniorage. If the government spends all the seigniorage revenue on the provision of a public input which has positive externality on the private sector's production, some results to be utterly different from Bronx's have been obtained: the economy has a unique saddle-balanced growth path, but it has nothing to do with reserve ratio. However, the higher reserve ratio, the faster speed of economic convergence.

  16. Study on Disturbances and Its Effects on Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linying; Zhou Yongzhang; Xu Songjun

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon,disturbances are considered a discrete event occurring in a natural ecosystem within various spatial and temporal scales. The present paper discusses the types of disturbances and their influence on the ecologic system in nature reserves. It is shown that nature reserves are facing a great challenge dealing with these disturbances.A rational control for disturbances should be improved in order to promote the healthy development of nature reserves this could be done by enhancing the publicity and training of environment protection, coupling management. with communities around and other nature reserves, effective management methods, rational planning, and supporting nature servers.

  17. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  18. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  19. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  20. POLYPHENOLS DISTRIBUTION AND RESERVE SUBSTANCES ANALYSIS IN CACAO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Gallego Rúa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE in the two cacao varieties. The study showed that, in somatic embryos of the regenerating variety, polyphenols were localized mainly in the periphery of the embryo (epidermal cells and proteins were the main storage substance in the embryo expression medium, while the non-regenerating variety had a high presence of polysaccharides with random distribution of polyphenols at the end of the embryo induction step.Análisis de distribución de polifenoles y sustancias de reserva en embriogénesis somática de cacaoRESUMENDos variedades de cacao con diferentes respuestas a la regeneración fueron descritas en función de su capacidad para almacenar diferentes compuestos, con el fin de aproximarse al entendimiento de las causas de la falta de regeneración en embriones somáticos de cacao. Es bien sabido que las reservas de semillas desempeñan un papel central en la capacidad de regeneración de embriones somáticos; por tanto, se realizó un seguimiento de cambios histoquímicos y fluctuaciones de reserva de proteínas, polisacáridos y polifenoles durante la embriogénesis somática (SE en dos variedades de cacao. El estudio mostró que, en los embriones somáticos de la variedad regenerante, los polifenoles se localizaron principalmente en la periferia del embrión (células de la epidermis y las proteínas fueron el componente principal de almacenamiento en el medio de expresión de embriones, mientras que la variedad no regenerante tenía una alta presencia de polisac

  1. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Lehmann

    Full Text Available Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  2. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monika B; Funston, Paul J; Owen, Cailey R; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2) Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  3. Cognitive Reserve Modifies Age-Related Alterations in CSF Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Boots, Elizabeth A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Gleason, Carey E.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Sager, Mark; Hermann, Bruce P.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Carlsson, Cindy; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Although advancing age is the strongest risk factor for the development of symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), recent studies have shown that there are individual differences in susceptibility to age-related alterations in the biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. Objective In this study, we investigated whether cognitive reserve modifies the adverse influence of age on key cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional cohort of 268 individuals (211 cognitively normal and 57 cognitively impaired) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention and the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center participated in this study. They underwent lumbar puncture for collection of CSF samples, from which amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were immunoassayed. Additionally, we computed t-tau/Aβ42 and p-tau/Aβ42 ratios. Cognitive reserve was indexed by years of education, with ≥16 years taken to confer high reserve. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the effect of age on CSF biomarkers was modified by cognitive reserve. Main outcome measures CSF levels of Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau, t-tau/Aβ42, and p-tau/Aβ42. Results There were significant age*cognitive reserve interactions for CSF t-tau (p=.019), p-tau (p=.009), t-tau/Aβ42 (p=.021), and p-tau/Aβ42 (p=.004). Specifically, with advancing age, individuals with high cognitive reserve exhibited attenuated adverse alterations in these CSF biomarkers compared with individuals with low cognitive reserve. This attenuation of age effects by cognitive reserve tended to be more pronounced in the cognitively-impaired group compared with the cognitively-normal group. Lastly, there was modest evidence of a dose response relationship such that the effect of age on the biomarkers was progressively attenuated given additional years of schooling. Conclusions and Relevance In a sample comprised of both cognitively

  4. A prospective study on role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on improving the ovarian reserve markers in infertile patients with poor ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Zangmo, Rinchen; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, K K; Sharma, J B; Malhotra, Neena; Vanamail, Perumal

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on the ovarian reserve markers in infertile patients who were poor responders in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A prospective clinical trial was conducted on 30 patients with history of poor response in previous IVF cycles. These patients were treated with DHEA, (Tab Eema-D, Corona Remedies Pvt Ltd., Ahmedabad, Gujurat, India) 25 mg thrice a day for four months. Ovarian stimulation was done using the previous protocol. Clinical parameters were measured before and treatment with DHEA. Results were analysed using Student's "t" paired test. DHEA resulted in a significant increase (p 38 years). Peak estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration also increased significantly (p DHEA has a significant effect in improving the ovarian reserve in poor responders with previously failed IVF cycles. It can help in enhancing clinical pregnancy rate in these patients.

  5. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  6. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  7. Defense Health Care: DOD Lacks Assurance That Selected Reserve Members Are Informed about TRICARE Reserve Select

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    examinations related to vision care, dental care, and pregnancy tests or other gynecological examinations hDiabetes mellitus comprises a group of...heterogeneous disorders that have an increase in blood glucose concentrations. The current classifications for diabetes mellitus Types 1 through 4...responsibilities for TRS education include developing annual communication plans, providing briefings to unit commanders, and publishing articles

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  9. Variable-Speed Wind Power Plant Operating With Reserve Power Capability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Muljadi, E.; Ela, E.

    2013-10-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response. Wind turbine generators with this capability can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governorresponse, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserves, ready to be accessed as needed. In this paper, we explore several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. The focus of this paper is on doubly-fed induction generator (also known as Type 3) and full-converter (also known as Type 4) windturbines.

  10. The ecological response of fern diversity to different slopes in Gudoushan Nature Reserve,Guangdong%坡向差异对广东古兜山自然保护区蕨类植物多样性的生态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严岳鸿; 何祖霞; 苑虎; 邢福武

    2011-01-01

    为揭示坡向差异对蕨类植物多样性的生态影响,作者在广东新会古兜山自然保护区海拔1,000 m以下的中低山植被东、南、西、北4个坡向,分别选取10个5 m×5 m的样方进行调查,分析蕨类植物群落多样性和种类组成的差异.结果表明:(1)东坡(半阴坡)与北坡(阴坡)物种多样性最丰富,而西坡(半阳坡)和南坡(阳坡)相对贫乏;(2)4个坡向的相似性系数均很低(不超过0.5),其中南坡(阳坡)与北坡(阴坡)间种类组成差异最大;(3)反映热量差异的区系地理性质分析显示,热带性质蕨类植物在阳坡占优势,而非热带性蕨类在阴坡占优势,南坡、西坡、东坡、北坡的热带成分比例依次下降;(4)反映光照条件的植物耐荫程度分析显示,阴性种类占优势,阳性和耐荫性种类较少,其阴性蕨类植物的比例依南坡、西坡、东坡、北坡顺序增加;阳性蕨类植物比例最高的坡面是西坡,而最低的是东坡.南坡的比例稍高于北坡.研究结果显示坡向差异对蕨类植物物种及其生态习性的多样性分布格局具有比较明显的影响,蕨类植物多样性可以作为环境和气候变化的一个较好的指示物种.%In order to examine the effect of slope differences on fern diversity, we chose 10 plots (5×5 m2 for each plot) on east-, west-, south-, and north-facing slopes, with altitudes ranging from 20 to 986 m in Gudoushan Nature Reserve, Xinhui, Guangdong, China. We obtained the following results: (1) Species abundance on the east- and north-facing slopes were high, while that on the west- and south-facing slopes were low. (2) Similarity indices of ferns in different slope orientations were low (<0.5), which suggested that orientation significantly influenced fern diversity. The difference between the south- and north-facing slopes (similarity index, 0.2895) and the similarity between west- and south-facing slopes (similarity indices, up to 0.4643) were the most

  11. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  12. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  14. 49 CFR 392.51 - Reserve fuel; materials of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve fuel; materials of trade. 392.51 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Fueling Precautions § 392.51 Reserve fuel; materials of trade. Small amounts of... Group II (including gasoline), Packing Group III (including aviation fuel and fuel oil), or ORM-D,...

  15. 1 CFR 21.12 - Reservation of numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of numbers. 21.12 Section 21.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND... Reservation of numbers. In a case where related parts or related sections are grouped under a heading,...

  16. 24 CFR 201.32 - Insurance coverage reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lender's reserve account to accompany the loan transfers reported by lenders under § 201.30. (1) In all... coverage for the loan under the applicable requirements of this paragraph. (d) Recovery shall not affect... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage reserve account...

  17. 12 CFR 965.3 - Liquidity reserves for deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserves for deposits. 965.3 Section 965.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.3 Liquidity reserves for deposits. Each Bank shall at all times have at least an...

  18. When is spillover from marine reserves likely to benefit fisheries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Colin D; Hartmann, Klaas; Kearney, Robert; Gardner, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    The net movement of individuals from marine reserves (also known as no-take marine protected areas) to the remaining fishing grounds is known as spillover and is frequently used to promote reserves to fishers on the grounds that it will benefit fisheries. Here we consider how mismanaged a fishery must be before spillover from a reserve is able to provide a net benefit for a fishery. For our model fishery, density of the species being harvested becomes higher in the reserve than in the fished area but the reduction in the density and yield of the fished area was such that the net effect of the closure was negative, except when the fishery was mismanaged. The extent to which effort had to exceed traditional management targets before reserves led to a spillover benefit varied with rates of growth and movement of the model species. In general, for well-managed fisheries, the loss of yield from the use of reserves was less for species with greater movement and slower growth. The spillover benefit became more pronounced with increasing mis-management of the stocks remaining available to the fishery. This model-based result is consistent with the literature of field-based research where a spillover benefit from reserves has only been detected when the fishery is highly depleted, often where traditional fisheries management controls are absent. We conclude that reserves in jurisdictions with well-managed fisheries are unlikely to provide a net spillover benefit.

  19. 12 CFR 998.3 - Reservation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of authority. 998.3 Section 998.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DISCLOSURES REGISTRATION OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK EQUITY SECURITIES § 998.3 Reservation of authority. The requirements of this...

  20. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recognized mortality or morbidity tables and assumed rates of interest; (2) Which are set aside to mature or..., regardless of the rate of interest (if any) specified in the contract in respect of such reserves. (d... to law as guaranty or reserve funds, and (2) Any funds maintained, under the charter or articles of...

  1. 38 CFR 11.81 - Rediscounts with Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reserve Banks. 11.81 Section 11.81 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS LOANS BY BANKS ON AND PAYMENT OF ADJUSTED SERVICE CERTIFICATES Loans by Banks on Adjusted Service... Reserve Banks. Upon the endorsement of any bank, which shall be deemed a waiver of demand, notice...

  2. 50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tortugas marine reserves. 654.28 Section 654.28 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited within the Tortugas marine...

  3. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE TECHNICAL RESERVES OF INSURANCE ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation, increase, release and reduction of technical reserves are accounting transactions that are only found in insurance companies. Technical reserves are established for each line of insurance as special funds so that the stability and solvency of insurance companies are not affected.

  4. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  5. 47 CFR 80.917 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... during charging. (g) The cooling system of each internal combustion engine used as a part of the reserve... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.917 Reserve...

  6. 7 CFR 930.55 - Primary inventory reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary inventory reserves. 930.55 Section 930.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.55 Primary inventory reserves. (a) Whenever the Secretary has fixed the free...

  7. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The Federal Reserve System discussed: a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vanthoor, W.F.W.

    2000-01-01

    In the first half of 2000 the authors of this paper visited the twelve District Reserve Banks in the United States which was followed by a discussion at the Board in Washington. The aim of this visit was to get a deeper insight into the working of the American Federal Reserve System in order to see

  9. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  10. Possibilities and limits of ovarian reserve testing in ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Argento, Cindy; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Grisendi, Valentina; Carbone, Marilena; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Artenisio, Alfredo Carducci; Stabile, Gaspare; Volpe, Annibale

    2012-03-01

    Markers of ovarian reserve are associated with ovarian aging as they decline with chronologic age, and hence may predict stages of reproductive aging including the menopause transition. Assessment of ovarian reserve include measurement of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-M�llerian hormone (AMH), and inhibin-B. Ultrasound determination of antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian vascularity and ovarian volume also can have a role. The clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT), exogenous FSH ovarian reserve test (EFORT), and GnRH-agonist stimulation test (GAST) are dynamic methods that have been used in the past to assess ovarian reserve. In infertile women, ovarian reserve markers can be used to predict low and high oocyte yield and treatment failure in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. However the markers may have limitations when an in depth analysis of their accuracy, cost, convenience, and utility is performed. As ovarian reserve markers may permit the identification of both the extremes of ovarian stimulation, a possible role for their measurement may be in the individualization of treatment strategies in order to reduce the clinical risk of ART along with optimized treatment burden. It is fundamental to clarify the cost/benefit of its use in the ovarian reserve testing before initiation of an IVF cycle and whether the ovarian reserve markers-determined strategy of ovarian stimulation for assisted conception may be associated to improved live birth rate.

  11. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), the Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation is...) The provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation....

  12. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  13. 5 CFR 317.402 - Career reserved positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Career reserved positions. 317.402 Section 317.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Qualifications Standards § 317.402 Career reserved positions....

  14. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma.

  16. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  17. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  18. Mental health among reserve component military service members and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gregory H; Fink, David S; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset of psychiatric disorders among reserve component forces and a meta-analysis of prevalence estimates comparing reserve component and active component forces, and we documented stage-sequential drivers of psychiatric burden among reserve component forces. We identified 27 reports from 19 unique samples published between 1985 and 2012: 9 studies reporting on the reserve component alone and 10 reporting on both the reserve component and the active component. The pooled prevalence for alcohol use disorders of 14.5% (95% confidence interval: 12.7, 15.2) among the reserve component was higher than that of 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 10.9, 12.6) among the active component, while there were no component differences for depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. We observed substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates reported by the reserve component. Published studies suggest that stage-sequential risk factors throughout the deployment cycle predicted alcohol use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and, to a lesser degree, depression. Improved and more standardized documentation of the mental health burden, as well as study of explanatory factors within a life-course framework, is necessary to inform mitigating strategies and to reduce psychiatric burden among reserve component forces.

  19. Asymptotic Analysis of a Loss Model with Trunk Reservation I: Trunks Reserved for Fast Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Morrison

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model for a single link in a circuit-switched network. The link has C circuits, and the input consists of offered calls of two types, that we call primary and secondary traffic. Of the C links, R are reserved for primary traffic. We assume that both traffic types arrive as Poisson arrival streams. Assuming that C is large and R=O(1, the arrival rate of primary traffic is O(C, while that of secondary traffic is smaller, of the order O(C. The holding times of the primary calls are assumed to be exponentially distributed with unit mean. Those of the secondary calls are exponentially distributed with a large mean, that is, O(C. Thus, the primary calls have fast arrivals and fast service, compared to the secondary calls. The loads for both traffic types are comparable (O(C, and we assume that the system is “critically loaded”; that is, the system's capacity is approximately equal to the total load. We analyze asymptotically the steady state probability that n1 (resp., n2 circuits are occupied by primary (resp., secondary calls. In particular, we obtain two-term asymptotic approximations to the blocking probabilities for both traffic types.

  20. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS or 100% RBS and analyze the challenges in deploying the 100%RBS. Methods - This research will be conducted based on an extensive literature review.Results - Based on the epistemological analysis of money and the business cycle as well as the views of Islamic scholars, 100%RBS should be the best for Islamic Bank. There are four types of 100% RBS namely Pure Commodity Money, Sovereign Money, Narrow Banking, and Limited Purpose Banking. To deploy it into the economic system, another philosophical work should be done to choose one of the types and strengthen it so that the theory of 100%RBS can be implemented for the goodness of Islamic Bank.  Conclusion - In Conclusions, Based on the epistemology defined by Islamic Scholars, FractRBS has more mafsadah if we compare to the maslahah. Therefore, 100% RBS should be better for the Islamic Bank.

  1. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use.

  2. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation.

  3. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  4. Option to Operate a Reserve of Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urate, Kengo; Sekozawa, Teruji

    In this paper, the value generated by releasing petroleum reserves at the time of a crude oil price spike is analyzed to show the utility of releasing petroleum reserves. Japan's petroleum reserve currently only releases oil for the purpose of coping with a crude oil supply disruption. However, at present no disruptions to the supply of crude oil are occurring. To determine the value of the petroleum reserve if reserves are released when crude oil price spikes occur, option theory based on financial engineering is used to quantitatively calculate the value of a release into a market with stochastically changing prices. In addition, by examining the value that would have been generated as a function of release price if petroleum reserves had been released at the time of the crude oil price spike of 2008, it is possible to demonstrate the utility of such a release. Furthermore, input-output analysis is used to measure the impact on petrochemical product industries and other industries affected by price increases when crude oil price spikes occur to determine the degree of the price mitigation effect of a petroleum reserve with a release function.

  5. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  6. Connectivity within and among a network of temperate marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A Coleman

    Full Text Available Networks of marine reserves are increasingly being promoted as a means of conserving marine biodiversity. One consideration in designing systems of marine reserves is the maintenance of connectivity to ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of populations. Knowledge of connectivity, however, is frequently lacking during marine reserve design and establishment. We characterise patterns of genetic connectivity of 3 key species of habitat-forming macroalgae across an established network of temperate marine reserves on the east coast of Australia and the implications for adaptive management and marine reserve design. Connectivity varied greatly among species. Connectivity was high for the subtidal macroalgae Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa and neither species showed any clear patterns of genetic structuring with geographic distance within or among marine parks. In contrast, connectivity was low for the intertidal, Hormosira banksii, and there was a strong pattern of isolation by distance. Coastal topography and latitude influenced small scale patterns of genetic structure. These results suggest that some species are well served by the current system of marine reserves in place along this temperate coast but it may be warranted to revisit protection of intertidal habitats to ensure the long-term persistence of important habitat-forming macroalgae. Adaptively managing marine reserve design to maintain connectivity may ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of marine habitats and the biodiversity they support.

  7. Connectivity within and among a network of temperate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Chambers, Justine; Knott, Nathan A; Malcolm, Hamish A; Harasti, David; Jordan, Alan; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    Networks of marine reserves are increasingly being promoted as a means of conserving marine biodiversity. One consideration in designing systems of marine reserves is the maintenance of connectivity to ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of populations. Knowledge of connectivity, however, is frequently lacking during marine reserve design and establishment. We characterise patterns of genetic connectivity of 3 key species of habitat-forming macroalgae across an established network of temperate marine reserves on the east coast of Australia and the implications for adaptive management and marine reserve design. Connectivity varied greatly among species. Connectivity was high for the subtidal macroalgae Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa and neither species showed any clear patterns of genetic structuring with geographic distance within or among marine parks. In contrast, connectivity was low for the intertidal, Hormosira banksii, and there was a strong pattern of isolation by distance. Coastal topography and latitude influenced small scale patterns of genetic structure. These results suggest that some species are well served by the current system of marine reserves in place along this temperate coast but it may be warranted to revisit protection of intertidal habitats to ensure the long-term persistence of important habitat-forming macroalgae. Adaptively managing marine reserve design to maintain connectivity may ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of marine habitats and the biodiversity they support.

  8. Reserves as tools for alleviating impacts of marine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joleah B; Wenger, Amelia S; Devlin, Michelle J; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Williamson, David H; Willis, Bette L

    2016-03-05

    Marine protected areas can prevent over-exploitation, but their effect on marine diseases is less clear. We examined how marine reserves can reduce diseases affecting reef-building corals following acute and chronic disturbances. One year after a severe tropical cyclone, corals inside reserves had sevenfold lower levels of disease than those in non-reserves. Similarly, disease prevalence was threefold lower on reserve reefs following chronic exposure to terrestrial run-off from a degraded river catchment, when exposure duration was below the long-term site average. Examination of 35 predictor variables indicated that lower levels of derelict fishing line and injured corals inside reserves were correlated with lower levels of coral disease in both case studies, signifying that successful disease mitigation occurs when activities that damage reefs are restricted. Conversely, reserves were ineffective in moderating disease when sites were exposed to higher than average levels of run-off, demonstrating that reductions in water quality undermine resilience afforded by reserve protection. In addition to implementing protected areas, we highlight that disease management efforts should also target improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic activities that cause injury.

  9. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  10. Investigating Power System Primary and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Power Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Jin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Power system frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to successfully balance load and generation and maintain system reliability. Adequate primary frequency response and secondary frequency response are the primary forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second-to-minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there is an increased need for wind to provide frequency response. This paper addresses one of the major concerns about using wind for frequency regulation: the unknown factor of the interaction between primary and secondary reserves. The lack of a commercially available tool to model this has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of primary reserves will impact the performance of secondary response or vice versa. This paper investigates the issue by developing a multi-area frequency response integration tool with combined primary and secondary capabilities. The simulation is conducted in close coordination with economical energy scheduling scenarios to ensure credible simulation results.

  11. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  12. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2017-09-14

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise Heart Rate Reserve and Recovery as Predictors of Incident Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Zaccardi, Francesco; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Carnethon, Mercedes; Franklin, Barry A

    2016-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that selected exercise heart rate responses, specifically those providing indices of autonomic dysfunction, may be associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2231 apparently healthy men with normal baseline fasting glucose levels. Heart rate reserve was calculated as the difference between the maximal attained heart rate and the supine resting heart rate, whereas heart rate recovery was defined as the maximal heart rate minus the heart rate measured at 2 minutes of recovery after peak or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Type 2 diabetes was defined as glycated hemoglobin >6.5% or fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dL at the follow-up examination. During a median follow-up interval of 5 years, 90 of the 2231 men (4.0%) developed type 2 diabetes. The relative risks of incident type 2 diabetes in men within the lowest quartiles of heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery versus men comprising the highest quartiles of heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery were 2.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.11) and 2.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.78) after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Each unit increment (1 beat/min) in heart rate reserve and heart rate recovery was associated with a 2% to 3% decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Exercise heart rate reserve and recovery predicted incidence of type 2 diabetes in healthy men, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction may be associated with an increased likelihood for the development of this cardiometabolic risk factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wildlife reserves, populations and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    There is a very small natural resource economic literature on natural reserves and hunting that consider potential stress effects of hunting on the game population and its migration in and out of hunting and reserve areas. In this literature private optimal solution with and without stress effect...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....

  15. Extended Reconstruction Approaches for Saturation Measurements Using Reserved Quantization Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peng; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reserved quantization indices method for saturated measurements in compressed sensing. The existing approaches tailored for saturation effect do not provide a way to identify saturated measurements, which is mandatory in practical implementations.We introduce a method using...... reserved quantization indices to mark saturated measurements, which is applicable to current quantizer models. Two extended approaches based on the proposed method have been investigated compared to the existing approaches. The investigation shows that saturated measurements can be identified by reserved...... quantization indices without adding extra hardware resources while maintaining a comparable reconstruction quality to the existing approaches....

  16. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  17. The Power Reserves Market Creation For The Participants Maximum Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolij Mahnitko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that the main task of the electric power system (EPS control is the power supply providing with the minimum expenses for the electric power production. In this case the requirement to the electric power quality, power supply reliability and the limitationson the energy resources cost must be observed. The power reserve presence into EPS is the necessary condition of the guaranteeing the normal operation from the point of view of the regime parameters values. In the proposed paper the problem of the developing the power reserve, presented to sale by the electric power producers, is examined. It is considered the procedure of the power reserve pricedetermination.

  18. Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng

    2017-05-01

    According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.

  19. 31 CFR 309.7 - Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. 309.7 Section 309.7 Money and Finance... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.7 Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. Tenders in response to any such...

  20. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    The use of forest products in the recent times has involved provision of employment opportunity, provision of food and .... Table 3: List of products collected/harvested in the forest reserve. Products .... Fencing pole, electricity pole, construction ...