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Sample records for kaku fukakusan mondai

  1. Pemanfaatan Pemotongan Ban Bekas Untuk Campuran Beton Serat Perkerasan Kaku

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    Nastain Nastain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Basically, construction of road pavement has 2 (two types, are rigid pavement and flexible pavement. Rigid pavement has many advantages: the design is simple, the maintenance is easy and it is suitable for heavy load traffic as well as for sub grade with low CBR value However, the main disadvantage of rigid pavement is its inflexibility because the flexural strength of concrete is low. To increase the flexibility of concrete, adding elastic material (waste tire into concrete mixture is needed. This is very possible, because waste tire has high modulus of elasticity value and low density. This research is conducted to find the influence of waste tire fiber addition towards the increase of flexural strength and compressive strength of rigid pavement. This research uses tire shreds 4 mm x 4 mm x 60 in mm size which are mixed randomly into various concentrations. Concrete mechanic behaviors, flexural strength and compressive strength, are measured by testing cylinder and beam concrete specimens. The research results show that the addition of waste tire fiber can increase flexural strength of concrete up to 20.84% and compressive strength of concrete up to 4.73% higher than normal concrete when the waste tire fiber content is 0.75%.

  2. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

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    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Energy, environment and pursuit of happiness; Energy kankyo mondai ningen no kofuku kara kangaeru

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    Shingu, H. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The energy and environment issue was considered from a viewpoint of human happiness. The paper picks up economy, philosophy, energy and humans as organisms, and considered how the principle of the increase by geometrical progression plays an important role in these. That the repetition in phenomena is like the increase by geometrical progression means that changes increase not linearly but exponentially and nonlinearly and bring such large changes as are unimaginable. The increase in entropy, which is caused by a nonlinear increase of the state, is an irreparable change. The problem of the pursuit of happiness also cannot be solved by the linear thought. The energy and environment problem cannot reach the solution in an extension of the linear thought in which humans have overcome poverty and lacks since the past and pursued richness earnestly. Namely, it is necessary for the 21st century to stop thinking of the energy utilization for seeking for much more richness and to try to think the energy issue in the social system where happiness with not too much richness is presupposed. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Y2K of the society of chemical engineers, Japan; Kagaku kogakukai no 2000nen mondai

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    Kataoka, K. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    In this paper, the coming problem of the Y2K problems by the cataclysm of economic society that the Society of Chemical Engineers holds is described. And it is explained in dividing into the present problems for the development of the Society of Chemical Engineers, a science and technology promotion policy, a university/industry cooperation, a regional cooperation, an internationality and international contribution, an effect of an independent administrative corporation of national universities, the movement of a future plan, the terms of member needs and a base establishment. In the paragraph of the movement of a future plan, the facts that a basic philosophy of the Society of Chemical Engineers was suggested standing on the report of the Vision Settlement Preparation Committee organized in 1998, the Chemical Industry Vision 2011 Settlement Committee was inaugurated for constituting its future images and the Working Group composed of the members of the Industry Institute in their forties leading the next generation was established is introduced. (NEDO)

  5. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

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    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics

    1994-12-15

    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Dealing with problems on sexual harassment in universities; Sekuhara mondai niokeru daigaku no torikumi

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    Michiue, Masanori. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Authors carried out the outside evaluation that the education system, equipment from curriculum and results of faculty staff were checked by not only self-inspection and evaluation but also insight people outside the faculty in the engineering faculty in the Tottori University. As one part of this evaluation, a guideline to the sexual harassment was made. After then, a guideline to the sexual harassment in each university was completed after learned from the example of the Tottori University. This kind of regulation was made in offices of each ministry and agency, self governing body and company according to the direction of the National Personal Authority. Until recent time, the regulation related to student discussion on the sexual harassment was set up in whole the Tottori University, an environment to make students study at ease was adjusted. These items had the regulation related to student discussion, protection, guideline, when damage happened, and the student discussion room. These items were listed in the student living guideline on the homepage of the Tottori University. (NEDO)

  7. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

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    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Study of carbon dioxide (CO sub 2 ) problems through marine science. Kaiyo kara mita nisankatanso mondai

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    Honda, M [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    This paper reviews the researches relating to carbon dioxide circulation in oceans, and introduces the roles played by oceans in respect of the CO {sub 2} problem. Oceans occupy 70% of the globe {prime} s surface area, and contain 60 times as much of carbon as in the atmosphere. However, the amount of CO {sub 2} absorbed from the atmosphere into the oceans as has been estimated to date can not explain the carbon balance on earth. The exchange rate of CO {sub 2} between the atmosphere and the oceans was estimated from measurements of the partial pressure (PCO {sub 2}), and from behaviors of the radiocarbon ({sup 14} C). However, to raise the estimation accuracy, it is necessary to obtain data from the sea areas where observations are carried out only infrequently, and from the winter season during which the observation frequency is low. Identifying variations in organic and inorganic carbon amount generated by marine organisms is also important. Since more than 99.9% of carbon is present in the form of carbonate, it is required that its amount, and the amount of precipitation and dissolution per unit time be identified, and that CO {sub 2} removed from the carbon cycle be quantified. What is particularly required is the study of open-sea bottom deposits, and the coastal study with coral reefs as the main object. 40 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Evaluasi Struktural Perkerasan Kaku Menggunakan Metoda AASHTO 1993 dan Metoda AUSTROADS 2011 Studi Kasus : Jalan Cakung-Cilincing

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    Shinta Rahmalia Irawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cakung-Cilincing Jakarta National Road Section has very rapid traffic load for rigid pavement. The purpose of this study are determining overlay thickness and choosing suitable method for implementation. AASHTO 1993 and AUSTROADS 2011 method are used in this study and using on Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD data. This study shows that value of Concrete Elasticity Modulus less than 3 million, then this rigid pavement is severely damaged. Based on AASHTO 1993 Method analysis, it needs 11 cm for flexible overlay and 12 cm for rigid overlay on lane 1 with 59% remaining life and lane 2 with 53% remaining life. AUSTROADS 2011 Methods use only FWD data and for overlay thickness determination is use new pavement analysis. Analysis using AUSTROADS 2011 Methods shows that flexible overlay requirement is 24 cm and rigid overlay requirement is 18.50 cm. Comparation between these two methods shows that AASHTO 1993 Method Analysis produce less overlay thickness than AUSTROADS 2011 Methods.

  10. UJI KOMPARASI PERENCANAAN TEBAL PERKERASAN LENTUR DAN KAKU METODE AASHTO 1993 (STUDI KASUS PROYEK KBK PENINGKATAN JALAN NASIONAL BANYUMANIK BAWEN

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    Totok Apriyatno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KBK project Tujauan Road Improvement Banyumanik - Bawen besides increasing the capacity of the road, also aims to improve the quality of the pavement in the form of rigid pavement in order to overcome the damage to roads, especially in the area of incline / derivatives and around traffic light .. This is because the pavement in regional incline / derivatives or traffic light is always damage in the form of Ruts (groove. This study analyzes the thick rigid pavement CBC project is implemented and compared with if the use is thick flexible pavement (asphalt. In terms of cost requirements and the design life of pavement, the results of this study might be useful for research studies on the next, remembering of several studies found that for the same length, rigid pavement construction costs more expensive than flexible pavement, but the life of the plan rigid pavement longer than flexible pavement. Thick rigid pavement were implemented in this project is 27 cm, while the results of the analysis, using concrete K-350 and a 20-year design life of rigid pavement thickness obtained by 29 cm and when using flexible pavement with a design life of 10 years obtained a total thickness of 47.5 cm consisting of: (a. Surface layer (AC 4 cm, (b. Base layers Over 12 cm, and (c. Under the foundation layers of 31.5 cm.

  11. KAJIAN EKONOMI KONSTRUKSI PERKERASAN LENTUR DAN KONSTRUKSI PERKERASAN KAKU (STUDI KASUS JALAN RAYA PKT.EBL-02 TOHPATI - KUSAMBA

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    Hevie Tri Hary Astuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study takes the case PKT. EBL highway Tohpati – 02 – Kusamba.The purpose of this study was to conduct economic studies flexible pavement and rigid pavement based on primary data and secondary data obtained from government agencies, the analysis in this study using the methode of costs and benefits. For flexible pavement; assuming traffic growth factor of 3.66%, inflation at 5.68% and the interest rate of 15% / year, 25% / year and 30% / year, and the fluctuating value of IRI. The results obtained for the 15% interest rate per year is NPV = Rp. 98,517,603,656, -, BCR = 1.42; interest rate to 25% per year is NPV = Rp. (65,520,977,844, -, BCR = 0.96; interest rate to 30% per year is NPV = Rp. (69,846,272,752, -, BCR = 0.51, moderate IRR = 24.38%. It can be concluded that the Highway Pavement Bending PKT.EBL-02 Tohpati - Kusamba is economically feasible at the rate of 15% per year with an IRR above. For Rigid Pavement; assuming traffic growth factor of 3.66%, inflation at 5.68% and the interest rate of 15% / year, 25% / year and 30% / year, and the value of IRI stable. The results obtained for the 15% interest rate per year is NPV = Rp. 159 515 604 651, -, BCR = 2.20; interest rate to 25% per year is NPV = Rp. 2068846698, -, BCR = 1.01; interest rate to 30% per year is NPV = Rp. (65,250,533,141, -, BCR = 0.51, moderate IRR = 25.15%. It can be concluded that the Rigid Pavement on Highway-02 PKT.EBL Tohpati - Kusamba is economically feasible at the rate of 15% per annum and 25% per year with an IRR above. In the concluding remarks of the above where rigid pavement IRR greater than the flexible pavement, the results of the economic analysis of this study is that the rigid pavement is more profitable than the flexible pavement.

  12. Thermal boundary condition effects on forced convection heat transfer. Application of a numerical solution of an adjoint problem; Kyosei tairyu netsudentatsu mondai ni okeru netsuteki kyokai joken no eikyo. Zuihan mondai no suchi kai wo mochiita kosatsu

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    Momose, K.; Saso, K.; Kimoto, H. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1997-11-25

    We propose a numerical solution for the adjoint operator of a forced convection heat transfer problem to evaluate mean heat transfer characteristics under arbitrary thermal conditions. Using the numerical solutions of the adjoint problems under Dirichlet and Neumann conditions, both of which can be computed using a conventional CFD code, the influence function of the local surface temperature on the total heat transfer and that of the local surface heat flux on the mean surface temperature are obtained. As a result, the total heat fluxes for arbitrary surface temperature distributions and the mean surface temperatures for arbitrary surface heat flux distributions can be calculated using these influence functions. The influence functions for a circular cylinder and for an in-line square rod array are presented. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Bio-technology drawing attention for solution of environmental problems. Kankyo mondai kaiketsu demo chumokusareru bio technology

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    Shimazaki, A [Bank of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-06-01

    Explanations are given on the recent movements in the bio-technology applications. In the United States, gene therapy has been applied to patients having damaged immune system, while in Japan the first outdoor experiment is about to begin this year on gene recombined tomatoes. In the area of the marine bio-technology, researches carried out by the industrial, governmental, and academic sectors combined, led by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have begun, which include such an attractive subject as finding out new kinds of algae living on carbon dioxide as their special favorite diet to use them to prevent the earth warming-up. On the other hand, the difficulty of bio-business is represented by the fact that venture business groups are absorbed into larger chemical companies. In Japan, the bio-business established in individual regions related to soy bean paste and Shoyu sauce industry is a distinct feature. Deregulations and review on the patent system are in progress in the United States and Germany aiming at strengthening the business competitiveness. Expectation is placed on the bio-technology that it will contribute largely in the future to solving such a critical environmental problem as experienced in the Persian Gulf war. 1 tab.

  14. Resources, environment and solid waste management; Shigen {center{underscore}dot} kankyo mondai to haikibutsu shori no tenkai

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    Takeda, Nobuo [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-20

    Solid waste management should be considered in close relation to conservation of energy and resources. The history and situation of solid waste management in Japan is outlined and the new concept of waste management is discussed for sustainable development. (author)

  15. Globalization of energy issues and Japan`s correspondance to it; Energy mondai no gurobaru ka to Nihon no taio

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    Toichi, T. [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    There are three energy issues in the 21st century, i.e., energy security, global warming, and improvement in efficiency of energy supply. The correspondence to these issues was described. Topics in the energy security issue are the present situation of Middle East, the trend of energy demand in the rapidly developing countries such as China, ASEAN countries, Korea, and Taiwan, and the nuclear fuel and peaceful utilization of plutonium. For the global warming, the Frame Work Convention on Climate Change, which has became officially effective, and the attitude of developed countries to it, the establishment of responsibility to reducing the emission after 2000, and the increasing expectation to co-operation and discrepancy among Japan, U.S.A., EU, and developing countries. Concerning the improvement in efficiency of energy supply system and the relaxation of regulation, the progress of regulation relaxation in the U.S.A. and necessity of promoting the flexibility and efficiency improvement in energy demand and supply system in Japan were explained. 3 tabs.

  16. Report on the FY 1982 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Mexico; 1982 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Mexico kaku tanden

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    NONE

    1982-10-01

    The following surveys were made to acquire the data/information for potential study of development/import of Mexican coal: (1) collection of general information such as energy situation, coal situation and infrastructure. (2) survey of situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, exploration/development, etc. of Sabinas coal field, Monclova, Coahuila state, San Marcial coal field, San Enrique, Sonora state, and Tezoatlan coal field, Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca state. (3) data collection for potential study of future development. The area where coal is presently produced is only Coahuila state, and also there the exploration is comparatively being advanced. In states of Sonora and Oaxaca, the exploration is only made roughly by CRM, and the exploration is going to be detailedly made from now. The exploration in Coahuila state, however, was made only down to 400m under earth's surface. In this area, coal existence down to 1,000m under earth's surface is expected, and the exploration deeper than 400m is a future subject. Ninty percent of the present coal reserve is produced from Coahuila state. They are coking coal and steam coal in quality. At present, the Mexican government is exerting efforts to increase production of the domestic use coal, with no intention of exporting coal. Seeing how the exploration would go, it is necessary to watch the results of the survey on a long-term basis. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the FY 1989 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Indonesia; 1989 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Indonesia kyowakoku kaku tanden

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    NONE

    1989-12-01

    This survey is aimed at acquiring the basic data required for judging a possibility of development/import of steam coal in Indonesia (west of Java, north of Sumatra and west of Sumatra). Areas for survey are Meulaboh coal field in north Sumatra, Ombilin III area in West Sumatra, and Bayah coal field in West Java. The survey includes the field survey to grasp the situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, etc. and activities for collecting the related data and information from the organizations concerned. The Meulaboh coal field has a technical possibility of open pit mining of medium scale. However, the heating value is extremely low, around 4,300 kcal/kg. Judging from this coal quality, there is no possibility of exporting it. It can be said that Ombilin coal is the world's top class steam coal. Accordingly, the demand can be expected both in export use and domestic use. As to Bayah coal, Bemmelen (1949) concluded that the coal was extremely excellent in quality, but had great disadvantages such as thin coal seam, discontinuity, and complicated geological structure. To date, the conclusion has been unchanged. (NEDO)

  18. Report on the FY 1982 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Mexico; 1982 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Mexico kaku tanden

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    NONE

    1982-10-01

    The following surveys were made to acquire the data/information for potential study of development/import of Mexican coal: (1) collection of general information such as energy situation, coal situation and infrastructure. (2) survey of situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, exploration/development, etc. of Sabinas coal field, Monclova, Coahuila state, San Marcial coal field, San Enrique, Sonora state, and Tezoatlan coal field, Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca state. (3) data collection for potential study of future development. The area where coal is presently produced is only Coahuila state, and also there the exploration is comparatively being advanced. In states of Sonora and Oaxaca, the exploration is only made roughly by CRM, and the exploration is going to be detailedly made from now. The exploration in Coahuila state, however, was made only down to 400m under earth's surface. In this area, coal existence down to 1,000m under earth's surface is expected, and the exploration deeper than 400m is a future subject. Ninty percent of the present coal reserve is produced from Coahuila state. They are coking coal and steam coal in quality. At present, the Mexican government is exerting efforts to increase production of the domestic use coal, with no intention of exporting coal. Seeing how the exploration would go, it is necessary to watch the results of the survey on a long-term basis. (NEDO)

  19. Transient tire force and its modeling. Part 2. Camber angle input; Katoteki tire hasseiryoku to sono modeling. 2. Camber kaku nyuryoku

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    Higuchi, A [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Pacejka, H

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the transient force and moment characteristics of tires involving side slip and camber and to develop the tire model which is capable of describing those characteristics. Some particular characteristics are found such as non-lagging part in side force response and an apparent peak in aligning torque response to a stepwise camber change. Some aspects on the analogy of turn slip to camber are also discussed. The tire model combines a dynamic part based on the physical aspect using the relaxation length concept, and a steady state part. In combined situations of side slip and camber, an estimation method to determine the transient slip quantities is introduced. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

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    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  1. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

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    Ando, J; Matsumoto, D; Maita, S; Nakatake, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Problems concerning abolishment of the ban on exportation of Alaskan crudeoil. Alaska gen'yu no yushutsu kaikin mondai no yukue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The ban on exhortation of Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil is being vigorously discussed on its maintenance or abolishment. The Department of Energy of the U.S. published the report which emphasized merits by abolishing the ban on ANS crude-oil exporting. The American Crew Union asserts that the Union will agree to the abolishment if ANS crude oil is transported by the Johns Act ships, which mean tankers built in the U.S., having the U.S. nationality, and plied by operation of the U.S. crews. The federal government of the U.S. declares that the government will not support the abolishment unless the items to restrict the transportation within Johns Act ships are deleted. It is said that British Petroleum, the largest producer of ANS crude oil, is sounding for the method in which use of the U.S. ships and employment of the U.S. crews for the transportation are guaranteed by direct contracts with the tanker owners and crews of the U.S. In any case, employment of U.S. crews is considered to the point to realize the abolishment of the bat on exportation of ANS crude oil.

  3. Survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues (Version II); Chikyu kankyo mondai gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa. 2

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    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues. Technological development of means to reduce generation of environmental issues and substitutive means for non-generation thereof is being moved forward specifically in the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project. The Chemical Technology Research Institute assumes that it has a responsibility to positively contribute to developing a technological system that matches the substance circulation mechanism of the earth from the fields of chemistry. Therefore, the Institute has organized working groups that have been identifying problems from their expertise standpoints and have been extracting study assignments. Subsequent to the Version I, the Version II has been compiled. The Version II takes up the simulation of global warming mechanisms, behavior of gases dissolved in oceans, and possibility of fixing CO2 in oceans. With respect to fluorocarbons, the Version II describes development of substitutive substances, their stability, combustion method as a destruction technique, and destruction by means of super criticality. Regarding CO2, the version introduces technologies to re-use CO2 as a resource by means of membrane separation, storage, and contact hydrogenation. The volume also dwells on CO2 reduction by using photo-chemical and electrochemical reactions, CO2 reduction and photo-synthesis by using semiconductors as photo catalysts and electrodes. (NEDO)

  4. Effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance; Jidosha untenchu no keitai denwa shiyo sosa ni kanrensuru mondai no kenkyu

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    Tokunaga, R; Ozawa, M; Hagiwara, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, H; Shimojo, A [Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The present evaluates effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance. The major independent variables were the reaction time and the mental workload. Hart et al. proposed the concept of the subjective mental workload. Experiments were conduced using a driving simulator without motion. Findings showed that the hands free system may provide less effect than the cellular telephone on the passenger seat on driver`s reaction time and mental workload. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Solution of combinatorial optimization problems by an accelerated hopfield neural network. Kobai kasokugata poppu firudo nyuraru netto ni yoru kumiawase saitekika mondai no kaiho

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    Ohori, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Setsu, Nenso; Watanabe, K. (Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-04-20

    The accelerated approximate solution of combinatorial optimization problems by symmetry integrating hopfield neural network (NN) has been applied to many combinatorial problems such as the traveling salesman problem, the network planning problem, etc. However, the hopfield NN converges to local minimum solutions very slowly. In this paper, a general inclination model composed by introducing an accelerated parameter to the hopfield model is proposed, and it has been shown that the acceleration parameter can make the model converge to the local minima more quickly. Moreover, simulation experiments for random quadratic combinatorial problems with two and twenty-five variables were carried out. The results show that the acceleration of convergence makes the attraction region of the local minimum change and the accuracy of solution worse. If an initial point is selected around the center of unit hyper cube, solutions with high accuracy not affected by the acceleration parameter can be obtained. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Method for the traveling salesman problem by controlling two parameters of the Hopfield neural network; Parameter seigyogata hop field net ni yoru junkai salesman mondai no kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setsu, N.; Murakami, K.; Ohori, T.; Watanabe, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    For solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP) by using a continuous value outputting neural net (NN), an investigation was given on the accuracy of solution and the possibility on traveling routes by using the penalty coefficient and temperature as the parameters for energy functions. The parameter range to obtain high-quality traveling routes was shown by a numerical experiment. The experimental result revealed that, when the penalty coefficient `r` is large, the traveling route possibility tends to become higher, but the route length increases, and when the `r` is small, the traveling route possibility becomes lower, but the route length decreases, also in the continuous value outputting NN as in the two-value outputting NN. Noticing this fact, and in order to improve the traveling route possibility as well as the solution quality, a method was proposed to expand the penalty control method which was proposed previously by the authors on the two-value outputting NN, into the continuous value outputting NN. In addition, a proposal was also made on a method to derive an optimal temperature efficiently by using the golden section method. It was found that the relative error has been reduced by 48% on the average as compared with that in the conventional method in which the temperature is fixed. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Genetic algorithm based on virus theory of evolution for traveling salesman problem; Virus shinkaron ni motozuku identeki algorithm no junkai salesman mondai eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N. [Osaka Inst. of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper deals with virus evolutionary genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithms (GAs) have been demonstrated its effectiveness in optimization problems in these days. In general, the GAs simulate the survival of fittest by natural selection and the heredity of the Darwin`s theory of evolution. However, some types of evolutionary hypotheses such as neutral theory of molecular evolution, Imanishi`s evolutionary theory, serial symbiosis theory, and virus theory of evolution, have been proposed in addition to the Darwinism. Virus theory of evolution is based on the view that the virus transduction is a key mechanism for transporting segments of DNA across species. This paper proposes genetic algorithm based on the virus theory of evolution (VE-GA), which has two types of populations: host population and virus population. The VE-GA is composed of genetic operators and virus operators such as reverse transcription and incorporation. The reverse transcription operator transcribes virus genes on the chromosome of host individual and the incorporation operator creates new genotype of virus from host individual. These operators by virus population make it possible to transmit segment of DNA between individuals in the host population. Therefore, the VE-GA realizes not only vertical but also horizontal propagation of genetic information. Further, the VE-GA is applied to the traveling salesman problem in order to show the effectiveness. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Response to resolve environmental problems caused from power stations. Reuse engineering of waste water; Hatsudensho kankyo mondai kaiketsu e mukete no torikumi. Haisui no sairiyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, T. [Hitachi Plant Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatta, T. [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-15

    This paper introduces the electrodialysis method, the reverse osmosis method, and the evaporation system for reutilization of waste water in non-collection lines in power plants. In the electrodialysis method, waste water which has been divided and fed conventionally into a desalination chamber and a concentration chamber is supplied into the desalination chamber in the whole quantity to improve the recovery efficiency. A process of supplying sea water into the concentration chamber has made prevention of scaling possible. A small testing machine of high recovery electrodialysis system utilizing sea water was installed in an exclusively coal burning thermal power plant. A 3200-hour verification test has been performed, and its high treatment performance was verified. General waste water in thermal power plants is a waste water relatively less contaminated, which can be desalinated by using the reverse osmosis method to recover usable water at a low cost. However, the recovery rate decreases if salt concentration in the waste water is high. In contrast, the evaporation method can maintain the recovery rate at 90% or higher for salt concentration in the subject waste water of up to 20 g/l. Power plants in the United States built in inland areas use the evaporation method because of difficulty in obtaining sufficient amount of water. 6 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Current status and prospect on photo-catalyst application in environmental problems; Kankyo mondai ni okeru hikari shokubai oyo no ganjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-09-30

    This paper summarizes application of photo-catalysts in environmental problems. The paper lists examples of the application in residential environments. Photo-catalytic decomposition is possible by using ultraviolet rays contained in room illumination if the bacterial presence is sparse. The examples thereof may be cited as follows: if colon bacilli are suspended on a tile with TiO2 photo-catalyst sintered in it and exposed to room illumination, the bacteria are disinfected; using photo-catalysts in a bathroom suppresses deposition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; a photo-catalyst tile (TiO2 loaded with Cu) and light irradiation reduce intensity of tobacco smoke odor; and adsorbents may be used simultaneously if intermediate products are odor generating substances. The examples of applying photo-catalysts to regional environments may be quoted as follows: growth of algae in a Petri dish is suppressed by presence of Cu loaded TiO2 under room illumination; this leads to an expectation on its effect in a relatively clean water environment; glass beads loaded with a TiO2 photo-catalyst placed in a gold fish breeding tank reduces turbidity, the number of colon bacilluses, and COD value; and the mortality in gold fish shows no change. With an objective of application to exterior building materials, photo-catalyst applied tiles were left outdoors for 160 days. Nitric acid ions were detected that are thought to have been generated by decomposition of microorganisms that have deposited on the tiles. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Energy, oil and global environmental problems towards21st. century. 21 seiki ni mukatte no energyter dot sekiyuter dot chikyu kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    The world energy demand is increasing with the development of the world economy and the improvement of the life level. In view of the future economic development and population growth, the world energy demand will considerably increase especially in the LDCs. Since the oil crisis, saving of energy and material were effectively executed, thus significantly reducing the energy requirement per GNP. However, in the recent several years, the conciousness of energy has become diluted, causing considerable consumption in larger size and higher grade products, thus increasing the non-industrial and transportation consumption. This report considered the effective use of energy and the nuclear application. It is to be noted that the accident frequency in the Japanese nuclear plants is much less than the other countries. The coal utilization requires further technical development in view of the environmental problems. Other substitutible energies are all weak in competition and cannot be expected utilizable in large scale for the time being. This report also referred to the oil problem. 9 figs.

  11. Task-specific shell for scheduling problems, ARES[sub TM]/SCH. Scheduling mondai muke task tokka shell ARES[sub TM]/SCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, S; Narimatsu, K [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    An Expert System (ES) Shell (developed by Toshiba Corp.) which applies to the scheduling of production plan and operation plan is introduced. It describes that this tool is equipped with flowchart editor and constraint condition editor which mention the knowledge related to scheduling method, and that the former expresses scheduling procedure knowledge in the form of flowchart by combining basic tasks prepared beforehand, and the latter expresses constraint conditions which should be satisfied by the schedule, and knowledge related to the priority order which should be considered in-between in the form of IF-THEN Rule which is very close to Japanese. In addition, the knowledge is equipped with knowledge debugging system which conducts debugging while executing the knowledge. It adds that by using this tool, the manhour required for the development and maintenance of ES can be reduced considerably. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Perencanaan dan Analisis Biaya Investasi antara Perkerasan Kaku dengan Perkerasan Lentur pada Jalur Trans Jakarta Busway: Studi Kasus pada Trans Jakarta Busway Koridor 8 antara Halte Pondok Indah 2 hingga Halte Permata Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardi Prahara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Types of rigid pavement for road has been widely used in Indonesia, ranging from toll roads to the outer town road. Rigid pavement is considered more powerful than the flexible pavement. In other words, rigid pavement is expected to have a longer service life and minimal maintenance. The construction cost for rigid pavement is more expensive compared to flexible pavement. While the need for rigid pavement maintenance is cheaper than for flexible pavement. Seen from investment point of view, rigid pavement is more profitable than flexible pavement, because the annual fee required for rigid pavement is less. Due to the comparations, an analysis is performed in this study to select which type of pavement is best used in the future.

  13. Unsteady aerodynamic response of mistuned cascade to incoming wakes. 1st Report. ; Mistuning of stagger angle. Fukin prime itsu yokuretsu no hiteijo oto kaiseki. 1. ; Stagger kaku wo fukin prime itsuka shita baai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funazaki, K [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    Interference between fan blades in a turbo-fan engine and struts also being a structural member may induce fan blade oscillation and noise, thereby presenting itself as an obstacle in development efforts. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to analyze unsteady aerodynamic responses of mistuned cascade with varied stagger angles, as well as elucidates the effects of the mistuned stagger angles by means of numerical calculations. The non-steady pressure distribution on the blades is affected by the mistuning, but its extent varies with phase difference in the incoming viscid wake. As its result, the non-steady lift acting on the blades varies with the mistuning. In this case, it is possible to reduce the size of the non-steady lift depending on the conditions of blade arrangement and incoming phase difference. The size of the non-steady lift under the same phase incoming condition has a close correlation with the steady lift. It was shown that the quasi-steady analysis is effective in the case of the same phase condition. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Development of nucleation control technology for new functional alloy creation and development of new process; 2000 nendo kinosei shingokin sosei no tame no kaku seisei seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu oyobi shin process kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the above-said purposes, studies were conducted involving the construction of a database on supercooling and nucleation and on alloy species and functionality. Composition, concentration, supercooling method, container, atmosphere, maximum degree of supercooling, cooling rate, and the contents of the study to be made were investigated in the study of items for databasing. Also, in an experiment dealing with alloy species remaining to be exploited, the coagulation of drop size GaSb alloy was investigated. In the study of the formation of a quasi-stable phase in functional alloy, it was demonstrated that a nonequilibrium or quasi-stable phase might be quantitatively formed by use of a containerless process. In the study of texture control, texture fining by causing flowability was particularly investigated, and it was suggested that not only nucleation but also growth to follow should be properly controlled for the fining of coagulated texture. In the study of simulation of texture prediction, construction of a database on practical alloy nucleation frequency and stochastic simulation of coagulated texture to be built on this database were taken up. (NEDO)

  15. Current srate and problems in Japanese petroleum development. ; International trends in petroleum development and problems in Japanese devepment business. Waga kuni sekiyu kaihatsu no genjyo to mondai ten. ; Sekiyu kaihatsu no kokusai doko to waga kuni kaihatsu jigyo no kasai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    Petroleum production and its supply and demand require ever closer coordinations among the countries involved. On the other hand, however, there a large number of difficult questions as the problems of global environmental pollution and greenhouse effects increase their seriousness and the economic resources in the petroleum business become scarcer. This paper describes the current state of the Japanese petroleum development, the necessity of spontaneous petroleum development, the international trends in the petroleum development business, and the tasks for Japan in the petroleum development business. Japan is a late comer in the petroleum development business. There are such difficulties as sizes of oil fields being discoverd are becoming smaller, the natural conditions in development target areas are getting severer, and the economic effects are inferior. Japan, whose petroleum self-supply rate is about 0.3%, whose petroleum dependency is heightening as a result of increase in nuclear power generation, and who is the third largest petroleum consuming country next to the U.S.A and Soviet, must use efficiently her financial and technical powers to vitalize her spontaneous petroleum development. Japan has a duty to contribute to the world {prime}s future stabilized supply of oil. The Japanese Government has launched the five-year fund development plan to perform basic surveys for ail in the north-east part of the Japan Sea and the pacific Ocean.

  16. Survey on the present situation and future outlook of energy/environment issues mainly on coal in the APEC region; APEC ikinai no sekitan wo chushin to suru energy kankyo mondai no genjo oyobi kongo no mitoshi ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying the energy supply/demand trend and the environmental problem relating mainly to coal in the APEC region, the paper surveyed the situation from the past to the present and outlooked the beginning of the 21st century. GDP in the whole APEC region increased at an annual rate of 3.4% from 1971 to 1991 and made a rapid growth of an annual rate over 7% especially in the non-OECD region. The supply/demand balance of coal, etc. in the non-OECD region is expected to be tight, and the energy price also to be higher. This will be a major factor causing hindrance to the economic growth of resource-importing countries. It is necessary to prepare the energy infrastructure. With the increasing coal utilization, it is feared that pollutants such as SOx, NOx and CO2 will increase, and it is necessary to introduce energy utilization technology/facilities which are high-efficient and environment-friendly and to expedite introduction of non-fossil energy. The APEC region, where the worldwide growth is expected, is a priming for the world development, and a policy which is well balanced in economic growth, stabilized energy supply, and environmental protection is needed for the region to achieve its sustainable growth. 50 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Let everybody think about energy problems (what to do with energy supply). Electric power storage as a trump to make load flat; Energy mondai wo minnade kangaeyo (energy kyokyu wo dosuruka). Fuka heijunka no kirifuda (denryoku chozo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1995-09-20

    Difference of electric power load between day and night has been growing due to increase of need for cooling in summer. In the case of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., the power maximum in a day exceeds 2-fold of the minimum. As a means of making load flat, power storage is a last resort to improve operation efficiency and suppress generation cost. Various technologies for electric power storage are overviewed and a sodium-sulfur (NaS) cell is introduced, whose practical application in near future is expected as a novel technology for power storage. Pumped storage generation has been put into practical use widely, sharing 10% of the overall capacity for generation facilities in Japan. However, since proper sites for its construction have been limited, compensating technologies, using electric cells, air compression, super-conduction and flywheels are in progress of research and development. There are three types of electric cells being under development; NaS, Zinc-bromine, redox flow cells. The NaS cell uses highly active electrodes of Na(+) and S(-), and {beta} alumina as electrolyte, which is neither electron-conductive nor self-discharging. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Improvement of algorithm using Kohonen`s self-organizing feature map for the traveling salesman problem; Kohonen jiko soshikika tokucho mappu wo mochiita ukai serusuman mondai kaiho no kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Tanaka, H.; Kishida, S. [Tottori Univ., Tottori (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Mita Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the combinatorial optimization problems. The solution of this problem is to seek the way of how to visit every city only once within the shortest traveling distance. The solutions of this problem are studied a lot hitherto since they are the index for observing the basic properties of optimization algorithm. The method of Angeniol using the elf-organizing feature map is greatly forceful from the viewpoint of its short calculating time. In this study, regarding the algorithm of Angeniol, the conditions of obtaining the shortest tour length within shorter time are examined. Namely, a half of calculating time is reduced by changing Angeniol method into the method of making the node create after the searches of M cities. Additionally, the calculating time for unchanged tour length is reduced to one fourth by adding an inertia item in accordance with the variation of the number of total nodes. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Report on fiscal 1995 project to promote an exchange of researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1995 nendo itakujigyo (Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of solving environmental problems caused in association with the increasing industrial activities in the Asia-Pacific region, the construction of a research network is being advanced aiming at promoting exchanges with researchers of other countries and activating information exchanges. Investigators were sent overseas to grasp the present situation, and researchers participated in a symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation for mutual understanding and personal interchange. In the overseas survey, visits were paid mainly to national research institutes and universities in India and Thailand. Positive approval was obtained on the construction of the ETERNET APR (Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region). In the symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation held in Nagoya, researchers participated mostly in the second session and made earnest discussions with researchers from other countries. The necessity and importance of the network was emphasized. Countries which participated the symposium have problems common to each, and it was greatly significant to meet together and discuss together. The environmental problem is on a global scale, and it is necessary to make close exchange/interchange of information/opinion on a long term basis and to tackle it in the whole Asia-Pacific region. 3 tabs.

  20. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  1. Politics of water resources and environmental problem. US-Japan comparative policy history on the public district; Mizushigen kaihatsu to kankyo mondai. Public district no Nichibei hikaku seisakushi kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuriya, T [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to give some suggestion to the water resources policies for the future Japan, a comparative study was made on the water resources development policies in Japan and the water resources policies in the state of California, U.S.A. The study on Japan has been proceeded empirically based on specific data with regard to the development of electric power policies from the prewar to postwar times when the governmental electric power control was changed to incorporation of the nine electric power companies. The change may be identified from viewpoints of both profit and ideology. Noticing the `public corporations` established one after another for social capitals before and after the establishment of the Liberal Democratic Party, their relation with the water resources development policies was pursued in terms of actual proof and political science. The identity of the public corporations established in and after 1955 stands on the premise of free economy, rather than the controlled economy. This paper positions the water resources development policies in a broader context as the national land plan, and considers the problems that are expanding from flood damages, dam construction, industrial complex construction to environmental problems around the water. Comparative discussions on the Tone river system and the Colorado river system were left as the future assignment.

  2. remediation potential of Eichornia sp in conjunction with chromium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separation of cells from treated liquids. Various natural supportive materials like agar, sodium alginate and activated carbon along with artificial ... water of Ittehad Chemical Industries, Kala Shah. Kaku ..... isolated from coal mine waste water.

  3. Fiscal 1996 research report on the PV power generation field test project for public facilities. Evaluation and analysis of collected data for every site (1/2); 1996 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. Kaku site betsu (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    As a part of the PV power generation field test project, this report summarizes the monthly collected data for every site in fiscal 1996. The test sites include various public facilities such as park, school, university, museum, Shinkansen platform, laboratory, technical center, training building, local governmental hotel, health athletic center, community center, joint purchase center, consumers' cooperative (CO-OP), school meals provision center, prefectural office building, police station garage, water purification plant, general disaster prevention center, and health center. Collected data items are as follows: total solar irradiation (kWh/m{sup 2}), average air temperature, array power, system power, load power, power system supply load, reverse power flow, self supply load (kWh for every item), system disinterconnection time (min), system operation time (min), equivalent array/system operation time, array/system performance ratio, system use factor, system generation efficiency, effective inverter efficiency, and inverter load factor. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1997 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 1/3; Kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu (1997 nendo). 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The data on field tests of the photovoltaic power generation were collected. The items for survey were as follows: horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity, average temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, load electric energy, system supply load, back flow electric energy, interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour, system operation hour, independent operation load, independent supply load, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization rate, system charging efficiency, INV effective efficiency, INV load factor, etc. The number of the places for survey is 37 including the following: Hikarigaoka Park of Sakata City, Koiwai Plant of Koiwai Dairy Product Co., Kameoka Ayumi Nursely School, Ichinoseki I-DOME, Okano Park, Kuriyama Park Health Sports Center, Mejiro University, Tokyo Hikarigaoka Sports Facilities, Regional Community Center, Yokohama Tobu Joint Purchase Center, Taemi-so Nursing Care Center for the Elderly, Uemichi School Meal Providing Center, Okayama Prefectural Office, Oita Prefectural Agricultural Research Center, Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Center Institute, etc. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 4/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu. 4/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data items are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity (each unit: kWh/m{sup 2}), average temperature, array power energy, system power energy, system consumption power, load power energy, system supply load, and back flow power energy (each unit: kWh). Besides, the number of interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour (minute), system operating hour (minute), independent operating load, independent supply load (each unit: kWh), equivalent array operating hour, equivalent system operating hour, array/system output coefficient, system utilization rate/power generation rate, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. The objects of field tests are government office (joint office building, etc.), school (college, high school, elementary school, etc.), the Shinkansen Kyoto Station, health/welfare facilities (health facilities for the elderly, welfare center, etc.), hospital, industrial experimental station, training facilities (exhibition training facilities, etc.), broadcasting facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1997 research report on the PV power generation field test project for public facilities. Evaluation and analysis of collected data for every site (2/3); 1997 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. Kaku site betsu (2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    As a part of the PV power generation field test project, this report summarizes the monthly collected data for every site in fiscal 1996. Collected data items are as follows: horizontal/total/effective solar irradiation (kWh/m{sup 2}), average air temperature, array power, system power, load power, power system supply load, reverse power flow (kWh for every item), power system protective operation frequency, system disinterconnection time (min), system operation time (min), self-operation load, self-supply load, equivalent array/system operation time, array/system performance ratio, system use factor, system generation efficiency, effective inverter efficiency, and inverter load factor. The test sites include various public facilities such as doctor's office, newspaper office, general building for public corporations, primary school, hot water pool, health center, public hall, town/ward office, water purification plant, consumers' cooperative (CO-OP), university, high school, technical center, training center, nursery school, kindergarten, and nursing home for the aged. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1997 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 3/3; Kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu (1997 nendo). 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The data were collected on field tests of the photovoltaic power generation. The items of measurement are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity, average temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, load electric energy, system supply load, back flow electric energy, interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour, system operating hour, independent operation load, independent supply load, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization rate, system power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, INV load factor, etc. The number of places for measurement is 27 including the following: Environmental Science Research Institute, Utatsu-cho Municipal Office, Ginga-gakuin Junior High School, New Energy Business Coop, Nisshin Techno Center, Shikoku Medicom Co., Miyosawa Kinoko-en, Takasaki City Welfare Vocational School, Madama Junior High School, Hitoo Junior High School, Koshien-gakuin Junior/Senior High School, Sansei Technical Research Development Center, Mitsui Greenland, DHI Mach head office/plant, Nabeya Ueno Water Purification Plant, Hoo Senior High School, National Agricultural Resource Research Center, etc. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 Evaluation and analysis of the data collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in public facilities. By site (1/3); 1999 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. 1/3. Kaku site betsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Described herein are the results of evaluation and analysis of the data (management nos.701 to 814) collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in a total of 45 facilities, mainly public. Each system is operated for 30 to 31 days every month. A total of 23 items of the data described below are recorded every day, and totaled up, averaged and evaluated for effectiveness at the end of the month: solar radiation on a horizontal, sloped and effective sloped plane, average air temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, system power consumption, load electric energy, load for supplying power to a network, electric energy of reversed flow, linkage protection actions, linkage parallel off time, system operation time, self-sustaining load, load of voluntary supply, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization, system power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the study of energy conservation by industrial field recycling of global warming gas as a policy for the global environmental problem and the survey of international cooperation application; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo mondai taisaku to shite no ondanka gas no sagyo bun'ya recycle ni yoru sho energy ka kento to kokusai kyoryoku tekiyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this report, for Japan and typical developing countries and for the CO2 emitted from the combustion process of the fixed type exhaust source which is easy in recovery, technical problems and economical problems were made clear in case of using the recovered CO2 for the industrial field, and at the same time, effects of the energy conservation were studied. As to CO2, the two methods were considered: a method to use the recovered CO2 as it is and a method to use the carbon compound obtained by reducing CO2 by any method. Further, in the industrial field, there are a lot of industries which use CO2, carbon, methanol, etc., and in the present situation fossil fuel is used for production materials such as CO2, carbon and methanol. As substitutes for fossil fuels for the industries using these hydrocarbons as raw material, the use of the recovered CO2 and the synthesized hydrocarbon was considered. And, survey was made of the applicable industrial fields, the amount of the recovered CO2 use there, and effects of energy conservation by reduction in amount of the fossil fuel use. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 2000 survey report on Asia/Pacific Regional Environment Problems Researcher Exchange Promotion Projects. Construction of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia/Pacific Region; 2000 nendo Asia Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho. Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu network kochiku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing and popularizing environment conservation technologies in the Asia/Pacific region, activities were conducted for Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia/Pacific Area (ETERNET-APR). In this fiscal year, under the motto of Expansion of International Collaborative Researches on Environmental Technology, a 7th international workshop was held in Yokkaichi City, Mie Prefecture, with the attendance of approximately 60 people in Japan and from abroad. Researchers from overseas, in addition, attended a 10-day training program at the National Institute for Resources and Development and others in preparation for the embodiment of international collaborative research. A survey was conducted overseas for the promotion of database utilization and registration and for grasping the problems intrinsic to the respective research institutes and problems to occur at every stage of development. People's Republic of China was visited, where a miniscale workshop was held, study tours were made, and opinions were exchanged. It was actually felt, at the places that were visited, that ETERNET-APR was certainly in function in various fields. (NEDO)

  11. Application of forking genetic algorithm to the estimation of an S-wave-velocity structure from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data. With special reference to an exploration method using microtremors; Rayleigh ha no bunsan data kara S ha sokudo kozo wo suiteisuru inversion mondai eno kotaigun tansaku bunkigata identeki algorithm no tekiyo. Bido tansaho ni kanrenshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I; Nakanishi, I [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ling, S [Nihon Nessui Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on a genetic algorithm as a means to solve simultaneously the problems related to stability of solution and dependence on an initial model in estimating subsurface structures using the microtremor exploration method. In the study, a forking genetic algorithm (fGA) to explore solid substance groups was applied to the optimizing simulations for a velocity structure model to discuss whether the algorithm can be used practically. The simulation No. 1 was performed by making the number of layers four for both of the given velocity structure and the optimizing model. On the other hand, the simulation No. 2 was executed by making the number of layers for the given velocity structure greater than that for the optimizing model. As a result, it was verified that wide range exploration may be possible for the velocity structure model, and that a large number of candidates for the velocity structure model may be proposed. In either case, the exploration capability of the fGA exceeded that of the standard simple genetic algorithm. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  13. Survey report in fiscal 1999 on investigations for the current status in energy and environmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A., and investigations on technological development related to energies; 1999 nendo Nichibei ni okeru energy kankyo mondai no genjo chosa oyobi energy ni kakawaru gijutsu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on energy and developmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A. New and complex environmental problems are rising to the surface, such as global warming, ozone layer destruction, and chemical harms. It is necessary to deepen quickly scientific understanding of the problems, and identify accurately their impacts on human bodies and ecological systems. Within the limitation of the scientific understanding, political decisions on economy and environmental risks are also important and difficult questions, with the environmental hormones being the typical examples. Establishing chemical substance verification systems is important, whereas joint researches by Japan and the U.S.A. are desired. Policy decisions on handling the researches must also be made jointly, and acceptance by citizens must be asked for at international workshops. While energies are the base of economic activities, and the sustained development thereof is indispensable, how to take balance with health and environment in the global scale is a large assignment. Joint Japan-U.S. discussions are required on technological innovation, such as for regenerative energies, energy conservation, safety of and wastes from nuclear reactors, clean use of fossil fuels, and fuel cells. International cooperation, including that from developing countries, is also important. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1999 Project of information exchange by researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on investigations for establishing Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region; 1999 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho. Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihtsu network kochiku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 1999 activities for the project of information exchange by researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region. In 1999, the 6th International Workshop was held in City of Yokkaichi, Mie Pref., with the theme (Implementation of international collaborative researches on environmental technology) at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, with a total of more than 50 domestic and foreign attendees actively participating in the discussion. The keynote addresses were (Use of coal and environmental improvements) presented by Mr. Yoshisada Nitta, Director at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and (Potential of clean fuel from biomass) presented by Dr. Kyu-Wan Lee of Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology. The overseas surveys were conducted to promote the use and registration of the databases, and to identify problems by the on-the-spot investigations in Vietnam, the Philippines and Republic of Korea. At the same time, the mini-workshops were held for information exchange with the research institutes. It is keenly felt that Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region (ENTERNET-APR) works certainly in various areas, with the attendees in the last workshops serving as the key persons. (NEDO)

  15. Assessing Grand Strategies: How the EU and NATO Rock the Strategic Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    part to constitute the embryos of the European Union and NATO grand strategies briefly illustrated in the extracts presented in the epigraph. These... embryos gestated over time becoming de facto grand strategies for these institutions. Applying the characterization of grand strategy elaborated in...6. Michio Kaku, Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily

  16. U.S. Military Technology Dependence: The Hidden Vulnerability to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    1 Alastair Finlan. Contemporary Military Culture and Strategic Studies: US and UK armed forces in the 21st Century...Finlan, Alastair. Contemporary Military Culture and Strategic Studies: US and UK armed forces in the 21st Century. Routledge, 2013. Kaku, Michio...determinants of external vulnerability." World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4089, 2006. Lutzenhiser, Loren. "Social structure, culture , and

  17. Mida tulevikuga peale hakata? / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Kaku, Michio. Tulevikufüüsika : kuidas teadus aastal 2100 kujundab inimsaatust ja meie igapäevast elu / tlk. Arko Olesk. Tallinn : Pilgrim, 2013 ; Stevenson, Mark. Optimisti teekond tulevikku : üks uudishimulik sell tahab teada: mis saab edasi? / tlk. Vahur Lokk. Tallinn : Äripäev, 2013

  18. Superconformal Lagrangian without the need to introduce constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A field Lagrangian invariant under all the symmetries of the superconformal group has been constructed without the need to introduce constraints on the curvatures. We have thus generalized the action of Townsend, van Nieuwenhuizen, and Kaku. We maintain that any and all constraints on the curvatures should result as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking and not be a priori enforced. 14 refs

  19. The Birth of Artificial Intelligence and its Baby Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez, Nataly

    2017-01-01

    We are living in the era of technology; it is hard not to see it in our everyday lives. Ray Kurzweil and Michio Kaku, prominent figures in the field of artificial intelligence, affirm that the role it will play in the present and future will be a positive one. Developments and innovations such as autonomous cars, advanced prosthetic limbs, predator drones, etc. aim to assist humans in adequate situations. Artificial intelligence is often depicted as antagonistic, however, the testimonies of i...

  20. Circulatory Shock. Volume 34. Number 1. May 1991. International Conference on Shock (2nd), Meeting of European Shock Society (5th), Annual Meeting of the Shock Society (USA) (14th), Vienna Shock Form (3rd) Held in Vienna, Austria on 2-6 June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-06

    OCTADECENOATE, AS A BURN TOXIN Takayuki Ozawa, Mika Hayakawa, Kazuhiro Kosaka, Satoru Sugiyama, Kazuhisa Yokoo, Hisashi Aoyama, and Yohei Izawa Department...shock. 41 CARDIOPULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC AND PERIPHERAL CIRCULATORY RESPONSES IN SHOCK T. Muteki, N. Kaku. T. Fukushige, I. Kohno and T. Hiraki Department...Tadashi, 242 Machleidt, Werner, 213 Ozawa, Takayuki , 11 Kawarada, Yoshifumi, 442 Mackie, D.P., 348 Ozawa, Kazue, 268 Keser, Claudia, 380 Maitra, Subir R

  1. Data file on retention and excretion of inhaled radionuclides calculated using ICRP dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, Nobuhito; Nakano, Takashi; Enomoto, Hiroko; Shimo, Michikuni; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The authors have computed whole-body or a specific organ content and the daily urinary and faecal excretion rate of some selected radionuclides following acute intake by inhalation and ingestion, where the ICRP new respiratory tract model (ICRP Publication 66) and the latest ICRP biokinetic models were applied. The results were compiled in a file of MS Excel. The file was tentatively called MONDAI for reference. MONDAI contains the data for all radionuclides in ICRP Publications 54 and 78 and, in addition, some other radionuclides which are important from the viewpoint of occupational exposure in nuclear industry, research and medicine. They are H-3, P-32, Cr-51, Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-57, Co-58, Co-60, Zn-65, Rb-86, Sr-85, Sr-89, Sr-90, Zr-95, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-124, Sb-125, I-125, I-129, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ba-140, Ce-141, Ce-144, Hg-203, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 and Cf-252. The day-by-day data up to 1000 days and the data at every 10 days up to 10000 days are presented. The following ICRP default values for the physical characteristics of the radioactive aerosols were used: AMAD=5 micron, geometric SD=2.5, particle density = 3 g/cm 3 , particle shape factor = 1.5. The subject exposed to the aerosols is the ICRP reference worker doing light work: light exercise with the ventilation rate of 1.5 m 3 /h for 5.5 h + sitting with the ventilation rate of 0.54 m 3 /h for 2.5 h. MONDAI was originally made by Version 7.0 of MS Excel for Windows 95, but the file was saved in the form of Ver. 4.0 as well as Ver. 7.0. Therefore, if the user has Ver. 4.0 or an upper version, he can open the file and operate it. With the graph-wizard of MS Excel the user can easily make a diagram for the retention or daily excretion of a radionuclide of interest. The dose coefficient (Sv/Bq intake) of each radionuclide for each absorption type given in ICRP Publication 68 was also written in each sheet. Therefore

  2. On the functional measure for quantum gravity in the light-cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Ryusuke; Kimura, Toshiei

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the argument of Kaku and Senjanovic on the functional measure for quantum gravity holds irrespective of the order of the perturbation expansion in powers of the gravitational constant. Accordingly, the functional measure for quantum gravity coincides with that of Fradkin and Vilkovisky in the strict sense. The argument is carried out with the aid of two propositions in which we postulate that the inverse of the differential operator deltasub(-) = delta/delta x - (x - = (x 0 - x 3 )/√2) exists uniquely. (author)

  3. Strategic Family Therapy untuk Memperbaiki Komunikasi dalam Keluarga di Nganjuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Utami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subjek dalam studi kasus ini adalah anggota keluarga terdiri dari ibu (52 tahun, Anak laki-laki (35 tahun, Anak perempuan (30 tahun, menantu (32 tahun dan cucu (4 tahun.  Metode assesment yang digunakan adalah wawancara, observasi dan skala pengukuran. Hasil asesmen menunjukkan bahwa keluarga mengalami kegagalan dalam pola komunikasi, interaksi dalamkeluarga kaku dan saling menutup diri. Intervensi yang digunakan adalah strategic family therapy dalam enam sesi, yang bertujuan untuk mengubah komunikasi antar anggota keluarga. Hasil intervensi menunjukkan bahwa masing-masing anggota keluarga menjadi lebih terbuka dan tidak ada lagi salah paham antar anggota serta ada kerjasama dalam melaksanakan tanggungjawab terkait pekerjaan rumah tangga

  4. Einstein's cosmos how Albert Einstein's vision transformed our understanding of space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Kaku, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Few figures loom as large as Albert Einstein in our contemporary culture. It is truly remarkable that a man from such humble beginnings, an unemployed dreamer without a future or a job, who was written off by his professors as a hopeless loser, could to dare to scale the heights he reached. In this enlightening book Michio Kaku reasseses Einstein's work by centering on his three great theories - special relativity, general relativity and the Unified Field Theory. The first yielded the equation E =mc which is now such a fixture in our culture that it is practically a ubiquitous slogan. But the subsequent theories led to the Big Bang theory and have changed irrevocably the way we perceive time and space. Michio Kaku gives a new, refreshing look at the pioneering work of Einstein, giving a more accurate portrayal of his enduring legacy than previous biographies. As today's advanced physicists continue their intense search to fulfill Einstein's most cherished dream, a 'theory of everything', he is recognised as a...

  5. Chang Kai-shek's “Humanitarian Bombs” and the Mirage Known as the “Manchurian-Mongolian Problem”: New Japanese-Language Perspectives on the Transnational History of Modern East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hyun Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 20, 1938, two American-made Chinese airplanes—Martin B-10 monoplane bombers—took off from Ningbo, Fujian province, in the direction of southwestern Japan. Instead of dropping bombs, they released propaganda materials produced by the Nationalist Party (Guomindang, pleading with the industrial workers, farmers, and petty bourgeois citizens of Japan to stop fighting China and resist their militarist government. This “humanitarian bombardment,” masterminded by Chiang Kai-shek, is little known today—perhaps deservedly so, for it had its embarrassing features. For one, the planes never reached the strategically important areas and merely flew over sparsely populated regions of Kumamoto and Miyazaki prefectures. Further, the propaganda materials were either voluntarily turned over to or confiscated by the Japanese authorities almost as soon as they hit the ground. As far as we can tell, the operation had little impact on the Japanese attitude toward China or on the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945... Iechika Ryōko 家近亮子,Shō Kaiseki no gaikō senryaku to Nitchū sensō 蒋介石の外交戦略と日中戦争[Chiang Kai-shek's diplomatic strategies and the Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2012. ISBN: 978-4-00-025865-4. Nakami Tatsuo 中見立夫, 'Manmō mondai' no rekishiteki kōzu 満蒙問題の歴史的構図 [The historical composition of the “Manchurian-Mongolian problem”]. Tokyo: Daigaku Shuppankai, 2013. ISBN: 978-4-86-337131-6.

  6. Introduction to bosonic string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is an introductory set of five lectures on bosonic string theory. The first one deals with the classical theory of bosonic strings. The second and third lectures cover quantization. Three basic quantization methods are sketched: the old covariant formalism, the light-cone gauge quantization, where the spectrum is derived and the Polyakov path integral formalism and in particular the partition function at one loop. Finally, the last lecture covers interactions, low energy effective action, the general idea of compactification and in particular toroidal compactification. The notes are based on books by Green, Schwarz and Witten, Polchinski, Lust and Theissen and Kaku and review papers by D'Hocker and Phong and O. Alvarez. (author)

  7. Strings, conformal fields and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, Michio

    1991-01-01

    String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts

  8. ANIMASI METAMORFOSIS KUPU-KUPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamet Nofiadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kupu-kupu merupakan bagian dari biodiversitas yang harus dijaga kelestariannya. Kupu-kupu memberikan keuntungan bagi kehidupan manusia. Secara ekologis kupu-kupu memberikan sumbangan dalam menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem dan memperkaya biodiversitas. Pengenalan metamorfosa kupu-kupu indonesia yang digunakan masih menggunakan media berupa gambar yang terdapat di buku-buku, hal ini dinilai kurang efektif karena hanya dapat dilihat  pada  gambar mati dan berkesan kaku kurang menarik. Tetapi dengan menggunakan teknologi Animasi diharapkan dalam pembelajaran metamorfosis kupu-kupu dapat lebih menarik, modern dan lebih mudah  mendapatkan informasi dalam proses pembelajaran. Animasi ini dibangun dengan menggunakan Adobe flash sebagai media desain. Metode yang digunakan dalam pembuatan aplikasi animasi metamorfosa kupu-kupu indonesia adalah metode studi pustaka dan metode pengembangan multimedia versi Sutopo. Hasil akhir dari dibangunnya animasi ini adalah sebagai media pembelajaran metamorfosis kupu-kupu dalam bentuk animasi yang lebih menarik dan modern yang di buat dengan menggunakan adobe flash.

  9. Physico-chemical changes in grains of some advance lines/ varieties of rice (oryza sativa l.) after parboiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.; Haider, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the advance lines/varieties developed at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, including approved fragrant (Basmati) rice variety i.e., Basmati-2000, were used to assess interactive efficacy of parboiling on these varieties/lines and practical expediency of using standardized parboiling technique for improving nutritional, milling and cooking qualities of these lines/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain length and considerable rise in vitamin B6 contents, higher total milling recovery and head rice recovery in almost all the samples. While crude fiber, crude protein and crude fat decreased non-significantly. Furthermore, quality reducing factors such as number of broken grains, bursting and curling percentage of cooked rice were also reduced significantly in parboiled samples. It may, therefore, be suggested that parboiling offers a better alternative to conserve and increase nutritional, milling and cooking quality values of rice varieties/lines. Less percentage of broken, burst and curled grains may result in augmented net income. (author)

  10. DEKONSTRUKSI DALAM DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL: SEBUAH PENJELAJAHAN KEMUNGKINAN Studi Kasus Desain Iklan Rokok A-mild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy H. Istanto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Deconstruction%2C along with its post-modernism background that rooted in the philosophical thinking%2C appears to show that the set of the integrated and solid thought is now being sorted into its basis. The existence of the deconstruction can be seen as a part of the post-modernism which epistemologically has to acknowledge the reality that people should not follow inflexible way of thinking. This writing is trying to seek for the possibility of applying the deconstruction into the Visual Communication Design through analyzing A-Mild%2C a cigarette commercial. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dekonstruksi hadir dengan latar-belakang post-modernisme yang berdasarkan pemikiran filsafat bahwa susunan pemikiran yang begitu terpadu%2C yang tersusun rapi%2C kini dipilah-pilah sampai ke dasar-dasarnya. Kehadiran dekonstruksi dilihat sebagai bagian dari posmodernisme yang secara epistemologi atau filsafat pengetahuan%2C harus menerima suatu kenyataan bahwa manusia tidak boleh terpaku pada suatu sistim pemikiran yang begitu ketat dan kaku. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mencari kemungkinan penerapan dekonstruksi pada disiplin Desain Komunikasi Visual utamanya dengan menghadirkan desain iklan rokok A-mild sebagai studi kasus. Deconstruction%2C Visual Communication Design%2C Advertisement%2C A-Mild Advertisement.

  11. Hipertensi Sekunder akibat Perubahan Histologi Ginjal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetha Nadeak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginjal merupakan organ yang berperan penting dalam mengatur tekanan darah. Hipertensi merupakan penyakit kardiovaskular degeneratif dengan insidens yang meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. Sel juksta glomerular di dalam ginjal berperan penting dalam terjadinya hipertensi karena dalam juksta glomerulus dihasilkan renin. Renin berfungsi mengubah angiotensinogen menjadi angiotensinogen I, dan oleh pengaruh enzim proteolitik konvertase diubah menjadi angiotensin II yang berfungsi sebagai vasokonstriktor. Selanjutnya korteks kelenjar adrenal untuk melepaskan aldosteron yang mempengaruhi tubulus kontortus distalis untuk mereabsorbsi NaCl dan air. Kelainan pada sel juksta glomerular dapat mengakibatkan hipersekresi renin, sehingga mempengaruhi tekanan darah sistemik. Kelainan pembuluh darah yang sering menimbulkan hipertensi adalah stenosis (penyempitan karena aterosklerosis, displasia (stenosis non aterosklerosis dinding arteri di lapisan intima, lapisan media dan adventisia juga turut berperan. Di dalam lapisan intima terjadi fibroplasia intima, yaitu penimbunan jaringan fibrous sehingga lumen arteri menyempit. Pada lapisan media terjadi fibroplasia media, yaitu penimbunan jaringan fibrous dan atrofi otot polos, sehingga lumen arteri menyempit. Pada lapisan adventisia, terjadi penggantian dengan jaringan kolagen yang meluas ke jaringan ikat sehingga menjadi kaku dan sempit. Kelainan pada parenkim ginjal dapat berupa proliferasi sel dan jaringan parut. Jaringan parut itu akan menarik jaringan sekitarnya termasuk jaringan vaskular arteri interlobaris yang akan mengganggu vaskularisasi ginjal. Semua kelainan ini akan menimbulkan hipoksia ginjal, sehingga merangsang pelepasan renin yang berkibat terjadinya hipertensi renoparenkim dan renovaskular.

  12. RELIGIOUS RESPONSES TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatib A. Kadir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.

  13. A necrotic lung ball caused by co-infection with Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toshinobu Yokoyama, Jun Sasaki, Keita Matsumoto, Chie Koga, Yusuke Ito, Yoichiro Kaku, Morihiro Tajiri, Hiroki Natori, Masashi HirokawaDivision of Respirology, Neurology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, JapanIntroduction: A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.Case report: A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT of the chest. The patient was treated with ß-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan and serum ß-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by co-infection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.Conclusion: A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.Keywords: lung ball, necrotic lung ball, Candida, Streptococcus pneumoniae

  14. Kasus Serial : Aspirasi Peluit pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aci Mayang Sari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKasus aspirasi benda asing selalu memberikan tantangan bagi dokter spesialis Telinga Hidung TenggorokKepala dan Leher (THT-KL. Aspirasi benda asing lebih sering terjadi pada anak-anak khususnya pada umur 1-3tahun dan jarang terjadi pada dewasa. Aspirasi peluit pada anak merupakan kasus yang banyak terjadi pada golonganbenda asing anorganik. Untuk menegakkan diagnosis aspirasi benda asing diperlukan ketajaman anamnesis,pemeriksaan fisik dan hasil radiografi. Bronkoskopi merupakan teknik yang digunakan sebagai alat diagnostik danterapeutik pada kasus aspirasi benda asing. Kasus aspirasi peluit pada tiga orang anak (2 laki-laki dan 1 perempuantelah dilaporkan dan ditatalaksana menggunakan teknik bronkoskopi kaku.Kata kunci: Aspirasi benda asing, benda asing peluit, bronkoskopiAbstractForeign body aspiration continues to provide challenges for otorhinolaryngologists. Foreign body aspiration ismore common in children, especially at the age of 1-3 years and rarely occurs in adults. Whistle aspiration in childrenis a case that occurs in many inorganic foreign body type. The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration based ondiscernment anamnesis, physical examination and radiographic results. Bronchoscopy is a technique that is used as adiagnostic and therapeutic tool in cases of foreign body aspiration.Cases of whistle aspiration in 3 children (2 malesand 1 femalewas reported and treated using rigid bronchoscopy technique. Arial 9 italicKeywords: foreign body aspiration, a whistle foreign body, bronchoscopy.

  15. Batendo à porta do céu o bóson de Higgs e como a física modern ilumina o universo

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Nesta obra a autora conduz seu mais novo trabalho, seduzindo o leitor pelas descobertas e teorias mais recentes da fisica, conforme realiza uma apaixonada - e necessaria - defesa da importancia da ciencia em nossas vidas. Na veia de autores como Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku, Brian Greene e Carl Sagan, Randall explora seculos de conhecimento cientifico para tracar uma rica e esclarecedora historia do nosso Universo - do seu nascimento ate a inevitavel morte. Explica tambem o funcionamento do LHC, o maior acelerador de particulas do mundo, uma estrutura gigantesca construida na Suica que vem ajudando cientistas de todo o mundo a solucionar os misterios da materia e da origem da vida. Num capitulo feito especialmente apos a descoberta do boson de Higgs, a chamada 'particula de Deus', Randall elucida as consequencias deste que e um dos mais importantes avancos da historia da fisica. Valendo-se de uma prosa agil e explicativa, e travando um dialogo com profissionais de diversas areas, como roteiristas de cinema, c...

  16. From Planck Constant to Isomorphicity Through Justice Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-05-01

    Robert E. Scott in his ``Chaos theory and the Justice Paradox'', William & Mary Law Review, v 35, I 1, 329 (1993) wrotes''...As we approach the 21-st Century, the signs of social disarray are everywhere. Social critics observe the breakdown of core structure - the nuclear family, schools, neighborhoods & political groups''. For completions for ``soliton'' first coined by Morikazu TODA, comparing the ``Soliton on Scott-Russell aqueduct on the Union Canal near Heriot-WATT University, July 12, 1995 to Michael Stock works: ``a Fine WATT-Balance: Determination of Planck constant & Redefinition of Kilogram'', January 2011, we can concludes the inherencies between `chaos' & `soliton'. Further through ``string theory'' from Michio KAKU sought statements from Peter Mayr: Stringy world brane & Exponential hierarchy'', JHEP 11 (2000): ``if the 5-brane is embedded in flat 10-D space time, the 6-D Planck mass on the brane is infinite'' who also describes the relation of isomorphicity & ``string theory'', from whom denotes the smart city. Replace this text with your abstract body. Incredible acknowledgments to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Dr-HC Jakob OETAMA.

  17. TINDAK TUTUR SANTUN SEBAGAI STRATEGI PEMILIHAN BAHASA UNTUK KOMUNIKASI KONSELOR YANG EFEKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyani -

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa memiliki peran penting dalam proses konseling. Diakui atau tidak, salah satu faktor keberhasilan konseling ditentukan oleh ketepatan pemilihan bahasa seorang konselor. Melalui bahasa, pesan yang ingin disampaikan konselor akan diterima oleh klien, begitu sebaliknya. Maka dari itu, perlu adanya strategi pemilihan bahasa agar konseling menjadi efektif. Tindak tutur santun sebagai strategi pemilihan bahasa untuk komunikasi konseling yang efektif sangat tepat. Terdapat tiga kaidah yang harus dipatuhi agar tuturan memiliki ciri santun. Ketiga kaidah itu yakni formalitas (formality, ketidaktegasan (hesitancy, dan kesamaan atau kesekawanan (equality. Intinya, dalam kaidah pertama terkandung maksud tuturan hendaknya harus bersifat formal, jangan terkesan memaksa, dan jangan terkesan angkuh. Pada kaidah kedua, terkandung makna agar penutur memberikan pilihan kepada mitra tutur, jangan terlalu tegas, atau bahkan bersifat kaku dalam bertutur, sedangkan pada kaidah ketiga terkandung makna agar penutur memperlakukan mitra tutur sebagai teman penutur. Sebagai seorang teman, si mitra tutur haruslah dapat merasa aman, sama, dan sejajar dengan si penutur. Penutur adalah konselor sedangkan mitra tutur adalah klien. Jadi, melalui pemilihan kaidah-kaidah dalam tindak tutur santun dapat menjadi alternatif strategi pemilihan bahasa untuk komunikasi konselor yang efektif.

  18. PERANCANGAN GAMIFIKASI BERBASIS APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY UNTUK PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING E-MARKETPLACE UMKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acun Kardianawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tantangan terhadap pesatnya perkembangan Usaha Mikro, Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM adalah bagaimana UMKM dapat menemukan strategi yang tepat untuk memenangkan persaingan. Inovasi pada e-marketplace UMKM adalah salah satu cara yang efektif dalam usaha untuk memenangkan persaingan, yang antara lain dapat diterapkan pada sistem transaksi online. Sistem transaksi online adalah salah satu elemen vital dari e-marketplace yang dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan elemen dari game desain yang disebut dengan gamifikasi untuk meningkatkan pengalaman, loyalty, brand awareness, dan motivasi pembeli dalam melakukan transaksi. Permasalahan yang sering terjadi dalam gamifikasi ini adalah pada konsep dan desain yang tidak sistematis, pola desain yang sempit dan kaku, terlalu berorientasi pada reward dan tidak berorientasi pada pengguna. Berkaitan dengan permasalahan ini, gamifikasi yang bertujuan mempengaruhi perilaku pengguna selaras dengan konsep Appreciative Inquiry (AI sehingga dapat diterapkan pada desain gamifikasi. Analisa dengan Appreciative Inquiry menghasilkan penerapan gamifikasi yang dilakukan pada eksplorasi dan pemilihan produk untuk mendorong pengguna untuk sering melihat produk-produk UMKM. Penerapan gamifikasi tersebut ditujukan untuk pembeli dan penjual, dimana dari sisi pembeli dapat memotivasi dalam melihat-lihat produk dan dari sisi penjual termotivasi dalam hal penyajian produknya. Gamifikasi ini memberikan keunikan dan pembeda dari pesaing serta dapat meningkatkan kemungkinan pembelian produk. Ranking produk yang paling sering dilihat juga memotivasi penjual atau penyedia produk untuk dapat menyajikan produknya dengan sebaik-baiknya. Dengan hal-hal tersebut maka akan dapat meningkatkan daya saing dari E-Marketplace UMKM. Kata Kunci: gamifikasi, Appreciative Inquiry, E-Marketplace, UMKM.

  19. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    seluruh aspek kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia. Proses ini terus berlangsung hingga sekarang serta menciptakan gelombang perubahan berkesinambungan dalam pemikiran, ideologi, dan praktik-praktik dalam kompleksitas yang rumit. Penafsiran kaku atas ayat-ayat Quran sebenarnya bukanlah sesuatu yang baru, berbeda dengan apa yang selama ini diasumsikan di media. Fenomena seperti ini dapat dirunut kembali pada era 1800an, khususnya pada konflik bersenjata yang terjadi antara penganjur penerapan tekstual ajaran Islam dengan para penganut ideologi tradisional dan penjajah, yang berpuncak pada Perang Padri di Sumatra Barat tahun 1821-38. Dengan ideologi serupa, para ideolog modern dari kelompok garis keras, seperti Abu Bakar Bashir, mendorong pengikutnya untuk melakukan aksi kekerasan dan teror dengan mendasarkan diri pada ideologi ala Timur Tengah dengan penafsiran dasar-dasar Islam secara kaku. Tulisan ini mendalilkan bahwa strategi kelompok yang mengusung ideologi radikal dan kekerasan terus mengalami perubahan seiring perubahan strategi penguasa dalam menghadapi mereka. Strategi kelompok radikal telah berubah dari penyerangan berskala besar terhadap simbol-simbol asing bergeser pada kekerasan berskala kecil terutama pada persoalan penerapan hukum. Pemerintah, di sisi lain, cenderung mengambil tindakan tegas terhadap mereka yang diduga terlibat kekerasan kelompok radikal. Tulisan ini juga melihat perubahan-perubahan dan kesinambungan strategi dari kelompok radikal serta evolusi ideologi Islam yang menjustifikasi aksi-aksi kekerasan. Kesimpulan lainnya adalah bahwa keterlibatan kalangan muda dalam kegiatan dialog mengenai Islam dan demokrasi menjadikan mereka terhindar sekaligus memutus rantai rekrutmen gerakan radikal dan terorisme.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT FISIK KAYU JABON(Anthocephalus cadamba Miq PADA ARAH LONGITUDINAL DAN RADIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Widiyanto

    2017-06-01

    , Kabupaten Garut, Provinsi Jawa Barat.Parameter-parameter sifat fisika kayu yang diukur adalah kadar air segar (KAS, kadar air kering udara (KAKU,  berat jenis pada volume segar (BJS dan berat jenis pada volume kering udara (BJKU. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kayu jabon memiliki KAS rata-rata  118,43%, KAKU  15,36%, BJS 0,33 dan BJKU  0,37.Berat jenis kayu jabon berbeda sangat nyata pada arah longitudinal maupun radial, sedangkan KAS dan KAS berbeda nyata untuk arah arah radial tetapi relatif seragam pada arah longitudinal.  KAS kayu jabon pada arah radial memiliki pola sebaran menurun dari arah dekat empulur ke bagian tengah, kemudian meningkat ke arah sisi; sementara KAKU menurun secara konsisten dari bagian dekat empulur ke bagian dekat kulit. Berat jenis kayu jabon pada arah longitudinal memiliki pola sebaran meningkat secara konsisten dari bagian pangkal ke bagian ujung. Pola sebaran berat jenis pada arah radial meningkat secara konsisten dari bagian dekat empulur ke arah kulit kayu.

  1. Physical Validation of GPM Retrieval Algorithms Over Land: An Overview of the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Jensen, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The joint NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) -- DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was conducted from April 22-June 6, 2011, centered on the DOE-ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility site in northern Oklahoma. GPM field campaign objectives focused on the collection of airborne and ground-based measurements of warm-season continental precipitation processes to support refinement of GPM retrieval algorithm physics over land, and to improve the fidelity of coupled cloud resolving and land-surface satellite simulator models. DOE ARM objectives were synergistically focused on relating observations of cloud microphysics and the surrounding environment to feedbacks on convective system dynamics, an effort driven by the need to better represent those interactions in numerical modeling frameworks. More specific topics addressed by MC3E include ice processes and ice characteristics as coupled to precipitation at the surface and radiometer signals measured in space, the correlation properties of rainfall and drop size distributions and impacts on dual-frequency radar retrieval algorithms, the transition of cloud water to rain water (e.g., autoconversion processes) and the vertical distribution of cloud water in precipitating clouds, and vertical draft structure statistics in cumulus convection. The MC3E observational strategy relied on NASA ER-2 high-altitude airborne multi-frequency radar (HIWRAP Ka-Ku band) and radiometer (AMPR, CoSMIR; 10-183 GHz) sampling (a GPM "proxy") over an atmospheric column being simultaneously profiled in situ by the University of North Dakota Citation microphysics aircraft, an array of ground-based multi-frequency scanning polarimetric radars (DOE Ka-W, X and C-band; NASA D3R Ka-Ku and NPOL S-bands) and wind-profilers (S/UHF bands), supported by a dense network of over 20 disdrometers and rain gauges, all nested in the coverage of a six-station mesoscale rawinsonde

  2. Desain Bahan Ajar Mata Kuliah Pendidikan Agama Islam dengan Pendekatan Integratif-Interkonektif antara Religious Studies, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, dan Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dicotomy differentiation between religious and general studies affected islamic studies become stiff and rigid. So it is less responsive to the challenge and demand of developing era. This research is aimed to arrange a new handbook of Islamic education which is spirited by ethos and breath of reintegrative epistemology between religious studies and general studies, such as: natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meanwhile the result targeted of this research is: (1 a new islamic education syllabus which is balance with principals of islamic studies through integrative-interconnective approach (interdisciplinary; (2 A new islamic education handbook with integrative-interconnective approach which is accepted both theoretically and practically; (3 The design of Islamic education’s teaching plan in one semester presented in 16 meetings which is tested in teaching and learning process; (4 Islamic education’s teaching scenario through a new teaching material which is able to implement the mission of islamic studies interdisciplinarily. Pemilahan secara dikotomis terhadap studi agama dan studi umum menjadi sulit dan kaku. Sehingga kurang responsif terhadap tantangan dan permintaan pengembangan era. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat ulang buku pegangan baru pendidikan Islam yang berenergi oleh etos dan napas epistemologi baru antara studi agama dan studi umum, seperti: ilmu alam, ilmu sosial, dan humaniora. Sementara itu hasil yang ditargetkan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 silabus pendidikan Islam baru yang seimbang pada prinsip studi Islam melalui pendekatan integratif-interkonektif (interdisipliner; (2 sebuah buku pegangan pendidikan islam yang baru dengan pendekatan integratif-interkonektif yang dapat diterima baik secara teoritis dan praktis; (3 Rancangan rencana pengajaran pendidikan Islam dalam satu semester disajikan dalam 16 pertemuan yang diuji dalam proses belajar dan proses pengajaran; (4 Skema pengajaran pendidikan

  3. BIAS GENDER DALAM KONSTRUKSI HUKUM ISLAM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikul Hadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keluarga merupakan unit terkecil dari masyarakat.Pengaturan peran laki-laki dan perempuan dalamkeluarga berdampak pada peran dan kedudukannya dalam masyarakat. Rumusan dalam Kompilasi Hukum Islam (KID yang membedakan peran perempuan dan laki Iaki perlu  dikritisi.Pembagian peran di dalam Kompilasi Hukum Islam (KHl yang sangat patriarkis dalam banyak hal cenderung banyak diilhami oleh aturan aturan jauh sebelumnya yang bersifat diskriminati.  Ditingkat nasional, pemerintah Indonesia pada tahun 1974melakukan reformasi hukum keluarga berupa Undang Undang Perkawinan Nomor 1/1974 yang kemudian dilengkapi dengan Kompilasi Hukum Islam. Pada aturanfornal pemerintah itu, dapat ditemukan sejumlah normayang ambivalen. Di satu pihak pemerintah mengakuilegal capacity kaum perempuan, di satu pihak justru mengukuhkan peranan berdasarkan jenis kelamin (sexroles dan stereotype terhadap perempuan dan laki laki dengan membagi secara kaku, peran perempuan di sektor domestik dan peran laki-Iaki di sektor publik. Kata Kunci: Rekonstruksi, Gender, Kompilasi Hukum Islam   The family is the smallest unit of society. Setting theroles of men and women in the family have an impact onthe role and position in society. The formulation in theCompilation of Islamic Law which distinguish the roleof women and male-to be scrutinized. The division ofroles in the Compilation of Islamic Law very patriarchalin many cases tend to more or less inspired by the rulesahead of time that is diskriminati. At the national level,the Indonesian government in 1974 to reform familylaws such as the Marriage Law No. 1/1974 which wasthen fitted with Islamic Law Compilation. Fornal on therules of the government, can be found a number of normswere ambivalent. On the one hand it recognizes the legalcapacity of women, on the one hand it confirms the roleof gender (sex roles and stereotypes of women and menby dividing rigidly, the role of women in the domestiksector and the role of male-in the public

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory Falling Snow Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Kulie, M.; Milani, L.; Munchak, S. J.; Wood, N.; Levizzani, V.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding and linking the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. This work focuses on comparing the first stable falling snow retrieval products (released May 2017) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (GPM-CO), which was launched February 2014, and carries both an active dual frequency (Ku- and Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR) and a passive microwave radiometer (GPM Microwave Imager-GMI). Five separate GPM-CO falling snow retrieval algorithm products are analyzed including those from DPR Matched (Ka+Ku) Scan, DPR Normal Scan (Ku), DPR High Sensitivity Scan (Ka), combined DPR+GMI, and GMI. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new, the different on-orbit instruments don't capture all snow rates equally, and retrieval algorithms differ. Thus a detailed comparison among the GPM-CO products elucidates advantages and disadvantages of the retrievals. GPM and CloudSat global snowfall evaluation exercises are natural investigative pathways to explore, but caution must be undertaken when analyzing these datasets for comparative purposes. This work includes outlining the challenges associated with comparing GPM-CO to CloudSat satellite snow estimates due to the different sampling, algorithms, and instrument capabilities. We will highlight some factors and assumptions that can be altered or statistically normalized and applied in an effort to make comparisons between GPM and CloudSat global satellite falling snow products as equitable as possible.

  5. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Tumor Ganas Laring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Irfandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Laring berperan dalam koordinasi fungsi saluran aerodigestif atas seperti bernafas, berbicara dan menelan.Laring terbagi tiga yaitu supraglotis, glotis dan subglotis. Laring merupakan daerah tersering kedua untuk kasuskarsinoma sel skuamosa kepala-leher, biasanya berhubungan dengan tembakau dan alkohol. Lebih dari 95% kasustumor ganas laring adalah karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pasien tumor ganas laring datang dengan berbagai keluhanseperti disfonia, obstruksi jalan napas, disfagia, odinofagi dan hemoptisis. Diagnosis tumor ganas laring ditegakkanberdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis menggunakan endoskopi kaku, serat optik dan biopsi. Penatalaksanaantumor ganas laring tergantung stadium dengan modalitas berupa operasi, kemoterapi, radiasi atau terapi kombinasi.Dilaporkan kasus laki-laki 53 tahun dengan karsinoma glotis stadium III (T3N0M0 squamous cell ca keratinized welldifferentiated. Penatalaksanaan pada pasien ini dengan melakukan laringektomi total.Kata kunci: Tumor ganas laring, karsinoma, laringektomi, tembakau Abstract Larynx plays a certain role in coordinating functions of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as respiration,speech, and swallowing. The larynx is divided into three region; supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic. Larynx is thesecond most common site for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck and usually related to tobacco andalcohol exposure. Primary malignant tumors of the larynx are squamous cell carcinomas can found more than 95% ofcases. Patients with laryngeal tumors usually present with complaints of hoarseness, respiratory obstruction,dysphagia, odynophagia and hemoptysis. Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is made by medical history, clinicalexamination using a rigid or fiberoptic endoscope and biopsy. Management of laryngeal tumour depends on stadiumwith various modality included surgery, chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy or combined therapy. Reported case of 53years old male with Glottic carcinoma of the larynx

  6. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR, was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Level 2 products during their overlapping periods at the global scale to investigate their similarities and DPR’s improvements concerning precipitation amount estimation and type classification of GPM DPR over TRMM PR. Results show that PR and DPR agree very well with each other in the global distribution of precipitation, while DPR improves the detectability of precipitation events significantly, particularly for light precipitation. The occurrences of total precipitation and the light precipitation (rain rates < 1 mm/h detected by GPM DPR are ~1.7 and ~2.53 times more than that of PR. With regard to type classification, the dual-frequency (Ka/Ku and single frequency (Ku methods performed similarly. In both inner (the central 25 beams and outer swaths (1–12 beams and 38–49 beams of DPR, the results are consistent. GPM DPR improves precipitation type classification remarkably, reducing the misclassification of clouds and noise signals as precipitation type “other” from 10.14% of TRMM PR to 0.5%. Generally, GPM DPR exhibits the same type division for around 82.89% (71.02% of stratiform (convective precipitation events recognized by TRMM PR. With regard to the freezing level height and bright band (BB height, both radars correspond with each other very well, contributing to the consistency in stratiform precipitation classification. Both heights show clear latitudinal dependence. Results in this study shall contribute to future development of spaceborne

  7. Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar Pengembangan Modul Berpendekatan Hypercontent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Salma Prawiradilaga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini menguraikan prinsip-prinsip dasar pengembangan modul dengan pendekatan hypercontent. Berbeda dengan modul konvensional yang berlogika linier, prosedural, dan relatif kaku, modul berpendekatan hypercontent didesain menggunakan logika postmodern yang relatif non-linier, acak, dan fleksibel. Dengan demikian desain modul berpendekatan hypercontent memberikan kesempatan bagi penggunanya untuk mempelajari dari sisi mana saja sesuai kebutuhan belajar. Tidak diharuskan memulai dari materi yang berada pada urutan pertama. Pendekatan hypercontent mengarahkan desain modul diperkaya oleh sumber-sumber belajar di dunia maya. Caranya dengan membuat tautan ke laman website, saluran YouTube, dan lainnya melalui URL, QR code dan sejenisnya. Pendekatan hypercontent dipadukan dengan pendekatan technological, pedagogical, content-knowledge menjadikan substansi modul yang dikembangkan lengkap dilihat dari sisi kesesuaian dan kekayaan materi serta kesesuaian pendekatan pedagogiknya. This article describes the basic foundations of the module development using hypercontent approach. Different from the conventional one wich is more linier, procedural, and rigid, hypercontent approach module are developed under postmodern logic of thinking which is more non-linear, non-sequential, and flexible. Thus, hypercontent modul open an opportunity for the student to use it in non-sequential and non-procedural ways according to their own learning need wich are different from one another. In this case there is no obligation to start the learning process from the first chapter. Hypercontent module approach also enriched its content by lots of learning resources from the internet by creating linkages to several appropriates webpages, YouTube channels, and others via URL, QR code and etc. Hypercontent approach combined with technological, pedagogical, content-knowledge approach make the substance of the modul more complete in terms of its pedagogical appropriateness and

  8. Investigating water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Dahri, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at PARC's research station Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, in order to calculate the water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods in a combined harvested paddy filed. The sowing methods were direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method. Data were collected during 2008-09. Wheat-yield was 2750 kg/ha, 2665 kg/ha and 2610 kg/ha for direct drilling with F MI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method, respectively. The direct drilling in heavy residue gave 5.4 % more yield than the conventional method and 3.2 % more yield than zero tillage. The zero tillage ensured 2.1% more yield than the conventional method. The net water applied as 323, 354, and 380 mm for direct drilling with FMI seeder, zero tillage and conventional methods respectively against the potential crop evapotranspiration of 383 mm. This indicates that the direct drilling of wheat-crop in heave rice stubbles saves 15% irrigation water as compared to conventional method and 8.8% over zero tillage. The zero tillage method saves 6.8 % of irrigation water over the conventional method. The water productivity was found to be 0.851 kg/m3. 0.753 kg/m/sup 3/ and 0.687 kg/m/sup 3/ for direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates that the direct drilling ensures 23.9% increase in water productivity over conventional method and 13.01% over zero tillage. The zero tillage gave 9.6% more water productivity than the conventional method. The costs of production for the three sowing methods were Rs. 39123/ha, Rs.43737/ha and Rs. 53047/ha for direct drilling, zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates an overall saving of Rs. 13924/ha (26.2 %) by the direct drilling method as compared to the conventional method and Rs. 4613/ha (10.5%) over zero tillage method. The zero tillage saves Rs. 9319/ha (17.6 %) over the conventional method. Thus, the resource

  9. DAMPAK PELATIHAN BAHASA INGGRIS TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERBICARA DAN KEPERCAYAAN DIRI TOURISTS GUIDE (STUDI KASUS DI PKBM BINA TERAMPIL MANDIRI CISARUA BANDUNG BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Mahmud Firdaus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah rendahnya kepercayaan diri tourist guides dalam memberikan layanan kepada turis asing karena kesulitan berkomunikasi menggunakan bahasa Inggris dan rendahnya penguasaan bahasa Inggris para tourist guides asing terutama keterampilan berbicara (speaking. Kepercayaan diri merupakan suatu sikap atau keyakinan atas kemampuan diri sendiri sehingga dalam tindakan-tindakannya tidak terlalu cemas, merasa bebas untuk melakukan hal-hal yang sesuai keinginan dan tanggung jawab atas perbuatannya. Seseorang dikatakan memiliki kemampuan berbicara jika memiliki enam kriteria yaitu dapat berpartisipasi dalam percakapan singkat dalam konteks rutin dengan topik yang menarik, dapat berkomunikasi dengan nyaman dan baik, tanpa kaku karena batasan linguistik dalam kehidupan sosial dan pribadi, dapat membuat percakapan atau mengungkapkan apa yang ingin dikatakan, dapat menggunakan pengantar bahasa dan ungkapan-ungkapan, dapat menggunakan bahasa secara fleksibel dan efektif untuk tujuan sosial, termasuk emosional, sindiran dan gurauan, dan dapat terlibat dalam percakapan yang lebih mendalam pada topik yang dibicarakan. Pelatihan adalah suatu bagian dari pendidikan yang menyangkut  proses  belajar  untuk  memperoleh  dan meningkatkan keterampilan di luar sistem pendidikan yang berlaku, dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dan dengan metode yang lebih mengutamakan praktek daripada teori. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menelaah kepercayaan diri tourists guide sebelum dan sesudah  diberi pelatihan dan untuk menelaah kemampuan berbicara tourist guide setelah diberikan pelatihan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif analitik, dalam penelitian ini, peneliti memilih empat sampel responden dan melakukan wawancara untuk mengumpulkan informasi tentang variabel penelitian yang diamati yaitu tourist guide oleh PKBM Bina Terampil Mandiri, selain itu juga melakukan observasi kepada proses

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed., Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Historia y actualidad. Clío en la posada. Madrid, Actas, 2002, 402 pp.Páginas 141-143Alejandro Román AntequeraHardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Imperio. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 432 pp.Páginas 143-145Jesús Fernández GarcíaHowson, Gerald, Armas para España. La historia no contada de la Guerra Civil Española. Barcelona, Península, 2000, 450 pp.Páginas 145-148Roberto Germán Fandiño PérezKaku, Michio, Visiones: cómo la ciencia revolucionará la materia, la vida y la mente en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Debate, 1998, 484 pp.Páginas 148-150Rafael Gómez SánchezLemus López, Encarnación, En Hamelin... la Transición española más allá de la frontera. Oviedo, Septem Ediciones, 2001, 158 pp.Páginas 150-153Julio Pérez SerranoSalazar Vergara, Gabriel, Labradores, peones y proletarios. Formación y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo XIX. Santiago de Chile, LOM Ediciones, 2000, 3ª ed., 334 pp.Páginas 153-155Leonardo Mazzei de GraziaSantacreu Soler, José Miguel, Peseta y política: Historia de la peseta, 1868-2001. Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 2002, 196 pp.Página 155Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

  11. Magnetic Dinner Salads: The Role of Biogenic Magnetite in Cryopreservation for Common Food Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenically-precipitated magnetite has been found in organisms ranging from Bacteria, single-celled protists, and many of the animal phyla, where its major function is navigation and magnetoreception. To date there is but a single report of biogenic magnetite in plants (essentially, magnetoferritin), and that is in common grass (Festuca species, from Gajdardziska-Josifovska et. al. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013/0863). Recent developments in cryopreservation suggest that ~ 1 mT, ~ 10 Hz oscillating magnetic fields can drastically reduce ice nucleation during freezing, promote supercooling, and minimize cellular damage in living tissues (e.g., Kaku et al., doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.001). Kobayashi & Kirschvink (2014, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.12.002) suggest that biogenic magnetite crystals could be the nucleating site for damaging ice crystals, and that they would be driven magneto-mechanically to rotate in those oscillating fields which could inhibit the ice crystal nucleation process. This prompted our investigation into the magnetite content of ordinary fruit and vegetable food products, as knowledge of the natural levels of biogenic magnetite in the human food supply could guide the selection of which foods might work for this type of cryopreservation. Our study involved a range of common foods including avocados, bananas, garlic, and apples. Samples were prepared in a clean lab environment kept free of contaminant particles, and subjected to a variety of standard rock-magnetic tests including IRM and ARM acquisition, and the corresponding Af demagnetization, on a standard 2G™ SRM. Results are consistent with moderately interacting single-domain magnetite (see figure), with moderate inter-particle interaction effects. Typical magnetite concentrations in these samples are in the range of .1 to 1 ng/g for room temperature samples, increasing to the range of 1-10 ng/g when measured frozen (to inhibit thermal rotation of small particles and clumps). If

  12. Visions of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Raymond Y.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Leggett, Anthony J.; Phillips, William D.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    List of contributors; Foreword Charles H. Townes; Editors' preface; Preface Freeman J. Dyson; Laureates' preface: reflections from four physics Nobelists Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodore W. Hänsch and Wolfgang Ketterle; Acknowledgments; Part I. Illumination: The History and Future of Physical Science and Technology: 1. A short history of light in the Western world John L. Heilbron; 2. Tools and innovation Peter L. Galison; 3. The future of science Freeman J. Dyson; 4. The end of everything: will AI replace humans? Will everything die when the universe freezes over? Michio Kaku; Part II. Fundamental Physics and Quantum Mechanics: 5. Fundamental constants Frank Wilczek; 6. New insights on time symmetry in quantum mechanics Yakir Aharonov and Jeffrey Tollaksen; 7. The major unknowns in particle physics and cosmology David J. Gross; 8. The major unknown in quantum mechanics: Is it the whole truth? Anthony J. Leggett; 9. Precision cosmology and the landscape Raphael Bousso; 10. Hairy black holes, phase transitions, and AdS/CFT Steven S. Gubser; Part III. Astrophysics and Astronomy: 11. The microwave background: a cosmic time machine Adrian T. Lee; 12. Dark matter and dark energy Marc Kamionkowski; 13. New directions and intersections for observational cosmology: the case of dark energy Saul Perlmutter; 14. Inward bound: high-resolution astronomy and the quest for black holes and extrasolar planets Reinhard Genzel; 15. Searching for signatures of life beyond the solar system: astrophysical interferometry and the 150 km Exo-Earth Imager Antoine Labeyrie; 16. New directions for gravitational wave physics via 'Millikan oil drops' Raymond Y. Chiao; 17. An 'ultrasonic' image of the embryonic universe: CMB polarization tests of the inflationary paradigm Brian G. Keating; Part IV. New Approaches in Technology and Science: 18. Visualizing complexity: development of 4D microscopy and diffraction for imaging in space and time Ahmed H. Zewail; 19. Is life based on laws of

  13. Toluidine Blue Vital Staining sebagai Alat Bantu Diagnostik pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Lidah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suhartiningtyas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral (KSSO merupakan salah satu kanker mulut yang paling sering terjadi. Deteksi dini kanker mulut menyulitkan oleh karena etiologi yang tidak pasti dan gambaran klinis yang tidak khas. Toluidine blue vital staining (TBVS dilaporkan dapat membantu penegakan diagnosis KSSO. Tujuan. Penulisan ini bertujuan melaporkan kasus KSSO di lidah yang terdiagnosis melalui TBVS. Kasus dan penanganannya. Laki-laki 77 tahun dengan gigi tiruan lengkap mengeluhkan sakit pada lidah sejak 2 minggu lalu, yang tidak sembuh dengan terapi konvensional. Pasien adalah perokok berat selama 60 tahun. Temuan klinis menunujukkan ulkus soliter berdiameter 2,5 cm pada ventral lidah, tepi membulat, indurasi dan tertutup pseudomembran putih. Temuan lain berupa kandidas mulut pada mukosa palatal, kedua sudut mulut dan dorsum lidah. Berdasar anamnesis dan pemeriksaan klinis, dicurigai adanya keganasan pada lesi lidah. Perawatan awal ditujuan untuk pembersihan rongga mulut, terapi anti jamur dan perbaikan status nutrisi. Lima hari kemudian, dilaporkan adanya kaku lidah dan gangguan fungsi mulut. Klinis tampak ulkus pada lidah semakin dalam dan melebar, untuk memastikan kecurigaan keganasan dilaksanakan pemeriksaan TBVS. Hasil pemeriksaan positif sehingga ditegakkan diagnosis kerja KSSO. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut, pasien dikirim ke Klinik Bedah Mulut Rumah Sakit Dr. Sarjito. Hasil biopsi positif menunjukkan KSSO, selanjutnya pasien dirujuk ke Klinik Onkologi. Kesimpulan. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral memiliki gambaran klinis tidak khas sehingga penyakit ini sulit terdeteksi secara dini. Diagnosis dan perawatan dini KSSO akan meningkatkan survival rate dan kualitas hidup penderitanya. Metode pemeriksaan diagnostic bantu dengan TBVS sangat membantu dalam penegakan diagnosis keganasan di rongga mulut.   Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most oral cancers occurred. Early detection of oral cancer is difficult due to uncertain

  14. Pola Tekanan Darah Pada Lansia di Posyandu Lansia Kelurahan Padang Pasir Padang Januari 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Konita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSaat ini, di seluruh dunia jumlah penduduk lanjut usia diperkirakan mencapai 500 juta, dan diperkirakan pada tahun 2025 akan mencapai 1,2 milyar. Berdasarkan data penduduk mutakhir, jumlah penduduk lanjut usia di Indonesia sekarang sekitar 16 juta jiwa. Pada tahun 2025, jumlah penduduk Indonesia diproyeksikan mencapai 273 juta jiwa, dan hampir seperempat dari jumlah penduduk tersebut atau sekitar 62,4 juta jiwa tergolong sekelompok penduduk lanjut usia.Menjadi lanjut usia adalah suatu proses menghilangnya secara perlahan kemampuan jaringan untuk memperbaiki diri atau mengganti diri dan mempertahankan struktur dan fungsi normalnya.Kemunduran struktur dan fungsi organ juga terjadi pada sistem kardiovaskular, salah satunya adalah dinding arteri telah menebal dan kaku karena arteriosklerosis sehingga darah dipaksa untuk melalui pembuluh yang sempit daripada biasanya dan menyebabkan naiknya tekanan darah dan menimbulkan berbagai komplikasi yang mengancam jiwa.Penelitian dilakukan pada lansia di posyandu lansia Kelurahan Padang Pasir pada Januari 2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional dengan jenis cross sectional study dengan jumlah sampel 17 lansia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pengukuran tekanan darah langsung kepada lansia. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa 11 dari 17 lansia (64,7% menderita hipertensi. Kelompok umur terbanyak yang menderita hipertensi dalam rentang 60-65 tahun, dan angka kejadian wanita lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan laki-laki serta stadium hipertensi yang dominan adalah stadium satu (140-159/90-99. Dari 11 lansia hipertensi, 10 diantaranya (90,9% menderita hipertensi sistolik terisolasi.Kata Kunci: lansia, tekanan darah, hipertensi sistolik terisolasiAbstractCurrently, the worldwide number of elderly people is expected to reach 500 million, and is expected in 2025 will reach 1.2 billion. Based on the latest population data, the number of elderly people in Indonesia now around 16 million people. In 2025