WorldWideScience

Sample records for kaiser permanente vaccine

  1. Kaiser Permanente's "metadata-driven" national clinical intranet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, R H; Boles, M; Dolin, R; Green, S; Hanifin, S; Hochhalter, B; Inglesis, R; Ivory, M; Levy, D; Nadspal, K; Rae, M A; Rucks, C J; Snyder, A; Stibolt, T; Stiefel, M; Travis, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to build Kaiser Permanente's national clinical intranet. A primary objective for the site is to facilitate resource discovery, which is enabled by the use of "metadata", or data (fields and field values) that describe the various resources available. Users can perform full text queries and/or fielded searching against the metadata. Metadata serves as the organizing principle of the site--it is used to index documents, sort search results, and structure the site's table of contents. The site's use of metadata--what it is, how it is created, how it is applied to documents, how it is indexed, how it is presented to the user in the search and the search results interface, and how it is used to construct the table of contents for the web site--will be discussed in detail. The result is that KP's national clinical intranet has coupled the power of Internet-like full text search engines with the power of MedLine-like fielded searching in order to maximize search precision and recall. Organizing content on the site in accordance with the metadata promotes overall consistency. Issues currently under investigation include how to better exploit the power of the controlled terminology within the metadata; whether the value gained is worth the cost of collecting metadata; and how automatic classification algorithms might obviate the need for manual document indexing.

  2. Complete care at Kaiser Permanente: transforming chronic and preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Michael H; Lindsay, Gail; Bellows, Jim; Chase, Alide

    2013-11-01

    In 2004 Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) recognized the potential to improve the quality of care. Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance was below what regional leadership aspired to achieve, exceeding the 90th national percentile on only 15 of 34 measures. Beginning in 2005 regional leadership identified several system opportunities to enhance evidence-based, person-focused care. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLETE CARE: KPSC developed and implemented a comprehensive delivery system redesign and expanded and integrated existing clinical information systems, decision support, work flows, and self-management support-collectively referred to as Complete Care. The goal of Complete Care is to transform care for healthy members, those with chronic conditions, and those with multiple comorbidities. To date, KPSC has applied Complete Care to 26 chronic conditions and areas of preventive and wellness care. Implemented in all care settings and optimizing the roles of all health care team members to maximal scope of practice, Complete Care provides evidence-based, person-focused care addressing a large set of protocol-based health needs for every individual during every encounter within the health care system. On 51 HEDIS metrics, KPSC improvement using Complete Care averaged 13.0%, compared with 5.5% improvement in the national HEDIS 50th percentile. Implementation of Complete Care at KPSC was followed by six-year quality gains that outpaced changes in the HEDIS national percentiles for many measures. Additional care gaps have been included in proactive office encounter checklists; these relate to elder care, advance directives, posthospital care, immunizations, health maintenance, and pregnancy care.

  3. Investing in Obesity Treatment: Kaiser Permanente's Approach to Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam G; Histon, Trina; Donahoo, W Troy; Hashmi, Shahid; Murali, Sameer; Latare, Peggy; Oliver, Lajune; Slovis, Jennifer; Grall, Sarah; Fisher, David; Solomon, Loel

    2016-09-01

    Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system in the USA, takes a "whole systems" approach to the chronic disease of obesity that begins with efforts to prevent it by modifying the environment in communities and schools. Aggressive case-finding and substantial investment in intensive lifestyle modification programs target individuals at high risk of diabetes and other weight-related conditions. Kaiser Permanente regions are increasingly standardizing their approach when patients with obesity require treatment intensification using medically supervised diets, prescription medication to treat obesity, or weight loss surgery.

  4. The impact of removing financial incentives from clinical quality indicators : longitudinal analysis of four Kaiser Permanente indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, H.; Schmittdiel, J.; Selby, J.; Fireman, B.; Campbell, S.M.; Lee, J.; Whippy, A.; Madvig, P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of financial incentives on four clinical quality indicators common to pay for performance plans in the United Kingdom and at Kaiser Permanente in California. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING: 35 medical facilities of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 1997

  5. Kaiser Permanente's performance improvement system, Part 1: From benchmarking to executing on strategic priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Chase, Alide; Kehrli, Sommer; Liu, Amy Y; Stiefel, Matt; Brentari, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    By 2004, senior leaders at Kaiser Permanente, the largest not-for-profit health plan in the United States, recognizing variations across service areas in quality, safety, service, and efficiency, began developing a performance improvement (PI) system to realizing best-in-class quality performance across all 35 medical centers. MEASURING SYSTEMWIDE PERFORMANCE: In 2005, a Web-based data dashboard, "Big Q," which tracks the performance of each medical center and service area against external benchmarks and internal goals, was created. PLANNING FOR PI AND BENCHMARKING PERFORMANCE: In 2006, Kaiser Permanente national and regional continued planning the PI system, and in 2007, quality, medical group, operations, and information technology leaders benchmarked five high-performing organizations to identify capabilities required to achieve consistent best-in-class organizational performance. THE PI SYSTEM: The PI system addresses the six capabilities: leadership priority setting, a systems approach to improvement, measurement capability, a learning organization, improvement capacity, and a culture of improvement. PI "deep experts" (mentors) consult with national, regional, and local leaders, and more than 500 improvement advisors are trained to manage portfolios of 90-120 day improvement initiatives at medical centers. Between the second quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2009, performance across all Kaiser Permanente medical centers improved on the Big Q metrics. The lessons learned in implementing and sustaining PI as it becomes fully integrated into all levels of Kaiser Permanente can be generalized to other health care systems, hospitals, and other health care organizations.

  6. Kaiser Permanente Northern California pregnancy database: Description and proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Chan, Berwick; Goddard, Kristin; Lewis, Ned; Bok, Karin; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger

    2016-11-04

    We describe the establishment of a dynamic database linking mothers to newborns with the goal of studying vaccine safety in both pregnant women and their children and provide results of a study utilizing this database as a proof of concept. All Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) live births and their mothers were eligible for inclusion in the pregnancy database. We used the medical record number (MRN), a unique identifier, to retrieve information about events that occurred during the pregnancy and at delivery and linked this same MRN to newborns for post-partum follow up. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between receipt of tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy and fever 0-3days after the first dose of diphtheria tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in the infant. The study included infants who were born at ⩾37weeks gestation from January 1, 2009 - October 1, 2015 and who received their first DTaP vaccine between 6 and 10weeks of age. We utilized diagnostic codes from inpatient, emergency department, outpatient clinics, and telephone calls. We identified fever using ICD 9 code 780.6, recorded temperature ⩾101 degree Fahrenheit, or parental report. The database contained the starting and ending date of each pregnancy and basic demographic characteristics of mothers and infants. There were 859,699 women and 873,753 children in the database as of January 2016. The proof of concept study included 148,699 infants. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, Tdap vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with infant fever 0-3daysafter first dose of DTaP (adjusted odds ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04). The KPNC pregnancy database can be used for studies investigating exposure during pregnancy and outcomes in mothers and/or infants, particularly monitoring vaccine safety and effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Systemic implementation strategies to improve hypertension: the Kaiser Permanente Southern California experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J; Handler, Joel; Jacobsen, Steven J; Kanter, Michael H

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen hypertension improving in the United States where control is approximately 50%. Kaiser Permanente has mirrored and exceeded these national advances in control. Integrated models of care such as Kaiser Permanente and the Veterans Administration health systems have demonstrated the greatest hypertension outcomes. We detail the story of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to illustrate the success that can be achieved with an integrated health system model that uses implementation, dissemination, and performance feedback approaches to chronic disease care. KPSC, with a large ethnically diverse population of more than 3.6 million, has used a stepwise approach to achieve control rates greater than 85% in those recognized with hypertension. This was accomplished through systemic implementations of specific strategies: (1) capturing hypertensive members into a hypertension registry; (2) standardization of blood pressure measurements; (3) drafting and disseminating an internal treatment algorithm that is evidence-based and is advocating of combination therapy; and (4) a multidisciplinary approach using medical assistants, nurses, and pharmacists as key stakeholders. The infrastructure, support, and involvement across all levels of the health system with rapid and continuous performance feedback have been pivotal in ensuring the follow-through and maintenance of these strategies. The KPSC hypertension program is continually evolving in these areas. With these high control rates and established infrastructure, they are positioned to take on different innovations and study models. Such potential projects are drafting strategies on resistant hypertension or addressing the concerns about overtreatment of hypertension.

  8. A quarter century of hospice care: the southern california kaiser permanente experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Mario; Brumley, Richard D

    2005-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente (KP) has been a pioneer in the development of hospice services in the United States. Since 1978, when hospice services were introduced in the KP Southern California Region, they have been gradually expanded to benefit thousands of patients and their families. However, important barriers to timely, appropriate utilization of hospice care remain. A pilot project conducted in our TriCentral Service Area has shown that palliative care-a newer development in end-of-life care-can be cost-effective in addition to being beneficial for patients and their families. Efforts are underway to emulate this model of care at other KP facilities. Availability of both home-based and inpatient palliative care services can expand the number and type of patients who, as they near the end of life, can benefit from effective symptom control and other support.

  9. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.

  10. A retrospective analysis of health systems in Denmark and Kaiser Permanente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; Schiøtz, Michaela L; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To inform Danish health care reform efforts, we compared health care system inputs and performance and assessed the usefulness of these comparisons for informing policy. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of secondary data in the Danish Health Care System (DHS) with 5.3 million...... citizens and the Kaiser Permanente integrated delivery system (KP) with 6.1 million members in California. We used secondary data to compare population characteristics, professional staff, delivery structure, utilisation and quality measures, and direct costs. We adjusted the cost data to increase...... comparability. RESULTS: A higher percentage of KP patients had chronic conditions than did patients in the DHS: 6.3% vs. 2.8% (diabetes) and 19% vs. 8.5% (hypertension), respectively. KP had fewer total physicians and staff compared to DHS, with134 physicians/100,000 individuals versus 311 physicians/100...

  11. Breaching the security of the Kaiser Permanente Internet patient portal: the organizational foundations of information security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Jeff; Cooper, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This case study describes and analyzes a breach of the confidentiality and integrity of personally identified health information (e.g. appointment details, answers to patients' questions, medical advice) for over 800 Kaiser Permanente (KP) members through KP Online, a web-enabled health care portal. The authors obtained and analyzed multiple types of qualitative data about this incident including interviews with KP staff, incident reports, root cause analyses, and media reports. Reasons at multiple levels account for the breach, including the architecture of the information system, the motivations of individual staff members, and differences among the subcultures of individual groups within as well as technical and social relations across the Kaiser IT program. None of these reasons could be classified, strictly speaking, as "security violations." This case study, thus, suggests that, to protect sensitive patient information, health care organizations should build safe organizational contexts for complex health information systems in addition to complying with good information security practice and regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.

  12. Kaiser Permanente-Sandia National Health Care Model: Phase 1 prototype final report. Part 2 -- Domain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R.; Mason, W.; Napolitano, L.; Mariano, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Eddy, D.; Schlessinger, L. [Kaiser Permanente, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C{sup 2}, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology.

  13. Kaiser Permanente Northern California: current experiences with internet, mobile, and video technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The US health care system has been slow to adopt Internet, mobile, and video technologies, which have the capability to engage patients in their own care, increase patients' access to providers, and possibly improve the quality of care while reducing costs. Nevertheless, there are some pockets of progress, including Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). In 2008 KPNC implemented an inpatient and ambulatory care electronic health record system for its 3.4 million members and developed a suite of patient-friendly Internet, mobile, and video tools. KPNC has achieved many successes. For example, the number of virtual "visits" grew from 4.1 million in 2008 to an estimated 10.5 million in 2013. This article describes KPNC's experience with Internet, mobile, and video technologies and the obstacles faced by other health care providers interested in embracing them. The obstacles include the predominant fee-for-service payment model, which does not reimburse for virtual visits; the considerable investment needed to deploy these technologies; and physician buy-in.

  14. Kaiser Permanente/Sandia National health care model. Phase I prototype final report. Part 1 - model overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C++, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology. This report is published as two documents: Model Overview and Domain Analysis. A separate Kaiser-proprietary report contains the Disease and Health Care Organization Selection Models.

  15. Kaiser Permanente's performance improvement system, part 3: multisite improvements in care for patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whippy, Alan; Skeath, Melinda; Crawford, Barbara; Adams, Carmen; Marelich, Gregory; Alamshahi, Mezhgan; Borbon, Josefina

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, Kaiser Permanente Northern California implemented an initiative to improve sepsis care. Early detection and expedited implementation of sepsis treatment bundles that include early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for patients with severe sepsis were implemented. In a top-down, bottom-up approach to performance improvement, teams at 21 medical centers independently decided how to implement treatment bundles, using a "playbook" developed by rapid cycle pilot testing at two sites and endorsed by a sepsis steering committee of regional and medical center clinical leaders. The playbook contained treatment algorithms, standardized order sets and flow charts, best practice alerts, and chart abstraction tools. Regional mentors and improvement advisers within the medical centers supported team-building and rapid implementation. Timely and actionable data allowed ongoing identification of improvement opportunities. A consistent approach to performance improvement propelled local rapid improvement cycles and joint problem solving across facilities. The number of sepsis diagnoses per 1,000 admissions increased from a baseline value of 35.7 in July 2009 to 119.4 in May 2011. The percent of admitted patients who have blood cultures drawn who also have a serum lactate level drawn increased from a baseline of 27% to 97% in May 2011. The percent of patients receiving EGDT who had a second and lower lactate level within six hours increased from 52% at baseline to 92% in May 2011. Twenty-one cross-functional frontline teams redesigned processes of care to provide regionally standardized, evidence-based treatment algorithms for sepsis, substantially increasing the identification and risk stratification of patients with suspected sepsis and the provision of a sepsis care bundle that included EGDT.

  16. Development of a Computerized Intravenous Insulin Application (AutoCal) at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Integrated into Kaiser Permanente HealthConnect: Impact on Safety and Nursing Workload

    OpenAIRE

    Olinghouse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Context: The electronic medical record, HealthConnect, at the Kaiser Sunnyside Medical Center in the Northwest used scanned paper protocols for intravenous insulin administration. A chart review of 15 patients on intravenous insulin therapy using state-of-the-art paper-based column protocols revealed 40% deviation from the protocol. A time study of experienced nurses computing the insulin dose revealed an average of 2 minutes per calculation per hour to complete.

  17. How Kaiser Permanente uses video ethnography of patients for quality improvement, such as in shaping better care transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Esther B; Bellows, Jim; Jackson, Ana H; Price, Patricia M

    2012-06-01

    Keeping patients and caregivers at the center of quality improvement is critical. Kaiser Permanente's Care Management Institute adapted video ethnography to achieve this aim, using video to capture interviews with-and observations of-patients and caregivers, identify patient-centered improvement opportunities, and communicate them effectively to clinical and administrative leaders and front-line staff. This method is particularly effective for helping understand the needs of frail elders, patients nearing the end of life, those with multiple chronic conditions, and other vulnerable people who are not well represented in focus groups and patient advisory councils. As part of an initiative to improve care transitions for elders with heart failure, video ethnography contributed to greatly reduced thirty-day hospital readmission rates, helping reduce readmissions at one medical center from 13.6 percent to 9 percent in six months. It also helped improve the reliability of the readmissions reduction program. When embedded within an established quality improvement framework, video ethnography can be an effective tool for innovating new solutions, improving existing processes, and spreading knowledge about how best to meet patient needs.

  18. Something is amiss in Denmark: A comparison of preventable hospitalisations and readmissions for chronic medical conditions in the Danish Healthcare system and Kaiser Permanente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela Louise; Price, Mary; Frølich, Anne

    2011-01-01

    As many other European healthcare systems the Danish healthcare system (DHS) has targeted chronic condition care in its reform efforts. Benchmarking is a valuable tool to identify areas for improvement. Prior work indicates that chronic care coordination is poor in the DHS, especially in comparison...... with care in Kaiser Permanente (KP), an integrated delivery system based in the United States. We investigated population rates of hospitalisation and readmission rates for ambulatory care sensitive, chronic medical conditions in the two systems....

  19. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Grytdal

    Full Text Available Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE. However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years. Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested. In addition, 22 (2% of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2% were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1% were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children 65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years. Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person

  20. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children 65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community

  1. The fetal heart rate collaborative practice project: situational awareness in electronic fetal monitoring-a Kaiser Permanente Perinatal Patient Safety Program Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachin, S Rachel; Lopez, Connie M; Powell, Kimberly J; Corbett, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has historically been interpreted with wide variation between and within disciplines on the obstetric healthcare team. This leads to inconsistent decision making in response to tracing interpretation. To implement a multidisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring training program, utilizing the best evidence available, enabling standardization of fetal heart rate interpretation to promote patient safety. Local multidisciplinary expertise along with an outside consultant collaborated over a series of meetings to create a multimedia instructional electronic fetal monitoring training program. After production was complete, a series of conferences attended by nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physician champions, from each hospital, attended to learn how to facilitate training at their own perinatal units. All healthcare personnel across the Kaiser Permanente perinatal program were trained in NICHD nomenclature, emergency response, interpretation guidelines, and how to create local collaborative practice agreements. Metrics for program effectiveness were measured through program evaluations from attendees, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Program evaluations rendered very positive scores from both physicians and clinicians. Comparing baseline to 4 years later, the perception of safety from the staff has increased over 10% in 5 out of the 6 factors analyzed. Active participation from all disciplines in this training series has highlighted the importance of teamwork and communication. The Fetal Heart Rate Collaborative Practice Project continues to evolve utilizing other educational modalities, such as online EFM education and unit-based interdisciplinary tracing reviews.

  2. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Associated with a Restless Legs Syndrome Diagnosis in a Retrospective Cohort Study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Albers, Kathleen B; Davidson, Julie E; Kushida, Clete A; Leimpeter, Amethyst D; Nelson, Lorene M; Popat, Rita; Tanner, Caroline M; Bibeau, Kristen; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2015-07-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity or risk factors. We evaluated whether primary or secondary RLS was associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease in a retrospective cohort study within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We identified members of KPNC with primary RLS and secondary RLS between 1999 and 2008 by an algorithm that incorporated longitudinal clinical records related to the diagnosis and treatment of RLS and comorbidities. We then matched each RLS case with up to 50 individuals with no clinical records of RLS by age, sex, race/ethnicity, zip code, and membership duration. For the analyses we excluded any individual with coronary artery disease (CAD: angina, acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, CAD death), CVD (CAD plus stroke), and hypertension at baseline. New cardiovascular events were determined from clinical records. Follow-up ended at an outcome event, disenrollment from KPNC, or death, whichever occurred earliest. There were over 473,358 person-y of follow-up in this cohort analysis with a mean follow-up time of 3.91 y and range from 6 mo to 12 y. Survival analysis techniques, including survival curves and proportional hazard regression models, were used to assess the association between RLS status and CVD. There were 7,621 primary RLS and 4,507 secondary RLS cases identified and included in the study. In general, primary RLS cases were younger and had less comorbidity than secondary RLS cases. During the follow-up period, CVD was diagnosed in 478 primary RLS cohort members, CAD was diagnosed in 310, and hypertension events were identified in 1,466. Diagnosis in secondary RLS cohort members was made during the follow-up period with 451, 338, and 598 CVD, CAD, and hypertension events, respectively. Subjects with primary RLS had a similar risk of incident CVD

  3. Kaiser captures spirit of games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    With a multi-media campaign, Kaiser Permanente blitzed its market area by becoming a sponsor of the Nike World Masters Games. The advertising campaign promoted Kaiser as the exclusive health care sponsor. Company officials are counting on this campaign to leverage the health care institution's commitment to the community. In addition to the advertising, Kaiser searched for local athletes to represent its "play the sports for life" theme. As part of a promotion to award 200 athlete sponsorships to the Games, Kaiser's own master athletes were invited to tell their stories. Some of the members shared stories about such topics as experiencing an accident, receiving assistance from a Kaiser physician and incorporating a lifestyle of sport for rehabilitation. From the hundreds of letters received, two members and one employee were selected for the television spots. The sporting event reinforces Kaiser's philosophy of fitness-oriented lifestyles among its members. The Nike World Masters Games are the largest participatory multi-sport competition in the world, gathering together more than 25,000 men and women from more than 100 countries.

  4. An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-03-31

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Kaiser Family Foundation - Content Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chartpacks, chartbooks, factsheets, reports, and slide presentations bring Kaiser Family Foundation information to life, and can be easily incorporated into your...

  6. Potential influence of seasonal influenza vaccination requirement versus traditional vaccine promotion strategies on unvaccinated healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark G; McIntyre, Anne F; Naleway, Allison L; Black, Carla; Kennedy, Erin D; Ball, Sarah; Walker, Deborah Klein; Henkle, Emily M; Gaglani, Manjusha J

    2013-08-20

    In a prospective cohort study of 1670 healthcare personnel (HCP) providing direct patient care at Scott & White Healthcare in Texas and Kaiser Permanente Northwest in Oregon and Washington, we examined the potential impact of twelve vaccine promotion strategies on the likelihood of being vaccinated. Internet-based surveys were conducted at enrollment (Fall, 2010) and at post-season (Spring, 2011), which asked HCP whether twelve vaccination promotion strategies would make them "much less" to "much more" likely to be vaccinated next season (on a 5-point Likert scale). Overall, 366 of 1670 HCP (22%) were unvaccinated. Half (50%) of unvaccinated HCP self-reported that a vaccination requirement would make them more likely to be vaccinated and most (62%) identified at least one strategy other than a vaccination requirement that would make them more likely to be vaccinated. In sub-groups of unvaccinated HCPs with specific barriers to vaccination, about one in three (range=27-35%) indicated that interventions targeting specific vaccination barrier would increase the likelihood they would be vaccinated. However, in all cases, significantly more unvaccinated HCP reported that a vaccination requirement would increase the likelihood of vaccination than reported a targeted intervention would have this effect (range in difference scores=+11-23%).

  7. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  8. del establecimiento permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ma. Antonieta Martin Granados

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que en México se han realizado adiciones a la legislación en materia civil y mercantil relacionadas con el uso de medios electrónicos como instrumentos para realizar actos jurídicos, éstas resultan insuficientes, pues nada se ha hecho en materia procesal, penal y laboral, entre otras. En este trabajo se presentan, en materia fiscal, algunas consideraciones acerca del concepto de establecimiento permanente tanto en la legislación mexicana como en el Convenio Modelo (CM de la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico (OCDE y se argumenta que a pesar de que la definición de la legislación mexicana es mucho más amplia que la que se encuentra en el mencionado convenio, el comercio electrónico presenta algunos retos para determinar el lugar en donde residen las partes involucradas, el lugar en donde se celebran las operaciones y se pagan o cobran, sobre todo tratándose de servicios o adquisición de bienes intangibles. Por último, se señala que en materia fiscal es necesario que las autoridades mexicanas permitan el uso de la factura electrónica

  9. Risk of cancer in Asian Americans: a Kaiser Permanente cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H Nicole; Li, Yan; Udaltsova, Natalia; Armstrong, Mary Anne; Friedman, Gary D; Klatsky, Arthur L

    2016-10-01

    To supplement published cohort data about incident cancer in Asian Americans (Asians) including risk of specific Asian ethnic groups. A cohort study in 124,193 persons (13,344 Asians) with baseline examination data in 1978-1985 used Cox proportional hazards models with seven covariates to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Through 2012 cancer was diagnosed in 18,687 persons including 1,522 Asians. Compared to Whites, the HR (CIs) for any cancer in Asians was 0.8 (0.7-0.9, p risk was stronger for men (HR = 0.7, p risks with p risk, especially in women. HRs for specific Asian groups versus Whites follow: Chinese = 0.9 (p risk than Whites, and South Asians had lower risk than any other racial/ethnic group. Asians had lower cancer risk than Whites, due to lower risk of several cancer types. Each Asian ethnic group had lower risk than Whites with South Asians at the lowest risk.

  10. Bacteremia in Children 3 to 36 Months Old After Introduction of Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Tara L; Hung, Yun-Yi; Herz, Arnd

    2017-04-01

    In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13. We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. During the study period, 57 733 blood cultures were collected in the population of children 3 to 36 months old. Implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, decreasing from 74.5 to 10 to 3.5 per 100 000 children per year by the post-PCV13 period. As pneumococcal rates decreased, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus caused 77% of bacteremia. Seventy-six percent of all bacteremia in the post-PCV13 period occurred with a source. In the United States, routine immunizations have made bacteremia in the previously healthy toddler a rare event. As the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia has decreased, E coli, Salmonella spp, and S aureus have increased in relative importance. New guidelines are needed to approach the previously healthy febrile toddler in the outpatient setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism

    CERN Document Server

    Sachse, Carola; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    During the first part of the twentieth century, German science led the world. The most important scientific institution in Germany was the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, including institutes devoted to different fields of scientific research. These researchers were not burdened by teaching obligations and enjoyed excellent financial and material support. When the National Socialists came to power in Germany, all of German society, including science, was affected. The picture that previously dominated our understanding of science under National Socialism from the end of the Second World War to the recent past - a picture of leading Nazis ignorant and unappreciative of modern science and of scientists struggling to resist the Nazis - needs to be revised. This book surveys the history of Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes under Hitler, illustrating definitively the cooperation, if not collaboration, between scientists and National Socialists in order to further the goals of autarky, racial hygiene, war, and genocide.

  12. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Otitis Media: An Appraisal of the Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Fritzell, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET; vaccine, 11-valent PCV [PCV11]-PD). For the microbiological endpoint, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal otitis media was about 60% across trials. Against the clinical endpoint of all episodes, vaccine efficacy was 7% (PCV7-CRM/NCKP), 6% (PCV7-CRM/FinOM), −1% (PCV7-OMPC/FinOM), and −0.4% (PCV7-CRM/Native American Trial); 34% against first episodes of ear, nose, and throat specialist-referral cases (PCV11-PD/POET). Both follow-up through 2 years of age, for the 5 trials, and long-term follow-up, for PCV7-CRM/NCKP and PCV7-CRM/FinOM, demonstrated greater vaccine efficacy against recurrent AOM and tympanostomy-tube placement, suggesting that vaccination against early episodes of AOM may prevent subsequent episodes of complicated otitis media. Although study designs varied by primary endpoint measured, age at follow-up, source of middle-ear fluid for culture, case ascertainment, and type of randomization, each clinical trial demonstrated vaccine efficacy against microbiological and/or clinical otitis media. PMID:22701486

  13. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and otitis media: an appraisal of the clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mark A; Fritzell, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET; vaccine, 11-valent PCV [PCV11]-PD). For the microbiological endpoint, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal otitis media was about 60% across trials. Against the clinical endpoint of all episodes, vaccine efficacy was 7% (PCV7-CRM/NCKP), 6% (PCV7-CRM/FinOM), -1% (PCV7-OMPC/FinOM), and -0.4% (PCV7-CRM/Native American Trial); 34% against first episodes of ear, nose, and throat specialist-referral cases (PCV11-PD/POET). Both follow-up through 2 years of age, for the 5 trials, and long-term follow-up, for PCV7-CRM/NCKP and PCV7-CRM/FinOM, demonstrated greater vaccine efficacy against recurrent AOM and tympanostomy-tube placement, suggesting that vaccination against early episodes of AOM may prevent subsequent episodes of complicated otitis media. Although study designs varied by primary endpoint measured, age at follow-up, source of middle-ear fluid for culture, case ascertainment, and type of randomization, each clinical trial demonstrated vaccine efficacy against microbiological and/or clinical otitis media.

  14. Kaiser-Bessel Basis for the Particle-Mesh Interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xingyu; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce the Kaiser-Bessel interpolation basis for the particle-mesh interpolation in the fast Ewald method. A reliable a priori error estimate is developed to measure the accuracy of the force computation, and is shown to be effective in optimizing the shape parameter of the Kaiser-Bessel basis in terms of accuracy. By comparing the optimized Kaiser-Bessel basis with the traditional B-spline basis, we demonstrate that the former is more accurate than the latter in part of the working parameter space, saying a relatively small real space cutoff, a relatively small reciprocal space mesh and a relatively large truncation of basis. In some cases, the Kaiser-Bessel basis is found to be more than one order of magnitude more accurate. Therefore, it is worth trying the Kaiser-Bessel basis in the simulations where the computational accuracy of the electrostatic interaction is critical.

  15. CERN Expositions permanentes version courte

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visites Explorez les questions de la physique contemporaine que les physiciens du CERN tentent de résoudre. Dans l'Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d'où viennent-elles ? Quelles sont les lois qui régissent leur comportement ? Découvrez les immenses outils utilisés par les physiciens du CERN, comme le fameux LHC, et comprenez comment chaque élément de ces accélérateurs fonctionne. Le CERN vous invite à percer les mystères de l'Univers et à découvrir son travail à travers diverses visites guidées et expositions permanentes, toutes gratuites. En groupe, avec des amis, individuellement, à pied, en vélo, venez découvrir le CERN ou explorez-le virtuellement. Bienvenue !

  16. Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in 11- to 21-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung-Fu; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Hechter, Rulin C; Tartof, Sara Y; Haag, Mendel; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Luo, Yi; Fischetti, Christine A; Takhar, Harp S; Miao, Yan; Cunnington, Marianne; Solano, Zendi; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccination is recommended in the United States. This study evaluates the safety of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in a cohort aged 11 to 21 years. This cohort study with self-controlled case-series analysis was conducted at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Individuals receiving MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, during September 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013, were included. Twenty-six prespecified events of interest (EOIs), including neurologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, endocrine, renal, pediatric, and pediatric infectious disease EOIs, were identified through electronic health records 1 year after vaccination. Of these, 16 were reviewed by case review committees. Specific risk and comparison windows after vaccination were predefined for each EOI. The relative incidence (RI) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through conditional Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonality. This study included 48 899 vaccinated individuals. No cases were observed in the risk window for 14 of 26 EOIs. The RI for Bell's palsy, a case review committee-reviewed EOI, was statistically significant (adjusted RI: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.5). Stratified analyses demonstrated an increased risk for Bell's palsy in subjects receiving concomitant vaccines (RI = 5.0, 95% CI = 1.4-17.8), and no increased risk for those without concomitant vaccine (RI = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.2-5.5). We observed a temporal association between occurrence of Bell's palsy and receipt of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly with other vaccines. The association needs further investigation as it could be due to chance, concomitant vaccination, or underlying medical history predisposing to Bell's palsy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Kaiser-Bessel basis for particle-mesh interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingyu; Fang, Jun; Wang, Han

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we introduce the Kaiser-Bessel interpolation basis for the particle-mesh interpolation in the fast Ewald method. A reliable a priori error estimate is developed to measure the accuracy of the force computation in correlated charge systems, and is shown to be effective in optimizing the shape parameter of the Kaiser-Bessel basis in terms of accuracy. By comparing the optimized Kaiser-Bessel basis with the traditional B -spline basis, we demonstrate that the former is more accurate than the latter in part of the working parameter space, say, a relatively small real-space cutoff, a relatively small reciprocal space mesh, and a relatively large truncation of basis. In some cases, the Kaiser-Bessel basis is found to be more than one order of magnitude more accurate.

  18. On the Matrix Formulation of Kaiser's Varimax Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    A full-fledged matrix derivation of Sherin's matrix formulation of Kaiser's varimax criterion is provided. Matrix differential calculus is used in conjunction with the Hadamard (or Schur) matrix product. Two results on Hadamard products are presented. (Author/JKS)

  19. Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children 2-10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartof, Sara Y; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Hechter, Rulin C; Haag, Mendel; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Luo, Yi; Fischetti, Christine A; Takhar, Harp S; Miao, Yan; Solano, Zendi; Jacobsen, Steven J; Tseng, Hung-Fu

    2017-07-14

    Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for children, adolescents, and adults at increased risk of meningococcal disease. In 2011, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, GSK) was approved for children aged 2-10 years in the U.S. Although no safety concerns arose from clinical trials, it remains important to monitor its safety in routine clinical settings. Kaiser Permanente Southern California members 2-10 years old who received MenACWY-CRM between September 2011 and September 2014 were included. Electronic health records were searched using a validated algorithm to identify 26 pre-specified events of interest (EOIs) and serious medically attended events (SMAEs) from inpatient or emergency settings up to one year following MenACWY-CRM vaccination. SMAEs were categorized by ICD-9 diagnostic categories. All events were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and symptom onset date. The study was descriptive (NCT01452438); no statistical tests were performed. Among 387 vaccinated children, 327 with ≥6 months membership before vaccination were analyzed. Among EOIs, 9 asthma cases and one myasthenia gravis case underwent chart review which confirmed one incident asthma case occurring 237 days after concomitant vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and typhoid vaccine. Thirty-one children experienced SMAEs, most commonly due to unrelated injury and poisoning. The remaining events occurred sporadically after vaccination and most were unlikely related to vaccination based on medical record review. One incident EOI of asthma late in the 1-year observation period and sporadic distribution of SMAEs were observed. These data do not suggest safety concerns associated with MenACWY-CRM vaccination in children 2-10 years old.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of acellular versus whole-cell pertussis vaccines in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Bartlett, Joan; Fireman, Bruce; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Baxter, Roger

    2013-06-01

    During the 1990s, the United States switched from combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccines to combined acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines because of safety concerns. After a 2010-2011 pertussis outbreak, we sought to evaluate whether disease risk in 10 to 17 year olds differed between those who previously received DTwP from those who received DTaP. A case-control study among individuals born from 1994 to 1999 who received 4 pertussis-containing vaccines during the first 2 years of life at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We separately compared pertussis polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases with PCR-negative and KPNC-matched controls. We assessed risk of pertussis relative to vaccine type in early childhood (4 DTwPs, mixed DTwP/DTaP, or 4 DTaPs) by using conditional logistic regression stratified for calendar time and adjusted for gender, race, medical clinic, and receipt of reduced antigen content acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. We compared 138 PCR-positive cases with 899 PCR-negative and 54 339 KPNC-matched controls. Teenagers who had received 4 DTwPs were much less likely to be pertussis PCR-positive than those who had received 4 DTaPs (odds ratio 5.63, 95% confidence interval 2.55-12.46) or mixed DTwP/DTaP vaccines (odds ratio 3.77, 95% confidence interval 1.57-9.07). Decreasing number of DTwP doses was significantly associated with increased pertussis risk (P vaccines in childhood were more protected during a pertussis outbreak than were those who received DTaP vaccines.

  1. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  2. Vaccines and the risk of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Gould, Annette; Qian, Lei; Tartof, Sara Y; Brara, Sonu M; Jacobsen, Steve J; Beaber, Brandon E; Sy, Lina S; Chao, Chun; Hechter, Rulin; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2014-12-01

    Because vaccinations are common, even a small increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) or other acquired central nervous system demyelinating syndromes (CNS ADS) could have a significant effect on public health. To determine whether vaccines, particularly those for hepatitis B (HepB) and human papillomavirus (HPV), increase the risk of MS or other CNS ADS. A nested case-control study was conducted using data obtained from the complete electronic health records of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members. Cases were identified through the KPSC CNS ADS cohort between 2008 and 2011, which included extensive review of medical records by an MS specialist. Five controls per case were matched on age, sex, and zip code. Vaccination of any type (particularly HepB and HPV) identified through the electronic vaccination records system. All forms of CNS ADS were analyzed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for race/ethnicity, health care utilization, comorbid diseases, and infectious illnesses before symptom onset. We identified 780 incident cases of CNS ADS and 3885 controls; 92 cases and 459 controls were females aged 9 to 26 years, which is the indicated age range for HPV vaccination. There were no associations between HepB vaccination (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.72-1.73), HPV vaccination (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.62-1.78), or any vaccination (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.22) and the risk of CNS ADS up to 3 years later. Vaccination of any type was associated with an increased risk of CNS ADS onset within the first 30 days after vaccination only in younger (vaccines with MS or any other CNS ADS, which argues against a causal association. The short-term increase in risk suggests that vaccines may accelerate the transition from subclinical to overt autoimmunity in patients with existing disease. Our findings support clinical anecdotes of CNS ADS symptom onset shortly after vaccination but do not suggest a need for a change in vaccine policy.

  3. Kilometer-scale Kaiser effect identified in Krafla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.

    2015-10-01

    The Krafla rifting episode in 1975-1984, consisted of around 20 inflation-deflation events within the Krafla caldera, where magma accumulated during inflation periods and was intruded into the transecting fissure swarm during brief periods of deflation. We reanalyze geodetic and seismic data from the rifting episode and perform a time-dependent inversion of a leveling time series for a spherical point source in an elastic half-space. Using the volume change as a proxy for stress shows that during inflation periods the seismicity rate remains low until the maximum inflation of previous cycles is exceeded thus exhibiting the Kaiser effect. Our observations demonstrate that this phenomenon, commonly observed in small-scale experiments, is also produced in kilometer-scale volcanic deformation. This behavior sheds new light on the relationship between deformation and seismicity of a deforming volcano. As a consequence of the Kaiser effect, a volcano may inflate rapidly without significant changes in seismicity rate.

  4. An Interview with Matthew Kaiser on Competition and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An Interview with Matthew Kaiser on Competition and Play, by Sean Scanlan. Matthew Kaiser, the author of The World in Play: Portraits of a Victorian Concept (Stanford UP, 2012 says that “[c]ompetition is the disease from which modern life suffers,” and that “[c]ompetition is the only cure” for this suffering. This contradictory pairing seems to get at the heart of his thesis: play, as a totalizing, umbrella-like concept, emanates from a host of philosophical, political, and scientific work produced by Victorians who posed many of their ideas of play in sports metaphors, competitive logics, and narratives of struggle. Kaiser goes beyond the dichotomy of competition and play/competition or play, by stating “I’m interested in the totalizing potential of both concepts, the way that play, or competition for that matter, swallows the world whole, becomes in the minds of so many people, the organizing principle of reality, whether of culture or nature or consciousness, or of all three.”

  5. Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Roger; Hansen, John; Timbol, Julius; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Decker, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    An observational post-licensure (Phase IV) retrospective large-database safety study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente, a US integrated medical care organization, to assess the safety of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and 5-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap5) administered as part of routine healthcare among adolescents and adults. We evaluated incidence rates of various clinical events resulting in outpatient clinic, emergency department (ED), and hospital visits during various time intervals (windows) following Tdap5 vaccination using 2 pharmacoepidemiological methods (risk interval and historic cohort) and several screening thresholds. Plausible outcomes of interest with elevated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were further evaluated by reviewing individual patient records to confirm the diagnosis, timing (temporal relationship), alternative etiology, and other health record details to discern possible relatedness of the health events to vaccination. Overall, 124,139 people received Tdap5 vaccine from September 2005 through mid-October 2006, and 203,154 in the comparison cohort received a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid adsorbed vaccine (and no live virus vaccine) during the year prior to initiation of this study. In the outpatient, ED and hospital databases, respectively, we identified 11/26, 179/700 and 187/700 unique health outcomes with IRRs significantly >1.0. Among the same unique health outcomes in the outpatient, ED, and hospital databases, 9, 146, and 385, respectively, had IRRs significantly <1.0. Further scrutiny of the outcomes with elevated IRRs did not reveal unexpected signals of adverse outcomes related to vaccination. In conclusion, Tdap5 vaccine was found to be safe among this large population of adolescents and adults.

  6. El Programa Nacional de Formacion y Capacitacion Permanente

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez Manrique, Catherine Paola

    2010-01-01

    Este articulo presenta una sistematizacion de las caracteristicas mas relevantes del Programa Nacional de Formacion y Capacitacion Permanente implementado por el Ministerio de Educacion del Peru desde...

  7. Determinantal and Permanental Representation of Generalized Fibonacci Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Adem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give some determinantal and permanental representations of Generalized Fibonacci Polynomials by using various Hessenberg matrices. These results are general form of determinantal and permanental representations of k sequences of the generalized order-k Fibonacci and Pell numbers.

  8. Een passie voor precisie: Frederik Kaiser en het instrumentarium van de Leidse Sterrewacht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hooijmaijers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion for precision. Frederik Kaiser and the instrumentation of Leiden ObservatoryFrederik Kaiser (1808-1872 was one of the most inspiring directors of the Leiden astronomical observatory. In Dutch astronomy he introduced a systematic observing and research program. Furthermore he succeeded in founding a new observatory after years of struggle. This paper describes how Kaiser's urge for precision led the way in his research, in his selection of instruments and in the design of the new observatory.Kaiser was educated in astronomy by his uncle, the Amsterdam mathematician and astronomer Jan Frederik Keijser. He introduced young Frederik also into the world of instruments, theory and influential persons. At the age of eighteen Frederik succeeded in getting appointed as an observer at Leiden Observatory. However, the bad relationship with its director and the lousy state of the instruments at this observatory made observing almost impossible. Instead, Frederik took up a study in physics and mathematics at Leiden University. In 1835 Kaiser's chances turned with the predicted return of Halley's comet. With borrowed equipment, Kaiser observed the comet at home. More important, Kaiser had rightfully predicted the perihelium-passage of the comet (the closest approach to the sun. His calculation differed only two hours with the actual moment. This exact computation enhanced Kaiser's reputation as a scholar and led in 1837 to his appointment as director of the Leiden Observatory.From the very outset Kaiser tried to incorporate 'statistal astronomy' in his research, imitating German scientists as Gauss, Bessel, Encke and Hansen. He therefore applied for a new observatory and instruments, but in first instance only some money for new instruments was granted. For his research on double stars and the trajectories of comets Kaiser bought some new instruments, like a Fraunhofer refractor with a precision micrometer and two transit instruments. In his

  9. ESTRATEGIAS DE APRENDIZAJE QUE PERMITEN APRENDER PERMANENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Feo

    2012-01-01

    superior de elevada intelectualidad, que desarrolle habilidades y valores que les permitan alcanzar y vincularse al mismo nivel de desarrollo científico, tecnológico y social con pocas dificultades en los planos profesionales y personales de manera permanente; en consecuencia, es indispensable acercarse en profundidad a los centros formales de formación superior para describir e interpretar los procesos que emplean sus estudiantes, que les permiten aprender y, con esa base, generar una visión amplia y profunda de los fenómenos cognitivos, afectivos, emocionales y sociales que consientan reconstruir la visión del aprendizaje escolar a las exigencias del milenio, con énfasis en las estrategias de aprendizajes y el aprendizaje permanente. La metodología utilizada se fundamentó en el paradigma interpretativo, apoyada en la fenomenología como base fundamental de los procedimientos que permitieron procesar la información recolectada de los informantes claves, los cuales fueron 7 estudiantes universitarios. Los aportes de mayor relevancia de la investigación circunscriben que los estudiantes construyen sus estrategias de aprendizaje a través de la interacción social, específicamente con los compañeros de estudio y el profesor; es importante indicar que la influencia cultural representada en las creencias, el apoyo, y la motivación, fomentan el aprendizaje permanente, por lo cual es de suma relevancia actualizar los currículos de formación superior a través de ejes transversales que impulsen y originen estrategias de aprendizaje y estos, a su vez, reconozcan que el apoyo y la motivación son acompañantes y detonantes naturales del aprendizaje.

  10. El establecimiento permanente en un contexto virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Rengifo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmediatez, la informalidad y la total irrelevancia de la localización, la distancia y los límites nacionales son ventajas innegables del comercio en Internet. Al mismo, tiempo, son características que plantean interrogantes para los Estados, quienes, conscientes de la importancia de controlar el volumen y la magnitud de las operaciones realizadas en red (al gravarlas directa o indirectamente pueden conseguir fuentes de ingreso para el mantenimiento de las estructuras y la financiación de gastos gubernamentales se cuestionan cuál debe ser el sujeto pasivo de las obligaciones tributarias en un mercado donde las empresas están deslocalizadas o aún, no existen físicamente. El presente artículo aporta a la resolución del problema tras un completo estudio del concepto de establecimiento Permanente de carácter virtual, elaborado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico.

  11. El establecimiento permanente en un contexto virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Rengifo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La inmediatez, la informalidad y la total irrelevancia de la localización, la distancia y los límites nacionales son ventajas innegables del comercio en Internet. Al mismo, tiempo, son características que plantean interrogantes para los Estados, quienes, conscientes de la importancia de controlar el volumen y la magnitud de las operaciones realizadas en red (al gravarlas directa o indirectamente pueden conseguir fuentes de ingreso para el mantenimiento de las estructuras y la financiación de gastos gubernamentales se cuestionan cuál debe ser el sujeto pasivo de las obligaciones tributarias en un mercado donde las empresas están deslocalizadas o aún, no existen físicamente. El presente artículo aporta a la resolución del problema tras un completo estudio del concepto de establecimiento Permanente de carácter virtual, elaborado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico.

  12. Roh- und Werkstoffe für die Autarkie. Textilforschung in der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Präsidentenkommission; Luxbacher, Günther

    2004-01-01

    Der Beitrag untersucht die wissenschaftliche Organisation und die Zielsetzung der textilen Roh- und Werkstoff-Forschung in Deutschland in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts aus der Perspektive der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG). Der erste Teil analysiert längsschnittartig die Zeit von 1914 bis zum Vierjahresplan, der zweite Teil legt den Schwerpunkt auf das 1938 neu gegründete Kaiser-WilhelmInstitut (KWI) für Bastfaserforschung. Die KWG verstand die forschungspolitische Expansionsc...

  13. Self-Management Support to People with Type 2 Diabetes - A comparative study of Kaiser Permanente and the Danish Healthcare System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela Louise; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Frølich, Anne

    2012-01-01

    En væsentlig del af kronikeromsorgen i et sundhedsvæsen er også at understøtte egenomsorgen. Egenomsorg omfatter fx, at patienten kender til, hvad der kan optimere behandlingsindsatsen, herunder ændring af livsstil, kendskab til sundhedsvæsenets tilbud, og at deltage aktivt i at koordinere og sik...

  14. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  15. Properties and simulation of α-permanental random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rubak, Ege Holger

    An α-permanental random field is briefly speaking a model for a collection of random variables with positive associations, where α is a positive number and the probability generating function is given in terms of a covariance or more general function so that density and moment expressions are given...... by certain α-permanents. Though such models possess many appealing probabilistic properties, many statisticians seem unaware of  α-permanental random fields and their potential applications. The purpose of this paper is first to summarize useful probabilistic results using the simplest possible setting...

  16. Frederik Kaiser (1808-1872, een gekweld man met een missie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huib Zuidervaart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Frederik Kaiser (1808-1872, a tormented man with a missionThe Leiden astronomer Kaiser has been instrumental for the rise of Dutch astronomy in the late nineteenth-century. His career was impressive. In 1826, without any formal university education, he began at the Leiden Astronomical Observatory as an ordinary observer. Through his work in astronomy he obtained an honorary doctorate, which enabled him in 1838 to become director of the observatory. In 1844 he was appointed full professor and in the academic year 1857/1858 he even became Rector Magnificus of Leiden University. In 1860 he even saw the fulfillmentof his life-long dream: the opening of a brand new astronomical observatory. However, in spite of these obvious professional successes, Kaiser's personal life was full of melancholy. This paper investigates Kaiser's personality, using correspondence with his family, as well as testimonies written down by his students and other contemporaries. Among others, we demonstrate the way in which Kaiser used his personal network, as well as his fierce continuous – and often publicly expressed – complaining, as a successful strategy in establishing his new astronomical observatory.

  17. Educação Permanente em Saúde no Brasil: educação ou gerenciamento permanente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lopes Simão Lemos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a concepção e os fundamentos da Educação Permanente em Saúde (EPS constante da Política Nacional de Educação Permanente em Saúde (PNEPS no Brasil. A metodologia baseou-se na análise de documentos do Ministério da Saúde e de artigos científicos relacionados. Constatou-se que a concepção da EPS na PNEPS transcende um significado pedagógico, respondendo a um processo de reestruturação dos serviços diante das novas demandas do modelo. Justamente no momento em que o trabalho se encontra cada vez mais instável e precarizado, o Ministério da Saúde apresenta um discurso sobre uma gestão inovadora, dando centralidade à questão da EPS. A ideia não é de educação permanente, mas de gerenciamento permanente. Ao contrário de um instrumento de transformação radical, a EPS converte-se em uma ideologia que seduz pela sua aparência de novidade pedagógica.

  18. Experimental and numerical study of the Kaiser effect in cyclic Brazilian tests with disk rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lavrov, A

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of the Kaiser effect to the deviations of the directions of sigma(1)-principal stress experienced by rock in Successive loading cycles has an important impact on the application of this effect for stress measurements in rocks. The paper...

  19. Site support program plan for ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This document is the general administrative plan implemented by the Hanford Site contractor, ICF Kaiser Hanford Company. It describes the mission, administrative structure, projected staffing, to be provided by the contractor. The report breaks out the work responsibilities within the different units of the company, a baseline schedule for the different groups, and a cost summary for the different operating units.

  20. Le tecnologie mobili dell’apprendimento permanente, il progetto MOTILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arrigo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo vengono presentati alcuni dei risultati del progetto MOTILL. MOTILL, ovvero «Le Tecnologie Mobili nell’apprendimento permanente: buone pratiche», è un progetto finanziato dalla Comunità Europea, nell’ambito del National Lifelong Learning Strategies (NLLS. Il progetto, durato un anno e terminato a Marzo 2010, si è focalizzato sull’uso delle tecnologie mobili in contesti di lifelong learning (LLL. L’articolo sarà dedicato a una breve introduzione del progetto, dei suoi obiettivi e delle azioni portate avanti, e a un rapido riassunto dei principali risultati ottenuti, i quali sono stati resi disponibili online alla comunità scientifica e diffusi ai policy makers impegnati nei programmi di apprendimento permanente.

  1. Intersection local times, loop soups and permanental Wick powers

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Yves Le; Rosen, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Several stochastic processes related to transient Lévy processes with potential densities u(x,y)=u(y-x), that need not be symmetric nor bounded on the diagonal, are defined and studied. They are real valued processes on a space of measures \\mathcal{V} endowed with a metric d. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the continuity of these processes on (\\mathcal{V},d). The processes include n-fold self-intersection local times of transient Lévy processes and permanental chaoses, which are `loop soup n-fold self-intersection local times' constructed from the loop soup of the Lévy process. Loop soups are also used to define permanental Wick powers, which generalizes standard Wick powers, a class of n-th order Gaussian chaoses. Dynkin type isomorphism theorems are obtained that relate the various processes. Poisson chaos processes are defined and permanental Wick powers are shown to have a Poisson chaos decomposition. Additional properties of Poisson chaos processes are studied and a martingale extension is obt...

  2. The birth of Kaiser William II (1859-1941) and his birth injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, M G

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the events leading up to the birth of Kaiser William II in 1859. There is a full description of the clinical aspects of his breech delivery that resulted in an Erb-Duchenne palsy. The later physical and psychological effects of his paralysed left arm are discussed fully, as are the comments about Dr Eduard Arnold Martin (1799-1875), the obstetrician who delivered him.

  3. Flexibilidad laboral: ¿fin del trabajo permanente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Añez Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajos transitorios o atípicos, siguen posicionándose y funcionando trastocando la protección del sistema de regulación y protección del trabajo permanente. De ahí, la importancia de reflexionar teóricamente sobre el tema. Para su desarrollo se plantean los siguientes objetivos: demostrar que la flexibilización laboral ha incidido en la ruptura de las relaciones laborales, caracterizar como la subcontratación laboral encubre dichas relaciones, analizar el despido laboral y sus consecuencias en los trabajadores. El artículo se desarrolló teóricamente, especialmente tomando como referencia autores como: Bravo (2010, Quintero (2010, González (2012 De La Garza (2007, Ugarte (2007, entre otros, lo cual permitió analizar la temática abordada. Los resultados reflejan que dicha estrategia está impulsando la agudización de las condiciones precarias de los derechos laborales, con lo cual se está ante un capitalismo irracional, que tiene como propósito que los trabajadores sufraguen los efectos de las pretensiones de los capitalistas por conseguir mayores tasas de ganancia y niveles más altos de productividad. En consecuencia, la flexibilización de las relaciones laborales está destinada a ocultar los derechos de los trabajadores, agudizar el despido laboral, y propiciar el fin de un trabajo permanente.

  4. El descubrimiento de la educación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El título alude a la reciente moda de utilizar el concepto "educación a lo largo de la vida" en todos los documentos de la Unión Europea, como si de algo nuevo se tratara. En los años 70, en el marco de la UNESCO y del Consejo de Europa, varias iniciativas y propuestas desarrollaron con vigor la idea de la educación permanente, como principio inspirador del cambio de los sistemas educativos, que parecía ya entonces inaplazable para superar la disociación entre la escuela y la vida actual en todas sus dimensiones. Entre los siglos XVIII y primera década del XX los reformadores educativos españoles de todo signo hicieron de la continuidad educativa una de las claves del cambio, pero las reformas ambicionadas no cuajaron o fueron efímeras. Las dos grandes leyes de reforma de la educación en España (1970 y 1989 también declararon inspirarse en los principios de la educación permanente. Sin embargo, las reformas no han hecho, en la práctica, sino añadir nuevas discontinuidades entre los niveles y las modalidades educativas y entre la educación adquirida y las necesidades de las personas para vivir y trabajar hoy. Otra lectura de la LOGSE permitiría, sin nuevas leyes, retomar el cambio educativo en la línea del aprendizaje significativo y útil a lo largo de la vida

  5. Mudança permanente: fonte de penosidade no trabalho?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Metzger

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a examinar as possíveis condições para a melhoria duradoura da saúde psíquica dos trabalhadores. Para fazê-lo, após ter sintetizado as principais causas imediatas dos problemas psicossociais, recolocamo-los no contexto contemporâneo caracterizado pela renovação incessante dos dispositivos técnicos e de gestão. Assim, compreender os fenômenos dos problemas psicossociais no trabalho implica em se interessar pelos efeitos da mudança permanente. Precisamente, para considerarmos, de forma geral, estes efeitos sobre a saúde, elaboramos uma grade de análise a partir da herança da sociologia do trabalho e da noção de trabalho instituição (proposta por Lallement. Esta grade de análise é, em seguida, utilizada em situações empíricas variadas (hospitais, universidades, empresas multinacionais para demonstrarmos que a mudança permanente engendra uma polarização dos indivíduos. Certos trabalhadores perdem seu vínculo com o trabalho e assim iniciam um processo de degradação de sua saúde, enquanto outros tiram proveito do movimento e permanecem em boa saúde. Enfim, a mudança perpétua é explicada como resultado de dinâmicas próprias ao campo da gestão e de uma postura reificante específica da abordagem racionalizadora. Assim, a fim de melhorar de forma duradoura a saúde psíquica no trabalho, é necessário intervir no coração das relações sociais.

  6. The Nazi symbiosis: politics and human genetics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berez, Thomas M; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2004-12-01

    The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA), from its inception in Weimar Republic Germany to its apogee under the rule of the Third Reich, is an example of how politics and human heredity can function as mutually beneficial resources. Whether it was a result of the Nazi bureaucrats' desire to legitimize their racial policy through science, or the KWIA personnel's desire to secure more funding for their research, the symbiotic relationship that developed between human genetics and Nazi politics could help explain why many scientists in the Third Reich undertook research projects that wholly transgressed the boundaries of morally acceptable science.

  7. Comment on: "Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Nicholson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaiser (2011 has introduced an improved method for calculating gross productivity from the triple isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems. His equation avoids approximations of previous methodologies, and also accounts for additional physical processes such as kinetic fractionation during invasion and evasion at the air-sea interface. However, when comparing his new approach to previous methods, Kaiser inconsistently defines the biological end-member with the result of overestimating the degree to which the various approaches of previous studies diverge. In particular, for his base case, Kaiser assigns a 17O excess to the product of photosynthesis (17δP that is too low, resulting in his result being ~30 % too high when compared to previous equations. When this is corrected, I find that Kaiser's equations are consistent with all previous study methodologies within about ±20 % for realistic conditions of metabolic balance (f and gross productivity (g. A methodological bias of ±20 % is of similar magnitude to current uncertainty in the wind-speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity, k, which directly impacts calculated gross productivity rates as well. While previous results could and should be revisited and corrected using the proposed improved equations, the magnitude of such corrections may be much less than implied by Kaiser.

  8. Energy-modelled climb and climb-dash - The Kaiser technique. [reviewed for Me 262 jet fighter aircraft trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, S. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    F. Kaiser's germinal 1944 report on his 'resultant-height' concept, now known as energy modelling, is reviewed. The data base for the Me. 262 jet fighter is recreated via spline-lattice representation of specific excess power. Minimum-time and 'distance'-climb trajectories are generated in an attempt to check Kaiser's results. Agreement is good for the minimum-time calculations but only qualitative agreement is obtained for the mysterious 'distance climbs' whose documentation is fragmentary. The character of optimal climb-dash trajectories in energy approximation is examined and illustrated.

  9. Armouring facility? Nuclear-weapon and reactor reseach at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Physics; Eine Waffenschmiede? Kernwaffen- und Reaktorforschung am Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fuer Physik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachtmann, R. (ed.); Walker, M.

    2005-07-01

    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics is best known as the place where Werner Heisenberg worked on nuclear weapons for Hitler. Although this is essentially true, there is more to the story. At the start of World War II this institute was taken over by the German Army Ordnance to be the central, but not exclusive site for a research project into the economic and military applications of nuclear fission. The Army physicist Kurt Diebner was installed in the institute as its commissarial director. Heisenberg was affiliated with the institute as an advisor at first, and became the director in 1942. Heisenberg and his colleagues, including in particular Karl-Heinz Hoecker, Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, and Karl Wirtz, worked on nuclear reactors and isotope separation with the clear knowledge that these were two different paths to atomic bombs [Atombomben]. However, they were clearly ambivalent about what they were doing. New documents recently returned from Russian archives shed new light on this work and the scientists' motivations. (orig.)

  10. Depressão permanente e disritmia do lobo temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Baptistete Matarazzo

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Após revisão bibliográfica a respeito da depressão de origem epilética, a autora conclui que são citadas as formas pré-ictal, ictal, pós-ictal e inter-ictal. Esta última, denominada por Grecu e Kalman "depressão temporal episódica", é descrita como tendo duração de horas, dias ou semanas. No presente trabalho são analisados 2 casos com depressão episódica, 1 com depressão duradoura (3 anos e posteriormente episódica, e um outro com depressão duradoura (13 anos. O estudo clínico comparativo dos 4 casos, o resultado eletrencefalográfico e a resposta ao tratamento antiepilético permitem concluir que tanto as manifestações episódicas como as duradouras tinham etiologia epilética, sendo a disritmia localizada na área temporal. Baseada no estudo fenomenológico dos casos, a autora admite a hipótese de que as depressões epiléticas tenham quadro clínico característico que permite distingui-las das depressões de outra etiologia e sugere para as formas duradouras a denominação "depressão temporal permanente".

  11. Manejo quirurgico y ortodontico del incisivo central permanente impactado en posicion ectopica: reporte de un caso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truque Martinez, Oscar Gerardo; Longlax Triana, Maria Carolina; Bendahan Alvarez, Zita Carolina; Ramirez Rodriguez, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    ... en odontologia pediatrica de la Universidad El Bosque para exodoncia de un incisivo central superior permanente. La paciente tenia antecedentes de trauma dentoalveolar a los 7 anos de edad y ventana quirurgica para erupcion del diente 21...

  12. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is "Vulnerable" according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  13. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Farashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843 and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956 within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  14. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal Pap smear - HPV vaccine; Vaccination - HPV vaccine ... and Gynecologists. Committee opinion No. 641: human papillomavirus vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2015;126(3):e38-e43. PMID: ...

  15. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  16. Beyond Kaiser bias: mildly non-linear two-point statistics of densities in distant spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Uhlemann, C; Kim, J; Pichon, C; Bernardeau, F; Pogosyan, D; Park, C; L'Huillier, B

    2016-01-01

    Simple parameter-free analytic bias functions for the two-point correlation of densities in spheres at large separation are presented. These bias functions generalize the so-called Kaiser bias to the mildly non-linear regime for arbitrary density contrasts. The derivation is carried out in the context of large deviation statistics while relying on the spherical collapse model. A logarithmic transformation provides a saddle approximation which is valid for the whole range of densities and shown to be accurate against the 30 Gpc cube state-of-the-art Horizon Run 4 simulation. Special configurations of two concentric spheres that allow to identify peaks are employed to obtain the conditional bias and a proxy to BBKS extrema correlation functions. These analytic bias functions should be used jointly with extended perturbation theory to predict two-point clustering statistics as they capture the non-linear regime of structure formation at the percent level down to scales of about 10 Mpc/h at redshift 0. Conversely...

  17. PROCESSING ECG SIGNAL WITH KAISER WINDOW- BASED FIR DIGITAL FILTERS BY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbachu C.B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart attacks mostly occur in people who suffer from heart or heart-relate diseases if these diseases are not detected early enough and treated. There is therefore the need for a reliable means of detecting these diseases to save the patients from these attacks which are increasing in proportion all over the world. Electrocardiography (ECG, which is the electrical activity of the heart, generates a signal referred to as ECG signal or simply ECG and the shape of this signal tells much about the condition of the heart of a patient. Naturally the ECG signal gets distorted by different artifacts which must be removed otherwise it will convey an incorrect information regarding the patients heart condition. The work in this paper is the design of FIR digital filters with Kaiser Window to remove the interferences or the artifacts. Three filters are considered: low pass, high pass and notch filters. Each filter is used to filter the raw noisy ECG signal after which the three filters are used in cascade. Results are observed and recorded in each case, using FDA tool.

  18. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process.

  19. Um teste direto da teoria de renda permanente: o caso brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca averiguar se a teoria da renda permanente (TRP é capaz de explicar a evolução do consumo no Brasil através de um teste direto com base em revisões de consumo induzidas por inovações na renda. De acordo com a TRP, o consumo reage às mudanças na renda na medida em que a renda corrente contem informação sobre a renda permanente. Para mensurar esta relação, foi estimado um modelo ARIMA (p,1,q para a renda corrente e, como resultado, foi possível verificar se as revisões de consumo e renda permanente se assemelham. Por fim, a TRP foi rejeitada.

  20. Formación Permanente de los Docentes de Educación Infantil en Amorebieta

    OpenAIRE

    De-la-Vega-Dañobeitia, Agurtzane

    2013-01-01

    Dotar al colectivo docente que imparte en la etapa de Educación Infantil de una formación permanente o desarrollo profesional efectivo supone asegurarse buena parte del éxito educativo de los niños, y que estos adquieran las competencias necesarias para su desarrollo integral. En base a esta reflexión, y bajo la coyuntura social actual, en este trabajo examinamos la formación permanente de los maestros de Infantil de la localidad vizcaína de Amorebieta. Los resultados obtenidos por el estudio...

  1. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile ...

  2. Beyond Kaiser bias: mildly non-linear two-point statistics of densities in distant spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Kim, J.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Park, C.; L'Huillier, B.

    2017-04-01

    We present simple parameter-free analytic bias functions for the two-point correlation of densities in spheres at large separation. These bias functions generalize the so-called Kaiser bias to the mildly non-linear regime for arbitrary density contrasts and grow as b(ρ) - b(1) ∝ (1 - ρ-13/21)ρ1 + n/3 with b(1) = -4/21 - n/3 for a power-law initial spectrum with index n. We carry out the derivation in the context of large-deviation statistics while relying on the spherical collapse model. We use a logarithmic transformation that provides a saddle-point approximation that is valid for the whole range of densities and show its accuracy against the 30 Gpc cube state-of-the-art Horizon Run 4 simulation. Special configurations of two concentric spheres that allow us to identify peaks are employed to obtain the conditional bias and a proxy for the BBKS extremum correlation functions. These analytic bias functions should be used jointly with extended perturbation theory to predict two-point clustering statistics as they capture the non-linear regime of structure formation at the per cent level down to scales of about 10 Mpc h-1 at redshift 0. Conversely, the joint statistics also provide us with optimal dark matter two-point correlation estimates that can be applied either universally to all spheres or to a restricted set of biased (over- or underdense) pairs. Based on a simple fiducial survey, we show that the variance of this estimator is reduced by five times relative to the traditional sample estimator for the two-point function. Extracting more information from correlations of different types of objects should prove essential in the context of upcoming surveys like Euclid, DESI and WFIRST.

  3. La incapacidad permanente y su impacto en el sistema español de Seguridad Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Gómez Garcillán

    Full Text Available Se analizan datos de incapacidad permanente de los últimos años en la seguridad social. Conclusiones: El desglose provincial muestra grandes diferencias a nivel territorial cuyo origen o motivación no se puede determinar actualmente en tanto no se dispone de dos parámetros básicos, el código de diagnóstico de la patología principal determinante de la incapacidad permanente y el código identificativo de la actividad laboral (profesión habitual del interesado que permitirían realizar un análisis fiable de la situación. Entre los factores que podrían incidir de alguna manera en la mayor o menor incidencia de la incapacidad permanente, podemos analizar dos grandes componentes, la población protegida y su composición a nivel de regímenes y la iniciativa en la incoación de los procedimientos. El grupo de provincias con una incidencia más elevada en incapacidad permanente acusa tasas de paro también más elevadas que el grupo con incidencia menor. La tendencia en el número de procedimientos de IP incoados resulta claramente a la baja con una caída de más del 9% en cinco años. El INSS desestima un porcentaje creciente de los mismos, la razón de ese comportamiento no reside en una valoración restrictiva o más exigente por parte de la gestora, sino porque se instruyen menos procesos de incapacidad permanente y porque va tomando mayor protagonismo en la iniciativa de incoación el procedimiento a instancia de parte, cuyo porcentaje de desestimación es el más elevado.

  4. Seismicity and Deformation of Krafla Volcano, Iceland. Intervals of Low Seismicity Rate during Rapid Inflation Explained By the Kaiser Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Krafla central volcano in NE-Iceland produced about 20 dike intrusions during a rifting episode 1975-1984. These intrusions were always preceded by inflation of the caldera. Once a dike started propagating rapid deflation was observed. The first deflation event began in December 1975 with a dike traveling laterally from the magma chamber. Leveling measurements revealed subsidence of 2 m close to the deflation center. In February 1976 a stage of inflation began and at the same time the seismicity rate in the caldera rose in good correlation with the inflation. A small intrusion started propagating in late September 1976 which was accompanied by maximum subsidence of about 14 cm. However in the next 3 inflation and deflation cycles the inflation periods were almost aseismic until the inflation level of previous cycle was exceeded. At that point a sharp increase in the caldera earthquake count was observed. This phenomenon was observed until late April 1977 when a fissure eruption occurred inside the caldera. By inverting leveling data from 87 stations for a Mogi source and regarding the volume change of the source as a measure of stress we suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the Kaiser effect. The Kaiser effect is well known from rock mechanics where under cyclic loading and unloading rocks, and other materials, induce dramatic increase in acoustic emissions when the load exceeds that of previous cycles. Krafla demonstrated the same effect while the external stress field was not significantly changed during the aforementioned 3 inflation/deflation cycles. This condition was disturbed when eruption occurred inside the caldera. The state of stress in the vicinity of the magma chamber was changed and subsequent inflation periods were not accompanied by significant seismicity. These results indicate that the Kaiser effect is an important part of understanding the relationship between deformation and seismicity in active volcanoes. The importance of

  5. Teager-Kaiser Energy and Higher-Order Operators in White-Light Interference Microscopy for Surface Shape Measurement

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    Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In white-light interference microscopy, measurement of surface shape generally requires peak extraction of the fringe function envelope. In this paper the Teager-Kaiser energy and higher-order energy operators are proposed for efficient extraction of the fringe envelope. These energy operators are compared in terms of precision, robustness to noise, and subsampling. Flexible energy operators, depending on order and lag parameters, can be obtained. Results show that smoothing and interpolation of envelope approximation using spline model performs better than Gaussian-based approach.

  6. "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures": Correction to Kaiser et al. (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures" by Cheryl R. Kaiser, Brenda Major, Ines Jurcevic, Tessa L. Dover, Laura M. Brady and Jenessa R. Shapiro (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013[Mar], Vol 104[3], 504-519). In the article, a raw data merging error in one racial discrimination claim condition from Experiment 6 inadvertently resulted in data analyses on an inaccurate data set. When the error was discovered by the authors and corrected, all analyses reported in Experiment 6 for claim validity, seriousness of the claim, and support for the claimant were inaccurate and none were statistically significant. The conclusions should be altered to indicate that participants with management experience who reflected on their own workplace diversity policies did not show the predicted effects. The literature review, remaining five studies, and remaining conclusions in the article are unaffected by this error. Experiment 6 should also report that 26.4% (not 26.4.7%) of participants had a graduate degree and eight participants (not 8%) did not provide educational data. Experiment 5 should have referred to the claim validity measure as a six-item measure ( .92) rather than a five-item measure; analyses on claim validity are accurate in text. Table 2's note should have said standard errors, not standard deviations. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-31077-001.) This research tests the hypothesis that the presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity structures causes high-status group members (Whites, men) to perceive organizations with diversity structures as procedurally fairer environments for underrepresented groups (racial minorities, women), even when it is clear that underrepresented groups have been unfairly disadvantaged within these organizations. Furthermore, this illusory sense of fairness derived from the mere presence of diversity structures causes high

  7. Time-sensitivity of the Kaiser effect of acoustic emission in limestone and its application to measurements of in-situ stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yan; Qi Zili; Chen Mian; Zhang Guangqing; Xu Guangqiang

    2009-01-01

    Measuring in-situ stress by using the Kaiser effect in rocks has such advantages as time-efficiency, low cost and little limitation, but the precision of the method is dependent on rock properties and delay time of the measurement.In this paper, experiments on the Kaiser effect in limestones were performed, and it was found that the limestones had good ability to retain a memory of their recent stress history and high time-sensitivity.The longer the experiment was delayed from the extraction of the stone, the larger the Felicity ratio was.As the Felicity ratio approached 1, significant Kaiser effect was observed.In-situ stress should be determined by the limestone measurements when the delay time was 40-120 days.Finally, the in-situ stress in a limestone formation could be successfully measured in practice.

  8. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively. The comment claims that this leads to an overestimate of the discrepancy between previous studies and that the resulting gross production rates are "30% too high". Nicholson recognises the improved accuracy of Kaiser's direct calculation ("dual-delta" method compared to previous approximate approaches based on 17O excess (17Δ and its simplicity compared to previous iterative calculation methods. Although he correctly points out that differences in the normalised gross production rate (g are largely due to different input parameters used in Kaiser's "base case" and previous studies, he does not acknowledge Kaiser's observation that iterative and dual-delta calculation methods give exactly the same g for the same input parameters (disregarding kinetic isotope fractionation during air-sea exchange. The comment is based on misunderstandings with respect to the "base case" 17δP and 18δP values. Since direct measurements of 17δP and 18δPdo not exist or have been lost, Kaiser constructed the "base case" in a way that was consistent and compatible with literature data. Nicholson showed that an alternative reconstruction of 17δP gives g values closer to previous studies. However, unlike Nicholson, we refrain from interpreting either reconstruction as a benchmark for the accuracy of g. A number of publications over the last 12 months

  9. Aproximación teórica al estudio de los procesos migratorios permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2013-01-01

    La economía, la sociología y la geografía han proporcionado esquemas teóricos que explican la migración permanente. La teoría económica neoclásica, la nueva economía de la migración laboral, la teoría del capital social, la teoría transnacional y la teoría del mercado laboral dual ofrecen explicaciones parciales y contradictorias de la migración permanente. Por ello, la comprensión de por qué migrantes laborales que llegaron para trabajar de manera temporal se quedaron permanentemente en la s...

  10. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  11. Los juristas y la verdad: triunfos y derrotas de una investigación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Errera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existen verdades últimas, absolutas, que puedan ser puestas como fundamento de todo sistema normativo? El presente artículo nos muestra cómo la respuesta a este interrogante ha sido el motor constante de la evolución y de las transformaciones del derecho, respuesta, por lo demás, ligada históricamente al choque permanente entre derecho natural y derecho positivo.

  12. Los juristas y la verdad: triunfos y derrotas de una investigación permanente

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Errera

    2013-01-01

    ¿Existen verdades últimas, absolutas, que puedan ser puestas como fundamento de todo sistema normativo? El presente artículo nos muestra cómo la respuesta a este interrogante ha sido el motor constante de la evolución y de las transformaciones del derecho, respuesta, por lo demás, ligada históricamente al choque permanente entre derecho natural y derecho positivo.

  13. Motores sin escobillas:accionamientos sincronos autopilotados, excitados con imanes permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Los accionamientos síncronos autopilotados excitados con imanes permanentes están ocupando posiciones relevantes en el mercado de los accionamientos eléctricos. En el presente artículo, tras una descripción morfológica de las máquinas síncronas autopilotadas, se hace una clasificación de los diferentes tipos actualmente comercializados y una exposición de sus principales aplicaciones industriales.

  14. Los juristas y la verdad: triunfos y derrotas de una investigación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Errera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existen verdades últimas, absolutas, que puedan ser puestas como fundamento de todo sistema normativo? El presente artículo nos muestra cómo la respuesta a este interrogante ha sido el motor constante de la evolución y de las transformaciones del derecho, respuesta, por lo demás, ligada históricamente al choque permanente entre derecho natural y derecho positivo.

  15. A EDUCAÇÃO PERMANENTE NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE COMPETÊNCIAS DOS PROFISSIONAIS DE ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Chiodelli Salum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available : Este estudio tuvo por objetivo reconocer el potencial de la educación permanente en el desarrollo de competencias técnicas, relacionales/comunicacionales y ética/políticas de los profesionales de enfermería. Tratase de una investigación cualitativa realizada con doce profesionales de enfermería. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo a través de análisis de documento, entrevista y observación. Los datos fueron analizados con base en categorías predeterminadas: competencia técnica, competencia relacional/comunicacional y competencia ética/política. Los resultados demuestran que la educación permanente contribuye de manera significativa al desarrollo de competencias de los profesionales. Apuntan para el predominio de la dimensión técnica como modo de garantizar seguridad y reconocimiento profesional. Las dimensiones relacionales/comunicacionales y ético/políticas también son consideradas y contribuyen en el relacionamiento interpersonal y en la forma de organización del trabajo. El proceso de educación permanente que incluye las diversas dimensiones favorece la integración de los profesionales en el mundo de cambios e es uno de los aspectos que potencializan dicho proceso.

  16. Aproximación teórica al estudio de los procesos migratorios permanentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La economía, la sociología y la geografía han proporcionado esquemas teóricos que explican la migración permanente. La teoría económica neoclásica, la nueva economía de la migración laboral, la teoría del capital social, la teoría transnacional y la teoría del mercado laboral dual ofrecen explicaciones parciales y contradictorias de la migración permanente. Por ello, la comprensión de por qué migrantes laborales que llegaron para trabajar de manera temporal se quedaron permanentemente en la sociedad receptora debe sustentarse en enfoques interdisciplinarios. El artículo explora el alcance de los principales marcos teóricos de la migración permanente para entender por qué algunos jornaleros que llegaron a Tamaulipas para trabajar en la naranja durante la temporada de la pizca se quedaron permanentemente.

  17. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Vaccines On This Page What is the immune system? ... cells recognized by the immune system? What are vaccines? What are cancer vaccines? How do cancer preventive ...

  18. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  19. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  20. ‘God is groot en wij begrijpen Hem niet’: Kaisers populaire sterrenkunde en het einde van de fysiko-theologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Lunteren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Frederik Kaiser, popular astronomy, and the decline of natural theologyThroughout his remarkable career the Leiden astronomer Frederik Kaiser (1808-1872 struggled to revive Dutch astronomy, which at the time was rather moribund. His efforts comprised mobilizing public support through popularization. In spite of a lack of illustrations, his popular Starry Sky (1844 proved immensely successful with the general public. This work differed in many respects from earlier Dutch popular writings, and helped to establish the new genre of popular science. Kaiser enunciated his idiosyncratic views on popularization in a lecture which he later published as a brochure. Whereas his research reflects the shift from the dilettante to the professional scientist in being focussed on precision measurement, his popular work likewise testified to the transition from natural philosophy to modern science. Charged with the task of composing a natural theological work on astronomy, the deeply religious Kaiser, wriggled his way through the text. Feeling unable to advance the usual arguments, he finally found refuge in the book of Job: 'Behold, God is great and we know him not'. Arguably, the rise of popular science and the decline of natural theology were intimately connected.

  1. Die Christenverfolgungen und die Kaiser-verfolger bei den Lateiniscen Christistlichen Historikern des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Maver

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Abhandlung behandelt die Schilderung der Christenverfolgungen im römischen Reich und der als Christenverfolger eingestuften Kaiser in der lateinischen christlichen Historiographie des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts, vor allem bei Laktanz, Orosius, Sulpicius Severus und Augustin in seinem Gottesstaat. Den Schwerpunkt bildet dabei der Vergleich zweier meist verbreiteten Schemen, wobei eine bei Lesern einen mehr oder weniger expliziten Eindruck erweckt, dass der Sieg des Christentums unter Konstantin auch das Ende der eigentlichen Christenverfolgungen bedeutet, die andere, vor allem von Augustin vertreten, aber sieht in den antichristlichen Maßnahmen eine Konstante der Geschichte des christlichen Volkes. Zuerst wird auf die Vorgeschichte solcher Vorstellungen aufmerksam gemacht, wobei besonders Melito von Sardes und Tertullian einbezogen werden. Die beiden zählten nur sehr wenige Kaiser zu den Christenverfolgern, und zwar diejenigen, die auch in der heidnischen Tradition als schlechte Herrscher gesehen wurden. Diese Methode, nur schlechte Kaiser als Verfolger erscheinen zu lassen, fand später eine ziemlich breite Nachahmung. Sie wurde auch von Laktanz und dem jungen Euseb übernommen. Die Darstellung des Laktanz in seiner Schrift Über die Todesarten der Verfolger bildet eigentlich eine klassische Verwirklichung dieses Verfahrens. Der ehemalige Rhetoriklehrer wollte nämlich nur diejenigen römischen Herrscher als Christenfeinde schildern, die auch in Augen der senatsnahen Historiographie problematisch erscheinen und zugleich auch eines schmachvollen Todes gestorben waren. Daher gab er die Zahl der Verfolgungen mit nur sechs an. Zu den Christenverfolgern zählte er Nero, Domitianus, Decius, Valerianus, Aurelianus sowie die Tetrarchen. Bei Decius und einigermaßen auch bei Aurelianus wich er damit von der heidnischen Historiographie ab, da diese vor allem Decius als einen guten Kaiser schilderte. Einen ähnlichen Standpunkt vertrat offensichtlich

  2. Educação permanente em saúde: metassíntese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Luppino Miccas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Realizar metassíntese da literatura sobre os principais conceitos e práticas relacionados à educação permanente em saúde. MÉTODOS : Foi realizada busca bibliográfica de artigos originais nas bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, IBECS e SciELO, utilizando os seguintes descritores: “ public health professional education ”, “ permanent education”, “continuing education ”, “ permanent education health ”. De um total de 590 artigos identificados, após os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 48 para análise, os quais foram submetidos à análise individual, análise comparativa, análise com critérios de agrupamentos de elementos-chave e submetidos à metassíntese. RESULTADOS : Os 48 artigos originais foram classificados como elementos-chave em quatro unidades temáticas: 1 Concepções; 2 Estratégias e dificuldades; 3 Políticas públicas; e 4 Instituições formadoras. Foram encontradas três concepções principais de educação permanente em saúde: problematizadora e focada no trabalho em equipe, diretamente relacionada à educação continuada e educação que se dá ao longo da vida. As principais estratégias para efetivação da educação permanente foram a problematização, manutenção de espaços para a educação permanente e polos de educação permanente. O maior fator limitante foi relacionado à gerência direta ou indireta. Foram indicadas a necessidade de implementação e manutenção de políticas públicas, além de disponibilidade de recursos financeiros e de recursos humanos. As instituições formadoras teriam necessidade de articular ensino e serviço para a formação de egressos críticos-reflexivos. CONCLUSÕES : A articulação educação e saúde encontra-se pautada tanto nas ações dos serviços de saúde, quanto de gestão e de instituições formadoras. Assim, torna-se um desafio implementar processos de ensino-aprendizagem que sejam respaldados

  3. LA FORMACIÓN AMBIENTAL PERMANENTE DEL DIRECTIVO EDUCACIONAL DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavel Moré Estupiñán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La situación ambiental actual impone nuevos retos a los sistemas educativos, entre ellos el de incorporar la educación ambiental para el desarrollo sostenible al proceso pedagógico en los diferentes subsistemas de educación. Para lograr este propósito, es decisivo el rol del directivo educacional, desde la implementación del sistema de dirección institucional. Por ello, la formación ambiental de este profesional constituye un imperativo y se declara como problema científico de la presente investigación, que se sustenta teórica y metodológicamente en los fundamentos de la formación ambiental permanente del directivo educacional y delimita como objetivo: proponer un Modelo para orientar hacia el desarrollo sostenible este proceso. Garantizan el cumplimiento del objetivo, el empleo de métodos teóricos, estadísticos y/o de procesamiento matemático y empíricos, de corte cuantitativo y cualitativo, que se articulan a partir de las técnicas de la investigación-acción-participativa. El Modelo constituye la contribución a la teoría pedagógica y son aportes de significación práctica los programas de las formas organizativas de la formación permanente. El criterio de la práctica, como resultado de la sistematización de una secuencia de ciclos, y las valoraciones de diferentes evaluadores confirman la pertinencia, relevancia y efectividad del Modelo de formación ambiental permanente del directivo educacional.

  4. Evaluation Techniques of Creating Coherence in Poems of Kaiser Aminpour Relying on the Theory of Halliday’s Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sattari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOne of the linguistics theories that are utilized in present age in the analysis of literary texts is the theory of Halliday’s linguistics which is called theory of systemic - functional linguistics. Halliday’s theory in the second half of the twentieth century, in contrast to the "generative linguistics" approach, which is based on formal language like a mental and individual phenomenon.    Hallidayan called the semantic, literal, syntax and logical relationship of words as coherence of a text and believes that the coherence of the text, includes all the semantic relations by which, every piece of speech or writing can serve as text. Hence, cohesion, referred to relations that relates all elements of a sentence to the elements of other sentences. From Hallidayan's  point of view, elements of coherence of a text are divided into two parts: grammatical and lexical. Grammatical cohesion includes factors such as referrals, replacements, removals and relevancy, and lexical coherence includes repetition and collocation in literary language.   Kaiser is one of the contemporary famous poets that have composed many poets in different molds of poetry. Kaiser Manipur's poems benefit the integration due to the poet's fluency in Persian and his familiarity with the vocabulary and grammatical and lexical capacities of Persian literature. In this research, we have studied the cohesion in Kaiser Manipur's poems from two views of lexical and grammatical by using Holidaying theory of coherence as well as the techniques that the poet has applied to reach the cohesion in his poems.    The method of research in the present paper is descriptive-analytical and all the information and data has been collected from the sources of library and electronic. In this paper, we first briefly discussed the Holidaying coherence theory, and then, with a special approach to this theory, the most important techniques that Kaiser Manipur has

  5. Inovação financeira e consumo : a hipótese do rendimento permanente

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Joshua Dias

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho de projeto do mestrado em Economia (Economia Financeira), apresentado à Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, sob a orientação de João Alberto Sousa Andrade. Tomando em linha de conta a crescente importância de inovações financeiras nos últimos anos torna-se relevante explicar qual o impacto das mesmas sobre o consumo. Recorrendo à hipótese do rendimento permanente tentamos criar uma ponte entre a inovação financeira e o consumo através do efeito que esta exerce sobre ...

  6. Flora vascular de humedales permanentes y transitorios bonaerenses (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta un análisis de las fitocenosis y listas actualizadas de la flora vascular (con excepción de las Poaceae) de dos humedales permanentes, La Balandra y la Isla Santiago, y de varios humedales temporarios (arroyo Rodríguez, arroyo El Gato, y otros) de las zonas costeras del Río de La Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina). El estudio se basó en el trabajo de campo y el seguimiento estacional de las comunidades silvestres entre los años 2005 y 2011, con un registro de 1...

  7. Asistencia circulatoria permanente en la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica refractaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez de la Sota

    2011-07-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan diversos aspectos relacionados con la asistencia ventricular permanente como son la experiencia recogida con los distintos dispositivos a lo largo de los años, las complicaciones y morbilidad asociada a ellos o los diferentes ensayos clínicos realizados. Se hace un especial hincapié en la selección de pacientes para terapia definitiva y en las escalas de riesgo específicas para asistencia ventricular, y se consideran también brevemente otras opciones de asistencia a largo plazo menos empleadas como el corazón artificial total o las microbombas implantables.

  8. Las TIC y la diversidad docente. Actitudes del profesorado de Educación Permanente

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Batanero, José María

    2014-01-01

    En esta comunicación se presentan las conclusiones de un estudio cuyo objetivo ha sido determinar las actitudes del profesorado de educación permanente de adultos de la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía, hacia el uso e integración de las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC) en sus respectivos centros. El diseño de investigación es de tipo descriptivo mixto. Las técnicas utilizadas para la recogida de información han sido el cuestionario y la entrevista en profundida...

  9. Luxações intrusivas em dentes decíduos e permanentes jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Célia Gabriela da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Medicina Dentária Este trabalho científico foi realizado no âmbito da conclusão do curso de Licenciatura em Medicina Dentária na Universidade Fernando Pessoa e teve como principal objectivo, a realização de uma revisão bibliográfica acerca das luxações intrusivas em dentes decíduos e permanentes jovens. Os objectivos particulares foram: classificar na sua gener...

  10. Traumatismos en dentición temporal: repercusión en su sucesor permanente

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Objetivo: Revisión bibliográfica de la literatura sobre los diferentes tratamientos realizados en los traumatismos de los dientes temporales necróticos traumatizados, su pronóstico a largo plazo y posibles efectos adversos sobre la mineralización o alteración en la cronología eruptiva de la dentición permanente. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo de casos y controles con monitorización clínica y radiológica a largo plazo par...

  11. Biopoder e UPPs: alteridade na experiência do policiamento permanente em comunidades cariocas

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Benedito Livramento Melicio; Janaina Rodrigues Geraldini; Pedro Paulo Gastalho de Bicalho

    2012-01-01

    O artigo visa refletir sobre a experiência do efetivo policial permanente em dois conjuntos de comunidades cariocas, inserido no escopo das Unidades de Polícia Pacificadora (UPP). Foram realizados dois estudos exploratórios, em agosto e dezembro de 2010. Na esteira do conceito foucaultiano de biopoder, discute-se a UPP como rede de relações de poder que a compõe e a legitima, pensando-se o local em que se instala, a política de Estado a que responde, os atores com que opera e as produções his...

  12. Traumatismos en dentición temporal: repercusión en su sucesor permanente

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas López, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Objetivo: Revisión bibliográfica de la literatura sobre los diferentes tratamientos realizados en los traumatismos de los dientes temporales necróticos traumatizados, su pronóstico a largo plazo y posibles efectos adversos sobre la mineralización o alteración en la cronología eruptiva de la dentición permanente. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo de casos y controles con monitorización clínica y radiológica a largo plazo par...

  13. Evolución y concepto de la educación permanente en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Medina Ferrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la educación permanente en España a través del análisis de su evolución y de su concepción histórica. En lo metodológico se aplica el estudio documental. Son muchas las definiciones que se han ido generando sobre este tema, el profundo análisis y la consecuente comprensión ha permitido la propuesta de tres concepciones propias de la educación permanente, en la controvertida relación con la educación de adultos. A manera de conclusiones se expone que el desarrollo evolutivo del concepto de educación permanente en España con relación a la educación de adultos, ha permitido entrever tres novedosas percepciones conceptuales que ofrecen una visión panorámica del contexto que encuadra en la actualidad a la educación permanente. Se concluye además que el estado futuro de la educación permanente dependerá en gran medida de una estrategia interinstitucional y participativa que se adapte a los cambios sociales del entorno.

  14. Extraccion del primer molar permanente como una alternativa en el tratamiento de ortodoncia.(Reporte de Casos)(Perspectiva general del procedimiento medico)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oberti, Giovanni; Rey, Diego; Sierra, Angela

    2012-01-01

    La extraccion de primeros molares permanentes es una alternativa de tratamiento en algunos casos de ortodoncia como aquellos que presentan apinamiento moderado, biprotrusion, mordidas abiertas, clase...

  15. um pólo de educação permanente em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Kleba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relata la experiencia de un curso de capacitación para consejeros municipales desarrollado en ciudades de la región del Polo de Educación Permanente del Oeste de Santa Catarina, utilizando un abordaje problematizador. Los cursos tuvieron como principal objetivo, calificar la actuación de los consejeros en la gestión de las políticas públicas en los municipios, favoreciendo la intervención crítica y promoviendo el intercambio de experiencias, además de la articulación entre distintos actores comprometidos con la construcción de las políticas de la región. Como resultados resaltamos, el intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias, la ampliación del acceso a las informaciones y otras herramientas para el análisis de la situación y para la tomada de decisiones. Queda como desafío, el fortalecimiento del compromiso de los actores con el propio proceso de educación permanente, para lo que sería fundamental la creación de un espacio de referencia – administrativo y pedagógico – con la disponibilidad de recursos e informaciones.

  16. Educación permanente y continua en una perspectiva de integridad del ser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Feijó de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo buscó discutir las articulaciones y distinciones entre los conceptos de educación permanente y educación continua de modo que favorezca la perspectiva de integridad del ser, vínculo que requiere saberes hasta entonces poco privilegiados en las Universidades y que demandan el rescate de dimensiones basadas en la experiencia, la didáctica y la existencia del educador, tanto individual, comportamental, cultural, social y espiritual. Consideramos que las nociones de educación permanente y educación continua poseen elementos entrelazables que nos permiten desarrollar la capacidad de reaccionar críticamente por medio de una relación autoformativa. Las revisiones teóricas implementadas permitieron algunas consideraciones sobre los procesos formativos actuales y las prácticas de profesores rumbo a una Educación para la Integridad. Concluimos provisoriamente que las aproximaciones y distinciones entre EP y EC pueden proporcionar a los profesores la toma de conciencia de su vinculación todo/parte y del sentido de la vida.

  17. Mediación de la cultura docente en los proyectos de formación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA AMAYA-DE REBOLLEDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación permanente del docente juega un papel clave en el cambio educativo; sin embargo, su concreción práctica representa un reto epistemológico y metodológico. La problemática ha sido abordada desde diferentes ángulos, en los cuales la relación entre cultura docente y formación permanente no ha sido claramente desvelada. En este artículo, que constituye un avance en la investigación de tesis doctoral de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Carabobo, se analiza por qué la cultura docente necesita ser reconocida como una realidad dinámica, dialéctica y relacional que afecta la calidad de la formación permanente del docente venezolano.

  18. DENGUE VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  19. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively.

    This comment has no merit for the following reasons: (a the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen cannot be "defined", it can only be measured, modelled or calculated based on other data; (b the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen was not "defined" in Kaiser (2011a, but derived from published measurements; (c the published measurements themselves were inconsistent and no single result could be identified as best; (d since no best value could be identified, a hypothetical base case was constructed in a way that was consistent with previous publications; (e the values of 17δP=−11.646‰ and 18δP=−22.835‰ assumed for the base case are compatible with the experimental evidence published before the paper of Kaiser (2011a; (f even if the "biological end-member" was based on a definition, there could be no argument about the "consistency" of this definition – as per its nature, a definition is arbitrary.

    The qualification of base case gross production values as being "30 % too high" must therefore also be rejected. Even though recently revised measurements of the relative 17O/16O isotope ratio difference between VSMOW and Air-O2, 17δVSMOW (Barkan and Luz, 2011, do support lower estimates of gross production, our own measurements disagree with these revised 17δVSMOW values. If scaled for differences in 18

  20. Factores asociados a la formación permanente del profesorado de Educación Secundaria en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Paula González-Vallinas; David Oterino; José Luis San Fabián

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio se centra en la formación del profesorado y explora las relaciones existentes entre la formación permanente y diversas características del profesorado y de los centros de educación secundaria en Asturias. Como resultado de una investigación basada en el análisis de datos secundarios cuantitativos del profesorado, alumnado y municipios de Asturias, se obtiene una radiografía de la formación permanente de su profesorado (modalidad y materia de formación). Se realizan...

  1. Rabies Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. The vaccine should also be considered for: (1) ...

  2. Edible vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach t...

  3. Periodontal vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Malhotra; Anoop Kapoor; Vishakha Grover; Aaswin Kaur Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of pe...

  4. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A A What's in this article? ... 11 or 12 through age 21 If needed, kids can get the vaccine starting at age 9. continue How Does the ...

  5. Demonstration of shield-type longwall supports at York Canyon Mine of Kaiser Steel Corporation. Final technical report A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, R.G.; King, R.

    1980-04-01

    This report represents work on a program that was originated by the USBM of the Department of the Interior and was transferred to the Department of Energy on October 1, 1977. A demonstration with the Government funded Hemscheidt 320 HSL caliper type shield supports was conducted at three longwall panels of Kaiser Steel Corporation's York Canyon Mine. The purpose of this longwall demonstration was to provide the US coal industry with information on all aspects of shield longwall mining in high seams. The demonstration provided a working model for the coal industry and during the project, 350 people from the industry, schools, and government agencies visited the demonstration. They were provided with a first hand knowledge of a working shield longwall. The demonstration showed that the control of large coal lumps may be a problem in the mining of coal seam thicker than 8 feet. Mining with shield type supports provided good working conditions and a safe working environment. The shield requires very little maintenance and has a high mechanical availability.

  6. La formación permanente del profesorado ante los nuevos retos del sistema educativo universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús PÉREZ CURIEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, las relaciones que se establecen entre la sociedad y la universidad están cambiando con gran rapidez. La sociedad exige de la universidad otro tipo de formación más conforme con las demandas actuales. La adaptación de la universidad a estos cambios pasa en la actualidad por la implantación de un espacio educativo europeo como primera respuesta. Dicho proyecto involucra por igual a todos los actores: alumnado, personal administrativo y profesorado. En cuanto al profesorado, por su parte, se hace necesaria una verdadera formación permanente, basada en la definición y puesta en práctica de una serie de competencias generales y específicas.

  7. Tratamiento de un molar permanente inmaduro necrótico mediante pulpotomía

    OpenAIRE

    Boj Quesada, Juan Ramón; Cortés Lillo, Olga; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    Se describe un caso que afecta al primer molar permanente inferior derecho, con tumefacción, fluctuación y fístula , con ápices no cerrados. El tratamiento de elección hubiese sido una técnica clásica de apicoformación con hidróxido de calcio. Pero por motivos de colaboración, se realizó una pulpotomía con hidróxido de calcio. Tras los controles radiológicos a los 3 meses, al año y al año y medio se comprobó que continuaba el desarrollo radicular y finalizaba el cierre apical.

  8. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  9. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  10. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  12. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  13. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  14. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  15. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  16. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  17. Effects of limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations on runoff and sediment yields in the Upper Permanente Creek basin, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K.M.; Hill, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    High sediment loads below headwater areas of the Permanente Creek drainage basin, Santa Clara County, California, have caused flood-control problems in downstream lowland areas. Measured sediment yields in Permanente Creek, which drains areas affected by limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations, were 14 times greater than yields from the West Fork Permanente Creek, which primarily drains parkland. Part of this large disparity in yields is the result of higher runoff/unit of drainage area in the Permanente Creek Basin. Results of rainfall-runoff modeling indicate that the tendency for higher runoff from Permanente Creek results from natural differences in basin physiography. Runoff during periods of high streamflow (when most sediment is transported) is dominated by subsurface flow, which is not affected by human activities. Although artificial features created by human activities seem to have had only minor effects on runoff, they apparently have had major effects on sediment availability. Artificial features accounted for 273 acres (89%) of the 307 acres of active erosional landforms mapped in 1984. Increased availability of sediment in the Permanente Creek basin appears to be indicated by elevated intercepts of sediment-transport curves. A comparison of sediment-transport curves for the West Fork Permanente Creek with similar curves for the Permanente Creek basin under natural conditions suggests that the sediment yield from Permanente Creek is about 3.5 times higher than it would be under natural basin conditions. The increased yield apparently is due to an increase in sediment availability rather than an increase in runoff. (USGS)

  18. CONTROL DE GESTIÓN: DIMENSIONES Y DIAGNÓSTICO PERMANENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Hernández Torres

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los actuales entornos competitivos en los que se desarrolla la actividad empresarial, junto a la necesidad de responder de forma adecuada a los continuos cambios y constante incertidumbre a los que las organizaciones han de enfrentarse, conllevan una significativa modificación en lo que a la gestión empresarial se refiere, resultando esencial en este sentido, el papel del control de gestión, que como elemento del proceso de dirección, es el que más contribuye a mejorar las actuaciones de cualquier sistema. Las empresas deben tomar decisiones estratégicas adecuadas que permitan alcanzar alguna ventaja competitiva en la búsqueda de la excelencia empresarial a través de un proceso flexible de mejora continua. Para contribuir a tal propósito, en el presente trabajo se realizan algunas reflexiones acerca del control de gestión, abarcando desde el enfoque clásico hasta el moderno, su evolución y situación en las organizaciones cubanas; así como, el análisis de sus dimensiones soportado en un procedimiento para su permanente diagnóstico en correspondencia con las particularidades en que las diferentes empresas desarrollan su actividad.

  19. Del cataclismo de la revolución a la resistencia permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lazo Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo discute la posibilidad del tránsito de la revolución, como momento social de extrema violencia, a la resistencia organizada de forma permanente en los ámbitos de grupos disidentes contra la "totalidad" que los confina a un estatus de dependencia pasiva. En contra de la fetichización de la revolución en los discursos de Stalin o Mussolini, se esgrimen algunos argumentos de Nietzsche, Arendt, JeanLuc Nancy y Derrida para proponer un movimiento imaginario de resistencia como desarme y dislocamiento de la totalidad represiva que habla con palabras revolucionarias. El argumento adquiere un sesgo latinoamericano al incorporar tesis de José Vasconcelos en la discusión. Al final, desde la recuperación hegeliana de la Sittlichkeit por parte de Charles Taylor, se apuesta por un "nosotros" que sea actor de una resistencia política intersticial y no cíclica, propositiva e imaginaria y no pasiva

  20. EDUCAÇÃO PERMANENTE EM ENFERMAGEM E A INTERFACE COM A OUVIDORIA HOSPITALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Costa Rodrigues de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo-exploratorio, con enfoque cualitativo, cuyo objetivo fue investigar las demandas de los usuarios del servicio de Defensoría del Pueblo relacionadas con la asistencia de enfermería y discutir su contribución para la educación permanente. La investigación se desarrolló en hospital público federal, con notoriedad en realización de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de alta complejidad en Ortopedia. La recolección de datos se basó en la técnica de análisis documental, incluyendo la gestión de informaciones y materiales, de las demandas de los usuarios que figuran en los registros de la Oficina de Defensoría del Pueblo, relativos al año 2009, (total de 3.895 declaraciones. Hemos clasificado las declaraciones recibidas- en este estudio- según la naturaleza de la comunicación: elogio, pedido de información, queja, sugerencia y denuncia. Hemos considerado la importancia del Servicio de Defensoría del Pueblo para mejorar la actuación de enfermería, teniendo en cuenta las contribuciones extraídas del contexto de las demandas y que la relación interdisciplinar permite percibir y evaluar las necesidades evidenciadas.

  1. La cátedra abierta y permanente de Ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Caballero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La Cátedra Abierta y Permanente de Ética se propuso como un espacio de discusión y reflexión ético-política para debatir las diferentes corrientes del pensamiento axiológico y político, que propicie la resignificación de las representaciones culturales y sociales de sentido que permitan desarrollar una mirada socio histórica sobre las relaciones entre educación, ética y cultura colombiana, de tal manera que los estudiantes de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional asuman una conciencia clara de su función como actores sociales en la construcción de la sociedad civil, la democracia, la promoción y la defensa de los derechos humanos, el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo social. La formación de valores morales que fundamenten una ética cívica parte del conocimiento de la realidad nacional y global, de la autoconciencia de cada individuo que aspira a constituirse en un ser autónomo usando su pensamiento crítico y participando en la construcción de la democracia, como modelo de gobierno que garantiza las libertades individuales, propiciando espacios para la conquista de los ideales de libertad, equidad, solidaridad y tolerancia, que permitan la convivencia ciudadana y la construcción de la nacionalidad colombiana.

  2. Estrategias del Teatro del Oprimido para la formación permanente del profesorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Motos-Teruel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relata una experiencia y su valoración de formación permanente del profesorado basada en el aprendizaje vivencial utilizando como estrategia metodológica el Teatro del Oprimido (TO para estimular y favorecer la reflexión sobre la práctica educativa. Sus objetivos básicos fueron dar a conocer la formulación teórica y la metodología del TO y hacer la transferencia de las estrategias metodológicas vivenciadas a la práctica docente. El estudio se ha planteado desde una óptica cualitativa con el estudio de caso único. Y como resultados más destacables hay que reseñar el interés y la percepción de la utilidad personal y profesional del TO como instrumento de reflexión sobre la acción y generador de clima positivo. El Teatro del Oprimido es una formulación teórica y un método estético cuya teoría y praxis están inspiradas en la Pedagogía del Oprimido de Paulo Freire, utiliza las técnicas dramáticas como un instrumento eficaz para la comprensión y la búsqueda de alternativas a problemas sociales, interpersonales e individuales.

  3. Las Lesson Study en Andalucía: un modelo de formación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M.ª Caparrós Vida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece los resultados de un estudio de casos desarrollado en el marco de un proyecto de investigación I+D de la Universidad de Málaga a través de una de las modalidades de formación permanente ofertadas por un Centro de Formación del Profesorado, bajo la demanda de un grupo de docentes de una escuela de la comarca de la Axarquía en Málaga. Las Lesson Study se convierten en el eje del estudio de los procesos de comprensión y reconstrucción del conocimiento práctico de una maestra de 1º de primaria sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura, encontrando evidencias significativas sobre cómo esta estrategia metodológica y de investigación contribuye a la reconstrucción del mismo.

  4. Biopoder e UPPs: alteridade na experiência do policiamento permanente em comunidades cariocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Benedito Livramento Melicio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa refletir sobre a experiência do efetivo policial permanente em dois conjuntos de comunidades cariocas, inserido no escopo das Unidades de Polícia Pacificadora (UPP. Foram realizados dois estudos exploratórios, em agosto e dezembro de 2010. Na esteira do conceito foucaultiano de biopoder, discute-se a UPP como rede de relações de poder que a compõe e a legitima, pensando-se o local em que se instala, a política de Estado a que responde, os atores com que opera e as produções históricas das relações entre Estado e territórios populares. O campo de análise constitui-se, assim, nas práticas e saberes localizados no cotidiano e nos efeitos produzidos com a presença do policial na paisagem da favela. Se novas regras são trazidas com as UPPs, novas identificações são mobilizadas e as modulações de conjunto abrem lacunas, o governo de si não se produz sozinho, mas combina-se com diversidades na gestão da vida.

  5. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  6. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  7. Formaci??n permanente y desarrollo de la identidad reflexiva del profesorado desde las perspectivas grupal e individual

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En este art??culo se sintetizan las principales caracter??sticas de determinados recursos pedag??gicos para la formaci??n permanente del profesorado como instrumentos coadyuvantes en el desarrollo de una identidad profesional reflexiva. Para ello, nos apoyamos en tres conceptos b??sicos: (1) la importancia de la formaci??n reflexiva del docente a lo largo de la carrera profesional; (2) los principales recursos para desarrollar una formaci??n reflexiva de manera colegiada; y (3) los principale...

  8. Desarrollo de la formación permanente del profesorado en la provincia de Guadalajara: un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo PIÑA SARMIENTO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El profesorado, una vez concluida su carrera, no puede contentarse con la Formación Inicial recibida. Del intento de adaptar el Sistema Educativo al devenir cultural y socioeconómico surge la necesidad de la Formación Permanente del Profesorado. Dicho modelo de Formación Permanente debe partir de una reflexión del profesorado sobre su práctica docente. Con este artículo hemos querido analizar el modelo de Formación Permanente del Profesorado en la Comunidad de Castilla-La Mancha, y concretamente en la provincia de Guadalajara, como factor de calidad en el desempeño de las funciones docentes de hoy en día. Para ello, hemos llevado a cabo un estudio de caso basado en una metodología descriptiva y cuantitativa, donde hemos procedido a describir no sólo las características de los CEP, sino también los cursos que se han desarrollado a lo largo de estos últimos años en estos centros (centrándonos fundamentalmente en los cursos relacionados con las TIC y la Educación Musical en Educación Primaria. Las conclusiones derivadas del estudio muestran cómo a lo largo de estos años ha habido una gran oferta de cursos, fundamentalmente relacionados con las TIC, pero una escasez de oferta formativa relacionada con la Música.

  9. Reservorios subcutáneos venosos centrales permanentes. Complicaciones Permanent subcutaneous reservoirs: Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calvo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las complicaciones surgidas en 100 pacientes en los que hemos colocado sistemas implantables a nivel central (Port-a-cath. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal con recogida de datos mediante un muestreo aleatorio sistemático de 100 pacientes, en los que analizamos la edad, sexo, la patología por la que se le implanta, el tipo de catéter, la vía de acceso elegida y las complicaciones. Resultados: Tras realizar en todos los casos un control biológico y radiológico, se ha encontrado una incidencia de complicaciones del 6% (3 complicaciones mecánicas, 2 por mala manipulación y una complicación de tipo infeccioso. Conclusiones: Tras estos resultados en nuestro servicio, constatamos una baja incidencia de complicaciones, manteniendo las ventajas que ofrece un acceso permanente a una vía central.Objectives: To describe complications found in 100 patients to which central implanted systems (Port-a-cath were placed. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study with data gathered through a systematic randomized sampling of 100 patients, in which age, gender, pathology requiring implanted systems, type of catheter, elected route of access and complications. Results: After performing to all the patients a biological and radiological control, a complication rate of 6% was found (3 mechanical complications, 2 complications associated to poor handling and 1 infectious complication. Conclusions: After these results obtained in our service, we evidenced a low incidence of complications, thus confirming the benefits provided by a permanent access to a central route.

  10. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  11. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  12. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  13. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  14. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  15. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. Depressão permanente e disritmia do lobo temporal Permanent depression and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Baptistete Matarazzo

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Após revisão bibliográfica a respeito da depressão de origem epilética, a autora conclui que são citadas as formas pré-ictal, ictal, pós-ictal e inter-ictal. Esta última, denominada por Grecu e Kalman "depressão temporal episódica", é descrita como tendo duração de horas, dias ou semanas. No presente trabalho são analisados 2 casos com depressão episódica, 1 com depressão duradoura (3 anos e posteriormente episódica, e um outro com depressão duradoura (13 anos. O estudo clínico comparativo dos 4 casos, o resultado eletrencefalográfico e a resposta ao tratamento antiepilético permitem concluir que tanto as manifestações episódicas como as duradouras tinham etiologia epilética, sendo a disritmia localizada na área temporal. Baseada no estudo fenomenológico dos casos, a autora admite a hipótese de que as depressões epiléticas tenham quadro clínico característico que permite distingui-las das depressões de outra etiologia e sugere para as formas duradouras a denominação "depressão temporal permanente".Making a bibliographic review about epileptic depression, the Author found that ictal, pre, post-ictal and inter-ictal forms are described. The last one, named by Grecu and Kalman "Episodic temporal depression", is accepted as lasting for hours, days or weeks. The present work analyses two patients with episodic depression, one with permanent (3 years and later episodic form and another one with permanent depression only (13 years. The comparative study of the 4 patients, the EEG results and the effect of antiepileptic treatment permise to conclude that even the episodic and the permanent depression were of epileptic etiology, with temporal lobe localisation. Based on the symptomatology found in the 4 patients, the Author admits the hypothesis that the epileptic depression is characteristic and that it should be possible to distinghish it, clinically, from other depressions. It is suggested, for this permanent form

  17. Reparaties als een hedendaagse uiting van de permanente revolutie. Een standpunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francio Guadeloupe

    2014-12-01

    permanente revolutie waarbij zowel externe als interne vormen van ontmenselijking worden bestreden. De roep naar herstelbetaling is dan onderdeel van de beweging die een waardig Nederland en een waardige wereld probeert te scheppen.

  18. Control para máquinas de CA de imanes permanentes con FEM arbitraria, sin sensores mecánicos

    OpenAIRE

    De Angelo, Cristian Hernán

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo de tesis se proponen nuevas soluciones a dos problemáticas de control de máquinas de corriente alterna con imanes permanentes: la minimización del ripple de par y la eliminación de sensores mecánicos de posición y/o velocidad. Para minimizar el ripple de par, producido por formas de onda de fem inducida no sinusoidales ni trapezoidales, se propone una nueva técnica para realizar la regulación de las corrientes de la máquina, basado en las ideas de control vectorial, lo que per...

  19. Lo permanente en lo efímero: Pabellones de Exposiciones Universales, hitos de la arquitectura de la segunda posguerra

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Navia García, Vega

    2016-01-01

    Los Pabellones de las Exposiciones Universales suelen considerarse dentro de las arquitecturas efímeras, pero habría que puntualizar que toda construcción tiene su tiempo y su periodo de extinción pudiendo ser éstos indefinidos, lo permanente en lo efímero. Muchas de las obras míticas del siglo XX existieron sólo durante unos meses, en escenarios efímeros, modificando el curso de la arquitectura con unas pocas imágenes, lo que llevaría a cuestionar si las circunstancias por las que no han sob...

  20. Graves consecuencias por desconocimiento de la presencia del primer molar permanente en la boca de un niño

    OpenAIRE

    Zubiarrain, C. V.; Vicente, D.; Iriquin, María Soledad

    2015-01-01

    La desinformación de familias y niños sobre la importancia del estado bucal en la dentición temporaria/permanente y la presencia del PMP como iniciador de la dentición mixta, hacen que la caries avance y no sea detectada de manera temprana para controlar el daño. Por ello es de vital importancia practicar la odontología restauradora y una odontología preventiva realizando campañas de concientización de la relevancia del primer molar definitivo y prevención bucal en los colegios, como agentes ...

  1. Caracterización de la rigidez positiva y negativa aportada por imanes permanentes como soportes de estructuras esbeltas

    OpenAIRE

    González Morán, David

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende estudiar el uso de imanes permanentes como resortes mecánicos para variar la rigidez, aumentándola o disminuyéndola. Este uso tendría la ventaja de que además de poder variar la rigidez de una estructura, también variaría su frecuencia, ya que es dependiente la una de la otra. Para poder validar el estudio, se ha realizado un modelo experimental que consiste en una viga de aluminio a la cual se la han añadido unos imanes y se ha ido registrando como varía la...

  2. Formación permanente de educadores : Desafíos latinoamericanos. Notas de análisis

    OpenAIRE

    Tello, César Gerónimo

    2005-01-01

    En las notas de análisis que presentamos, intentamos dar cuenta de cierta parte del camino que venimos recorriendo en cuanto a la complejidad de situaciones que se instalan en el escenario de la FORMACIÓN DOCENTE latinoamericana. Particularmente en este artículo pretendemos abordar una temática que se ha desplegado a escala mundial; nos referimos al paradigma de la Formación permanente. El eje estructurante del mismo se halla en la nueva concepción que adquirió en los país...

  3. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism.

  4. Going beyond the Kaiser redshift-space distortion formula: a full general relativistic account of the effects and their detectability in galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Seljak, Uros; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2012-01-01

    Kaiser redshift-space distortion formula describes well the clustering of galaxies in redshift surveys on small scales, but there are numerous additional terms that arise on large scales. Some of these terms can be described using Newtonian dynamics and have been discussed in the literature, while the others require proper general relativistic description that was only recently developed. Accounting for these terms in galaxy clustering is the first step toward tests of general relativity on horizon scales. The effects can be classified as two terms that represent the velocity and the gravitational potential contributions. Their amplitude is determined by effects such as the volume and luminosity distance fluctuation effects and the time evolution of galaxy number density and Hubble parameter. We compare the Newtonian approximation often used in the redshift-space distortion literature to the fully general relativistic equation, and show that Newtonian approximation accounts for most of the terms contributing ...

  5. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  6. 岩石单轴压缩试验Kaiser效应实质的研究%NATURE OF KAISER EFFECT OF ROCKS UNDER UNIAXIAL CYCLIC LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊运晓

    2000-01-01

    Past experimental evidence indicates that rock on certain conditions exhibits the Kaiser effect(KE)when it is loaded,and the KE of rock has ability to remember its maximum previous state parameters including stress,axial strain and transverse strain.At the same time the accuracy of state parameters′ KE is different with loading stages.Recent experiment indicates that rock also has ability to remember its maximum previous physical parameters such as bulk strain,Young′s module and Poisson′s ratio.“Young′s module memory”which is of both accuracy and stability shows the best among the three physical parameters.Furthermore,the experiment result shows“Young′s module memory”not to be affected by time factor.It demonstrates that the nature of Kaiser effect is memory of its previous physical behavior.%岩石Kaiser效应具有记忆先前应力、纵向应变和横向应变的能力,记忆的准确程度随加载阶段不同而不同。为了解Kaiser效应的记忆实质,通过岩石单轴压缩试验确定Kaiser效应对体积应变、弹性模量和泊松比三项物性参数的记忆能力。结果表明,岩石Kaiser效应具有记忆先前物性参数的能力,其中尤以对弹性模量的记忆能力表现为最好,而且受时间因素影响不大,说明岩石Kaiser效应的实质是对其内部物理特性的记忆。

  7. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resources Share Polio Vaccine What is polio?Poliomyelitis (polio, for short) is a serious illness that can cause paralysis (when you can't move your arms and legs) or even death. Polio is caused by a virus. The virus can be spread by drinking water ...

  8. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  9. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including a severe allergy to latex. Babies with "severe combined immunodeficiency" (SCID) should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get ... with moderate or severe diarrhea or vomiting. Check with your doctor if ...

  10. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  11. Comunidades Virtuales de Práctica: una alternativa a la formación permanente del profesorado mediante la tutoría entre iguales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Se estudia la formación que adquiere el profesorado al participar en la comunidad virtual de práctica "Internet en el Aula", conociendo si se presenta ante el profesorado como una alternativa capaz de satisfacer sus necesidades de formación permanente, mediada por la tutoría entre iguales que se produce en el intercambio de conocimientos que se realizan en su seno. Con la finalidad de proporcionar datos, a tener en cuenta al organizar la nueva formación permanente del profesorado en l...

  12. DIFERENTES MOMENTOS DE ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL ANIEGO PERMANENTE EN EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ (Oryza sativa L.) Y SU INFLUENCIA SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO, SUS COMPONENTES Y EL CONTROL DE MALEZAS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Polón; Yanet Parra; R. I. Castro; R. Morejón

    2001-01-01

    En la Estación Experimental del Arroz "Los Palacios", durante tres años en campo, se desarrolló un estudio para determinar el momento de establecimiento del aniego permanente en el cultivo sin afectar los rendimientos. Los resultados arrojaron que los diferentes momentos en que se establecieron los aniegos permanentes no afectaron significativamente el rendimiento agrícola y sus componentes, lográndose una reducción en los días de riego. En cuanto al comportamiento del ciclo, se pudo observar...

  13. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  14. Un estudio de las concepciones docentes acerca de la formación permanente Um estudo das concepções docentes sobre a formação permanente A Survey of Teachers' Thoughts on Continuing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Marina Macera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las concepciones docentes acerca de su formación permanente. Se identificaron distintos puntos de análisis relacionados con la antigüedad en la profesión, intereses metodológicos, intereses de actualización de conocimientos, intereses de incorporación de nuevos saberes y, por último, el lugar que ocupa la formación en la subjetividad docente. En los inicios de la docencia, la formación permanente funciona y se concibe como un modo de mantenerse activos mientras se insertan en el mercado laboral. En cambio, para los docentes que ya tienen una trayectoria, esta se concibe como una fuga del trabajo, un recurso que en ocasiones le otorga sentido al trabajo, asumiendo de este modo un lugar subjetivo importante en el quehacer docente. Pero, cualquiera que sea la motivación, la adquisición de nuevos saberes es la razón más antigua que los docentes asumen para formarse.Este trabalho apresenta as concepções docentes sobre sua formação permanente. Identificaram-se diferentes pontos de análise relacionados com a antiguidade na profissão, interesses metodológicos, interesses de atualização de conhecimentos, interesses de incorporação de novos saberes e, por último, o lugar que a formação ocupa na subjetividade docente. No início da docência, a formação permanente funciona e se concebe como um modo de se manterem ativos enquanto se inserem no mercado de trabalho. Em compensação, para os docentes que já têm uma trajetória, esta se concebe como uma fuga do trabalho, um recurso que em ocasiões outorga sentido ao trabalho e assume, desse modo, um lugar subjetivo importante no fazer docente. Contudo, qualquer que seja a motivação, a aquisição de novos saberes é a razão mais antiga que os docentes assumem para se formar.This study delves into what teachers think about their own continuing education. Different points of analysis are identified with respect to seniority in the profession

  15. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Link Vaccines & Immunizations Immunization Schedules Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  18. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  19. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  20. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on time can protect your child from serious diseases. Protect your community! Did you ...

  1. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  2. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  3. Inmunización y militarización del cuerpo social en Colombia: el Estado en emergencia permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Aranguren Romero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizo cómo las estrategias de guerra contrainsurgente emprendidas en Colombia durante las décadas de los sesenta y los setenta recrean un dispositivo inmunitario en donde la nación es entendida como un cuerpo social amenazado e infectado por ideologías comunistas y en donde su seguridad y protección contra los actos violentos, suponen la administración de la violencia. Sostengo que este dispositivo inmunitario, opera bajo una lógica autodestructiva y una noción de amenaza deslocalizada que incentivó la militarización de la sociedad, la gestión del miedo y el sostenimiento de un Estado en emergencia permanente. Hechos que, a su vez, permitieron la apelación a la excepcionalidad constitucional como forma de gobierno normalizada.

  4. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    .... Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts...

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  7. Medicina baseada em evidências: instrumento para educação médica permanente entre psiquiatras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Yuri Tsuji

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O médico atualizado pode oferecer o melhor cuidado ao paciente e evitar consequências negativas que a defasagem científica pode acarretar. OBJETIVOS: Identificar os meios de atualização utilizados pelos psiquiatras brasileiros; avaliar seus conhecimentos sobre Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE e sua utilização na educação permanente. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado no XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Psiquiatria. Os participantes (n = 188 responderam um questionário anônimo autoaplicado, com 28 perguntas sobre características sociodemográficas, fontes e periodicidade de atualização, e conhecimentos sobre MBE. RESULTADOS: Para atualização de conhecimentos, 98,3% utilizavam os congressos brasileiros; 97,9% as revistas nacionais; 93,9% os livros-texto; 89,9% as revistas das indústrias farmacêuticas; 63,5% os consensos brasileiros; 63,3% a base de dados Medline; 56,7% as revistas internacionais; e 35% a Biblioteca Cochrane. Os fatores estatisticamente significativos associados com bom conhecimento sobre MBE foram estar graduados há menos de dez anos (p < 0,001, usar o Medline (p < 0,009 e a Biblioteca Cochrane (p < 0,03 como fonte de busca de literatura médica. CONCLUSÕES: Os psiquiatras fazem pouco uso da melhor fonte de evidência para educação médica permanente e continuada, havendo, assim, menor benefício aos pacientes na tomada de decisão clínica.

  8. COMPETENCIAS EMPRENDEDORAS DEL ALUMNADO DE EDUCACIÓN PERMANENTE DE ADULTOS EN ANDALUCÍA. PERCEPCIÓN DEL PROFESORADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ma. Fernández Batanero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo analizamos la percepción que tiene el profesorado de Educación Permanente de Personas Adultas en Andalucía (España acerca del grado de presencia de competencias emprendedoras en su alumnado. Para dar respuesta al objetivo planteado adoptamos un diseño de investigación de tipo descriptivo, donde el enfoque de recolección y análisis de datos se ha definido como mixto, en el que se integran técnicas cualitativas (entrevistas en profundidad y cuantitativas (cuestionario. Para la validación del cuestionario, se utilizó la técnica de juicio de expertos, seleccionados mediante el procedimiento de «Coeficiente de competencia experta» o «Coeficiente K». El análisis de la fiabilidad del cuestionario a través de la prueba de Cronbach fue de 0,957. El cuestionario ha sido respondido por 549 profesores y profesoras de Centros de Educación Permanente de Andalucía y se han realizado 23 entrevistas en profundidad a informantes claves (directores de centros y coordinadores de sección. Los resultados muestran con claridad la percepción, tanto del profesorado como de aquellos que ejercen el ejercicio de la dirección, que el alumnado de estos centros educativos no están lo suficientemente preparados para iniciar por su cuenta un proyecto empresarial, a pesar de cursar contenidos curriculares de cultura emprendedora. Consideran que aún no poseen las competencias emprendedoras necesarias para crear y gestionar eficazmente un proyecto empresarial, constituyendo la falta de creatividad uno de los mayores obstáculos para dicho fin. Así mismo, se desprende del estudio la escasa incidencia que ejercen los programas de cultura emprendedora que se desarrollan en este tipo de centros.

  9. Ecomomic Evaluation of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine(PCV7)%儿童七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的成本效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 刘国恩; 李冬美; 程迪尔; 董鹏

    2013-01-01

    was consistent with that reported in the results from the Northern California Kaiser Permanente pivotal efficacy trial. A five percent discount rate was applied to calculate both costs and life years. Results:Currently, being not in the CIP, the Category II vaccine is not cost-effective due to the high market unit price and low penetration rate. However, a publicly financed CIP would prevent 36 594 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) , pneumonia and Otitis media and 162 pneumococcal deaths if indirect effects were considered comparing to no vaccination. From a payer’s perspective, a PCV7 CIP would achieve an ICER of RMB 118, 000 per QALY versus no vaccination, and dominant versus Category II. Conclusion: Infant PCV7 vaccination in CIP is expected to lead to a substantial reduction in the incidence of all clinical presentation of pneumococcal disease in both children and adults. With reference to the WHO’s threshold for cost-effectiveness, universal infant vaccination with PCV7 is a highly cost-effective intervention from a public payer’s perspective.

  10. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  11. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  12. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor stabi

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  14. ["A decision meaning a new foundation...": from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics to the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on.

  15. Human genetics and politics as mutually beneficial resources: The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do we explain why the vast majority of German human geneticists and eugenicists were willing to work for the National Socialist state and, at the very least, legitimized its exterminationist racial policy; and (2) what accounts for at least some of Germany's most renowned medically trained professionals' involvement in forms of morally compromised science that wholly transcend the bounds of normal scientific practice? Although a complete answer to this question must await an examination of other German biological research centers, the present study suggests that during the Nazi period the symbiotic relationship between human genetics and politics served to radicalize both. The dynamic between the science of human heredity and Nazi politics changed the research practice of some of the biomedical sciences housed at the KWIA. It also simultaneously made it easier for the Nazi state to carry out its barbaric racial program leading, finally, to the extermination of millions of so-called racial undesirables.

  16. Effect of electrode contact area on the information content of the recorded electrogastrograms: An analysis based on Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagumariappan, Paramasivam; Krishnamurthy, Kamalanand; Kandiah, Sundravadivelu; Ponnuswamy, Mannar Jawahar

    2017-06-01

    Electrogastrograms (EGG) are electrical signals originating from the digestive system, which are closely correlated with its mechanical activity. Electrogastrography is an efficient non-invasive method for examining the physiological and pathological states of the human digestive system. There are several factors such as fat conductivity, abdominal thickness, change in electrode surface area etc, which affects the quality of the recorded EGG signals. In this work, the effect of variations in the contact area of surface electrodes on the information content of the measured electrogastrograms is analyzed using Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE). Two different circular cutaneous electrodes with approximate contact areas of 201.14 mm2 and 283.64 mm2, have been adopted and EGG signals were acquired using the standard three electrode protocol. Further, the information content of the measured EGG signals were analyzed using the computed values of entropy and energy. Results demonstrate that the information content of the measured EGG signals increases by 6.72% for an increase in the contact area of the surface electrode by 29.09%. Further, it was observed that the average energy increases with increase in the contact surface area. This work appears to be of high clinical significance since the accurate measurement of EGG signals without loss in its information content, is highly useful for the design of diagnostic assistance tools for automated diagnosis and mass screening of digestive disorders.

  17. Time of arrival estimation based on improved teager-kaiser operator%基于改进Teager-Kaiser算子的来波时间估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立红; 冷文; 王安国

    2014-01-01

    Teager-Kaiser (TK)算子对噪声比较敏感,当噪声存在时,TK算法对信号到达时间(time of Arrival,TOA)的估计精度比较低,结合多径信道特点,对TK算子进行了改进.改进算法通过对相关曲线进行高次方累积,增大相关曲线中TOA点对应的输出值,从而降低噪声对输出信号的影响,提高了TOA的估计精度,同时根据TOA点所对应相关曲线的位置特性,限定信号数据范围,不仅可以有效地降低改进算法的计算复杂度,还可以进一步提高TOA的估计精度.对多径信道模型的仿真结果表明,该改进算法对TOA估计的精度明显优于TK算法,特别是在噪声比较严重的情况下,TOA估计精度得到很大的提高.

  18. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  19. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  20. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  1. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  2. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...... vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...

  3. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  4. Caries dental aguda del primer molar permanente en niños de 12 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    Full Text Available Introducción: el primer molar permanente es considerado la llave de la oclusión dentaria, la presencia de caries en éste es elevada, lo que dificulta el logro de las metas trazadas por organizaciones de salud a nivel mundial en este grupo de edad. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la caries dental aguda en primer molar permanente en una población de 12 años de edad atendida en la Clínica Estomatológica Santa Cruz de la Parroquia Goaigoaza. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Santa Cruz. Parroquia Goaigoaza, municipio Puerto Cabello, estado Carabobo, en el período comprendido entre abril del 2009 a abril 2010. Se seleccionaron 97 pacientes de 12 años de edad los que constituyeron el universo y la muestra. Acudieron a la consulta por dolor debido a la presencia de caries dental aguda. Se registraron las variables: edad, sexo, grado clínico de la caries dental, estímulos externos que provocaron dolor, la cara dental y la arcada dentaria más afectadas. La información fue recogida mediante interrogatorio y examen clínico. Resultados: el sexo masculino representó el 63,9 %. La caries dental de 3er grado estuvo presente en un 68 %. Los estímulos externos que provocaron dolor fueron: el frío presente en 75,2 % y los alimentos dulces en 69,1 % en ambos sexos. El primer molar inferior derecho resultó más afectado (46,4 % que el izquierdo (36,1 %, así como la arcada dentaria inferior (25,8 % y la cara oclusal (64,9 %. Conclusiones: predominaron el sexo masculino y la caries dental aguda de 3er grado. El frío y los alimentos dulces fueron los estímulos externos más frecuentes. Los más afectados resultaron el primer molar inferior derecho, la cara oclusal y la arcada dentaria inferior.

  5. Estudo Morfológico e Morfométrico da Mama de Ratas em Estro Permanente, Tratadas com Danazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida Jorge Yoshinori

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar os efeitos do danazol sobre a mama da rata em estro permanente. Métodos: os animais foram divididos em três grupos: os do grupo A (n = 12 receberam água (placebo, como grupo controle; os do grupo B (n = 13 foram expostos a 20 mg/kg de danazol por dia; os do grupo C (n = 10 foram expostos a 80 mg/kg de danazol por dia. A droga foi administrada durante 35 dias consecutivos. O estudo microscópico dos cortes avaliou a distribuição ductal e acinar. A histometria da relação ducto/estroma foi feita baseada nos princípios da estereologia, com ocular k-10X da Zeiss, com retículo de integração (Integrationsplatte I-retículo de Weibel de 25 hits, com aumento final de 100 vezes. Para cada lâmina estudada, foram contados 10 campos aleatórios, num total de 250 pontos. O teste aplicado foi a análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis, para comparar os três grupos em relação ao número médio de alvéolos e ductos nas mamas (alfa = 0,05. Resultados: em todos os grupos, os lóbulos apresentaram ao estudo morfológico alvéolos revestidos com células cúbicas com núcleos na sua porção central ou basal. Pequenas quantidades de material eosinofílico foram observadas em alguns casos na sua luz. À morfometria (magnificação de 100X encontraram-se em média 28,6 ductos/10 campos no grupo A, 28,4 no grupo B e 29,2 no grupo C (análise de Kruskal-Wallis: Hcrit = 0,1. As médias dos números de alvéolos /10 campos foram 5,9 (grupo A, 9,3 (grupo B e 6,5 (grupo C (Kruskal-Wallis Hcrit = 2.9, sem diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão: o danazol não causou nenhuma alteração significante na morfologia e morfometria do epitélio das mamas das ratas em estro permanente.

  6. Valoración "in vitro" de las fuerzas de adhesión de un sistema adhesivo convencional y otro autograbante en esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Martínez, Gilberto de Jesús

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata de aportar más información sobre un nuevo adhesivo autograbante a esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. El objetivo es valorar las fuerzas de adhesión en MPa de los sistemas adhesivos (convencional y autograbante),en el esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. Métodos: utilizando una muestra de 160 dientes (temporales y permanentes)a nivel de la estructura del esmalte, divididos en cuatro grupos, no tomándose en cuenta para el criterio de selección la p...

  7. Valoración "in vitro" de las fuerzas de adhesión de un sistema adhesivo convencional y otro autograbante en esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Martínez, Gilberto de Jesús

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata de aportar más información sobre un nuevo adhesivo autograbante a esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. El objetivo es valorar las fuerzas de adhesión en MPa de los sistemas adhesivos (convencional y autograbante),en el esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. Métodos: utilizando una muestra de 160 dientes (temporales y permanentes)a nivel de la estructura del esmalte, divididos en cuatro grupos, no tomándose en cuenta para el criterio de selección la p...

  8. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... older people have weaker immune responses to flu vaccination, should they still get vaccinated? Despite the fact ...

  9. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  10. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  12. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  15. Historias de vida de mujeres afincadas de forma permanente en situación de exclusión social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moriana Mateo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta parte de los resultados de un trabajo de campo etnográfico realizado en distintos centros de Servicios Sociales Especializados para mujeres de la Generalitat Valenciana. Su objetivo es conocer los tipos de violencia y los factores de exclusión social que subyacen en las historias de vida de las mujeres institucionalizadas. La metodología de investigación utilizada ha sido de índole cualitativa. Se ha realizado observación participante y entrevistas tanto informales como biográficas que, junto con documentos personales e informes sociales, han permitido elaborar 15 historias de vida. Aunque en esta aproximación tan sólo se analizan las cuatro afincadas en la situación de exclusión social de forma permanente. Respecto a los resultados, cabe señalar que en las trayectorias vitales analizadas subyacen distintos factores de exclusión social que afectan tanto a los hombres como a las mujeres, pero también importantes factores específicos de género, como la violencia contra las mujeres intrafamiliar y de género.

  16. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  17. Prevalência e determinantes de oclusopatias nas dentições decídua, mista e permanente na cidade do Natal/RN

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de oclusopatias, bem como dos seus determinantes nas dentições decídua, mista e permanente na cidade de Natal/RN. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo seccional com crianças de 5, 8 e 12 anos (n=765). A prevalência geral de oclusopatias, observando-se as três dentições, foi de 76,5%. No que se refere à prevalência para cada dentição obteve-se 75,5% para a dentição decídua, 84,8% e 70,5% para as dentições mista e permanente, respectivamente. ...

  18. Educação Permanente no cotidiano da Atenção Básica no Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta de Fátima Franco Pereira Machado

    Full Text Available O artigo analisou as ações de Educação Permanente em Saúde na Atenção Básica em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, na perspectiva de 184 equipes participantes da primeira fase do Programa de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade (PMAQ, de junho de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013. Entre as ações de Educação Permanente, os cursos presenciais foram mais prevalentes, seguidos por troca de experiência, teleducação, ensino à distância e tutoria/preceptoria, tanto na capital quanto no interior. As ações de planejamento e apoio à gestão foram mais prevalentes na capital. As ações de apoio da gestão estavam diretamente relacionadas com o planejamento e a organização do processo de trabalho.

  19. La aspiración de Brasil al asiento permanente en el Consejo de Seguridad de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas: un breve panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Melo Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la posición de Brasil frente a la aspiración de un asiento permanente al Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas. Los esfuerzos entabulados por Brasil en el escenario internacional, los discursos del primer rango del gobierno, así como un protagonismo más acelerado frente a los vecinos latino-americanos confirman esta aspiración. Pero, Brasil aún enfrenta serios problemas internos de seguridad nacional y tendrá que enfrentar otros compañeros regionales también, aspirantes a un assiento de miembro permanente en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, como Canadá, por ejemplo. La ocupación del assiento temporario en el bienio de 2010-2011 también es uno de los factores analizados en este trabajo.

  20. Nuevos retos para el profesorado de secundaria obligatoria: formación permanente para la atención a la diversidad en las aulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÚRIA GINÉ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La llegada reciente de alumnos inmigrantes a los centros educativos en España ha enfrentado al profesorado a nuevos retos. El presente artículo pone de manifiesto cuáles son estos nuevos retos que afrontan los docentes de la etapa de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, ESO, a partir de sus propias voces, para conocer las necesidades formativas derivadas de esta situación educativa, con el fin de hacer propuestas de formación permanente para los docentes, como apoyo institucional en la atención de la diversidad de alumnado que coexiste en las aulas. Utilizando como método el estudio de casos múltiples hemos analizado e interpretado la información que conduce a conclusiones prácticas, con muchas posibilidades de ser tenidas en cuenta para la formación permanente de los implicados.

  1. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

  3. EL DESARROLLO PROFESIONAL MEDIANTE LA FORMACION PERMANENTE DE LOS PROFESORES CUBANOS DE MATEMÁTICA Y CIENCIAS PARA TRABAJAR EN PAISES DE HABLA INGLESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelio Vázquez Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre el desarrollo profesional. Se presenta un estudio histórico sobre la enseñanza del inglés con fines específicos (IFE durante la formación permanente de los profesores cubanos de Matemática y Ciencias, además, se presentan las competencias básicas de los profesores de estas asignaturas, teniendo en cuenta el criterio de diferentes autores.

  4. O ESTADO DA ARTE NA AMBIÊNCIA DA INTERNET: COMO ESTÁ A PRODUÇÃO SOBRE EDUCAÇÃO PERMANENTE DO ASSISTENTE SOCIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Aparecida Vieira Marcondes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A qualificação profissional no âmbito da docência, pesquisa e intervenção passa, necessariamente, pela educação permanente. Para elaboração deste “estado da arte” de natureza exploratória e descritiva, utilizou-se de categorias para análise, categorias estas representadas pelos seguintes descritores: “educação permanente”, “formação continuada”, “capacitação”, “reciclagem profissional”, “SUAS”, “NOB-RH/SUAS” e “serviço social”.  A abordagem se configura como bibliográfica e quanti-qualitativa. Nessa direção, analisou-se criticamente a literatura acerca da educação permanente do assistente social no contexto do Sistema Único de Assistência Social, após regulamentação da Norma Operacional Básica de Recursos Humanos. A tendência da produção científica demonstra que tematizar questões referentes à educação permanente vem se constituindo como um grande desafio.

  5. Allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  7. Necesidades y motivaciones de los estudiantes de educación permanente en España. El caso del Centro de Educación Permanente Valle del Guadiato en Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del V. Medina F

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación en la que está basado el artículo fue identificar las necesidades y las motivaciones de los estudiantes del Centro de Educación Permanente (CEPER Valle del Guadiato de Córdoba, España. Se parte de diferentes teorías para su fundamentación, como las aportadas por Maslow (2005, McClelland (1989, García Aretio (1988, Paz (1984, Palladino (1981, entre otros. Se utilizó la metodología comparada cuyas unidades de comparación se corresponden con las unidades espaciales, que en este estudio son los municipios: Belmez, Espiel, Fuente Obejuna, Peñarroya-Pueblonuevo, Villanueva del Rey y Villaviciosa de Córdoba. Para la recogida de datos se utiliza el estudio documental, el cuestionario escrito y la observación cualitativa. El universo poblacional del CEPER Valle del Guadiato lo conformaron 606 personas adultas del período escolar 2011-2012 (592 estudiantes, 14 maestros, siendo la muestra de 265 personas (251 estudiantes, 14 maestros. Entre las principales conclusiones destacan que las necesidades sociales, laborales y personales de los estudiantes del Centro objeto de estudio se derivan básicamente del deseo de aprender, del deseo de superación personal, y del interés por el tema. Las motivaciones giran en torno a la oportunidad de ocupar sus tiempos libres, a la posibilidad de tener mejores oportunidades de encontrar trabajo, y al apoyo de la familia.

  8. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  9. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child After Immunization Your child might have a fever, soreness, and ...

  10. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Vaccines and Pregnancy Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to vaccines may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  12. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  13. Adjuvants for malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coler, R N; Carter, D; Friede, M; Reed, S G

    2009-09-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm about subunit vaccines for malaria coincident with the formation of new alliances and partnerships raising international public awareness, attracting increased resources and the re-focusing of research programs on adjuvant development for infectious disease vaccines. It is generally accepted that subunit vaccines for malaria will require adjuvants to induce protective immune responses, and availability of suitable adjuvants has in the past been a barrier to the development of malaria vaccines. Several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development, while several others are in the earlier development pipeline. Successful vaccine development requires knowing which adjuvants to use and knowing how to formulate adjuvants and antigens to achieve stable, safe, and immunogenic vaccines. For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this minireview, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development as it pertains to effective malaria vaccines.

  14. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  15. Generating memory with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-08-01

    The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines.

  16. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  17. Pharmacy management of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, H Eric

    2007-09-01

    Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.

  18. La incapacidad permanente en una empresa pública en el periodo 1995-2009 Permanent incapacity in a public company from 1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Marchena Aparicio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La cuantificación de las relaciones entre salud, medio laboral y capacidad para el trabajo nos permite descifrar aspectos importantes de la incapacidad permanente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir las características de la población trabajadora de la Diputación Provincial de Cádiz a la que se le concedió una incapacidad permanente en el periodo 1995-2009. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre el total de trabajadores/as con incapacidad permanente en el periodo descrito que considera las siguientes variables: sexo, edad, antigüedad, tipo de ocupación, causa de la incapacidad permanente, días de incapacidad temporal y número de incapacidades temporales concedidas en los 5 años previos, recogidas a través de archivos documentales. Resultados: El número de incapacidades permanentes concedidas ascendió a 192. Un 53,1% fueron mujeres; funcionarios el 59,9%; la edad de concesión fue de 54,06 años de media con 24,98 años de antigüedad en la empresa; el tipo de trabajo en el que más incapacidad permanente se concedieron es el manual, 44,8%; El tipo de patología más frecuente de incapacidad permanente fueron las enfermedades músculo-esqueléticas (29,7%, neoplasias (23,4% y trastornos mentales (18,8%, asociándose significativamente dicha variable con el sexo (p=0,006, el tipo de trabajo desempeñado (p=0,007, la edad de concesión (pObjectives: The quantifying relationship between health, working environment and work capacity allows us to unravel important aspects of permanent incapacity (PI. One of the objectives of this study is to describe working population characteristics of the Provincial Council of Cadiz who were granted permanent incapacity from 1995 to 2009. Method: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out amongst all the workers with PI in the period described with the following variables taken into account: gender, age, time working for the company, type of

  19. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  20. On the relation between Kaiser-Bessel blob and tube of response based modelling of the system matrix in iterative PET image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Hofheinz, Frank; Maus, Jens; Schramm, Georg; van den Hoff, Jörg

    2015-05-21

    We investigate the question of how the blob approach is related to tube of response based modelling of the system matrix. In our model, the tube of response (TOR) is approximated as a cylinder with constant density (TOR-CD) and the cubic voxels are replaced by spheres. Here we investigate a modification of the TOR model that makes it effectively equivalent to the blob model, which models the intersection of lines of response (LORs) with radially variant basis functions ('blobs') replacing the cubic voxels. Implications of the achieved equivalence regarding the necessity of final resampling in blob-based reconstructions are considered. We extended TOR-CD to a variable density tube model (TOR-VD) that yields a weighting function (defining all system matrix elements) which is essentially identical to that of the blob model. The variable density of TOR-VD was modelled by a Gaussian and a Kaiser-Bessel function, respectively. The free parameters of both model functions were determined by fitting the corresponding weighting function to the weighting function of the blob model. TOR-CD and the best-fitting TOR-VD were compared to the blob model with a final resampling step (BLOB-RS) and without resampling (BLOB-NRS) in phantom studies. For three different contrast ratios and two different voxel sizes, resolution noise curves were generated. TOR-VD and BLOB-NRS lead to nearly identical images for all investigated contrast ratios and voxel sizes. Both models showed strong Gibbs artefacts at 4 mm voxel size, while at 2 mm voxel size there were no Gibbs artefacts visible. The spatial resolution was similar to the resolution with TOR-CD in all cases. The resampling step removed most of the Gibbs artefacts and reduced the noise level but also degraded the spatial resolution substantially. We conclude that the blob model can be considered just as a special case of a TOR-based reconstruction. The latter approach provides a more natural description of the detection process and

  1. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KFF.org Twitter Facebook Email Where President-elect Donald Trump Stands on 6 Health Care Issues Health Costs ... About Immigration and Muslims in a Time of Donald Trump The Missing Debate Over Rising Health-Care Deductibles ...

  2. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  3. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  4. Adjuvants for Animal Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, Yulia; Madera, Rachel; McVey, Scott; Schlup, John R; Shi, Jishu

    2017-06-15

    Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants.

  5. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  6. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  7. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  8. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Male Incontinence: The Male Sling (Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, 6/20/2014) Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis ( ... Male Incontinence: The Male Sling (Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, 6/20/2014) ...

  9. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  10. [Vaccines and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mariana Vide; Ramos, Vera Nobre; Tavares, Margarida; Moura, Paulo

    2011-12-01

    Routine vaccination is part of the pediatrics universe. In adulthood and particularly when women voluntarily access to medical care, immunization should be reviewed and updated. There are many doubts that generate in all health professionals anxiety and concern about the vaccination of a pregnant woman. This article aims to describe the immunological changes in pregnant women, to clarify the purpose of immunization during pregnancy, and to enumerate indications, contraindications and risks of vaccines of the Portuguese National Vaccine Plane and other vaccines against diseases with prevalence in other countries. Due to the medical and social impact of vaccination against seasonal influenza and influenza A (H1N1) in the winter of 2009, during an influenza (H1N1) pandemic flu, we make reference to the indications and vaccination against these infections in pregnancy.

  11. Obtención del Valor Genético Predicho en Animales Incluyendo el Efecto del Medio Ambiente Permanente Obtención del Valor Genético Predicho en Animales Incluyendo el Efecto del Medio Ambiente Permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valencia Posadas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic improvement of the animals based in productive records and genealogical information, is a fundamental mechanism to increase the economic income of the commercial farms, through the estimation of the predicted breeding values (VGP’s. The VGP’s allows the identification of animals genetically superior to be used as parents of the next generation. In many parts of the world the best linear unbiased predictor procedure (MPLI is used as an animal model, for its appropriate properties, to obtain the VGP’s. In these models the permanent environment effect is usually included in order to increase the accuracy of the VGP’s. In this work a developed example is presented using supposed data to obtain VGP’s with the MPLI procedure and an animal model where the methodology, interpretation and use of the VGP’s are shown.El mejoramiento genético de los animales, con base en los registros de rendimiento e información genealógica, es un mecanismo fundamental para incrementar los rendimientos económicos de las explotaciones comerciales, a partir de la estimación de valores genéticos predichos (VGP’s. Los VGP permiten identificar a los animales genéticamente superiores de una forma objetiva, para que sean utilizados como padres de la siguiente generación. En muchas partes del mundo se utiliza el procedimiento del mejor predictor lineal insesgado (MPLI con un modelo animal por sus adecuadas propiedades para obtenerlos VGP’s. En dichos modelos se suele incluir el efecto del medio ambiente permanente con el objeto de incrementar la precisión de los VGP’s. En este trabajos e presenta un ejemplo desarrollado utilizando datos supuestos para obtener VGP’s con el procedimiento MPLI y un modelo animal, donde se muestra la metodología, interpretación y uso que tienen los VGP’s.

  12. CERN expositions permanentes

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  13. Geoprocessing applied to the phytosociological survey in permanent plots El geo-procesamiento aplicado al levantamiento fito-sociológico en parcelas permanentes Geoprocessamento aplicado ao levantamento fitossociológico em parcelas permanentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gilberto Bertotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal with this work was to create a georeferenced data bank to follow the phytosociological changes of types of trees along the time and its geographic distribution in the field of study. To the phytosociological survey permanent parcels were plotted in the field of study along the floodplain of the rivers Carro Quebrado and Cascavel, both located in the Campus of the Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO – CEDETEG, in Guarapuava city, Parana state. In each part the attributes analyzed were: sociologic position (SP; class of crown (CC; characteristics of trees (CT; quality conditions of the trunk (QCT; conditions (Cs. These parts were put into spaces with use of the Global Positioning System (GPS and the data were sent to the SPRING software with the intention to build a cadastral data bank to follow and analyze the development of the local vegetation. The creation of this data bank allowed following the development of trees in a time scale, showing the evolution of the part of the forest studied.Este trabajo en su objeto pretende crear un banco de informaciones geo-referenciado para acompañar los cambios fitosociológicos de los indivíduos arbóreos a lo largo del tiempo y su distribuccíon geográfica en el área del estudio. Demarcamos parcelas permanentes a lo largo de la planicie de inundación de los rios “Carro  Quebrado” y Cascavel” que están localizados en el campus de la Universidad Estadual Del Centro Oeste del Estado del Paraná, municipalidad de Guarapuava ( UNICENTRO –CEDETEG.En cada parcela de tierra separada evaluamos distintos atributos: PS: localización sociológica; CC: tipo de copa; CA: características de los árboles; CCT: condiciones de calidad del tronco; Cs: otras condiciones.  Estas parcelas fueron especializadas a partir de la utilización del Sistema de  Pocsicionamiento Global (GPS y todos los datos fuero exportados para el sftware SPRING a fin de construir el banco de informaciones

  14. A nova gestão pública na Inglaterra: a permanente instabilidade da reforma neoliberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A reforma da educação na Inglaterra tem sido intimamente associada a um programa mais amplo da nova gestão pública, centrado na reforma dos serviços públicos. Este artigo analisa as características deste programa de reformas inspirado na NGP, tendo em vista que o sistema educacional inglês se deslocou de uma forma cívica e de proteção social ("cívico-welfarista" para um modo em que o neoliberalismo despontou em ascendência. Atenção particular é dada tanto aos aspectos centralizadores da reforma, em que tem havido um acentuado aumento na intervenção do governo central na educação, quanto aos aspectos descentralizadores da reforma, incluindo a criação de escolas como unidades de negócios e a mercantilização da educação em termos mais gerais. As origens das reformas estão situadas em uma construção discursiva de uma crise educacional, inspirada na Nova Direita, que encontrou posterior expressão em uma série de alterações na legislação que emergiram de e cimentaram um consenso educacional trans-político-partidário que já perdura por mais de trinta anos neste contexto. Este artigo examina os efeitos dessas reformas da NGP na educação na Inglaterra, e as continuidades e descontinuidades entre as diferentes administrações políticas, considerando que a Inglaterra passou por sucessivas ondas de reformas até chegarmos a um período pós-NGP. Concluímos que a permanente instabilidade do sistema educacional inglês pode ser identificado nas tensões que atingem o próprio âmago do processo da NGP, de formas que, antecipamos, continuarão a perturbar um setor rapidamente privatizador.

  15. Requerimientos establecidos por las normas ISO para papeles permanentes Established requirements for ISO standards for permanent papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Facundo Araujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrimonio documental nacional e internacional se encuentra en su gran mayoría en soporte papel. A partir de la industrialización en la manufactura de dicho material se ha producido papel con niveles de acidez, que sumado a otros factores, ha sido causante del deterioro de este tipo de patrimonio documental. En las últimas décadas, con la incorporación de nuevos procesos dentro de la producción papelera se ha resuelto en parte dicha problemática. El organismo internacional de normalización ISO ha redactado dos normas al respecto: la norma ISO 9706 e ISO 11108. Con la difusión y recomendación de uso del papel permanente para la conservación del patrimonio documental a largo plazo, se hace imprescindible conocer dicha normativa e informarse al respecto. En el presente artículo se describen las variables en la fabricación del papel que influyen en la permanencia de los papeles. También se determinan los conceptos y antecedentes que rodean ambas normas ISO, así como las características principales y partes que componen las mismas. Como anexo se consigna un glosario con los principales términos técnicos utilizados.Most of the national and international documentary heritage are on paper. From industrialization in the manufacture of such material, paper with acidity levels has been produced which, together with other factors, has been causing the deterioration of this type of documentary heritage. In recent decades, with the incorporation of new paper production processes this problem has been partly solved. The international standards organism ISO has drafted two rules in this connection: ISO 9706 and ISO 11108. With the spread and recommendation for the use of permanent paper for preservation of documentary heritage in the long term, it is essential to know the standards and be well informed. This article describes the variables in the manufacture of paper that influence the permanence of the papers. It also identifies the

  16. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  17. Análisis morfométrico de los conductos radiculares del segundo molar superior permanente : evaluación comparativa entre grupos etarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia García, Daniel Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Conocer el terreno donde se va a actuar es un requisito esencial para que el endodoncista pueda actuar con eficiencia. El segundo molar superior permanente (2MSP) es, quizás, una de las piezas más complejas y, a su vez, menos descripta en la literatura clásica respecto a su morfología externa y la configuración interna de sus conductos radiculares; sumando a esta carencia de información específica, los cambios que la edad producen en los mismos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar compara...

  18. Avances en materia de regulación mercantil y civil del comercio electrónico en México y los aspectos fiscales del establecimiento permanente

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ma. Antonieta Martin Granados

    2002-01-01

    A pesar de que en México se han realizado adiciones a la legislación en materia civil y mercantil relacionadas con el uso de medios electrónicos como instrumentos para realizar actos jurídicos, éstas resultan insuficientes, pues nada se ha hecho en materia procesal, penal y laboral, entre otras. En este trabajo se presentan, en materia fiscal, algunas consideraciones acerca del concepto de establecimiento permanente tanto en la legislación mexicana como en el Convenio Modelo (CM) de la Organi...

  19. Actitudes docentes y buenas prácticas con TIC del profesorado de Educación Permanente de Adultos en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Batanero, José María; Torres González, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo recoge los resultados de un estudio cuyo objetivo ha sido determinar las actitudes del profesorado de educación permanente de adultos de la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía, hacia el uso e integración de las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC) en sus respectivos centros, al mismo tiempo que identificar aquellos factores que favorecen el desarrollo de buenas prácticas. El diseño de investigación es de tipo descriptivo mixto. Las técnicas utiliz...

  20. Competencias emprendedoras del alumnado de educación permanente de Andalucía. Percepción del profesorado

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Batanero, José María; Reyes Rebollo, Miguel María

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo analizamos la percepción que tiene el profesorado de Educación Permanente de Personas Adultas en Andalucía (España) acerca del grado de presencia de competencias emprendedoras en su alumnado. Para dar respuesta al objetivo planteado adoptamos un diseño de investigación de tipo descriptivo, donde el enfoque de recolección y análisis de datos se ha definido como mixto, en el que se integran técnicas cualitativas (entrevistas en profundidad) y cuantitativas (cuestionario)....

  1. Factores asociados a pielonefritis y daño renal permanente en niños con primera infección febril del tacto urinario

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Pérez, María Caridad

    2015-01-01

    La pielonefritis aguda (PNA) en la infancia, se asocia a la presencia de malformaciones nefro-urológicas y a un mayor riesgo de cicatrices renales, de ahí el interés de realizar el presente estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, descriptivo y analítico, con el objetivo de determinar los factores asociados con la misma y el daño renal permanente (DRP), en pacientes pediátricos con la primera infección febril del tracto urinario, que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan Manuel Márquez”, del a...

  2. Estudo epidemiológico de 261 dentes permanentes avulsionados de pacientes tratados em um serviço de urgência odontológica

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes,Orlando Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e fatores clínicos da avulsão de dentes permanentes. Material e Método: A amostra do estudo era composta por 170 pacientes (261 dentes avulsionados) atendidos no Serviço de Urgência Odontológica da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, entre os anos de 2000 e 2008. As seguintes informações foram retiradas dos registros odontológicos de cada paciente: gênero, idade, fator etiológico, distribuição sazonal, grupo dentário, número...

  3. La struttura tecnica di supporto e il Gruppo di Lavoro per lo sviluppo dei Database geotopografici del Comitato Permanente per i Sistemi Geografici del CISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepaolo Milan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il Comitato Permanente per i Sistemi Geografici del CISIS ha istituito una struttura tecnica e costituito un gruppo di lavoro finalizzato a supportare le Regioni nell’implementazione dei loro Database geotopografici per garantire una corretta applicazione della recente normativa nazionale e sovranazionale.The CISIS Committee on Geographical Systems has establisheda technical group and has formed a working group aimed at supporting Regions in the implementation of theirTopographic Database to ensure the proper application of therecent national and international standards.

  4. Diagnóstico e análise de avarias em geradores síncronos de imanes permanentes aplicados em turbinas eólicas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Bruno Miguel Gomes dos

    2012-01-01

    A presente dissertação versa sobre os modos de avarias mais comuns em geradores síncronos de ímanes permanentes (GSIP), aplicados em turbinas eólicas, suas causas e consequências. Por conseguinte, serão referidos os métodos de diagnóstico mais utilizados para a detecção dessas avarias, será também modelizado o GSIP no funcionamento normal e em modo de avaria e por fim será efectuada a validação experimental desse mesmo modelo.

  5. Educação permanente e qualidade da assistência à saúde: aprendizagem significativa no trabalho da enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Maria do Carmo da Silveira Neves de Oliveira; Emiliane Cunha Ferreira; Neide Angelica Rufino; Maria da Soledade Simeão dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la educación permanente en la práctica de la enfermería. En la actualidad, existe preocupación por los cambios introducidos en la estructura de enseñanza y la aplicación de metodologías activas para capacitar profesionales de salud. En el artículo se reflexiona sobre aspectos cotidianos de la enfermería y la manera actual de suministrar o proporcionar información tecnocientífica al enfermero durante la práctica en el hospital, tratando de enriquecer la...

  6. Avalia??o biof?sica para o gerenciamento ambiental da ?rea de preserva??o permanente da bacia hidrogr?fica do Puraquequara

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Vanessa de Moura

    2013-01-01

    A floresta amaz?nica abriga a maior diversidade de plantas e animais dentre todos os biomas da Terra. Representa os ecossistemas de maior riqueza e diversidade no planeta e realiza servi?os ambientais de grande relev?ncia. Entretanto, mudan?as nesses ecossistemas v?m ocorrendo intensamente ? medida que aumenta a ocupa??o humana. Com a cria??o de ?reas de preserva??o permanentes, objetiva-se promover a prote??o do ambiente natural dessas ?reas que devem obrigatoriamente estar co...

  7. Parálisis facial permanente: corrección quirúrgica con la técnica de Labbé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Yangali

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis facial genera un gran déficit estético y funcional. Las diversas técnicas quirúrgicas han ido evolucionando, a fin de corregir este defecto de la forma más estructural y fisiológica posible. Consideramos que la mioplastia de alargamiento del temporal constituye actualmente la técnica de elección para corregir los casos de parálisis facial permanente.

  8. Busca autônoma por educação permanente e consolidação da identidade profissional crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen Aparecida Vieira Marcondes; Elisa Maria Andrade Brisola; Edna Maria Querido de Oliveira Chamon

    2015-01-01

    Refletir acerca da educação permanente como possibilitadora de aprimoramento intelectual, na perspectiva da competência profissional e da consolidação da identidade profissional crítica do assistente social, emerge como necessidade no atual contexto histórico, no qual o dinamismo societário caminha apressadamente.  Por meio de uma pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando-se da história oral, através de entrevista semiestruturada, alcançou-se conhecimento sobre as formas utilizadas pelos profissionais...

  9. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  10. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  11. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  12. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  13. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  14. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  15. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  16. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine that will ... in this video! /* // ** // */ Why Do We Need an HIV Vaccine? Today, more people living with HIV than ...

  19. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important potential food allergens in vaccines include egg and gelatin. Rare cases of ... rabies vaccine: purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) culture vaccine; human diploid cell ... found in MMR, varicella, influenza, typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese.

  20. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  1. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  2. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  3. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  4. Alphavirus replicon vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, Ryan L; Harris, D L Hank; Kamrud, Kurt I

    2012-06-01

    The alphavirus replicon technology has been utilized for many years to develop vaccines for both veterinary and human applications. Many developments have been made to the replicon platform recently, resulting in improved safety and efficacy of replicon particle (RP) vaccines. This review provides a broad overview of the replicon technology and safety features of the system and discusses the current literature on RP and replicon-based vaccines.

  5. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  6. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  7. Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J M

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illust...

  8. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccines and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, ‘Accelerating vaccine development’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PMID:21893534

  10. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  11. Blended learning en la formación permanente del profesorado . Aportaciones de asesores de formaci ón sobre modalidades formativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paniagua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La revisión de los sistemas educativos en España pone de manifiesto la necesidad de encontrar nuevos enfoques en la formación permanente del profesorado de los niveles previos a la Universidad. Este estudio toma la experiencia de un grupo de asesores de formación permanente para realizar un análisis cualitativo de las ventajas e inconvenientes de las modalidades de formación que se emplean tradicionalmente y definir los parámet ros básicos de modalidades más acordes con las necesidades del profesorado como sucede con el proceso combinado propuesto por el paradigma de blended learning. A través de una metodología abierta, los participantes reflexionan libremente sobre estas materi as, llegando a conclusiones similares a las de otros estudios realizados hasta la fecha. El tratamiento de estos relatos se realiza informáticamente para favorecer una interpretación precisa de los datos recopilados.

  12. Busca autônoma por educação permanente e consolidação da identidade profissional crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Aparecida Vieira Marcondes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Refletir acerca da educação permanente como possibilitadora de aprimoramento intelectual, na perspectiva da competência profissional e da consolidação da identidade profissional crítica do assistente social, emerge como necessidade no atual contexto histórico, no qual o dinamismo societário caminha apressadamente.  Por meio de uma pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando-se da história oral, através de entrevista semiestruturada, alcançou-se conhecimento sobre as formas utilizadas pelos profissionais de Serviço Social na busca autônoma por educação permanente. Os resultados do estudo apontam que a totalidade dos entrevistados é unânime em afirmar que a qualificação continuada é de suma importância para a consolidação da identidade profissional crítica, potencialização das competências e das atribuições privativas dos assistentes sociais, contribuindo, assim, para a efetivação do Projeto Ético-Político da profissão, além de portar a tendência de se repercutir positivamente no alcance da qualidade dos serviços prestados.

  13. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children. Comportamiento de la caries dental en el primer molar permanente en escolares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Vázquez de León

    2009-04-01

    permanente más afectado por esta entidad es el primer molar permanente. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la caries dental en primeros molares permanentes en niños de 6 a 13 años de edad, que permita el conocimiento y evaluación de la higiene bucal, en la totalidad de los pacientes examinados que acudieron a la consulta estomatológica Barrio adentro El Guapo desde noviembre del 2005 a marzo del 2006. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal los resultados evidenciaron que la mayoría de los pacientes presentaron caries dental, se constató que muchos de ellos tuvieron, al menos, un primer molar afectado por esta situación. La relación primer molar afectado/ pacientes fue superior a uno. Resultados: Se evidenció una disminución en el porcentaje de primeros molares permanentes sanos. La higiene bucal deficiente predominó, así como el nivel de conocimiento regular. La mayoría de los padres no conocían la existencia en la cavidad bucal del primer molar permanente. Conclusiones:

    Fue necesario realizar acciones educativas y asistenciales priorizadas a este grupo de edad con el propósito de evitar la afectación de este diente tan importante en el desarrollo de aparato estomatognático.

  14. Designing HER2 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Teresa M; Fanger, Gary R; Hand, Susan; Gerard, Catherine; Bruck, Claudine; Cheever, Martin A

    2002-06-01

    HER2/neu is a compelling cancer vaccine candidate because it is overexpressed on some cancer cells relative to normal tissues, it is known to be immunogenic in both animal models and in humans, and it is already known to be targetable by the antibody component of the immune system in the form of monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab. Vaccines offer the theoretical advantage of being able to elicit T-cell responses in addition to antibody responses. HER2 vaccines have been shown to provide benefit in animal models and to be immunogenic in humans. However, the optimal vaccine formulation is not yet known and the therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines in humans has not yet been evaluated. HER2 vaccine approaches currently being tested include peptide-based, DNA plasmid-based, and protein-based vaccines. Our group has developed and started testing a protein-based vaccine composed of both the extracellular domain of HER2 and the carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation portion of the intracellular domain. The extracellular domain was retained to provide for antibody targeting. The kinase domain of the intracellular domain was excluded because of its high degree of homology to other human kinases. The carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation domain was retained because it is the most unique and possibly most immunogenic portion of the HER2 molecule with the least homology to other members of the HER family. The vaccine, termed dHER2, is immunogenic in mice and primates. In animal models it can elicit CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses as well as antibody responses that suppress the growth of HER2-positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Vaccine trials are contemplated in patients with breast cancer that will determine whether the vaccine construct is similarly immunogenic in humans.

  15. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  16. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has ever had a severe reaction after any vaccination. A child who has a severe (life-threatening) allergy to ... in 1,000); fever over 105°F (1 child in 16,000). Serious Problems: ... These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild ...

  17. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  18. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the

  19. Trends in vaccine adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Lavelle, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of most clinically used vaccines. This is because the majority of nonliving vaccines are relatively poor inducers of adaptive immunity unless effective adjuvants are co-administered. Aluminum salts (alum) have been used as adjuvants with great success for almost a

  20. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  1. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  2. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  3. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  4. Valoración de las fases de calcificación de la dentición permanente. Estudio seccional en radiografías panorámicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Aldama, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    VALORACIÓN DE LAS FASES DE CALCIFICACIÓN DE LA DENTICIÓN PERMANENTE. ESTUDIO SECCIONAL DE RADIOGRAFÍAS PANORÁMICAS El OBJETIVO es llegar a conocernos mejor a nosotros mismos. Hicimos un estudio observacional para proveer datos radiográficos sobre el desarrollo postnatal de los siete dientes mandibulares inferiores izquierdos permanentes, los cuáles podrían usarse como norma para la referencia en la valoración de la edad en odontología clínica y forense, antropología e investigaciones....

  5. Valoración de las fases de calcificación de la dentición permanente. Estudio seccional en radiografías panorámicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Aldama, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    VALORACIÓN DE LAS FASES DE CALCIFICACIÓN DE LA DENTICIÓN PERMANENTE. ESTUDIO SECCIONAL DE RADIOGRAFÍAS PANORÁMICAS El OBJETIVO es llegar a conocernos mejor a nosotros mismos. Hicimos un estudio observacional para proveer datos radiográficos sobre el desarrollo postnatal de los siete dientes mandibulares inferiores izquierdos permanentes, los cuáles podrían usarse como norma para la referencia en la valoración de la edad en odontología clínica y forense, antropología e investigaciones....

  6. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  7. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  8. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinations are often the most effective tool against some disease known to mankind. This study offers a literature review on the role of vaccines regarding the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS relapse. The method used in this study is a systematic literature review...... on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...... was found for influenza. Further research is needed for the potential therapeutic use of the BCG vaccine in patients in risk of developing MS and for the preventive potential of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine....

  9. Vaccine-Hesitant Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have re-emerged as more individuals have strayed from the recommended inoculation schedule. Previous work on vaccine hesitancy is generally limited to content analyses. Using grounded theory, this project examines vaccine debates on a prominent discussion board over a period of five years. Individuals generally justified opposition or hesitancy toward vaccines through personal experience and/or research, and the concepts of narrative persuasion and the conflation of expertise help describe the most prominent characteristics of such discourse. A consideration of online comments regarding vaccinations allows practitioners to not only become better prepared for patient concerns they might encounter, and but also become more familiar with the types of anecdotes and narratives that may be influential but left unspoken in face-to-face conversations. PMID:28508015

  10. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities? communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines? effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  11. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  12. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  13. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  14. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  15. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  16. Primary Care Providers' Views of Recent Trends in Health Care Delivery and Payment. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund/Kaiser Family Foundation 2015 National Survey of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new survey from The Commonwealth Fund and The Kaiser Family Foundation asked primary care providers--physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants--about their experiences with and reactions to recent changes in health care delivery and payment. Providers' views are generally positive regarding the impact of health information technology on quality of care, but they are more divided on the increased use of medical homes and accountable care organizations. Overall, providers are more negative about the increased reliance on quality metrics to assess their performance and about financial penalties. Many physicians expressed frustration with the speed and administrative burden of Medicaid and Medicare payments. An earlier brief focused on providers' experiences under the ACA's coverage expansions and their opinions about the law.

  17. Experiences and Attitudes of Primary Care Providers Under the First Year of ACA Coverage Expansion: Findings from the Kaiser Family Foundation/Commonwealth Fund 2015 National Survey of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A new survey from The Kaiser Family Foundation and The Commonwealth Fund asked primary care providers--physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants--about their views of and experiences with the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and other changes in health care delivery and payment, as well as their thoughts on the future of primary care. In this first brief based on the survey, many providers reported seeing an increased number of patients since the coverage expansions went into effect, but not an accompanying compromise in quality of care. A large majority of primary care providers are satisfied with their medical practice, but a substantial percentage of physicians expressed pessimism about the future of primary care. Similar to the population overall, providers' views of the ACA are divided along party lines. A second brief will report on providers' reactions to other changes occurring in primary care delivery and payment.

  18. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945.

  19. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  20. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  1. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293

  2. La Educación Permanente en Bibliotecología y Archivología: relato de una experiencia universitaria en Uruguay (1994-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss Zahn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se indica cómo han variado los roles de la información y la situación relativa de las unindades de información, la producción tecnológica de vías alternativas del almacenamiento documental, tales como las bilbiotecas virtuales o digitales, los archivos y museos electrónicos. El avance de la investigación y del conocimiento en cualquier disciplina, el crecimiento de expectativas y necesidades de formación y actualización por parte de los profesionales, nuevos requerimientos y desafíos en el ámbito laboral y social, y la implantación generalizada de nuevas tecnologías, se han conjugado para obligar a una reflexión profunda de las instituciones responsables de formación especializada. En las Universidades se plantean al menos tres niveles educativos: el grado, los posgrados, y la educación continua o permanente que involucre conocimientos teórico-prácticos y metodológicos, que contribuya a mejorar el desempeño y la jerarquía profesional en la línea de conocimientos "just in time", y que habilite a niveles superiores de conocimiento y a la investigación disciplinaria. Se define y caracteriza la eduación permanente como fenómeno educativo. Se relata el proceso de institucionalización de la Educación Permanente en la Universidad de la República y en la Escuela Universitaria de Bibliotecología y Ciencias Afines en particular. Se desarrollar criterios y políticas académicos, formas de financiación del programa, su evaluación y su proección a futuro. Se presentan datos estadísticos sobre cursos, profesores, y participantes en el período 1994-2001 en la EUBCA     

  3. Educação permanente e qualidade da assistência à saúde: aprendizagem significativa no trabalho da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria do Carmo da Silveira Neves de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la educación permanente en la práctica de la enfermería. En la actualidad, existe preocupación por los cambios introducidos en la estructura de enseñanza y la aplicación de metodologías activas para capacitar profesionales de salud. En el artículo se reflexiona sobre aspectos cotidianos de la enfermería y la manera actual de suministrar o proporcionar información tecnocientífica al enfermero durante la práctica en el hospital, tratando de enriquecer la asistencia de enfermería mediante la educación permanente. Se describen las prácticas trasformadoras aplicadas por el enfermero asistencial como elemento facilitador del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje. Se lleva a cabo una revisión amplia de las bases de datos informáticas. En consecuencia, la selección de los textos se basa en los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, y dio origen a 50 artículos científicos. En años recientes, la educación permanente se introdujo como un método en el área de la salud, convirtiéndose en un aspecto indispensable en las prácticas de formación, atención, gestión, formulación de políticas públicas y control social. Así se estableció la idea de cuidado total y se trasformaron e integraron los saberes y las prácticas en el ámbito real del público al que va dirigido. Se concluye que la motivación para actualizar permanentemente la práctica profesional del equipo de enfermería prevé la aplicación de un instrumento interdisciplinario de solubilidad que promueva la visibilidad de las acciones por los clientes y sus familias.

  4. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  5. Priorities for the national vaccine plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Review of Priorities in the National Vaccine Plan; Institute of Medicine

    .... Priorities for the National Vaccine Plan examines the extraordinarily complex vaccine enterprise, from research and development of new vaccines to financing and reimbursement of immunization services...

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile ...

  7. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  8. Educação permanente em saúde e no trabalho de enfermagem: perspectiva de uma práxis transformadora Educación permanente en salud y en el trabajo de enfermería: perspectiva de una praxis transformadora Permanent education in health and nursing work: perspective of a transformative praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Anildo Anacleto da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma reflexão teórica que tem por objetivo estimular os leitores a repensar o papel da educação permanente dos sujeitos-trabalhadores da saúde e de enfermagem na perspectiva do desenvolvimento individual e coletivo, por meio da práxis transformadora. Procurou-se fazer uma articulação reflexiva dos princípios da práxis transformadora apresentada pelo filósofo Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez com os preceitos de educação permanente em saúde e no trabalho de enfermagem. Tal articulação apresenta uma concepção educativa em prol da conscientização dos sujeitos-trabalhadores sobre as distintas contribuições pessoais, sociais, relacionais e institucionais que podem advir das diferentes formas de perceber e exercer a educação permanente em saúde e no trabalho da enfermagem.Se trata de una reflexión teórica que tiene el objetivo de estimular los lectores a repensar el papel de la educación permanente de los sujetos-trabajadores de la salud y de la enfermería en la perspectiva del desarrollo individual y colectivo a través de la praxis transformadora. Hicimos una reflexión buscando articular los principios de la praxis transformadora presentado por el filósofo Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez con los preceptos de la educación permanente en salud y en el trabajo de la enfermería. Esta articulación presenta un concepto educativo en favor de la concienciación de los sujetos-trabajadores acerca de las distintas contribuciones personales, sociales, relacionales e institucionales que se puede resultar de diferentes maneras de percibir y ejercer la educación permanente en salud y en el trabajo de la enfermería.This is a theoretical reflection which the objective to encourage readers to rethink the role of permanent education of the subject-worker health and nursing in the perspective of individual and collective development through transformative praxis. We tried to make a thoughtful articulation about principles of

  9. Movements of permanent health education triggered by the training of facilitators Movimientos de la educación permanente en salud desencadenados a partir de la formación de facilitadores Movimentos da educação permanente em saúde, desencadeados a partir da formação de facilitadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinira Magali Fortuna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped the movements of Permanent Health Education in the region of Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, begun by the Permanent Health Education Facilitators program, promoted by the Ministry of Health and the National School of Public Health. This qualitative study was grounded on the theoretical framework of institutional and schizoanalysis. Data were collected from operative groups of individuals who finished the program. The results were grouped into two plans: micropolitics and organization. Micropolitics indicates the production of different concepts concerning permanent education and different ways to establish it. Autonomy and control and also a tenuous relationship between tutorship and autonomy were highlighted, in the plan of organization. In conclusion, the program was an important device that suffered captures/overcoding but also produced changes in practice.Se tuvo por objetivo cartografiar los movimientos de educación permanente en salud, en la región de Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brasil, iniciados a partir del curso de Facilitadores de Educación Permanente en Salud, del Ministerio de la Salud y Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública. Es un estudio de abordaje cualitativo, sustentado por el referencial teórico del análisis institucional en la línea esquizoanalítica, siendo los datos recolectados mediante grupos operativos con alumnos terminando el referido curso. Los resultados fueron agrupados en dos planos: micropolítica y organización. Con relación a la micropolítica, apuntan que hubo producción de diferentes conceptos sobre educación permanente y diferentes formas de institucionalización de la misma. En el plano de la organización se destacan la autonomía y el control y también la tenue relación entre tutela y autonomía. Concluimos que el curso fue un importante dispositivo que sufrió capturas, pero también produjo cambios en las prácticas.Tem-se, aqui, por objetivo, cartografar os movimentos de educa

  10. Mediación de la cultura docente en los proyectos de formación permanente (Mediation of culture teaching in lifelong learning projects (Médiation de la culture de l'enseignant dans les projets de formation continue (Mediação da cultura docente nos projectos de formação permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Amaya-de Rebolledo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa formación permanente del docente juega un papel clave en el cambio educativo; sin embargo, su con- creción práctica representa un reto epistemológico y metodológico. La problemática ha sido abordada des- de diferentes ángulos, en los cuales la relación entre cultura docente y formación permanente no ha sido claramente desvelada. En este artículo, que constituye un avance en la investigación de tesis doctoral de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Carabobo, se analiza por qué la cultura docente necesita ser reconocida como una realidad dinámica, dialéctica y relacional que afecta la calidad de la for- mación permanente del docente venezolano.AbstractThe continuous training of the teacher plays a key role in educational change; however, to take it to the practice rep- resents an epistemological and meth- odological challenge. The problem has been approached from different angles, where the relation between culture of the teacher and continuous training has not been clearly discussed. In this article, which constitutes an advance in the investigation of doctoral thesis of the Faculty of Sciences of the Education of Carabobo's University, it is analyzed why the culture of the teacher needs to be recognized as a dynamic reality, dialectic and relational that affects the quality of the continuous training in Venezuelan.RésuméLa formation continue des enseignants joue un rôle essentiel dans le changement éducatif, cependant, sa concrétion prati- que représente un défi épistémologique et méthodologique. La problématique a été envisagée dès perspectives différen- tes, dans lesquelles la relation entre la culture de l'enseignant et la formation continue n'a pas encore été nettement dévoilée. Dans cet article, qui constitue une avance dans la recherche de thèse doctorale de la Faculté de Sciences de l'Éducation de l'Université de Carabobo, on

  11. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  12. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus.

  13. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  14. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  15. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  16. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  17. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  18. Determinação experimental da condutividade e difusividade térmica de grãos em regime permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK Kil Jin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinadas experimentalmente em regime permanente a difusividade e a condutividade térmica de materiais biológicos. O equipamento com termopares de Cobre-Constantan dispostos radialmente no interior do cilindro conectados a uma unidade registradora de dados acoplados a um microcomputador fornece a leitura das temperaturas dos termopares. Os valores obtidos de difusividade (1,12x10-4 m2/s e condutividade térmica (0,138W/moC para o trigo (Triticum aestivum e os valores de difusividade (1,67x10-4 m2/s e condutividade térmica (0,122W/moC para o arroz em casca (Orysa sativaconcordam com os valores encontrados nos ASAE STANDARTS [1], demonstrando a funcionalidade do equipamento.

  19. REFORMAS EDUCATIVAS Y FORMACIÓN PERMANENTE DEL PROFESORADO EN LA ÚLTIMA OBRA DE JULIA VARELA: MEMORIA Y OLVIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luís Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan la complejidad del proceso de construcción de los Centros de Profesores y el papel desempeñado por una diversidad de instancias y personas que, desde distintos puntos de vista, defendieron su articulación dentro del más amplio campo de la formación permanente del profesorado español entre 1983 y 1990. Habiendo tomado como punto de partida de nuestras reflexiones el último libro de Julia Varela ¿Las reformas educativas a debate (1982-2006¿ defendemos tanto su interés como la asimetría existente entre la relevancia política de esta obra y su debilidad historiográfica.

  20. TICS en la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado educación especial: Universidad de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Sáenz, Ana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    La Escuela de Orientación y Educación Especial de la Universidad de Costa Rica requiere conocer cómo mejorar la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado de Educación Especial, y la innovación educativa, en el campo de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación. El presente trabajo pretende realizar un análisis de las TIC, a partir de la opinión del profesorado y de los estudiantes universitarios de Educación Especial sobre: a) la función qué tienen las herramientas tecnológi...

  1. As áreas de preservação permanente no Brasil: a percepção de especialistas

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, Sigrid de Aquino

    2009-01-01

    As larguras das áreas de preservação permanente (APP) ao longo dos cursos d’água estipuladas pelo Código Florestal, assim como as variáveis técnicas que podem afetá-las foram a inspiração para a realização desta pesquisa. O Código Florestal, lei nº 4.771, de 15 de setembro de 1965, foi estabelecido com o intuito de manter florestas nativas nas propriedades rurais, estabelecendo o limite de propriedade. Definiu áreas que seriam de proteção perpétua por lei (APP e RL) e em que deveriam se...

  2. Estrategia pedagógica de contenido humanista en la formación permanente del profesor de medicina general Integral de la Facultad Dr.Salvador Allende

    OpenAIRE

    Güemez Junco , Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Las condiciones del mundo actual, amenazan la existencia humana y colocan en un primer plano el problema del hombre y sus valores, planteando a la formación de profesionales la contradicción entre la formación humanista y la formación tecnocrática. La formación Médica enfrenta dificultades para la formación humanista. El profesor encargado de la formación médica carece de preparación en su formación inicial y permanente para el desempeño de la función docente educativa. La presente investigac...

  3. As determinantes da implantação do inventário permanente em Portugal: um estudo empírico

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, José Joaquim Marques de; Coimbra, Pedro; Larguinho, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    O Decreto-lei n.º 79/2003, de 23 de Abril, aperfeiçoa o Decreto-lei n.º 44/99, de 12 de Fevereiro, ambos foram emitidos pelo Ministério das Finanças de Portugal, e determinam, por razões de gestão, a obrigatoriedade da adopção do inventário permanente a um vasto conjunto de empresas portuguesas, dos sectores comercial, serviços ou industrial. Pressupõem, ex-ante, que a aplicação do supracitado inventário permite a determinação directa do custo das vendas, o aperfeiçoamento do sistema de co...

  4. Respuesta a seis dosis de P y de cal en el establecimiento de praderas permanentes en dos tipos de suelos gallegos a monte

    OpenAIRE

    Mombiela, Francisco A.; Mateo, Mª Elisa

    2011-01-01

    La deficiencia en P y la acidez son dos de los componentes de la fertilidad química del suelo, que más limitan el establecimiento de praderas permanentes en terrenos gallegos a monte. En este trabajo se examina el efecto de 6 dosis de P (0, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 160 Kg. P/Ha. y 6 de cal (0; 0,75; 1,5; 3; 6 y 12 Tm. C03Ca/Ha.) sobre la producción de materia seca de una pradera mixta (raigrás inglés, raigrás italiano, trébol blanco y trébol violeta) en un suelo sobre granito (M. San Antón) y otro so...

  5. DNA vaccines and intradermal vaccination by DNA tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, K; van den Berg, J H; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, DNA vaccination has been developed as a method for the induction of immune responses. However, in spite of high expectations based on their efficacy in preclinical models, immunogenicity of first generation DNA vaccines in clinical trials was shown to be poor, and no DNA vaccines have yet been licensed for human use. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of second generation DNA vaccines and DNA vaccine delivery methods. Here we review the key characteristics of DNA vaccines as compared to other vaccine platforms, and recent insights into the prerequisites for induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines will be discussed. We illustrate the development of second generation DNA vaccines with the description of DNA tattooing as a novel DNA delivery method. This technique has shown great promise both in a small animal model and in non-human primates and is currently under clinical evaluation.

  6. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  8. Deformación permanente de materiales granulares en pavimentos flexibles: estado del conocimiento Permanent strain of granular materials in flexible pavements: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han sido desarrollados en el área de los pavimentos para comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares bajo carga cíclica. Este es el segundo de dos artículos que presentan el estado del conocimiento de investigaciones desarrolladas en esta área. Basado en una amplia revisión bibliográfica, este artículo da cuenta de la forma como ha sido estudiado el fenómeno de deformación permanente en materiales granulares empleados para conformar capas de base y sub-base de estructuras de pavimentos flexibles. Además, se exponen y se discuten los factores que afectan la resistencia a la deformación permanente y la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas para predecir la deformación que experimentan estos materiales bajo carga cíclica. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el comportamiento resiliente de estos materiales es presentado en el primer artículo (Rondón y Reyes, 2007.Several studies have been conducted in pavement field for trying to understand the elastoplastic behavior experienced by granular materials under a cyclic load. This is the second out of two articles which show state-of-the-art of researches conducted in this field. Based on a wide literature review, this article accounts for the way how permanent strain phenomenon has been studied in granular materials used for creating base and sub-base layers of flexible pavement structures. Besides, this article displays and discusses factors which affect resistance to permanent strain and evolution of mathematical equations developed for predicting that strain experienced by these materials under a cyclic load. A state-of-the-art about resilient behavior of these materials has been presented in the first article (Rondón and Reyes, 2007.

  9. Política de Educação Permanente em Saúde: análise de sua implementação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Gonçalves Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A política nacional de educação permanente em saúde define novas diretrizes para a gestão democrática na área da educação na saúde, tais como: a gestão participativa, o protagonismo dos trabalhadores e usuários e o fortalecimento do controle social. Objetivo: Analisar o processo de implementação da Política de Educação Permanente em Saúde no Distrito Federal, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de caso utilizando a teoria da política pública foi realizado no Distrito Federal, envolvendo 24 participantes chave responsáveis pela gestão e implementação dessa política. Resultados: Os achados apontam para um modelo centralizado de gestão com pouca participação de outros segmentos da sociedade civil, obstáculos de financiamento devido a questões burocráticas e desvalorização dos espaços de execução da política. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que as mudanças políticas e de gestão não têm sido realizadas com a amplitude necessária para a construção coletiva do conhecimento nos serviços de saúde.

  10. La formació permanent del professorat a Itàlia Continuing training for teachers in Italy La formación permanente del profesorado en Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rosato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’estructura en tres parts: en primer lloc, s’analitza amb detall el context educatiu a Itàlia, fent incidència en la particularitat del contracte d’aprenentatge; en segon lloc, es dóna una visió històrica del que ha estat la formació inicial i permanent del professorat italià, per endinsar-se posteriorment amb la complexa organització del sistema de formació permanent; i, en tercer lloc, se’n fa una anàlisi crítica del sistema, posant en evidència la multiplicitat de reptes pendents. Es fa especial èmfasi en la situació del procés de canvi educatiu del país, i el pes que les pràctiques d’altres països europeus tenen sobre Itàlia. En relació a la formació del professorat, s’explica com s’està intentant passar d’una formació basada en la titulació i el desenvolupament i la promoció individual a un sistema de formació permanent orientat al desenvolupament de competències docents. Es qüestionen les modalitats de formació actuals, però també el sistema d’orientació i el d’organització de la formació, tot apostant per un model lligat al municipi i als centres escolars. ______________________________________________ L’article est structuré en trois parties : en premier lieu, il analyse en détail le contexte éducatif en Italie, en faisant une incursion dans la particularité du contrat d’apprentissage ; en deuxième lieu, il donne une vision historique de ce qu’a été la formation initiale et permanente du professorat italien, pour s’enfoncer ensuite dans la complexe organisation du système de formation permanente; et, en troisième lieu, il fait une analyse critique du système, en mettant en évidence la multiplicité des défis qui doivent être relevés. Une emphase spéciale est faite quant à la situation du processus de changement éducatif que vit le pays, et au poids que les pratiques d’autres pays européens peuvent avoir en Italie. En ce qui concerne la

  11. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis.

  12. Ingredients of Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quantities of mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to be harmful in humans or experimental animals... Top of Page Related Pages Common Questions about ...

  13. [Development of new vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  15. Antibacterials: A sweet vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, David

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.

  16. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMR and Varicella vaccines at the same time. Now it does not express a preference for giving them separately or at the same time. Protects against chickenpox, a usually mild infectious disease ...

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  18. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  19. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  20. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  1. Vaccines against cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Larralde, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that seriously and frequently affects human health and economy in undeveloped countries. Since pigs are an indispensable intermediate host, it is conceivable to curb transmission by reducing pig cysticercosis through their effective vaccination. This article reviews current knowledge on the development vaccines against porcine cysticercosis. It highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration.

  2. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  3. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  4. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    development thrusts • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccines • Shigella vaccines • Campylobacter jejuni vaccines 2011 MHS Conference Vaccines...Injectisome extending from Shigella Injectisome Injectisome graphic 2011 MHS Conference  Campylobacter jejuni – Transmission: Foodborne – Inoculum

  5. Understanding Thimerosal, Mercury, and Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungus. It is used as a preservative for flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, to keep the vaccine ... as much as possible. • Today, except for some flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, no recommended childhood vaccines ...

  6. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  7. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  8. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  9. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  10. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA vaccines against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  12. Vaccination strategies against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, E

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.

  13. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  14. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  15. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  16. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    biological weapons by adversary governments and/or terrorists [4–9]. For veterinary use, there are live, attenuated and inactivated VEE vaccines as...Alphaviruses. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1023–67. [2] Kuhn RJ...Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams

  17. Nuevos retos para el profesorado de secundaria obligatoria: formación permanente para la atención a la diversidad en las aulas (New challenges for teachers of compulsory secondary: lifelong learning for attention to diversity in the classrooms (Nouveaux défis pour le professorat de secondaire obligatoire :formation permanente pour l’attention à la diversité dans la salle de classe (Novos desafios para os professores do ensino médio obrigatório: formação permanente para a atenção à diversidade na sala de aula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Prats

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La llegada reciente de alumnos inmigrantes a los centros educativos en España ha enfrentado al profesorado a nuevos retos. El presente artículo pone de manifiesto cuáles son estos nuevos retos que afrontan los docentes de la etapa de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, ESO, a partir de sus propias voces, para conocer las necesidades formativas derivadas de esta situación educativa, con el fin de hacer propuestas de formación permanente para los docentes, como apoyo institucional en la atención de la diversidad de alumnado que coexiste en las aulas. Utilizando como método el estudio de casos múltiples hemos analizado e interpretado la información que conduce a conclusiones prácticas, con muchas posibilidades de ser tenidas en cuenta para la formación permanente de los implicados.

  18. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised.

  19. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  20. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher

  2. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... beginning of the upcoming influenza vaccination season, the proposed materials included in this notice are... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation... infection are highest among children. For most people, it lasts only a few days. It can cause: Fever...

  3. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  4. Optimal vaccination choice, vaccination games, and rational exemption: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Piero; Posta, Pompeo Della; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Salinelli, Ernesto; Centrone, Francesca; Meo, Claudia; Poletti, Piero

    2009-12-10

    A threat for vaccination policies might be the onset of "rational" exemption, i.e. the family's decision not to vaccinate children after a seemingly rational comparison between the perceived risk of infection and the perceived risk of vaccine side effects. We study the implications of rational exemption by models of vaccination choice. By a simple model of individual choice we first prove the "elimination impossible" result in presence of informed families, i.e. aware of herd immunity, and suggest that limited information might explain patterns of universal vaccination. Next, we investigate vaccination choice in a game-theoretic framework for communities stratified into two groups, "pro" and "anti" vaccinators, having widely different perceived costs of infection and of vaccine side effects. We show that under informed families neither a Nash nor a Stackelberg behaviour (characterized, respectively, by players acting simultaneously and by an asymmetric situation with a "leader" and a "follower) allow elimination, unless "pro-vaccinators" assign no costs to vaccine side effects. Elimination turns out to be possible when cooperation is encouraged by a social planner, provided, however, he incorporates in the "social loss function" the preferences of anti-vaccinators only. This allows an interpretation of the current Italian vaccination policy.

  5. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating elk...

  6. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... your medical history. Staying Up-To-Date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  7. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  8. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose and throat. Whooping cough causes uncontrollable coughing. Vaccines can protect you from these diseases. In the U.S., there are four combination vaccines: DTaP prevents all three diseases. It is for ...

  9. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  10. Modern Technologies of Vaccine Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L.I. Chernyshova; F.I. Lapiy

    2014-01-01

    .... The article says about modern technology of vaccines that need to know the doctor to objectively and accurately inform patients before vaccination, to answer a number of questions from patients...

  11. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  13. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  14. [Risks associated with vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupi, E; Baudard, S; Debois, H; Pignato, F

    1998-10-01

    Since Jenner and Pasteur, various vaccines have been developed and administered in immunization program conducted by WHO in order to diminish the circulation of pathogenic agents and eradicate some diseases. Risks associated with immunization are revealed by the collection and assessment of adverse events reported after the use of these drugs. They vary according to the type of vaccines. With high rates of immunization and a low incidence of infectious diseases, adverse events receive increasing attention. Frequent and mostly expected adverse events are reported in clinical trials. Unexpected rare adverse events are reported after marketing authorization by spontaneous reporting and post marketing surveillance studies. Post marketing surveillance should be adapted to vaccines (vaccino-vigilance) and should take into account the risk linked to the disease they may protect against. Adverse events are often temporally associated with vaccines, that does not mean they are causally related. Specific studies should be conducted to assess the causal relationship between vaccines and post immunization adverse events. In order to reduce the risk associated with immunization, a strict follow-up of recommendations, warnings and contraindications in addition to appropriate information being delivered to both vaccinees and physicians are required.

  15. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  16. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  18. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts. PMID:24927336

  19. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  20. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to distribut

  1. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.

  2. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh Braich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66

  3. Resultados da correção cirúrgica da exotropia permanente em pacientes amblíopes e não-amblíopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Valim Portes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A exotropia permanente (XT acomete cerca de 1 a 2% da população. Seu tratamento é clínico: antiambliogênico e correção dos erros refrativos, e cirúrgico. O objetivo do tratamento cirúrgico é alinhar os olhos na posição primária do olhar, proporcionando melhor resultado estético. Há muito tempo diversos autores estudam os fatores pré, per e pós-operatórios relacionados ao resultado cirúrgico, uma vez que a taxa de sucesso varia de 60 a 80%. Ainda são poucos os estudos que comparam a presença de ambliopia como fator de influência no resultado final. OBJETIVO: Comparar o resultado cirúrgico dos pacientes amblíopes e não-amblíopes submetidos à cirurgia de correção de XT. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 37 prontuários de pacientes amblíopes (Grupo A e não-amblíopes (Grupo B submetidos à correção cirúrgica de XT por retrocessoressecção monocular, sendo avaliados os registros pós-operatórios imediatos e tardios. Idade: grupo A 24,7 ± 14,2 anos, grupo B 22,6 ±18,6 anos; Desvio pré-operatório: grupo A 29,1± 7,2Δ, grupo B 28,4 ± 6,8Δ. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sucesso foi de 60% e 100% (p<0,05, no pós-operatório imediato e 50% e 82,3% (p=0,082, no pós-operatório final, nos grupos A e B, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante quanto aos desvios pós-operatórios imediatos, tardios e variação do desvio. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se concluir que o grupo B mostrou melhor resultado no pós-operatório imediato; porém não houve diferença no resultado cirúrgico de correção de exotropia permanente entre pacientes amblíopes e não-amblíopes no período pós-operatório de seis meses.

  4. ESTUDIO DE LA AGRODIVERSIDAD TEMPORAL Y PERMANENTE EN FINCAS DE LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO Y GIBARA, HOLGUÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Vargas Blandino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, debido a la actividad antropogénica y aldesarrollo industrial, se está produciendo una erosión de la diversidadbiológica, incluida la agrodiversidad manejada por los agricultores.En Cuba, a partir de la década de los 90, se produjo un periodo detransición de la agricultura, donde se pasó al rescate de las variedadescriollas de los principales cultivos en el sector estatal y a formas deproducción con un enfoque agroecológico, para adaptarnos a lacrisis que tuvo el país. En el siguiente estudio se evaluó en doslocalidades la agrodiversidad temporal y permanente (plantas leñosascon más de 3 m de altura mantenida y manejada en las fincas porlos agricultores. Se hizo un inventario de la agrodiversidad porlocalidad, donde se muestrearon las áreas de cada parcela de cultivoy las de árboles, para calcular los índices de diversidad Margalef yShannon Weaver, y conocer la riqueza y representatividad de lasespecies dentro de la finca. Se observó que las fincas de Pinar delRío son más diversas en cuanto a riqueza y representatividad de lasespecies de los cultivos temporales y permanentes que las deHolguín; también las áreas de cultivos de especies perennes paralas dos localidades son más equilibradas en cuanto a riqueza yrepresentatividad en la finca que las de cultivos temporales, debidoa que en estos se practica más el monocultivo y se ve en cada fincaun cultivo principal. Se evidenció que los agricultores son capacesde conservar la agrodiversidad, principalmente las especies criollaso locales. Con este estudio se abordaron dos métodos de trabajo(inventario de especies y cálculo de los índices de diversidad y seobtuvieron resultados similares para ambos lugares, donde las áreasde arboledas son más estables que las de cultivos temporales.

  5. Effective Vaccination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P

    2010-10-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

  6. [About of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  7. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  8. Vaccines against Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Rosanna; Adamo, Roberto; Scarselli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognized as a major cause of nosocomial diseases ranging from antibiotic related diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Emergence during the last 2 decades of C. difficile strains associated with high incidence, severity and lethal outcomes has increased the challenges for CDI treatment. A limited number of drugs have proven to be effective against CDI and concerns about antibiotic resistance as well as recurring disease solicited the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Active vaccination provides the attractive opportunity to prevent CDI, and intense research in recent years led to development of experimental vaccines, 3 of which are currently under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes recent achievements and remaining challenges in the field of C. difficile vaccines, and discusses future perspectives in view of newly-identified candidate antigens. PMID:24637887

  9. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  10. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  11. Vaccines against bluetongue in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giovanni; MacLachlan, N James; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose-Manuel; Zientara, Stéphan

    2008-03-01

    After the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) into European Mediterranean countries in 1998, vaccination was used in an effort to minimize direct economic losses to animal production, reduce virus circulation and allow safe movements of animals from endemic areas. Vaccination strategies in different countries were developed according to their individual policies, the geographic distribution of the incurring serotypes of BTV and the availability of appropriate vaccines. Four monovalent modified live virus (MLV) vaccines were imported from South Africa and subsequently used extensively in both cattle and sheep. MLVs were found to be immunogenic and capable of generating strong protective immunity in vaccinated ruminants. Adverse side effects were principally evident in sheep. Specifically, some vaccinated sheep developed signs of clinical bluetongue with fever, facial oedema and lameness. Lactating sheep that developed fever also had reduced milk production. More severe clinical signs occurred in large numbers of sheep that were vaccinated with vaccine combinations containing the BTV-16 MLV, and the use of the monovalent BTV-16 MLV was discontinued as a consequence. Abortion occurred in sheep and cattle that received MLVs did not exceed 35 days, with the single notable exception of a cow vaccinated with a multivalent BTV-2, -4, -9 and -16 vaccine in which viraemia persisted at least 78 days. Viraemia of sufficient titre to infect Culicoides insects was observed transiently in MLV-vaccinated ruminants, and natural transmission of MLV strains has been confirmed. An inactivated vaccine was first developed against BTV-2 and used in the field. An inactivated vaccine against BTV-4 as well as a bivalent vaccine against serotypes 2 and 4 were subsequently developed and used in Corsica, Spain, Portugal and Italy. These inactivated vaccines were generally safe although on few occasions reactions occurred at the site of inoculation. Two doses of these BTV inactivated vaccines

  12. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  14. Communicating vaccine safety during the development and introduction of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the best defense available against infectious diseases. Vaccine safety is of major focus for regulatory bodies, vaccine manufacturers, public health authorities, health care providers and the public as vaccines are often given to healthy children and adults as well as to pregnant woman. Safety assessment is critical at all stages of vaccine development. Effective, clear and consistent communication of the risks and benefits of vaccines and advocacy during all stages of clinical research (including the preparation, approvals, conduct of clinical trials through the post marketing phase) is critically important. This needs to be done for all major stakeholders (e.g. community members, Study Team, Health Care Providers, Ministry of Health, Regulators, Ethics Committee members, Public Health Authorities and Policy Makers). Improved stakeholder alignment would help to address some of the concerns that may affect the clinical research, licensing of vaccines and their wide-spread use in immunization programs around the world.

  15. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  17. Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute (USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark B; Allen, Garland E; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that much has been written in recent years about the science of heredity under the Third Reich, there is as yet no satisfying analysis of two central questions: What, if anything, was peculiarly "Nazi" about human genetics under National Socialism? How, under whatever set of causes, did at least some of Germany's most well-known and leading biomedical practioners become engaged in entgrenzte Wissenschaft (science without moral boundaries)? This paper attempts to provide some answers to these two questions comparing three institutes that studied eugenics and human heredity in the 1920s and 1930s: the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, directed by Charles B. Davenport; the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, in Berlin, directed by Eugen Fischer; and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute in Moscow, directed by Solomon G. Levit. The institutes are compared on the basis of the kind and quality of their research in eugenics and medical genetics, organizational structure, leadership, patronage (private or state), and the economic-social-political context in which they functioned.

  18. Multiple Vaccinations: Friend or Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sarah E.; Jensen, Shawn M.; Twitty, Chris; Bahjat, Keith; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Fox, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Few immunotherapists would accept the concept of a single vaccination inducing a therapeutic anti-cancer immune response in a patient with advanced cancer. But what is the evidence to support the “more-is-better” approach of multiple vaccinations? Since we are unaware of trials comparing the effect of a single vaccine versus multiple vaccinations on patient outcome, we considered that an anti-cancer immune response might provide a surrogate measure of the effectiveness of vaccination strategies. Since few large trials include immunological monitoring, the majority of information is gleaned from smaller trials in which an evaluation of immune responses to vaccine or tumor, before and at one or more times following the first vaccine was performed. In some studies there is convincing evidence that repeated administration of a specific vaccine can augment the immune response to antigens contained in the vaccine. In other settings multiple vaccinations can significantly reduce the immune response to one or more targets. Results from three large adjuvant vaccine studies support the potential detrimental effect of multiple vaccinations as clinical outcomes in the control arms were significantly better than that for treatment groups. Recent research has provided insights into mechanisms that are likely responsible for the reduced responses in the studies noted above, but supporting evidence from clinical specimens is generally lacking. Interpretation of these results is further complicated by the possibility that the dominant immune response may evolve to recognize epitopes not present in the vaccine. Nonetheless, the FDA-approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine and recent developments from preclinical models and clinical trials provide a substantial basis for optimism and a critical evaluation of cancer vaccine strategies. PMID:21952289

  19. Parents' vaccination comprehension and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-03-17

    We report on 30 in-depth mental models interviews with parents discussing vaccination for their children, both in general terms and in response to communications drawn from sources supporting and opposing vaccines. We found that even parents favourable to vaccination can be confused by the ongoing debate, leading them to question their choices. Many parents lack basic knowledge of how vaccines work, and do not find the standard information provided to them to be particularly helpful in explaining it. Those with the greatest need to know about vaccination seem most vulnerable to confusing information. Opportunities for education may be missed if paediatricians do not appreciate parents' specific information needs.

  20. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Montalvo, Enoch

    2007-01-08

    We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.

  1. Pediatric vaccines on the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Bueno, Susana; Stull, Terrence L

    2010-09-01

    Vaccines have saved the lives of millions of children and continue to be essential interventions to control infectious diseases among people of all ages. The list of recommended vaccines for children has expanded in recent years; however, many viral, bacterial and parasitic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Improved vaccines to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections in children will soon be available. Recent scientific advances are being applied to design new childhood vaccines affording enhanced efficacy, safety and tolerability. Financial barriers and other obstacles to adequate vaccine access need to be eliminated to assure coverage for all children and adolescents.

  2. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  3. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Propuesta de un plan permanente de relaciones públicas para educar adolescentes sobre los riesgos que existen en las redes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Gilbert Toral

    2014-06-01

    redes sociales, utilizadas como un medio de comunicación altamente efectivo; hoy en día existe un notorio cambio en la manera en que los adolescentes se relacionan e interactúan entre sí, se evidencia que los niños a temprana edad adquieren dominio sobre las redes sociales y el internet en general, por lo que están expuestos a peligros de tipo psicológico, tales como: ciberbullying, sexting, grooming y morphing. Por lo antes expuesto, y con el fin de incidir de manera positiva en los adolescentes, el presente trabajo de investigación propone la creación de un plan permanente de relaciones públicas, que entre otras actividades conlleva: charlas de psicología, talleres de concientización, la elaboración de un código de conducta online que minimice los riesgos, y finalmente el desarrollo de campañas en internet y medios tradicionales.

  5. Trabajo con Comunidades y Grupos: Dominación y resistencia. Procesos que nos llevan a plantear tareas permanentes y cotidianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Cordero Cordero

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta algunas ideas con respecto a las tareas permanentes y cotidianas, que se sugieren considerar en el trabajo colectivo en las comunidades y con los grupos en los que participamos. La convivencia humana, como práctica socio-cultural se convierte en una de las vivencias más complejas e importantes que son capaces de gestar lo que en el mundo actual llamamos organización, cumpliendo la función de ser un medio eficaz para resolver necesidades de todo tipo. As los procesos colectivos de relación y configuración de las acciones, se realizan por las posibilidades de recrear, crear y potenciar los espacios grupales. No obstante, lo ideal que puede significar el trabajo colectivo, este suele estar permanentemente desafiado por avances y retrocesos, ingresos y salidas de personas, por conflictos y acuerdos que se resuelven o no, así como, por la acción práctica mediada por el contexto social, histórico, político y económico en que se desenvuelve. Las ideas surgen de la experiencia de la autora, en conjunto con grupos de mujeres organizadas, en la atención infantil comunitaria. Este material se presentó en el contexto del Séptimo Congreso de Psicología de la Liberación, celebrado en Liberia, Costa Rica en noviembre del 2005.

  6. Aporte del Tribunal Permanente de Revisión al proceso de integración del MERCOSUR: reflexiones orientadas hacia la sociedad civil del MERCOSUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Centurión

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La función que compete al Tribunal Permanente de Revisión-TPR en el Mercado Común del Sur-MERCOSUR, y más específicamente en cuanto a su real contribución a nuestro proceso integracionista, tuvo y tiene opiniones divididas. La función y utilidad de este órgano, así como la del mismo MERCOSUR, tiene simpatizantes y detractores en todos los Estados Partes. Muchas veces, las opiniones que se muestran contrarias y desfavorables son fruto del desconocimiento; otras son producto de aquello sobre lo cual se cree tener suficientes elementos de juicio cuando en realidad es todo lo contrario. En el presente artículo, el autor pretende ubicar al lector, sean estos operadores del Derecho, o ciudadanos con inquietudes de la Sociedad Civil Organizada, y partiendo de determinados ejemplos prácticos –a modo de análisis desde la casuística– dejar a criterio de la gente disipar las dudas que pudieran existir.

  7. La formación inicial y permanente del profesorado de Educación Física a través del practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia María García Ruso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran los aspectos más importantes del desarrollo de un proyecto de innovación educativa realizado durante las prácticas de enseñanza. En el proyecto intervinieron cuatro alumnos, futuros maestros especialistas de Educación Física, cuatro tutoras y dos supervisoras. Trataremos de exponer, con cierto matiz descriptivo, las fases seguidas en la realización de un proyecto de investigación-acción, los objetivos formulados, la metodología empleada, la elaboración de una unidad didáctica de expresión corporal y el análisis e interpretación de la información. Finalmente, explicaremos las conclusiones que giran alrededor de tres ejes: la relación de la Universidad y los Centros Educativos, la relación del supervisor y el tutor, y la valoración del propio seminario de investigación-acción como herramienta para la investigación y la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado.

  8. Técnica para identificar faltas transitorias y permanentes en líneas de transmisión, utilizando la transformada Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento, se presenta un algoritmo que permite distinguir de forma clara y precisa, las faltas transitorias de las permanentes. Adicionalmente se determina el instante de extinción del arco secundario, para así evitar o controlar de forma efectiva y segura la operación de reconexión monofásica en sistemas de transporte de energía. El método de identificación se basa en la determinación de las características de alta frecuencia que posee la señal de tensión de la fase en falta antes del despeje y de la corriente en una fase sana y las relaciona de forma independiente mediante una auto-correlación cruzada. Para el análisis de la señal y extracción de los componentes de alta frecuencia, se ha utilizado la transformada Wavelet. El algoritmo propuesto se probó en un sistema base de 380 kV, funcionando de forma correcta en todos los escenarios planteados y logrando una identificación precisa en los primeros 25 ms de la falta.

  9. A indeterminação sob suspeita no cinema brasileiro contemporâneo: os distintos casos de Filmefobia e Pan-cinema permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre alguns filmes brasileiros recentes - sobretudo aqueles tomados por documentais - que investem na autoficção e na problematização das próprias prerrogativas, colocando sob suspeita seus procedimentos ou produzindo suas próprias esquivas, privilegiaremos Filmefobia (Kiko Goifman, 2009 e Pan-cinema permanente (Carlos Nader, 2008, que, a despeito de suas evidentes diferenças e de seus distintos efeitos estéticos e políticos, operam em um horizonte biopolítico de indeterminação: tais como o trânsito entre autenticidade e encenação, pessoa e personagem, experiência e jogo, vida e performance, documentário e ficção. Longe do simples elogio às potencias estéticas da indeterminação, que, como veremos, podem operar politicamente como condição do cinismo e de toda sorte de estados de exceção, trata-se de colocar o conceito sob suspeição.

  10. Impacto de la Educación Permanente en Salud en la calidad de las prácticas de atención hospitalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martinicorena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el impacto de la Educación Permanente en Salud (EPS sobre la calidad de las prácticas de atención en los Hospitales del Subsector Público de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, durante 2001 se realizó una investigación descriptiva cuyos resultados se exponen en este artículo. Se presentan las conclusiones obtenidas de tres áreas indagadas: la percepción de la prácticas del trabajador una vez capacitado con estrategias de EPS, la evaluación de los diseños de Planes de Estudios y el impacto de ambos sobre la Calidad de las Prácticas de Atención hospitalaria. Finalmente, se realizan algunas recomendaciones dirigidas a los sectores Técnico-políticos para la implementación de estrategias descentralizadas de capacitación a trabajadores de la Salud, a los Equipos de Capacitación en Salud que organizan, planifican, monitorean y evalúan los Planes de estudios utilizados, y a los responsables del diseño de políticas educativas en salud, enfocadas en el impacto que producen en la calidad de las prácticas de atención hospitalaria en la provincia.

  11. A Origem Histórica do Conceito de Área de Preservação Permanente no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucus Vinicius Biasetto Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nossa atualidade vem sendo marcada por uma crescente preocupação com as questões ligadas ao meio ambiente e com a preservação do nosso planeta. De uma maneira geral o aquecimento global, a influência antrópica, a degradação de ambientes naturais, os processos ecológicos, a biodiversidade, a sustentabilidade, bem como a cidadania ambiental tem se tornado temas de discussão nas diversas esferas de convívio social.Dentro da história brasileira podemos identificar uma série de regramentos de caráter ambiental considerando-se como marco a Lei 4.771 de 15 de setembro de 1965, que instituiu o novo Código Florestal Brasileiro. Ao longo do presente artigo procuraremos investigar a origem da conceituação das áreas de preservação permanentes, tema alvo de grandes discussões na atualidade, tal qual surgiu e foi inserida na legislação brasileira, procurando recuperar esse aspecto específico da história do Brasil.

  12. Prevalência de cárie em dentes permanentes de escolares do Município de São Paulo, SP, 1970-1996

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    Paulo C Narvai

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução da prevalência de cárie em dentes permanentes da população infantil do Município de São Paulo, SP, no período 1970-1996, com base em levantamento epidemiológico em escolares das redes pública e privada de ensino. MÉTODOS: Utilizando metodologia recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, foram examinados 2.491 escolares de 103 unidades das redes de ensino público e privado. Foi obtida amostra probabilística, com base no cadastro das escolas do município. Os elementos amostrais foram identificados ao acaso. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que de uma situação de prevalência "muito alta" de cárie dentária nos anos 60 e 70, a população de referência evoluiu positivamente, na idade-índice de 12 anos, para um quadro de "baixa" prevalência. CONCLUSÃO: Entre 1986 e 1996 o declínio na cárie dentária, aos 12 anos de idade, foi da ordem de 68,2% entre escolares do Município de São Paulo.

  13. Prevalência de cárie em dentes permanentes de escolares do Município de São Paulo, SP, 1970-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvai Paulo C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução da prevalência de cárie em dentes permanentes da população infantil do Município de São Paulo, SP, no período 1970-1996, com base em levantamento epidemiológico em escolares das redes pública e privada de ensino. MÉTODOS: Utilizando metodologia recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, foram examinados 2.491 escolares de 103 unidades das redes de ensino público e privado. Foi obtida amostra probabilística, com base no cadastro das escolas do município. Os elementos amostrais foram identificados ao acaso. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que de uma situação de prevalência "muito alta" de cárie dentária nos anos 60 e 70, a população de referência evoluiu positivamente, na idade-índice de 12 anos, para um quadro de "baixa" prevalência. CONCLUSÃO: Entre 1986 e 1996 o declínio na cárie dentária, aos 12 anos de idade, foi da ordem de 68,2% entre escolares do Município de São Paulo.

  14. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  15. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  16. Ensuring safety of DNA vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessels Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1990 a new approach for vaccination was invented involving injection of plasmid DNA in vivo, which elicits an immune response to the encoded protein. DNA vaccination can overcome most disadvantages of conventional vaccine strategies and has potential for vaccines of the future. However, today 15 years on, a commercial product still has not reached the market. One possible explanation could be the technique's failure to induce an efficient immune response in humans, but safety may also be a fundamental issue. This review focuses on the safety of the genetic elements of DNA vaccines and on the safety of the microbial host for the production of plasmid DNA. We also propose candidates for the vaccine's genetic elements and for its microbial production host that can heighten the vaccine's safety and facilitate its entry to the market.

  17. Development of dengue DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Janine R; Beckett, Charmagne G; Porter, Kevin R

    2011-09-23

    Vaccination with plasmid DNA against infectious pathogens including dengue is an active area of investigation. By design, DNA vaccines are able to elicit both antibody responses and cellular immune responses capable of mediating long-term protection. Great technical improvements have been made in dengue DNA vaccine constructs and trials are underway to study these in the clinic. The scope of this review is to highlight the rich history of this vaccine platform and the work in dengue DNA vaccines accomplished by scientists at the Naval Medical Research Center. This work resulted in the only dengue DNA vaccine tested in a clinical trial to date. Additional advancements paving the road ahead in dengue DNA vaccine development are also discussed.

  18. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins Martí, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. CRONOLOGÍA DE ERUPCIÓN DENTARIA PERMANENTE EN NIÑOS DE 6 A 13 AÑOS DE LA ISLA TAQUILE - PUNO EN RELACIÓN CON EL ESTADO NUTRICIONAL, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ResumenEl propósito del estudio fue relacionar la cronología de la erupción dentaria permanente con el estado nutricional. La hipótesis estableció que el estado nutricional si guarda relación con la cronología de la erupción dentaria permanente. Se examinaron 178 escolares (entre varones y mujeres) de 6 a 13 años de la Isla Taquile, en el mes de Octubre del 2013. Se determinó el estado nutricional mediante el índice de masa corporal según su edad, relación talla según edad y clasificación de ...

  20. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  1. Paralelo entre educação permanente em saúde e administração complexa Paralelo entre la Educación permanente en salud y administración compleja Parallel between Permanent education and health administration complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Coelho Amestoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A educação é um processo político, no qual a sociedade opera de forma constante sobre o desenvolvimento da pessoa, com intuito de integrá-la ao modo de ser vivente. O estudo representa uma reflexão-teórica a partir de um paralelo entre as diretrizes da Política Nacional de Educação Permanente em Saúde e os princípios norteadores da Administração Complexa. A partir de um breve resgate bibliográfico, buscou-se contextualizar a Política, bem como essa nova forma de administração baseada na autonomia, cooperação, agregação e auto-organização. Defende-se que esta aproximação entre educação permanente e administração complexa poderá facilitar a realização do cuidado em enfermagem e saúde, bem como as atividades gerenciais, impulsionar a autonomia, além do crescimento pessoal, profissional e organizacional.La educación es un proceso político, en el cual la sociedad opera de forma constante sobre el desarrollo de la persona, con objetivo de integrarla al modo de ser viviente. El estudio representa una reflexión-teórica a partir de un paralelo entre las directrices de la Política Nacional de Educación Permanente en Salud y los principios norteadores de la Administración Compleja. A partir de uno breve rescate bibliográfico, se buscó contextualizar la Política, bien como esa nueva forma de administración basada en la autonomía, cooperación, agregación y auto-organización. Se defiende que esta relación entre educación permanente y administración compleja podrá facilitar la aproximación del cuidado en enfermería y salud, bien como las actividades gerenciales, impulsar la autonomía, además del crecimiento personal, profesional y organizacional.Education is a political process, in which the society operates consistently on the development of the individual, aiming to integrate it into the way of living being. The present work represents a theoretical reflection, from a parallel between the guidelines

  2. Permanent education in health. An instrument to enhance interpersonal relations in nursing work La educación permanente en salud. Instrumento potenciador de las relaciones interpersonales del trabajo en enfermería Educação permanente em saúde. Instrumento potencializador das relações interpessoais no trabalho da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Portella Ribeiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a reflexive study about the need to adopt Permanent Education in Health, as an instrument capable of transforming interpersonal relations in nursing work, as it values and respect collective construction with a view to the qualification of care. Privileging specialization programs only, with a focus on work techniques, on educative processes, as a training strategy for health services, ends up reinforcing the fragmentation of care, teams and the work process. In conclusion, Permanent Education in Health serves not only as teaching and learning practice to update and transform practices, but also influences team relations, transforming joint action processes and, at the same time, implying each subject-worker involved in health practices.Se trata de un estudio reflexivo sobre la necesidad de adoptar la Educación Permanente en Salud, como un instrumento capaz de transformar las relaciones interpersonales en el trabajo de la enfermería, ya que valora y respeta la construcción colectiva para la calificación de la atención. Privilegiar sólo la especialización con direccionalidad en la técnica del trabajo en los procesos educativos, como estrategia de capacitación para los servicios de salud, acaba por reforzar la fragmentación del cuidado, de los equipos y del proceso de trabajo. Se concluye que la Educación Permanente en Salud, además de servir como práctica de enseñanza y aprendizaje para la actualización y transformación de las prácticas, actúa en las relaciones del equipo, transformando los procesos de acción conjunta y, al mismo tiempo, implicando cada sujeto-trabajador involucrado en las prácticas de salud.Se trata de um estudo reflexivo sobre a necessidade de adotar a Educação Permanente em Saúde, como um instrumento capaz de transformar as relações interpessoais no trabalho da enfermaria, já que, valoriza e respeita a construção coletiva, para a qualificação do atendimento. Privilegiar só a especializa

  3. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  4. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  5. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  6. T dose Vaccine Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Programme of Immunization (NPI), measles remains a disturbing cause ... or as a supplement is expected to offer a second opportunity to children who ... available in 1963, the world welcomed it with joy .... one dose of vaccine were not always protected from .... begins a long story Starting now is still early enough.

  7. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  8. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  9. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te

  10. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  11. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te late

  12. Alphavirus-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-06-16

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  13. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  14. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...

  15. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  16. [Influenza vaccination. Effectiveness of current vaccines and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  18. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  19. Prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, em 1996. A condição oclusal foi classificada em três categorias: normal, leve e moderada/severa conforme os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados referem-se a 985 exames em crianças de 5 e 12 anos de idade. A prevalência das oclusopatias foi alta, aumentando de 48,97 ± 4,53% na dentição decídua a 71,31 ± 3,95% na dentição permanente, sendo que a proporção de oclusopatia moderada/severa foi quase duas vezes maior na dentição permanente (OR = 1,87; IC95% = 1,43-2,45; p < 0,001. Quanto ao sexo e ao tipo de estabelecimento de ensino, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas idades estudadas. Diferenças estatísticas associadas aos grupos étnicos denotam a complexidade e diversidade da oclusão na população e sugerem que estudos longitudinais devem ser realizados.

  20. Prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazão Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, em 1996. A condição oclusal foi classificada em três categorias: normal, leve e moderada/severa conforme os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados referem-se a 985 exames em crianças de 5 e 12 anos de idade. A prevalência das oclusopatias foi alta, aumentando de 48,97 ± 4,53% na dentição decídua a 71,31 ± 3,95% na dentição permanente, sendo que a proporção de oclusopatia moderada/severa foi quase duas vezes maior na dentição permanente (OR = 1,87; IC95% = 1,43-2,45; p < 0,001. Quanto ao sexo e ao tipo de estabelecimento de ensino, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas idades estudadas. Diferenças estatísticas associadas aos grupos étnicos denotam a complexidade e diversidade da oclusão na população e sugerem que estudos longitudinais devem ser realizados.

  1. Desarrollo y/o cambio de la noción de objeto permanente y causalidad operatoria: evidencia empírica en el primer año de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Cerchiaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la construcción de la noción de objeto permanente en el primer año de vida, a partir de la polémica sobre dos perspectivas de la naturaleza del cambio: cambio en el desarrollo y cambio cognitivo. Usando un diseño longitudinal-transversal, tareas adaptadas de la subescala de objeto permanente y causalidad operatoria de la escala Uzgiris-Hunt (Uzgiris & Hunt, 1975 fueron presentadas a 110 niños entre edades de 0, 3, 6 y 9 meses, residentes en tres ciudades de Colombia. Los resultados mostraron tres tipos deestrategias: (a No resolutorio; (b Exploratorio y (c Resolutorio, que siguen diferentes trayectorias en los desempeños de los niños. Esto permite afirmar que las conquistas adaptativas del desarrollo cognitivo cohabitan con la variabilidad de estrategias. El uso de estrategias revela ajustes y transformaciones de programas deacción que consolidan la noción de objeto permanente no necesariamente con la edad, pero con procesos de autorregulación. La evidencia empírica aporta a la comprensión de las relaciones entre la emergencia de la novedad en el desarrollo y la variabilidad de desempeños.

  2. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  4. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  5. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  6. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery.

  7. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  8. Estrategias del Teatro del Oprimido para la formación permanente del profesorado (Strategies from the Theatre of the Oppressed for Permanent Training of Teaching Staff (Stratégies du théâtre de l'opprimé pour la formation permanente du corps d'enseignants (Estratégias do teatro do oprimido para a formação permanente do professorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Motos-Teruel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo relata una experiencia y su valoración de forma- ción permanente del profesorado basada en el aprendizaje vi- vencial utilizando como estrategia metodológica el Teatro del Oprimido (TO para estimular y favorecer la reflexión sobre la práctica educativa. Sus objetivos básicos fueron dar a conocer la formulación teórica y la metodología del TO y hacer la trans- ferencia de las estrategias metodológicas vivenciadas a la práctica docente. El estudio se ha planteado desde una óptica cualitativa con el estudio de caso único. Y como resultados más destacables hay que reseñar el interés y la percepción de la utili- dad personal y profesional del TO como instrumento de reflexión sobre la acción y generador de clima positivo. El Teatro del Opri- mido es una formulación teórica y un método estético cuya teo- ría y praxis están inspiradas en la Pedagogía del Oprimido de Paulo Freire, utiliza las técnicas dramáticas como un instrumen- to eficaz para la comprensión y la búsqueda de alternativas a problemas sociales, interpersonales e individuales.AbstractThis paper describes an experience and its as- sessment for application in permanent training of teaching staff, based on experiential learning and using the Theatre of the Oppressed (TO to stimu- late the thought about educational practice. The principal aims were to bring to the attention the theory and methodology of TO and to transfer its experiential methodological strategies to educa- tion practice. The study was designed as a quali- tative analysis of a single case study. The principal results include the interest and perception of use- fulness both at personal and professional levels, of TO as an instrument of thought and a generator of positive environments. The Theatre of the Oppres- sed is a theoretic concept and aesthetic method, the theory and praxis of which are inspired by Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed. It uses dra- ma techniques as

  9. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were the following: (1) to describe the sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination, and (2) to determine if the availability of a philosophical exemption in a parent's state of residence is associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination. METHODS: Data from the 2002 HealthStyles survey were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant associations bet...

  10. Vaccination in children with allergy to non active vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Fabrizio; Bottau, Paolo; Caimmi, Silvia; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Lucia, Liotti; Peroni, Diego; Saretta, Francesca; Vernich, Mario; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances. This review provides information about risks of hypersensitivity reactions to components of vaccines. Furthermore, recommendations to avoid or reduce reactions to vaccine components have been detailed.

  11. [Protein subunit vaccines: example of vaccination against hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degos, F

    1995-06-15

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been used for over 10 years. It is efficient and safe. Protection of risk groups against hepatitis B virus infection is now achieved and vaccination of newborns and adolescents is a main public health problem. Bad responders are well characterized and immunomodulatory interventions (cytokines) must be tested in these patients. Response to hepatitis B vaccine is genetically determined and the possibility of vaccine induced escape mutants should lead to careful epidemiological studies of the spread of hepatitis B virus infection.

  12. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  13. Current situation of the study on Kaiser effect of rock acoustic emission in in-situ stress measurement%声发射Kaiser效应在地应力测量中的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利峰; 邹正盛; 张庆

    2011-01-01

    Based on periodical literature, the statistics of papers on accoustic emission since recent twenty years were made. The principle and mechanism of acoustic emission, space positioning for the samples were presented.With the theory of elastic mechanics, six direction and four direction methods in space for in-sim measurement using the rock acoustic emission were derived. There are two sampling methods according to the different methods.Influence factors of acoustic emission in in-sim stress measurement, determining method of Kaiser Point and treatment technique for signal and noise were systematically expounded. Two methods which are different from the traditional in-situ measurement are introduced. Problems and research trend of the in-situ stress measurement using acoustic emission were analyzed.%对近20年来岩石声发射测量地应力的研究现状进行了分析,介绍了声发射的原理和机理及试样的空间定位方法.利用弹性力学原理推导了声发射方法测定地应力的空间6向和4向的计算过程,对应有两种常用的取样方式.系统地阐述了影响声发射地应力测量的因素、Kaiser点的确定方法以及信噪处理技术,简单介绍了不同于传统利用声发射测量地应力的另外两种方法.对声发射测量地应力中存在的问题和研究趋势进行了分析.

  14. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  15. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...... are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  16. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...

  17. Outlook for a dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, R

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is an increasing medical problem in subtropical and tropical countries. The search for a safe and effective vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four types of dengue virus and that, if a vaccine is live attenuated, it should be proven not to cause the life-threatening form of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever. So far one vaccine candidate, a four-valent chimeric vaccine constructed from a yellow fever vaccine strain, has reached large clinical trials and has been shown to offer protection against dengue types 1, 3 and 54 but not against dengue type 2. It is highly likely that an effective vaccine will be available in the next decade.

  18. Áreas de preservação permanente na legislação ambiental brasileira Areas of permanent preservation in brazilian environmental legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Preservação Permanente (APP, principal área protegida instituída por norma jurídica no Brasil, foi criada pelo Código Florestal (Lei 4.771 em 1965. Por sua importância ecológica e fornecimento de bens e serviços ambientais ao homem, as APPs são reconhecidas por suas funções técnicas como áreas que devem ser preservadas. Muitas interpretações divergem do espírito da criação da Lei, seja pelo preciosismo linguístico ou pelo uso distorcido da hermenêutica O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar os principais pontos conflituosos do entendimento, da interpretação e da instituição das Áreas de Preservação Permanente. Concluiu-se que há, na literatura, pertinentes interpretações contrárias ao espírito da norma jurídica que institui as APPs; as APPs devem ser preservadas e, em caso de degradação, a legislação deixa patente que o passivo ambiental deve ser sanado; a intocabilidade das APPs não é inexorável, pois o CONAMA, em alguns casos, pode definir critérios para sua utilização; as intervenções em APP, permitidas por lei nos casos de utilidade pública, interesse social e atividade eventual e de baixo impacto ambiental necessitam de melhor regulamentação.The Permanent Preservation Area (PPA, the main protected area established by law in Brazil, was established by the Forest Code (Law 4771 in 1965. Due to their ecological importance and provision of environmental goods and services to humans, the PPAs are recognized for their technical functions as areas that should be preserved. Many of these differing interpretations of the spirit of the law occur depending on the language preciosism and the distorted use of hermeneutics. The objective of this research was to analyze the main points of conflict in the interpretation, understanding and establishment of permanent preservation areas. It was concluded that there is in literature interpretations contrary to the spirit of the legal rule establishing

  19. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrutenkov V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  20. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  1. Influenza vaccination for children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Parents of children with asthma are encouraged by many health organizations to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza viruses. Is the influenza vaccine efficient in preventing asthma exacerbation? Are current vaccinations safe to administer to children with asthma?

  2. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  3. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  4. Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... for Vaccination Misconceptions: Stomach Flu Misconceptions about Flu Vaccines Can a flu shot give you the flu? ...

  5. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  6. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her at risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease. Adenovirus vaccine side-effects What are the risks from Adenovirus vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk ...

  7. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  8. What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Before the ... and Texas – mainly among groups with low vaccination rates. If vaccination rates dropped to low levels ...

  9. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used every t​ime a person has sex. For the best protection against HPV, parents should have their children vaccinated. FAQs About All Preteen Vaccines Do adolescent vaccines have serious side effects? ...

  10. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapeutic HIV Vaccine? What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine? HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials HIV Prevention The Basics of ... Send us an email What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine? Last Reviewed: August 16, 2017 Key Points A ...

  11. Statistical physics of vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...

  12. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  13. Travelers' Health: Vaccine Recommendations for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at age 6 weeks. Routine Infant and Childhood Vaccinations Children should receive routine vaccination for hepatitis A virus; ... recommendations about seasonal influenza vaccination. MMR or MMRV vaccine: Children traveling abroad may need to be vaccinated at ...

  14. Contação de história: tecnologia cuidativa na educação permanente para o envelhecimento ativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Pinheiro da Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar pertinência e efetividade da tecnologia cuidativo-educacional "contação de histórias" como estratégia no cultivo do envelhecimento ativo (EA para usuários idosos de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS, da Amazônia. Método: Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial (PCA, realizada em UBS de Belém, estado do Pará, com oito idosas para testagem da tecnologia. Aplicou-se questionário de avaliação do EA e WHOQOL - breve, avaliação de qualidade de vida. Após capacitação com vistas à educação permanente, idosas contaram histórias para uma plateia que se manifestou respondendo à pergunta: "O que você tirou dela para a sua vida?" Resultados: histórias populares contadas provocaram reações das quais emergiram as categorias: Solidariedade; Respeito ao outro; Imaginação, sonhos, esperança e Cultura do imaginário amazônida. Tal prática resultou positiva, com mudança na qualidade de vida das idosas, no domínio psicológico. Conclusão: "contação de histórias" revelou-se uma tecnologia inovadora, recurso pertinente e efetivo à educação em saúde, especialmente para o envelhecimento ativo.

  15. A incorporação dos Laudos arbitrais do Tribunal Permanente de Revisão do MERCOSUL e o direito brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rosado Targino da Nóbrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O MERCOSUL, com o intuito de majorar a sua integração, criou o Tribunal Permanente de Revisão, para poder solucionar controvérsias pacificamente. Assim, este artigo científico tem o objetivo de trazer a discussão acerca do modo de incorporação a que os laudos arbitrais, oriundos do TPR, devem adotar no Direito brasileiro. A metodologia adotada foi a pesquisa qualitativa (Direito Internacional e Direito Constitucional. As fontes de pesquisa foram: bibliografia especializada, a Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil; a análise de tratados e protocolos internacionais e jurisprudências, referentes ao tema – sempre, por meio do método dedutivo. Ficou verificado que esses laudos não devem seguir o caminho dos tratados internacionais, devido à distinção de suas naturezas jurídicas, como também não devem seguir o caminho das sentenças estrangeiras, pois essas vêm do Direito estrangeiro. Portanto, seguindo o princípio pacta sunt servanda, os laudos arbitrais, resultantes de uma corte ou de um tribunal arbitral internacional, como o TPR, devem ter um caminho próprio para incorporação que dê executividade e eficácia a eles, o que deve ser, a posteriori, discutido pelas autoridades competentes, pelas comunidades jurídica e acadêmica.

  16. Morfologia radicular da dentição permanente de Sapajus apella: morfometria, anatomia macroscópica, ultraestrutura e propriedades físicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi contribuir com o estudo anatômico, morfométrico, ultraestrutural e propriedades físicas dos dentes permanentes do primata Sapajus apella. Para tal, foram utilizados 10 animais adultos e machos. Os dentes foram avaliados quanto ao seu comprimento e quanto à anatomia radicular externa e interna considerando número de raízes e canais, forma e direção radicular e forma do canal, assim como análise da densidade e diâmetro tubular do canal radicular, composição e microdureza dentinária. A anatomia radicular desse primata apresentou especificidades, como o número de raízes do segundo pré-molar superior e a presença do terceiro pré-molar. Quanto à densidade e o diâmetro dos túbulos dentinários, observou-se uma diminuição do número e diâmetro de túbulos ao longo do canal radicular, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante ao se comparar o terço apical com as regiões cervical e média, padrão de densidade e tamanho semelhantes a dentes humanos. Semelhanças também foram encontradas com dentes humanos quando comparados os valores de microdureza e proporção de elementos químicos encontrados na dentina radicular.

  17. Espécies potenciais para recuperação de áreas de preservação permanente no Planalto Catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Iaschitzki Ferreira

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de selecionar espécies para programas de recuperação em Áreas de Preservação Permanente no Planalto Catarinense foi realizado o levantamento da composição florística e da estrutura fitossociológica e, a caracterização dos grupos ecológicos e síndromes de dispersão das espécies ocorrentes nestes locais. A área de estudo, fazenda Campo de Dentro, localiza-se no município de Otacílio Costa (SC, onde foi empregado o método de quadrantes, em 20 transecções compostas por 20 pontos amostrais. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de importância, potenciais para recuperação, foram Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L.B.Sm. & Downs; Mimosa scabrella Benth.; Cinnamomum amoenum (Nees & Mart. Kosterm.; Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ocotea pulchella (Nees & Mart. Mez; Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.; Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk.; Ilex theezans Mart. exReissek e Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H.Rob., que representam os diferentes grupos ecológicos, destacando-se a zoocoria como síndrome de dispersão. A alta diversidade de espécies arbóreas evidencia a riqueza desses locais que, muitas vezes, são negligenciados em projetos de recuperação.

  18. Estratificação e caracterização ambiental da área de preservação permanente do Rio Guandu/RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Salamene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Guandu é a principal fonte de abastecimento de água da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, atendendo a, aproximadamente, nove milhões de pessoas. Este trabalho estratificou e caracterizou ambientalmente a Área de Preservação Permanente (APP do Rio Guandu (faixa marginal de 100m, através da análise de aerofotos digitais não convencionais, obtidas a partir de uma câmera digital de pequeno formato, adaptada a um helicóptero (as aerofotos foram agrupadas em mosaicos para facilitar as etapas do geoprocessamento. A região correspondente a APP foi estratificada em quatro ambientes com características ecológicas distintas: Ambiente 1 (leito encaixado, Ambiente 2 (várzea fluvial, Ambiente 3 (planície aluvionar e Ambiente 4 (fluviomarinho. A partir da sobreposição dos mapas de uso da terra, da proximidade da área urbano-industrial e da vegetação nativa, foi gerado um mapa do grau de degradação dos ambientes. Os usos predominantes foram pastagem (38% e agricultura (18%. Os fragmentos florestais totalizaram apenas 11,6% da APP. Segundo a metodologia utilizada, o Ambiente 4 apresentou 51% de sua área, com um grau alto a muito alto de degradação, e o Ambiente 3 apresentou melhor estado de conservação em comparação aos demais. Os resultados sugeriram que a predominância das atividades agropecuárias, a proximidade de grandes centros urbanos e a área muito reduzida dos fragmentos florestais na APP do Rio Guandu podem comprometer a qualidade desse manancial.

  19. Caracterização das atividades educativas de trabalhadores de enfermagem na ótica da educação permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marques da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo discute a reciprocidade entre práticas de saúde e educativas e objetiva caracterizar os trabalhadores deenfermagem e suas atividades educativas em região do município de São Paulo. Estudo exploratório-descritivoquantitativo, realizado em 18 serviços de saúde entre 2005/2006, cuja coleta de dados foi feita por meio de entrevistae aplicação de dois formulários. Identificou-se que 84,8% dos trabalhadores de enfermagem atuam nos hospitais epronto socorro (PS; 22,5% são enfermeiros, 15,2%, técnicos de enfermagem (TE e 62,3%, auxiliares deenfermagem (AE. Das 245 ações educativas mapeadas, 78,4% são realizadas nos hospitais e PS,predominantemente, focadas na recuperação da saúde; 46,9% estão direcionadas aos enfermeiros, 39,6% aosenfermeiros, TE e AE e 13,5%, aos TE e AE; 21,2% ações utilizam estratégias tradicionais de ensino e 15,1%, asparticipativas; 69% têm duração de 01-20h; 55,5% são realizadas fora do serviço. Apesar de predominar atividadeseducativas voltadas aos enfermeiros, orientadas para recuperação da saúde, com utilização de estratégias de ensinotradicionais, a presença de ações ancoradas no cotidiano de trabalho, remete à concepção de educação permanente eassinala possibilidades de mudança da abordagem das práticas educativas de trabalhadores na perspectiva daintegralidade da saúde e do cuidado integral de enfermagem.

  20. Estimación de la carga de enfermedad por incapacidad laboral permanente en España durante el período 2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrée López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La incapacidad laboral permanente (IP supone una importante carga social y económica. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la carga de enfermedad debida a la IP en España. Métodos: A partir de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales (MCVL se imputó como diagnóstico de la IP (2009-2012 el de la incapacidad temporal (IT iniciada en 2009 en los individuos que cumplieron dos criterios: larga duración de la IT y corta duración del período entre la IT y la IP. Para los casos con diagnóstico imputado se calculó la carga de enfermedad por IP a partir de los años potenciales de vida laboral perdidos (APVLP, definidos como la diferencia entre la edad de jubilación (65 años y la edad de inicio de la IP. Resultados: Según la MCVL, 163.135 (13,6% personas sufrieron de IT en 2009, de las cuáles a 4.738 (0,39% se le reconoció una IP entre 2009-2012. Se pudo establecer el diagnóstico de IP en 3.073 (64,9% casos. Las causas más frecuentes de IP fueron los trastornos musculo-esqueléticos (27,4% y mentales (11,6% que, asimismo, produjeron mayor cantidad de APVLP por IP: 11.086 (26,5% y 7.052 (16,9%, respectivamente. Los trastornos mentales destacaron por producir IP a edades más jóvenes (mediana=49 años. Conclusiones: Los trastornos mentales y los musculo-esqueléticos representaron la mayor carga de enfermedad en individuos en situación de IP.