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Sample records for kairomone induced life

  1. Elaborate regulations of the predator-induced polyphenism in the water flea Daphnia pulex: kairomone-sensitive periods and life-history tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Maki; Naraki, Yuka; Tochinai, Shin; Miura, Toru

    2009-12-01

    Adaptive polyphenism produces alternative phenotypes depending on environmental stimuli. The water flea Daphnia pulex shows predator-induced polyphenism, facultatively forming neckteeth in response to kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae. This study was designed to reveal the regulatory systems producing the defensive morph during embryonic and postembryonic development. As noted previously, the crest epithelium at the site of neckteeth is shown to thicken earlier the neckteeth formation, and the neckteeth number increased until the third instar, and later disappeared. Exposure to kairomone at various time points and intervals during development showed that the signal was required even at early postembryonic stages to maintain neckteeth. Moreover, two different induction methods, i.e. embryonic and maternal exposures, enabled us to discriminate maternal and zygotic effects in response to kairomone. Direct embryonic exposure is shown to be sufficient to form neckteeth without maternal effect although their growth was diminished; namely, there is a trade-off for neckteeth production. However, maternal exposures resulted in larger progenies in smaller numbers, suggesting that the mother daphnids change their reproductive strategy depending on kairomone signals. Taken together, the developmental responses to the presence of predators are regulated elaborately at various levels.

  2. Variation in copper effects on kairomone-mediated responses in Daphnia pulicaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, C M; Arnott, S E; Pyle, G G

    2016-04-01

    Chemical signals play an integral role in many predator-prey relationships but their effectiveness can be altered by environmental conditions. Prey species can detect predator kairomones, which induce anti-predator defenses. An example of this predator-prey relationship exists between Daphnia spp. and Chaoborus spp.; however, when living in water contaminated with low concentrations of copper (Cu) Daphnia can fail to respond to Chaoborus kairomone and, in turn, become more susceptible to predation. This has implications for Daphnia living in regions with Cu contamination, such as areas where mining activity has resulted in increased levels of metals in the surrounding lakes. We examined kairomone-mediated responses of multiple Daphnia pulicaria clones obtained from 8 lakes in Ontario, Canada, in the absence and presence of environmentally-relevant Cu concentrations. Life history traits and morphological anti-predator defenses were assessed using neonates collected from mothers that were exposed to kairomone and Cu treatments. We found that kairomone-mediated responses and Cu-tolerance varied among D. pulicaria clones. Clones exposed to kairomone, in the absence of Cu additions, had diverse responses, including larger neonates, delayed reproduction, or altered brood size relative to no-kairomone controls. These kairomone-induced responses act as antipredator defense strategies against Chaoborus by preventing predation or stabilizing population growth. When exposed to Cu, two clones were able to respond to kairomone, while four clones no longer induced a response to kairomone. This variation in non-lethal effects of Cu on aquatic organisms suggests that toxicity tests should incorporate multiple genotypes and include predator-prey interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avoidance and contextual learning induced by a kairomone, a pheromone and a common odorant in female CD1 mice

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    Lluís eFortes-Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemosignals mediate both intra- and inter-specific communication in most mammals. Pheromones elicit stereotyped reactions in conspecifics, whereas kairomones provoke a reaction in an allospecific animal. For instance, predator kairomones elicit anticipated defensive responses in preys. The aim of this work was to test the behavioral responses of female mice to two chemosignals: 2-heptanone (2-HP, a putative alarm pheromone, and 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT, a fox-derived putative kairomone, widely used to investigate fear and anxiety in rodents. The banana-like odorant isoamyl acetate (IA, unlikely to act as a chemosignal, served as a control odorant. We first presented increasing amounts of these odorants in consecutive days, in a test box in which mice could explore or avoid them. Female mice avoided the highest amounts of all three compounds, with TMT and IA eliciting avoidance at lower amounts (3.8 pmol and 0.35 μmol, respectively than 2-HP (35 μmol. All three compounds induced minimal effects in global locomotion and immobility in this set up. Further, mice detected 3.5 pmol of TMT and IA in a habituation-dishabituation test, so avoidance of IA started well beyond the detection threshold. Finally, both TMT and IA, but not 2-HP, induced conditioned place avoidance and increased immobility in the neutral compartment during a contextual memory test. These data suggest that intense odors can induce contextual learning irrespective of their putative biological significance. Our results support that synthetic predator-related compounds (like TMT or other intense odorants are useful to investigate the neurobiological basis of emotional behaviors in rodents. Since intense odorants unlikely to act as chemosignals can elicit similar behavioral reactions than chemosignals, we stress the importance of using behavioral measures in combination with other physiological (e.g. hormonal levels or neural measures (e.g. immediate early gene expression to

  4. Effects of copper, zinc and dragonfly kairomone on growth rate and induced morphology of Bufo arabicus tadpoles.

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    Barry, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    It is well documented that many amphibian species can detect chemical signals from predatory invertebrates and subsequently develop alternate phenotypes that are protective against predation. The effects of metallic pollutants on the development of predator-induced morphology have not previously been reported. Tadpoles of the Arabian toad Bufo arabicus were exposed for 20 days to copper (0, 10 or 100 μg/L), zinc (0, 10 or 100 μg/L) and kairomones of larval dragonflies (Crocothemis erythrea 1 dragonfly/12 L) in a fully crossed design. The effects of these treatments of growth and body shape were measured. Measured copper concentrations after 24 h were 4.25 μg/L±1.30 (10 μg/L nominal) and 34.9 μg/L±2.15 (100 μg/L nominal). Measured zinc concentrations were 3.04 μg/L±0.1 (10 μg/L nominal) and 26.3 μg/L±12.3 (100 μg/L nominal). Tadpoles exposed to 34.9 μg/L copper were significantly lighter and had a shorter body length than other groups. There was no direct effect of zinc on growth or tadpole shape. Tadpoles exposed to dragonfly kairomones were heavier, wider and had deeper bodies when viewed laterally and had longer tails but overall length was not affected. At 4.25 μg/L copper differences between the control and predator-exposed phenotypes increased but at 34.9 μg/L the phenotypes converged, indicating that copper may inhibit the induced response.

  5. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

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    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  7. Gene up-regulation in response to predator kairomones in the water flea, Daphnia pulex

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    Okada Yasukazu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous cases of predator-induced polyphenisms, in which alternate phenotypes are produced in response to extrinsic stimuli, have been reported in aquatic taxa to date. The genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Cladocera provides a model experimental system for the study of the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary processes associated with predator-induced polyphenisms. In D. pulex, juveniles form neckteeth in response to predatory kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae (Insecta, Diptera. Results Previous studies suggest that the timing of the sensitivity to kairomones in D. pulex can generally be divided into the embryonic and postembryonic developmental periods. We therefore examined which of the genes in the embryonic and first-instar juvenile stages exhibit different expression levels in the presence or absence of predator kairomones. Employing a candidate gene approach and identifying differentially-expressed genes revealed that the morphogenetic factors, Hox3, extradenticle and escargot, were up-regulated by kairomones in the postembryonic stage and may potentially be responsible for defense morph formation. In addition, the juvenile hormone pathway genes, JHAMT and Met, and the insulin signaling pathway genes, InR and IRS-1, were up-regulated in the first-instar stage. It is well known that these hormonal pathways are involved in physiological regulation following morphogenesis in many insect species. During the embryonic stage when morphotypes were determined, one of the novel genes identified by differential display was up-regulated, suggesting that this gene may be related to morphotype determination. Biological functions of the up-regulated genes are discussed in the context of defense morph formation. Conclusions It is suggested that, following the reception of kairomone signals, the identified genes are involved in a series of defensive phenotypic alterations and the production of a defensive phenotype.

  8. Gene up-regulation in response to predator kairomones in the water flea, Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Imai, Maki; Sugimoto, Naoki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishigaki, Hidehiko; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Cornette, Richard; Miura, Toru

    2010-04-30

    Numerous cases of predator-induced polyphenisms, in which alternate phenotypes are produced in response to extrinsic stimuli, have been reported in aquatic taxa to date. The genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Cladocera) provides a model experimental system for the study of the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary processes associated with predator-induced polyphenisms. In D. pulex, juveniles form neckteeth in response to predatory kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae (Insecta, Diptera). Previous studies suggest that the timing of the sensitivity to kairomones in D. pulex can generally be divided into the embryonic and postembryonic developmental periods. We therefore examined which of the genes in the embryonic and first-instar juvenile stages exhibit different expression levels in the presence or absence of predator kairomones. Employing a candidate gene approach and identifying differentially-expressed genes revealed that the morphogenetic factors, Hox3, extradenticle and escargot, were up-regulated by kairomones in the postembryonic stage and may potentially be responsible for defense morph formation. In addition, the juvenile hormone pathway genes, JHAMT and Met, and the insulin signaling pathway genes, InR and IRS-1, were up-regulated in the first-instar stage. It is well known that these hormonal pathways are involved in physiological regulation following morphogenesis in many insect species. During the embryonic stage when morphotypes were determined, one of the novel genes identified by differential display was up-regulated, suggesting that this gene may be related to morphotype determination. Biological functions of the up-regulated genes are discussed in the context of defense morph formation. It is suggested that, following the reception of kairomone signals, the identified genes are involved in a series of defensive phenotypic alterations and the production of a defensive phenotype.

  9. Lack of spatial segregation in the representation of pheromones and kairomones in the mouse medial amygdala.

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    Vinicius Miessler de Andrade Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is organized to detect, internally represent and process sensory information to generate appropriate behaviors. Despite the crucial importance of odors that elicit instinctive behaviors, such as pheromones and kairomones, their neural representation remains little characterized in the mammalian brain. Here we used expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity to find that a wide range of pheromones and kairomones produces activation in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, a brain area anatomically connected with the olfactory sensory organs. We see that activity in this nucleus depends on vomeronasal organ input, and that distinct vomeronasal stimuli activate a dispersed ensemble of cells, without any apparent spatial segregation. This activity pattern does not reflect the chemical category of the stimuli, their valence or the induced behaviors. These findings will help build a complete understanding of how odor information is processed in the brain to generate instinctive behaviors.

  10. Target gene approaches: Gene expression in Daphnia magna exposed to predator-borne kairomones or to microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa

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    Courts Cornelius

    2009-11-01

    -phosphate dehydrogenase and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme to be up-regulated in the presence of microcystins in the food of D. magna. These findings demonstrate that certain enzymes of glycolysis and protein catabolism are significantly upgregulated when daphnids ingest microcystins. Each differentially regulated gene is a member of an expanded gene family in the D. pulex genome. The cyclophilin, GapDH and UBC genes show moderately large sequence divergence from their closest paralogs. Yet actin and alpha-tubulin genes targeteted by our study have nearly identical paralogs at the amino acid level. Conclusion Gene expression analysis using a normalisation factor based on three reference genes showed that transcription levels of actin and alpha-tubulin were not substantially changed by predator-borne chemical cues from fishes or invertebrates, although changes in expression on the protein level were shown elsewhere. These changes in protein level could be caused by others than the investigated paralogs, showing the importance of the construction of phylogenetic trees for candidate gene approaches. However, fish kairomones caused an up-regulation, and Chaoborus kairomone caused a down-regulation of cyclophylin, which proved to be a potential target gene for further analysis of kairomone effects on the life history of daphnids. Changes in food quality required a different set of reference genes compared to the kairomone experiment. The presence of dietary microcystins led to an up-regulation of two genes involved in the basic metabolism of D. magna, i.e. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, which suggests that microcystins in cyanobacteria have more general effects on the metabolism of D. magna than previously thought. Phylogenetic trees resolving relationships among paralogs that share the same gene name are shown to be important for determining the identity of the candidate genes under investigation.

  11. Lack of spatial segregation in the representation of pheromones and kairomones in the mouse medial amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Miessler de Andrade Carvalho; Thiago Seike Nakahara; Leonardo Minete Cardozo; Mateus Augusto de Andrade Souza; Antonio Pedro de Castello Branco da Rocha Camargo; Guilherme Ziegler Trintinalia; Eliana eFerraz; Fabio ePapes

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is organized to detect, internally represent and process sensory information to generate appropriate behaviors. Despite the crucial importance of odors that elicit instinctive behaviors, such as pheromones and kairomones, their neural representation remains little characterized in the mammalian brain. Here we used expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity to find that a wide range of pheromones and kairomones produces activation i...

  12. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

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    Rochat Didier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P and host plant odors (kairomone: K in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1 Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2 Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3 Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4 P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects.

  13. Kairomonal communication in mice is concentration-dependent with a proportional discrimination threshold [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2h5

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    Anand Vasudevan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors of predators are often co-opted by prey species to serve as warning signals. Perceptual properties of such kairomonal communication are under studied despite their common use in many mammals. We demonstrate that the kairomonal response in mice to rat odors varies monotonically with the volume of rat odor. Moreover, the ability of mice to differentiate between two strengths of rat odors is dependent on the ratio of the two concentrations. These results show that mice can compare kairomonal strength over a large range of values, and that kairomonal communication follows Weber’s law.

  14. Can embryonic skipper frogs (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) learn to recognise kairomones in the absence of a nervous system?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWAPNIL C SUPEKAR; NARAHARI P GRAMAPUROHIT

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we used larval Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis to determine the predator recognition mechanism. We conducted aseries of experiments to determine if larval E. cyanophlyctis have the innate ability to recognise predatory odour (kairomones)as a threat or if they learn to do so during ontogeny. In the case of learning, we wanted to determine thedevelopmental window during which learning is accomplished. Further, we tested the antipredator response of predatornaı ¨ve as well as predator-experienced tadpoles to chemical cues of different origins in order to assess if they exhibitdifferential responses. Our results clearly indicate that predator-naı¨ve tadpoles of E. cyanophlyctis do not reduce theiractivity against predatory cues of dragonfly nymphs, suggesting that they lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones.However, they could learn to do so when trained to perceive kairomones simultaneously along with alarm cues. Surprisingly,larval E. cyanophlyctis could learn to recognise kairomones through association during embryonic stages evenbefore the development of a nervous system. Although larval E. cyanophlyctis lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones,they were able to recognise conspecific alarm cues on the first encounter, indicating that they have the innateability to recognise alarm cues as a potential threat.

  15. Insecticide resistance may enhance the response to a host-plant volatile kairomone for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

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    Sauphanor, Benoît; Franck, Pierre; Lasnier, Thérèse; Toubon, Jean-François; Beslay, Dominique; Boivin, Thomas; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Renou, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The behavioral and electroantennographic responses of Cydia pomonella (L.) to the ripe pear volatile ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate (Et- E, Z-DD), were compared in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant populations originating from southern France. A dose-response relationship to this kairomonal attractant was established for antennal activity and did not reveal differences between susceptible and resistant strains. Conversely, males of the laboratory strains expressing metabolic [cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases (mfo)] or physiological (kdr-type mutation of the sodium-channel gene) resistance mechanisms exhibited a significantly higher response to Et- E, Z-DD than those of the susceptible strain in a wind tunnel experiment. No response of the females to this kairomone could be obtained in our wind-tunnel conditions. In apple orchards, mfo-resistant male moths were captured at significantly higher rates in kairomone-baited traps than in traps baited with the sex pheromone of C. pomonella. Such a differential phenomenon was not verified for the kdr-resistant insects, which exhibited a similar response to both the sex pheromone and the kairomonal attractant in apple orchards. Considering the widespread distribution of metabolic resistance in European populations of C. pomonella and the enhanced behavioral response to Et- E, Z-DD in resistant moths, the development of control measures based on this kairomonal compound would be of great interest for the management of insecticide resistance in this species.

  16. Differential attraction of parasitoids in relation to specificity of kairomones from herbivores and their by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumera Afsheen; Xia Wang; Ran Li; Chuan-Shu Zhu; Yong-Gen Lou

    2008-01-01

    Infochemicals are used by foraging parasitoids in the host selection process from habitat preference until host recognition. Kairomones from the herbivore host plays a vital role in the attraction of parasitoids, particularly in the micro-habitat. Parasitoids are specifically attracted to their respective herbivore species even when different herbivores are present on the same plant. Chemicals emitted from different stages of host (eggs, larvae,pupae, adult), host by-products (e.g., frass, exuviae, mandibular gland secretions, defense secretions etc.), or intra-specific infocbemicals (pheromones) can be main signals for the parasitoids. Parasitoids can differentiate between host and non-host, between different hosts and host stages by perceiving specific volatile and contact kairomones from the host itself,host along with its by-product, by-products alone or intra-specific infochemicals; of which frass (by-product) and intra-specific infochemicals are the most reported ones. Adult and larval parasitoids have been reported to be attracted to kairomones of their target stage or byproduct of their host. Pupal parasitoids have been found to utilize kairomones from the preceding host stage while egg parasitoids are known to exploit a variety of host infochemicals,for example, either from eggs themselves or other non-target host stages, especially adults and adult-related by-products. The kairomonal chemicals identified so far include various groups, but mainly hydrocarbons. A high degree of host specificity and host acceptance is important for the parasitoids as any mistake may result in the loss of fitness.

  17. Are synthetic pheromone captures predictive of parasitoid densities as a kairomonal attracted tool?

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    Mohamed Hassan Bayoumy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of White Peach scale (WPS, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti and San José scale (SJS, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae adult males and their attracted parasitoids were monitored using pheromone and sticky tape traps in an orchard of Budapest, Hungary, during 2010. In this study, we tried answer on the question raised whether synthetic commercial pheromones of WSP or SJS could work as a kairomonal stimulant and positively attract higher numbers of the specialized parasitoids. Although pheromone traps attracted a wide range of parasitoid species, most of them were accidentally. However, the parasitoid Thomsonisca amathus (Walker (Hymenoptera: E ncyrtidae and the parasitoid Encarsia perniciosi (Tower (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae significantly respond to the sex pheromones of WPS and SJS, respectively, suggesting that they may play an important role in host location.

  18. Volatile foraging kairomones in the littoral zone: attraction of an herbivorous freshwater gastropod to algal odors.

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    Fink, Patrick; von Elert, Eric; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2006-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by algae and cyanobacteria are primarily responsible for odors in fresh waters. Among other functions, VOCs may serve as important infochemicals in biofilms of benthic primary producers. VOCs liberated by benthic, mat-forming cyanobacteria can be used as habitat-finding cues by insects, nematodes, and possibly other organisms. We developed a new gastropod behavioral assay that allows detection of food preference without offering food, thus allowing the distinction between taste, which requires direct contact with the food source, and the detection of odorous infochemicals, which work over distance. We demonstrated that VOCs released from disintegrated cells of a benthic, mat-forming, green alga (Ulothrix fimbriata) are food-finding cues ("foraging kairomones") that attract the herbivorous freshwater snail Radix ovata. A mixture of three C5 lipoxygenase compounds and 2(E),4(E)-heptadienal that mimic the major VOCs released by U. fimbriata attracted the snails, whereas neither the mixture of C5 compounds nor 2(E),4(E)-heptadienal were effective when given alone. This study suggests that VOCs can play a steering role as infochemicals in freshwater benthic habitats, as has been established for many organismic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the predator

  20. Inhibition of predator attraction to kairomones by non-host plant volatiles for herbivores: a bypass-trophic signal.

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    Qing-He Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect predators and parasitoids exploit attractive chemical signals from lower trophic levels as kairomones to locate their herbivore prey and hosts. We hypothesized that specific chemical cues from prey non-hosts and non-habitats, which are not part of the trophic chain, are also recognized by predators and would inhibit attraction to the host/prey kairomone signals. To test our hypothesis, we studied the olfactory physiology and behavior of a predaceous beetle, Thanasimus formicarius (L. (Coleoptera: Cleridae, in relation to specific angiosperm plant volatiles, which are non-host volatiles (NHV for its conifer-feeding bark beetle prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Olfactory detection in the clerid was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD for a subset of NHV components. Among NHV, we identified two strongly antennally active molecules, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol. We tested the potential inhibition of the combination of these two NHV on the walking and flight responses of the clerid to known kairomonal attractants such as synthetic mixtures of bark beetle (Ips spp. aggregation pheromone components (cis-verbenol, ipsdienol, and E-myrcenol combined with conifer (Picea and Pinus spp. monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, terpinolene, and Delta(3-carene. There was a strong inhibitory effect, both in the laboratory (effect size d = -3.2, walking bioassay and in the field (d = -1.0, flight trapping. This is the first report of combining antennal detection (GC-EAD and behavioral responses to identify semiochemical molecules that bypass the trophic system, signaling habitat information rather than food related information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results, along with recent reports on hymenopteran parasitoids and coleopteran predators, suggest that some NHV chemicals for herbivores are part of specific behavioral signals for the higher trophic level and not part of a background noise. Such bypass

  1. An attempt to increase efficacy of moth mating disruption by co-releasing pheromones with kairomones and to understand possible underlying mechanisms of this technique.

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    Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-02-01

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is used worldwide for management of the internal fruit feeding codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). There has been recent interest in the potential of improving mating disruption of C. pomonella, and potentially other insect species in general, by broadcasting combinations of pheromone and attractive host-plant kairomones. Given that such kairomones are attractive by themselves (often to both sexes), and also enhance male moth response to their pheromone, it is possible that the effects of competitive attraction and potentially other mechanisms of disruption might be increased. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that mating disruption of C. pomonella could be enhanced by co-deploying pheromone with either of two kairomones: (2E, 4Z)-2, 4-decadienoate (pear ester), or (E)-β-farnesene, as compared with various pheromone blend components alone. When deployed individually, each kairomone caused a low level of synthetic lure trap disruption and (E)-β-farnesene also caused disruption of mating as measured by tethering virgin females. However, combined release of either pear ester or (E)-β-farnesene with pheromone within the same dispenser or as a co-deployed dispenser treatment, respectively, did not increase the level of mating disruption as compared with deploying pheromone alone. Disruption efficacy did not decline when reducing the amount of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) in dispensers by fourfold, when combined with pear ester. C. pomonella readily were observed briefly approaching all dispenser types (with and without pheromone) in the field. Exposure of male C. pomonella to pear ester alone in a manner mimicking observed field exposures did not reduce the number of males able to contact a female-mimic pheromone lure in flight tunnel assays. Also, reduction of male moth behavioral response to pheromone was similar after exposure to codlemone alone, and codlemone and pear ester after exposures that mimicked those observed in

  2. Diel vertical migration patterns in two populations of Chaoborus flavicans larvae (Diptera: Chaoboridae in response to fish kairomones

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    Takayuki HANAZATO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Diel vertical migration (DVM of larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans (Diptera: Chaoboridae inhabiting a fishless pond and a fish-abundant lake (Lake Nakanuma was studied in the field and in the laboratory. In the fishless pond, dissolved oxygen concentration and water temperature were homogeneously distributed in the vertical profiles and Chaoborus larvae did not show DVM. In contrast, there was thermal stratification and an anoxic layer in Lake Nakanuma, and 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar Chaoborus larvae exhibited DVM. Fourth instar Chaoborus larvae collected from the two populations were introduced into thermally stratified acrylic tubes containing 'fish water' (water conditioned by fish and containing only the fish 'smell' or control water free of fish smell after a two-day acclimatization, and the larval positions in the tubes were analysed during the day and at night. The two populations of Chaoborus larvae showed different DVM patterns in the control water: the larvae from Lake Nakanuma exhibited DVM, whereas those from the fishless pond did not. Chaoborus larvae from Lake Nakanuma responded to the fish kairomones, exhibiting marked DVM in the fish water, whereas little response to the fish smell was recognized in the larvae from the fishless pond. The presence of a difference in response between the two populations implies that they had genetically different patterns of expression of DVM and thus different behavioural responses to the fish smell. The fish smell tended to cause the Chaoborus larvae in the tubes to increase their depth, during both the day and night. The effects of the fish smell became ambiguous with time, suggesting microbial degradation of the fish kairomones.

  3. Diversity and expression of P450 genes from Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in response to different kairomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Fernanda; Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Cesar-Ayala, Ana K; Ruiz, Enrico A; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major cause of woody plants death in the world. They colonize the stem and other parts of trees recognizing host-produced specific compounds (kairomones) and insect pheromones. Bark beetle's antennae and alimentary canal participate in the host selection identifying chemical compounds produced by trees and insects, and also in the metabolism and detoxification of these compounds. The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is an unaggressive species that colonize > 40 pine species (Pinaceae) in North and Central America. Several studies suggest that bark beetle cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in monoterpene oxidation. In this study we identified by means of PCR, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, eleven full-length genes: five CYP4, four CYP6, and two CYP9 in the antennae and gut region of RTB, after stimulation with vapors of monoterpenes: (±)-α-pinene, (R)-(+)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-β-pinene, (S)-(-)-α-pinene and (+)-3-carene; pine trees volatiles used by RTB as kairomones. The recovered cDNA of these genes vary from 1.5 kb to 1.8 kb and the open frame encodes from 496 to 562 amino acid proteins. The bioinformatic analysis suggests that the majority of P450 proteins encoded by these genes are membrane anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum. RT-qPCR assays showed differential expression of all CYP genes between male and female. The gene expression was dependent of monoterpenes and exposure time, with some of them sex, antennae and gut region specific. Significant differences among monoterpenes, gut region, antennae and exposure time were found. Our results suggest that some of these genes may be involved in the detoxification process of these compounds during tree colonization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantiomeric specificity in a pheromone-kairomone system of two threatened saproxylic beetles, Osmoderma eremita and Elater ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Glenn P; Larsson, Mattias C

    2008-02-01

    The scarab beetle Osmoderma eremita and its larval predator, the click beetle Elater ferrugineus, are threatened saproxylic beetles regarded as indicators of the species-richness of insect fauna of hollow deciduous trees. Male O. eremita produce the pheromone (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone to attract conspecific females, and this compound is also utilized by E. ferrugineus as a kairomone, presumably for detection of tree hollows containing prey. We have investigated enantiomeric specificity to gamma-decalactone in this pheromone-kairomone system by electrophysiological and field trapping experiments. In single-sensillum recordings from male and female O. eremita, which used the (R)-enantiomer and the racemic mixture of gamma-decalactone as odor stimuli, numerous olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) responding to both stimuli were found. No neurons responded preferentially to the racemic mixture, showing that these beetles seem to lack receptors specific for the (S)-enantiomer. The enantiomeric specificity of ORNs was confirmed by gas chromatography-linked single-sensillum recordings where the two enantiomers in a racemic mixture were separated on a chiral column. Furthermore, in field experiments that used the (R)-enantiomer and the racemic mixture as lures, the attraction of O. eremita females corresponded to the amount of (R)-enantiomer released from lures with the (S)-enantiomer displaying no antagonistic effects. Trap catch data also suggested that the (S)-enantiomer is not a behavioral antagonist for E. ferrugineus. The odor-based system can be highly efficient in attracting the larval predator where trap catch in 1 yr almost equaled the total number of specimens collected in Sweden until 1993. Our study shows that racemic gamma-decalactone could be used for cost-effective monitoring of both beetles.

  5. Phenytoin induced life threatening macroglossia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mondal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated acquired macroglossia of tongue rarely reported. It occurs due to causes like hereditary angioedema, localized angioedema, etc., Here we describe an 8-year-old boy developing life threatening localized angioedema of tongue due to phenytoin without any association with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome or pseudolymphoma encountered in rural medical college. Anticonvulsants, that is, phenytoin induced this isolated peculiar complication, which was not described before.

  6. Fear is the mother of invention: anuran embryos exposed to predator cues alter life-history traits, post-hatching behaviour and neuronal activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Andrea; Brandalise, Federico; Rubolini, Diego; Rossi, Paola; Galeotti, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Neurophysiological modifications associated to phenotypic plasticity in response to predators are largely unexplored, and there is a gap of knowledge on how the information encoded in predator cues is processed by prey sensory systems. To explore these issues, we exposed Rana dalmatina embryos to dragonfly chemical cues (kairomones) up to hatching. At different times after hatching (up to 40 days), we recorded morphology and anti-predator behaviour of tadpoles from control and kairomone-treated embryo groups as well as their neural olfactory responses, by recording the activity of their mitral neurons before and after exposure to a kairomone solution. Treated embryos hatched later and hatchlings were smaller than control siblings. In addition, the tadpoles from the treated group showed a stronger anti-predator response than controls at 10 days (but not at 30 days) post-hatching, though the intensity of the contextual response to the kairomone stimulus did not differ between the two groups. Baseline neuronal activity at 30 days post-hatching, as assessed by the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic events and by the firing rate of mitral cells, was higher among tadpoles from the treated versus the control embryo groups. At the same time, neuronal activity showed a stronger increase among tadpoles from the treated versus the control group after a local kairomone perfusion. Hence, a different contextual plasticity between treatments at the neuronal level was not mirrored by the anti-predator behavioural response. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate ontogenetic plasticity in tadpole neuronal activity after embryonic exposure to predator cues, corroborating the evidence that early-life experience contributes to shaping the phenotype at later life stages.

  7. The scent of wolves: pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi eOsada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is an apex predator located at the top of the food chain in the Northern Hemisphere. It preys on rodents, rabbits, ungulates, and many other kinds of mammal. However, the behavioral evidence for, and the chemical basis of, the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on prey are unclear. Recently, the pyrazine analogs 2, 6-dimethylpyrazine, 2, 3, 5-trimethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine were identified as kairomones in the urine of wolves. When mice were confronted with a mixture of purified pyrazine analogs, vigilance behaviors, including freezing and excitation of neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb, were markedly increased. Additionally, the odor of the pyrazine cocktail effectively suppressed the approach of deer to a feeding area, and for those close to the feeding area elicited fear-related behaviors such as the tail-flag, flight, and jump actions. In this review, we discuss the transfer of chemical information from wolf to prey through the novel kairomones identified in wolf urine and also compare the characteristics of wolf kairomones with other predator-produced kairomones that affect rodents.

  8. Effect of juvenoids on predator-induced polyphenism in the water flea, Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Gotoh, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Naoki; Miura, Toru

    2013-10-01

    In Daphnia pulex, juveniles form "neckteeth" a defensive structure on their heads, in response to predatory kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae. This phenomenon provides a model experimental system for the study of developmental mechanisms and evolutionary processes in predator-induced polyphenisms. Although it is thought that kairomone signals are sensed and converted into physiological signals resulting in morphological changes, little is known about the endocrine and physiological mechanisms of this process. Juvenile hormones and related chemicals, that is, juvenoids, are key hormones responsible for various physiological events in insects, including polyphenisms. In some crustaceans, methyl farnesoate (MF) is known to act as a juvenoid. In order to investigate the functions of juvenoids in defense morph formation, we treated daphnids with MF as well as JHIII (Juvenile Hormone III, an insect juvenoid) and fenoxycarb (a synthetic juvenile hormone analog) during their developmental stages. Strikingly, in the first-instar juveniles, all examined juvenoids stimulated the formation of neckteeth only in the presence of kairomones, not by themselves. This juvenoid effect on the neckteeth formation might be due to disturbance of the JH pathway. Juvenoid treatments reduced tail-spine length, whereas predatory kairomones are known to elongate tail spine. These results suggest that other physiological factors are responsible for the tail-spine elongation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  11. Using a kairomone-based attracting system to enhance biological control of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae in Sicilian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The “potato trap” technique was applied for the fi rst time in Italian (Sicily vineyards in an attempt to assess: a the impact of the kairomonal activity of the vine mealybug sex pheromone (S-(+-lavandulyl senecioate (LS on the parasitism of mealybugs by the encyrtid Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci, b the influence of two commonly used insecticides on the parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci towards mealybugs, and c the efficiency of the release of A. sp. near pseudococci in enhancing parasitism rates of mealybugs. The number of captured A. sp. near pseudococci females in LS baited traps was significantly higher than that in unbaited traps. The minimal number of days for the first parasitoid emergence in LS baited traps was almost 3 days earlier, compared to unbaited control, suggesting a faster host detection by the encyrtid when LS is applied. These findings resulted in a significant increase in parasitism of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci in LS baited traps relative to unbaited traps suggesting that the LS is used by the encyrtid as kairomone to ensure greater potential for host searching activity. Insecticide treatments significantly affected parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci on mealybugs when compared to an untreated control with parasitoid release. The buprofezin, chlorpyriphos-methyl and untreated control with no parasitoid release treatments had statistically similar numbers of emerged parasitoids from exposed mealybugs. The obtained results provide evidence that, in the absence of conventional insecticides applications, the use of the LS could be a promising tool to improve and strengthen biological control of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci within Sicilian vineyard conditions.

  12. Motion induced passenger dislocations in life raft and life boat configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Andersen ,O.; Reinke, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project SafeCrafts, dealing with the safe abandoning of ships, the dislocation of passengers aboard life boats and rafts has been considered to be a risk regarding passenger survival at sea. To get an idea about the risks and the affecting factors involved, we studied the effects

  13. Antipsychotic-induced life-threatening 'esophageal dyskinesia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, J; Shingu, T; Hayashi, T; Kagaya, A; Yamawaki, S; Horikawa, Y; Kitadai, Y; Inoue, M; Nishikawa, T

    1999-03-01

    We report two patients with lingual dyskinesia and complaints of food regurgitation following long-term antipsychotic therapy. Esophageal contrast radiography revealed dyskinetic movements extending from the pharynx to the upper portion of the esophagus. The elevation of intraesophageal pressure was confirmed by esophageal manometry. The dyskinetic movements almost disappeared along with improvement of lingual dyskinesia following the administration of sulpiride in one patient. Another patient suddenly died due to asphyxiation of foods before the beginning of treatment. We termed this life-threatening movement, 'esophageal dyskinesia'. It should be emphasized that 'esophageal dyskinesia' associated with lingual dyskinesia is a potentially fatal adverse reaction to antipsychotic therapy.

  14. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  15. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVID A. BOOTHMAN, Ph.D.

    2006-07-11

    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein #8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-ß II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-∫B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective

  16. Quality of Life of Elderly Patients With Antipsychotic-Induced Parkinsonism : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Henrike J.; Knol, Wilma; Egberts, Toine C. G.; Schobben, Alfred F. A. M.; Jansen, Paul A. F.; van Marum, Rob J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism (AIP) is one of the most common adverse effects of haloperidol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between AIP and quality of life of elderly patients treated with haloperidol. Design: Cross-sectional study design. Setting: Ele

  17. Swimming-induced immersion pulmonary edema while snorkeling can be rapidly life-threatening: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, G; Henckes, A; Deslandes, S; Noël-Savina, E; Bedossa, M; Gladu, G; Ozier, Y

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that immersion pulmonary edema can be life-threatening for divers using a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba). Swimming-induced pulmonary edema in otherwise healthy individuals is not an object of dispute but its real severity is not well known and is probably underestimated. We report two cases of life-threatening acute respiratory distress while swimming and snorkeling, one of which is well documented for swimming-induced pulmonary edema. The interest of these case reports lies in the suddenness of these life-threatening events. Such accidents can mimic a loss of consciousness due to cardiac dysrhythmia and lead to drowning. In the case of swimming-induced pulmonary edema, the prognosis is far better than for a cardiac disorder, but it is also dependent on the efficiency of the supervision. Swimmers, divers, race organizers and supervising physicians should be given knowledge of this pathology and its potentially acute occurrence. Adequate organizational dispositions are mandatory to prevent swimming-induced pulmonary edema-related deaths.

  18. Heparin-Induced Cardiac Tamponade and Life-Threatening Hyperkalemia in a Patient with Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant agent, is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis. As with most medications, heparin has a significant side effect profile. Two of its most important side effects, major bleeding and hyperkalemia, may be devastating without immediate diagnosis and treatment. Major bleeding such as gastrointestinal, genitourinary or intracranial bleeding is occasionally encountered and rarely neglected. However, heparin-induced cardiac tamponade is rarely encountered and may be easily overlooked. Another side effect, heparin-induced hyperkalemia, an unusual but well-described side effect, is frequently forgotten until life-threatening arrhythmia has occurred. We report a case involving a 40-year-old male patient with uremia, who had received heparin for 10 days for deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity. Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hyperkalemia were both noted in this patient.

  19. Persistence of docetaxel-induced neuropathy and impact on quality of life among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, L.; Knoop, A.; Jensen, M. B.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluates persistence and severity of docetaxel-induced neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy (PN)) and impact on health related quality of life in survivors from early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand and thirty-one patients with early-stage breast cancer, who received...... at least one cycle of docetaxel and provided information on PN during treatment, completed questionnaires on PN as an outcome (Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) scores, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 (EORTC CIPN20) and EORTC Quality...... of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30) after 1-3years. FINDINGS: Upon completion of docetaxel treatment, 241 patients (23%) reported PN, grades 2-4. PN persisted for 1-3years among 81 (34%) while PN regressed to grades 0-1 among 160 (66%). Among 790 patients (77%) without PN, 76 (10%) developed PN 1-3years...

  20. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Juliana; Patel, Kruti R; Aven, Linh; Achey, Rebecca; Minns, Martin S; Lee, Yoonjoo; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery E; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development. Early life allergen exposure elevated the level of NT4 and caused PNEC hyperinnervation and nodose neuron hyperactivity. Associated with aberrant PNEC innervation, the authors discovered that GABA hypersecretion was required for the induction of mucin Muc5ac expression. In contrast, NT4(-/-) mice were protected from allergen-induced mucus overproduction and changes along the nerve-PNEC axis without any defects in inflammation. Last, GABA installation restored mucus overproduction in NT4(-/-) mice after early life allergen exposure. Together, our findings provide the first evidence for NT4-dependent neural regulation of PNEC secretion of GABA in a neonatal disease model. Targeting the nerve-PNEC axis may be a valid treatment strategy for mucus overproduction in airway diseases, such as childhood asthma.-Barrios, J., Patel, K. R., Aven, L., Achey, R., Minns, M. S., Lee, Y., Trinkaus-Randall, V. E., Ai, X. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion. © FASEB.

  1. Bax-induced apoptosis shortens the life span of DNA repair defect Ku70-knockout mice by inducing emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigemi; Palmer, James; Bates, Adam; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wong, Kelvin; Ngo, Justine; Matsuyama, Mieko

    2016-06-01

    Cells with DNA damage undergo apoptosis or cellular senescence if the damage cannot be repaired. Recent studies highlight that cellular senescence plays a major role in aging. However, age-associated diseases, including emphysema and neurodegenerative disorders, are caused by apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells and neurons, respectively. Therefore, enhanced apoptosis also promotes aging and shortens the life span depending on the cell type. Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison with ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/+) mice. Ku70 is essential for non-homologous end joining pathway for DNA double strand break repair, and Bax plays an important role in apoptosis. Our study suggests that Bax-induced apoptosis has a significant impact on shortening the life span of ku70(-) (/) (-) mice, which are defective in one of DNA repair pathways. The lung alveolar space gradually enlarges during aging, both in mouse and human, and this age-dependent change results in the decrease of respiration capacity during aging that can lead to emphysema in more severe cases. We found that emphysema occurred in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice at the age of three-months old, and that Bax deficiency was able to suppress it. These results suggest that Bax-mediated apoptosis induces emphysema in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice. We also found that the number of cells, including bronchiolar epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, shows a higher DNA double strand break damage response in ku70 KO mouse lung than in wild type. Recent studies suggest that non-homologous end joining activity decreases with increased age in mouse and rat model. Together, we hypothesize that the decline of Ku70-dependent DNA repair activity in lung alveolar epithelial cells is one of the causes of age-dependent decline of lung function resulting from excess Bax-mediated apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells (and their

  2. Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Continuous Bridge Girder Based on Vehicle Induced Stress History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Rao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue damage assessment of bridge components by conducting a full scale fatigue testing is often prohibitive. A need, therefore, exists to estimate the fatigue damage in bridge components by a simulation of bridge-vehicle interaction dynamics due to the action of the actual traffic. In the present paper, a systematic method has been outlined to find the fatigue damage in the continuous bridge girder based on stress range frequency histogram and fatigue strength parameters of the bridge materials. Vehicle induced time history of maximum flexural stresses has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulation process and utilized to develop the stress range frequency histogram taking into consideration of the annual traffic volume. The linear damage accumulation theory is then applied to calculate cumulative damage index and fatigue life of the bridge. Effect of the bridge span, pavement condition, increase of vehicle operating speed, weight and suspension characteristics on fatigue life of the bridge have been examined.

  3. Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:23245783

  4. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  5. Chemotherapy Drug Induced Discoordination of Mitochondrial Life Cycle Detected by Cardiolipin Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Jen; Chan, Jui-Fen; Hsu, Yuan-Hao Howard

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs have been prescribed for the systemic treatment of cancer. We selected three chemotherapy drugs, including methotrexate, mitomycine C and vincristine to inhibit the proliferation of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle respectively. These chemotherapy drugs showed significant toxicity and growth inhibition to the cancer cells measured by MTT assay. After treated with a 50% inhibitory dosage for 48 hours, these cancer cells showed significant accumulation of cardiolipin (CL), which was a reverse trend of the nutritional deficiency induced arrest at G1 phase. The quantity of each CL species was further semi-quantitated by HPLC-ion trap mass spectrometer. Methotraxate treatment caused unique increases of acyl chain length on CL, which were the opposite of the serum starvation, mitomycine C and vincristine treatments. Although mitomycine C and vincristine have different mechanisms to induce cell cycle arrest, these two drugs displayed similar effects on decreasing chain length of CL. Continuation of CL synthesis during cell cycle arrest indicated the chemotherapy drugs resulting in the discoordination of the mitochondrial life cycle from the cell cycle and thus caused the accumulation of CL. These finding reveals that the pre-remodeling nascent CL accumulates during the methotraxate induced arrest; however, the post-remodeling mature CL accumulates during the mitomycine C and vincristine induced arrest after the synthesis phase. PMID:27627658

  6. Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a killifish in response to the introduction of guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew R; Reznick, David N

    2011-04-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased predation on juvenile age/size-classes favors delayed maturation and decreased reproductive investment. Although this theory has received correlative support, experimental tests in nature are rare. In 1976 and 1981, guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were transplanted into localities that previously only contained a killifish, Rivulus hartii. This situation presents an opportunity to experimentally test this life-history prediction because guppies prey upon young Rivulus. We evaluated the response to selection in Rivulus by measuring phenotypic and genotypic divergence between introduction and upstream "control" localities that lack guppies. Contrary to expectations, Rivulus from the introduction sites evolved earlier maturation and increased reproductive investment within 25 years. Such evolutionary changes parallel previous investigations on natural communities of Rivulus, but do not comply with predictions of age/size-specific theory. Guppies also caused reduced densities and increased growth rates of Rivulus, which are hypothesized indirect effects of predation. Additional life-history theories show that changes in density and growth can interact with predator-induced mortality to alter the predicted trajectory of evolution. We discuss how these latter frameworks improve the fit between theory and evolution in Rivulus. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Gene expression patterns underlying parasite-induced alterations in host behaviour and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Mazur, Johanna; Beros, Sara; Lerp, Hannes; Binder, Harald; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Many parasites manipulate their hosts' phenotype. In particular, parasites with complex life cycles take control of their intermediate hosts' behaviour and life history to increase transmission to their definitive host. The proximate mechanisms underlying these parasite-induced alterations are poorly understood. The cestode Anomotaenia brevis affects the behaviour, life history and morphology of parasitized Temnothorax nylanderi ants and indirectly of their unparasitized nestmates. To gain insights on how parasites alter host phenotypes, we contrast brain gene expression patterns of T. nylanderi workers parasitized with the cestode, their unparasitized nestmates and unparasitized workers from unparasitized colonies. Over 400 differentially expressed genes between the three groups were identified, with most uniquely expressed genes detected in parasitized workers. Among these are genes that can be linked to the increased lifespan of parasitized workers. Furthermore, many muscle (functionality) genes are downregulated in these workers, potentially causing the observed muscular deformations and their inactive behaviour. Alterations in lifespan and activity could be adaptive for the parasite by increasing the likelihood that infected workers residing in acorns are eaten by their definitive host, a woodpecker. Our transcriptome analysis reveals numerous gene expression changes in parasitized workers and their uninfected nestmates and indicates possible routes of parasite manipulation. Although causality still needs to be established, parasite-induced alterations in lifespan and host behaviour appear to be partly explained by morphological muscle atrophy instead of central nervous system interference, which is often the core of behavioural regulation. Results of this study will shed light upon the molecular basis of antagonistic species interactions.

  8. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-β-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-β-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-β-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards.

  9. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  10. Two Case Reports of Life-Threatening Ethanol-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Fernando

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to alcoholic beverages are common and diverse in aetiology. Ethanol-induced anaphylaxis, however, is a rare but often life-threatening condition that warrants careful evaluation in suspected individuals. We present the cases of two patients who developed urticaria, angioedema and throat constriction within minutes of consuming white wine. Both individuals demonstrated no adverse reaction to double-blind placebo-controlled challenges to metabisulphite or sodium salicylate. However, an open challenge to white wine elicited urticaria in both subjects. This reaction was reproduced with a double-blind placebo-controlled challenge to ethanol and was accompanied by a rise in serum total tryptase levels. Positive skin test responses to 2% acetic acid, a breakdown product of ethanol, were elicited from both patients but not from three normal controls. These two cases demonstrate the need for a systematic approach for the evaluation of allergic reactions to alcohol.

  11. Life stage-related differences in susceptibility to acrylamide-induced neural and testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Koyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Midori; Irie, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Shibutani, Makoto; Honma, Masamitsu; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    In order to assess age-dependence of susceptibility to acrylamide (ACR)-induced neural and testicular toxicity, 3- and 7-week-old male SD rats were given ACR at 0, 50, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water for 4 weeks, and the nervous and male reproductive systems were examined histopathologically. Testicular genotoxicity was evaluated with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in the liver and testis were also measured. In both young and adult animals, neurotoxicity was evident from 100 ppm and increased in proportion to ACR intake per body weight. In the testis, marked degeneration and exfoliation, mainly of spermatids, were observed from 100 ppm limited to young animals. The comet assay revealed ACR to significantly induce DNA damage from 100 ppm in both life stages, while MNs were found only in young rats from 100 ppm. The level of GST activity in the testis of young rats at the end of experiment was significantly lower than that of adult animals, regardless of the ACR treatment. There were no life stage-related differences in GSH contents in the liver and testis. These results suggest that susceptibility to neurotoxicity might not differ between young and adult rats when exposure levels are adjusted for body weight. Regarding testicular toxicity, young animals around puberty proved more susceptible than adult animals, possibly due to their lower level of testicular GST activity than that in adult animals.

  12. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Psucrose treatment prevented such impairment (PSucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids.

  13. The interactive effects of work-induced guilt and ability to manage resources on job and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwarter, Wayne A; Perrewé, Pamela L; Meurs, James A; Kacmar, Charles

    2007-04-01

    American workers are spending more time at work and less time at home than ever before--a consequence of which is an inability to devote adequate attention to nonwork activities. Utilizing a literal replication format (Lykken, 1968), the authors conducted two studies to examine the effects of work-induced guilt and the ability to manage work resources on job and life satisfaction. The authors found that work-induced guilt had its most negative association on job and life satisfaction when individuals were unable to manage work resources. Interestingly, the authors also found that work-induced guilt led to increases in job and life satisfaction when coupled with the ability to manage resources. Implications for theory and practice, strengths and limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate inducible defense in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Miyakawa

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, "neckteeth," in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as "kairomones," in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH, which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms

  15. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate inducible defense in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, "neckteeth," in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as "kairomones," in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the recognition

  16. Early life DNA vaccination with the H gene of Canine distemper virus induces robust protection against distemper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent;

    2009-01-01

    Young mink kits (n = 8)were vaccinated withDNA plasmids encoding the viral haemagglutinin protein (H) of a vaccine strain of Canine distemper virus (CDV). Virus neutralising (VN) antibodieswere induced after 2 immunisations and after the third immunisation all kits had high VN antibody titres...... demonstrate that early life DNA vaccination with the H gene of a CDV vaccine strain induced robust protective immunity against a recent wild type CDV....

  17. Brief report : enzyme inducers reduce elimination half-life after a single dose of nevirapine in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, R.F.A.; Dijkema, T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Burger, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is associated with development of NVP resistance, probably because of its long half-life in combination with a low genetic barrier to resistance. The objective of this study was to find enzyme inducers t

  18. Early-life viral infection and allergen exposure interact to induce an asthmatic phenotype in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asquith Kelly L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. Methods We employed a unique combination of animal models in which BALB/c mice were neonatally infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM, which replicates severe RSV disease in human infants and following recovery, were intranasally sensitised with ovalbumin. Animals received low-level challenge with aerosolised antigen for 4 weeks to elicit changes of chronic asthma, followed by a single moderate-level challenge to induce an exacerbation of inflammation. We then assessed airway inflammation, epithelial changes characteristic of remodelling, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and host immunological responses. Results Allergic airway inflammation, including recruitment of eosinophils, was prominent only in animals that had recovered from neonatal infection with PVM and then been sensitised and chronically challenged with antigen. Furthermore, only these mice exhibited an augmented Th2-biased immune response, including elevated serum levels of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1 as well as increased relative expression of Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. By comparison, development of AHR and mucous cell change were associated with recovery from PVM infection, regardless of subsequent allergen challenge. Increased expression of IL-25, which could contribute to induction of a Th2 response, was demonstrable in the lung following PVM infection. Signalling via the IL-4 receptor α chain was crucial to the development of allergic inflammation, mucous cell change and AHR, because all of these were absent in receptor-deficient mice. In contrast, changes of remodelling were evident in mice

  19. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium in Cord Blood Platelets: Intrauterine Magnesium Deficiency May Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in pregnancy frequently occurs because of inadequate or low intake of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy can induce not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also consequences that might last in offspring throughout life. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that small for gestational age (SGA is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We reported that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower in SGA groups than that in appropriate for gestational age groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Taken together, intrauterine magnesium deficiency in the fetus may lead to or at least program insulin resistance after birth. In this review, we propose that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life. We discuss the potential contribution of aberrant magnesium regulation to SGA and to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Homochirality through Photon-Induced Melting of RNA/DNA: the Thermodynamic Dissipation Theory of the Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, Karo

    2010-01-01

    The homochirality of the molecules of life has been a vexing problem with no generally accepted solution to date. Since a racemic mixture of chiral nucleotides frustrates the extension and replication of RNA and DNA, understanding the origin of homochirality has important implications to the investigation of the origin of life. Here we suggest a novel solution to the homochirality problem based on a recently proposed thermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life. Homochirality is suggested to have been incorporated gradually into the emerging life as a result of asymmetric right- over left-handed photon-induced denaturation of RNA/DNA occurring when Archean sea surface temperatures became close to the denaturing temperatures of RNA/DNA. This differential denaturing success would have been promoted by the somewhat right-handed circularly polarized submarine light of the late afternoon when surface water temperatures are highest, and a negative circular dichroism band extending from 220 nm up to 260 n...

  1. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  2. Atrx deficiency induces telomere dysfunction, endocrine defects, and reduced life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, L Ashley; Solomon, Lauren A; Li, Jennifer Ruizhe; Jiang, Yan; Edwards, Matthew; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Beier, Frank; Bérubé, Nathalie G

    2013-05-01

    Human ATRX mutations are associated with cognitive deficits, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. We show that the Atrx-null embryonic mouse brain accumulates replicative damage at telomeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin, which is exacerbated by loss of p53 and linked to ATM activation. ATRX-deficient neuroprogenitors exhibited higher incidence of telomere fusions and increased sensitivity to replication stress-inducing drugs. Treatment of Atrx-null neuroprogenitors with the G-quadruplex (G4) ligand telomestatin increased DNA damage, indicating that ATRX likely aids in the replication of telomeric G4-DNA structures. Unexpectedly, mutant mice displayed reduced growth, shortened life span, lordokyphosis, cataracts, heart enlargement, and hypoglycemia, as well as reduction of mineral bone density, trabecular bone content, and subcutaneous fat. We show that a subset of these defects can be attributed to loss of ATRX in the embryonic anterior pituitary that resulted in low circulating levels of thyroxine and IGF-1. Our findings suggest that loss of ATRX increases DNA damage locally in the forebrain and anterior pituitary and causes tissue attrition and other systemic defects similar to those seen in aging.

  3. On the possibility of galactic cosmic ray-induced radiolysis-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthesis is a mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to evolve alternative mechanisms for harvesting available energy. Bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 km deep in a South African mine, harvests energy from radiolysis, induced by particles emitted from radioactive U, Th and K present in surrounding rock. Another radiation source in the subsurface environments is secondary particles generated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that it is a steady source of energy comparable to that produced by radioactive substances, and the possibility of a slow metabolizing life flourishing on it cannot be ruled out. Two mechanisms are proposed through which GCR-induced secondary particles can be utilized for biological use in subsurface environments: (i) GCRs injecting energy in the environment through particle-induced radiolysis and (ii) organic synthesis from GCR secondaries interacting with the medium. Laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses are also proposed. Implications of these mechanisms on finding life in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe are discussed.

  4. Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: animal models of induced life history variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Teresa H

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of the genetic program with the environment shapes the development of an individual. Accumulating data from animal models indicate that prenatal and early-postnatal events (collectively called "early-life events") can initiate long-term changes in the expression of the genetic program which persist, or may only become apparent, much later in the individual's life. Researchers working with humans or animal models of human diseases often view the effects of early-life events through the lens of pathology, with a focus on whether the events increase the risk for a particular disease. Alternatively, comparative biologists often view the effects of early-life events through the lens of evolution and adaptation by natural selection; they investigate the processes by which environmental conditions present early in life may prompt the adoption of different developmental pathways leading to alternative life histories. Examples of both approaches are presented in this article. This article reviews the concepts of phenotypic plasticity, natural selection, and evidence from animal models that early-life events can program the activity of the neuroendocrine system, at times altering life history patterns in an adaptive manner. Data from seasonally breeding rodents are used to illustrate the use of maternally derived information to alter the life history of young. In several species, the maternal system transfers photoperiodic information to the young in utero. This maternally derived information alters the response of young to photoperiods encountered later and life, producing seasonally distinct life histories. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Effect of "Phased Whole Acupuncture Therapy" on Ability of Daily Life in 63 Cases of Cerebral Infarction-induced Hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yuanqi; Chen Liyi; Zhou Luojin; Li Hui; Qu Xuanming; Liu Dongsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of "phased whole acupuncture therapy" on the ability of daily life (ADL)of the patients with cerebral infarction-induced hemiplegia. Methods: 113 patients were randomly divided into a treatment group (n=63) treated with phased whole acupuncture and a control group (n=50) treated with traditional acupuncture. After the treatment, the improvement of ADL was compared between the two groups. Results: Patients in the treatment group obtained satisfactory therapeutic effects in ADL improvement and in lowering of deformed rate, which were superior to those in the control group.Conclusion: The phased whole acupuncture is an effective therapy in treating cerebral infarction-induced hemlplegia, which can better improve the life quality of the patients.

  6. Lung tumors in mice induced by "whole-life" inorganic arsenic exposure at human-relevant doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, Michael P; Qu, Wei; Tokar, Erik J; Kissling, Grace E; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-08-01

    In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in utero life or with whole-life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied "whole-life" inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for 3 weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birthweight or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p ppb group (51 %) and 500-ppb group (54 %), but not at 5,000-ppb group (28 %) compared to control (22 %). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p ppb group (27 %) compared to controls (8 %). An increase (p ppb group compared to control (11 %) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole-life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human-relevant doses (i.e., 50 and 500 ppb).

  7. Quality of Life as Medicine: Interventions that Induce Salutogenesis. A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Soren; Omar, Hatim A.; Merrick, Joav

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the medical (salutogenic) effect of interventions that aim to improve quality of life. Review of studies where the global quality of life in chronically ill patients was improved independently of subjective and objective factors (like physical and mental health, yearly income, education, social network, self-esteem, sexual…

  8. 3D additive manufactured 316L components microstructural features and changes induced by working life cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, M. L.; Guarnaccio, A.; Dolce, P.; Mollica, D.; Parisi, G. P.; Lettino, A.; Medici, L.; Summa, V.; Ciancio, R.; Santagata, A.

    2017-10-01

    The ability of processing through laser beams different kinds of metallic powders for direct production of 3D components with complex geometries has been gaining an impressive and growing attention for specific industrial applications. The process which can be distinguished as Selective Laser Sintering or Selective Laser Melting is even considered, more generally, as Additive Manufacturing where layer by layer material is built by the interaction between a laser beam and a powder bed. The rapid heating of the powder due to the laser beam energy transfer process followed by a rapid cooling rate induces within the manufactured material a cellular structure with fine sub-grains, which are in the range of few hundreds of micrometers. These metastable structures, which are smaller than the grain size in conventionally manufactured 316L stainless steel components, can undertake towards a recrystallization process due to either heat or mechanical treatments. For instance, when sub-grain boundaries of the cells are enriched with Mo and higher concentration of dislocation, dynamical processes occur generating local residual stresses. In these circumstances the segregation of Mo in cell boundaries is out of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions so that microstructures and phases are metastable. In the range of 1100-1400 °C heat treatments a complete dissolution of Mo in the Fe matrix with a gradual disappearance of sub-microns cell is observed feeding the growth of larger austenitic sub-grains formation. It follows a higher degree of Mo dissolution in the material matrix and a decrease of dislocation's concentration (Saeidi et al., 2015) [1]. In the work here presented we point out which are the microstructural features of stainless steel 316L components realized by Additive Manufacturing. Furthermore, the occurrence of a microstructural evolution is presented after experiencing to fatigue of 80000 cycles some door joints obtained by this technique. A decrease of dislocation

  9. Laser Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): In Situ Non-Destructive Detection of Microbial Life on Supraglacial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, B.; Tilg, M.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Remias, D.; Psenner, R.

    2012-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) is an in situ laser scanning technique to detect photoautotrophic pigments such as phycoerythrin of an ice ecosystem such as supraglacial environments without contamination. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study microbial metabolism in ice ecosystems in a high resolution. Surface communities of cold ecosystems are highly autotrophic and therefor ideal systems for L.I.F.E examinations. 532nm green lasers excite photopigments in cyanobacteria and produce multiple fluorescence signatures between 550nm and 750nm including carotenoids, phycobiliproteins which would enable a non-invasive in-situ measurement. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study these cryosphere ecosystems. In general, the ice habitat has to be disrupted using techniques that usually include coring, sawing, and melting. Samples are also often chosen blindly, with little indication of probable biomass. The need for an in situ non-invasive, non-destructive technique to detect, localize, and sample cryosphere biomass in the field is therefore of considerable importance. L.I.F.E has already been tested in remote ecosystems like Antarctica (Lake Untersee, Lake Fryxell), supraglacial environments in the Kongsfjord region in the High Arctic and High Alpine glaciers but until now no calibration was set to convert the L.I.F.E. signal into pigment concentration. Here we describe the standardization for detection of Phycobiliproteins (Phycoerythrine) which are found in red algae, cyanobacteria, and cryptomonads. Similar methods are already used for detection of phytoplankton in liquid systems like oceans and lakes by NASÁs Airborne Oceanographic LIDAR since 1979. The

  10. Early life exposure to a rodent carcinogen propiconazole fungicide induces oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Tzu-Yi; Hong, Chwan-Yang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sasado, Takao [Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki (Japan); Kashiwada, Shosaku [Research Center for Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Life Sciences, the Toyo University, Gunma (Japan); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Propiconazole initiates ROS-induced oxidative stress and damage in medaka fish. • Early life exposure to propiconazole increases incidence of hepatocarcionogensis in p53{sup −/−} medaka. • Oxidative stress and CYP induction involved in p53 regulation are key events in propiconazole-induced hepatotumorigenesis. • Propiconazole-induced toxic response in medaka is compatible with that in rodents. - Abstract: Conazole pollution is an emerging concern to human health and environmental safety because of the broad use of conazole fungicides in agriculture and medicine and their frequent occurrence in aquifers. The agricultural pesticide propiconazole has received much regulatory interest because it is a known rodent carcinogen with evidence of multiple adverse effects in mammals and non-targeted organisms. However, the carcinogenic effect and associated mechanism of propiconazole in fish under microgram-per-liter levels of environmental-relevant exposure remains unclear. To explore whether early life of propiconzaole exposure would induce oxidative stress and latent carcinogenic effects in fish, we continuously exposed larvae of wild type or p53{sup −/−} mutant of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to propiconazole (2.5–250 μg/L) for 3, 7, 14 or 28 days and assessed liver histopathology and/or the oxidative stress response and gene expression during exposure and throughout adulthood. Propiconazole dose-dependently induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, altered homeostasis of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase and caused lipid and protein peroxidation during early life exposure in wild type medaka. Such exposure also significantly upregulated gene expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A, but marginally suppressed that of tumor suppressor p53 in adults. Furthermore, histopathology revealed that p53{sup −/−} mutant medaka with early life exposure to propiconazole showed increased incidence of

  11. Impact of dermatologic adverse events induced by targeted therapies on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Cécile; Bungener, Catherine; Razavi, Darius; Mateus, Christine; Routier, Emilie; Lanoy, Emilie; Verschoore, Michèle; Robert, Caroline; Dauchy, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Investigations about the impact of dermatologic adverse events on quality of life in the context of targeted therapies are quite recent and results vary in some dimensions. This article aims to summarize the existing data and to clarify needs in terms of clinical management and future research. A literature review was done with Pubmed, Medline, Scopus and PsycInfo databases and it combined the empirical studies published in English and in French over the past ten years. Dermatologic adverse events globally have a low to moderate impact on quality of life, mainly in the physical and emotional domains. Reasons for inter-individual variations in adjustment and long-term impact are still not well known. Making quality of life assessments systematic, making early referrals of patients to dermatology consultations and giving more attention to individual experience were identified as measures that could help prevent deterioration in quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2 O2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P melanogaster induced adaptive response, but long-term exposure reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  14. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  15. Roles of density-dependent growth and life history evolution in accounting for fisheries-induced trait changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Storvik, Geir; Stenseth, Nils C; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2016-12-27

    The relative roles of density dependence and life history evolution in contributing to rapid fisheries-induced trait changes remain debated. In the 1930s, northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), currently the world's largest cod stock, experienced a shift from a traditional spawning-ground fishery to an industrial trawl fishery with elevated exploitation in the stock's feeding grounds. Since then, age and length at maturation have declined dramatically, a trend paralleled in other exploited stocks worldwide. These trends can be explained by demographic truncation of the population's age structure, phenotypic plasticity in maturation arising through density-dependent growth, fisheries-induced evolution favoring faster-growing or earlier-maturing fish, or a combination of these processes. Here, we use a multitrait eco-evolutionary model to assess the capacity of these processes to reproduce 74 y of historical data on age and length at maturation in northeast Arctic cod, while mimicking the stock's historical harvesting regime. Our results show that model predictions critically depend on the assumed density dependence of growth: when this is weak, life history evolution might be necessary to prevent stock collapse, whereas when a stronger density dependence estimated from recent data is used, the role of evolution in explaining fisheries-induced trait changes is diminished. Our integrative analysis of density-dependent growth, multitrait evolution, and stock-specific time series data underscores the importance of jointly considering evolutionary and ecological processes, enabling a more comprehensive perspective on empirically observed stock dynamics than previous studies could provide.

  16. Harvest-induced maturation evolution under different life-history trade-offs and harvesting regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poos, J.J.; Brannstrom, A.; Dieckman, U.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of harvesting to induce adaptive changes in exploited populations is now increasingly recognized. While early studies predicted that elevated mortalities among larger individuals select for reduced maturation size, recent theoretical studies have shown conditions under which other, mor

  17. PTU-induced ANCA-positive vasculitis: an innocent or a life-threatening adverse effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, N Sule Yaşar; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are rare, but they can be triggered by chemicals, infections and drugs; among them, antithyroid drugs are common. Autoimmune disorders, such as vasculitis, are unusual, but serious complications of antithyroid therapy. Both propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole may induce ANCA-associated vasculitis. PTU-induced vasculitides may have different organ involvement patterns. Herein, we report four cases with ANCA-associated vasculitis with different clinical manifestations.

  18. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia as a life-threatening complication of antibiotic treatment of 'chronic Lyme disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Maarten; Speeckaert, Marijn; Callens, Rutger; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    'Chronic Lyme disease' is a controversial condition. As any hard evidence is lacking that unresolved systemic symptoms, following an appropriately diagnosed and treated Lyme disease, are related to a chronic infection with the tick-borne spirochaetes of the Borrelia genus, the term 'chronic Lyme disease' should be avoided and replaced by the term 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.' The improper prescription of prolonged antibiotic treatments for these patients can have an impact on the community antimicrobial resistance and on the consumption of health care resources. Moreover, these treatments can be accompanied by severe complications. In this case report, we describe a life-threatening ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia with an acute kidney injury (RIFLE-stadium F) due to a pigment-induced nephropathy in a 76-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with a so-called 'chronic Lyme disease.'

  19. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic influences on life history expression: metabolism and parentally induced temperature influences on embryo development rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Nikilson, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species.

  20. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  1. Life Cycle Inventory Modelling of Land Use Induced by Crop Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2008-01-01

    establishment of a link between crop demand and technological development. Through this approach, life cycle inventories for crops reflecting the actual land use consequences of consumption can be established. Further work (based on the methodological framework in this study) will address the practical......The actual land use consequences of crop consumption are not very well reflected in existing life cycle inventories. The state of the art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is produced, and consequently the inventories do...... not necessarily consider the land ultimately affected in the systems being studied. The aims of this study are to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and to propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope...

  2. Rapid reversal of life-threatening diltiazem-induced tetany with calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, D R; Burke, T F; Sung, H M

    1999-11-01

    We describe a patient who developed tetany with sudden respiratory arrest after the infusion of intravenous diltiazem. The administration of calcium chloride rapidly resolved the patient's tetany with prompt recovery of respiratory function, averting the need for more aggressive airway management and ventilatory support. The emergency physician should be aware that life-threatening tetany may accompany the administration of intravenous diltiazem and that calcium chloride may be a rapid and effective remedy.

  3. Time constraints mediate predator-induced plasticity in immune function, condition, and life history

    OpenAIRE

    Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan; Slos, Stefanie; Van Doorslaer, Wendy; Rolff, J

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of predators and a limited time for development imposes a conflict: accelerating growth under time constraints comes at the cost of higher predation risk mediated by increased foraging. The few studies that have addressed this tradeoff have dealt only with life history traits such as age and size at maturity. Physiological traits have largely been ignored in studies assessing the impact of environmental stressors, and it is largely unknown whether they respond indepe...

  4. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  5. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  6. Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy in capillary electrophoresis as an possible instrument for extraterrestrial life signs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Gorlenko; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Anton, Maydykovskiy; Eugeniy, Vasilev

    The one of a significant aims in extraterrestrial exploration is a seeking for a life traces in a open space and planetary objects. Complex composition and unknown origin of suspected signs of life required у new analytical approaches and technical solutions. The promising assai here can be Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy methods. The combined instrument developed by our team reveal the advantage of capillary electrophoresis assays in a junction with laser induced fluorescence detection technology. We optimized excitation configuration of fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis to reduce pumping laser power up to 1 mW and decrease background scattering. The improvement of the device sensitivity at poor sample concentration we achieved by incorporating fluorescence flow-through cuvette into spectrometer. That allows to simplify setup, to minimize weight and increase reproducibility of measurements. The device has been tasted in complex organic chemical mixes and microbial strains differentiation tasks. 3d multinational spectra allow us to increase the spectra information loads in comparison with ordinary capillary electrophoresis approaches. Possible updating the device with Raman approach can even furthermore multiple the differentiation power of the instrument. The analytical module developed using this approach can be potentially effectively used in extraterrestrial researches as a payload of the future spacecraft.

  7. Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Mian, Firoz M.; Stanisz, Andrew M.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cambier, Emmanuel; Ben-Amram, Hila; Koren, Omry; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. PMID:28375200

  8. Habitat-specific differences alter traditional biogeographic patterns of life history in a climate-change induced range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Megan E; Griffen, Blaine D

    2017-01-01

    Range shifts and expansions resulting from global climate change have the potential to create novel communities with unique plant-animal interactions. Organisms expanding their range into novel biotic and abiotic environments may encounter selection pressures that alter traditional biogeographic patterns of life history traits. Here, we used field surveys to examine latitudinal patterns of life history traits in a broadly distributed ectotherm (mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii) that has recently experienced a climate change-induced range expansion into a novel habitat type. Additionally, we conducted laboratory and field experiments to investigate characteristics associated with these life history traits (e.g. fecundity, offspring quality, and potential selection pressures). We compared these characteristics in native mangrove habitats in which the species has historically dwelled and novel salt marsh habitats into which the species has recently expanded its range. Consistent with traditional biogeographic concepts (i.e. Bergmann's clines), size at maturity and mean body size of reproductive females increased with latitude within the native habitat. However, they decreased significantly in novel habitats at the highest latitudes of the species' range, which was consistent with habitat-specific differences in both biotic (predation) and abiotic (temperature) selection pressures. Although initial maternal investment (egg volume and weight) did not differ between habitats, fecundity was lower in novel habitats as a result of differences in size at reproduction. Offspring quality, as measured by larval starvation resistance, was likewise diminished in novel habitats relative to native habitats. These differences in offspring quality may have enduring consequences for species success and persistence in novel habitats. Life history characteristics such as those investigated here are fundamental organismal traits; consequently, understanding the potential impacts of

  9. Consequential life cycle inventory modelling of land use induced by crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    -replacement mechanisms are governed by the availability of suitable agricultural land and several economic conditions, such as transport and trade costs. To estimate the land use response to an increase in crop demand, economic modelling can be used. In this project, the economic equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade......The purpose of the present PhD project was to identify the mechanisms governing global land use consequences of increased crop demand in a given location and, based on this conceptual analysis, to present and demonstrate a method proposal for construction of land use data that can be used in life...

  10. Induced life cycle transition from holocycly to anholocycly of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),exists with holocyclic life cycle in Tacheng, Xinjiang in Northwest China. It produces males and oviparae to mate and oviposit for overwintering by eggs. Under laboratory conditions with 14 h/d photophase and temperature not lower than 15℃, RWA occurred in parthenogenesis and produced no males. The laboratory popu-lations of Russian wheat aphid, which were kept under natural conditions in fall by 15th, 49th and 81st generation while wild populations produced males and oviparae for mating, produced males and oviparae with their number decreased gradually, but viviparae and nymphs increased sequen-tially. As a result, it produced a small amount of oviparae and no males emerged in fields by 49 generations' reproduction in laboratory. After development of 81 generations, oviparae happened occasionally and no eggs occurred for overwintering instead of viviparae and nymphs. A hypothesis of RWA disastrous process was proposed. The life cycle of RWA can be changed from holocycly to anholocycly in its long-term spread and evolution. Anholocycly is more dangerous than holocycly to small grains for its strong adaptability and dispersal ability.

  11. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  12. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  13. Benzocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia: a life-threatening complication after a transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Madan Raj; Gupta, Shobhit; Giri, Smith; Fraga, Julian Diaz

    2013-09-16

    Acquired methaemoglobinaemia is a potentially fatal impairment in oxygen delivery if not recognised early and treated appropriately. Benzocaine used as an anaesthetic for endoscopic procedures is an uncommon but clinically important precipitant of acquired methaemoglobinaemia. We present a case of an elderly woman who developed perioral cyanosis and desaturation 20 min after a transoesophageal echocardiogram. Further evaluation led to the diagnosis of benzocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia and timely treatment with intravenous methylene blue was initiated.

  14. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  15. Efficacy of constraint-induced therapy on functional performance and health-related quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Yi-jung; Chen, Fei-Chuan; Lin, Keh-chung; Kang, Lin-ju; Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao

    2012-08-01

    To better generalize training effects to the context of daily living, home-based constraint-induced therapy has been proposed. Therapeutic success of constraint-induced therapy is limited as to whether the improvements in functional performance can be transferred to quality of life. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the efficacy of home-based constraint-induced therapy on functional performance and health-related quality of life. Twenty-two children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy (6-8 years, 10 boys) were randomly assigned to receive constraint-induced therapy or traditional rehabilitation. Home-based constraint-induced therapy had immediate and maintaining effects on motor efficacy and functional performance and induced greater gains in health-related quality of life in the long run than in the short term. The home-based constraint-induced therapy protocol (relatively moderate intensity and shortened constraint time), which might balance the effectiveness and compliance of participants and caregivers, may be an effective alternative to conventional constraint-induced therapy.

  16. Consequential life cycle inventory modelling of land use induced by crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    The purpose of the present PhD project was to identify the mechanisms governing global land use consequences of increased crop demand in a given location and, based on this conceptual analysis, to present and demonstrate a method proposal for construction of land use data that can be used in life...... cycle assessments involving crop consumption. Increased demand for a given crop can be met by intensification, expansion, and/or by displacement of other crops or pastures. The last option will reduce the supply of other agricultural products, which may then be replaced elsewhere. Such displacement......-replacement mechanisms are governed by the availability of suitable agricultural land and several economic conditions, such as transport and trade costs. To estimate the land use response to an increase in crop demand, economic modelling can be used. In this project, the economic equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade...

  17. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus.

  18. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  20. Evolutionary drivers of parasite-induced changes in insect life-history traits from theory to underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Many hosts are able to tolerate infection by altering life-history traits that are traded-off one against another. Here the reproductive fitness of insect hosts and vectors is reviewed in the context of theories concerning evolutionary mechanisms driving such alterations. These include the concepts that changes in host reproductive fitness are by-products of infection, parasite manipulations, host adaptations, mafia-like strategies or host compensatory responses. Two models are examined in depth, a tapeworm/beetle association, Hymenolepis diminuta/Tenebrio molitor and malaria infections in anopheline mosquitoes. Parasite-induced impairment of vitellogenesis ultimately leads to a decrease in female reproductive success in both cases, though by different means. Evidence is put forwards for both a manipulator molecule of parasite origin and for host-initiated regulation. These models are backed by other examples in which mechanisms underlying fecundity reduction or fecundity compensation are explored. It is concluded that evolutionary theories must be supported by empirical evidence gained from studying molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying changes in host life-history traits, ideally using organisms that have evolved together and that are in their natural environment.

  1. Late Onset Ipilimumab-Induced Pericarditis and Pericardial Effusion: A Rare but Life Threatening Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongseok Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic cutaneous melanoma has poor prognosis with 2-year survival rate of 10–20%. Melanoma cells express various antigens including gp100, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1, and tyrosinase, which can induce immune-mediated anticancer response via T cell activation. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4 is an immune check point molecule that negatively regulates T cell activation and proliferation. Accordingly, recent phase III clinical trials demonstrated significant survival benefit with ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody (IgG1 that blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with its ligands. Since the efficacy of ipilimumab depends on T cell activation, it is associated with substantial risk of immune mediated adverse reactions such as colitis, hepatitis, thyroiditis, and hypophysitis. We report the first case of late onset pericarditis and cardiac tamponade associated with ipilimumab treatment in patient with metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

  2. Damage-Induced Stresses and Remaining Service Life Predictions of Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukelic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire ropes in marine applications often encounter relatively fast and noticeable wear, a result of the fatigue to which they are exposed coupled with harsh operational conditions. This paper addresses some of the aspects of fatigue damage that occur in wire ropes. Using the finite element method, stress and fatigue analysis of three different design types (6 × 7, 7 × 7, 8 × 7 of wire rope is performed. The size of the wire rope cross-section area is varied in order to simulate the progressive damage of the wires so that consequential stress levels and remaining fatigue life can be numerically predicted. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of damaged wire ropes under various conditions, since an appropriate choice of wire rope design could then be made from engineering and economic points of view. Additionally, potential failures can be predicted, resulting in effective maintenance and the avoidance of potential risks of rope failure, especially important regarding economical and safety aspects of transportation in the marine industry.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells offer a powerful new tool for the life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell biology started with the analysis of somatic stem cells that function to maintain the adult body. We now know that the body is maintained by regeneration of a wide range of cell types, such as skin cells, blood cells and gastrointestinal mucous cells, from somatic stem cells. This regenerative activity is essential for survival. Regenerative medicine was initiated to identify therapies that support and/or accelerate this natural regenerative ability. For example, bone marrow transplantation is a therapy for reconstituting hematopoiesis from the hematopoietic stem cells present in the donor bone marrow. The successful development of a protocol for obtaining human embryonic stem (ES cells prompted medical scientists to utilize human ES cells for regenerative medicine. However, use of these cells raises ethical issues as they are derived from human embryos. An alternative approach using ES-like pluripotent stem cells has the considerable advantage that it does not necessitate use of human embryos. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the introduction of only four defined factors. The products of this method are termed “induced pluripotent stem (iPS" cells. iPS cells have considerable promise as a substitute for ES cells not only for regenerative medicine but also in many other fields. For example, liver and heart cells derived from iPS cells can be used in pharmaceutical research. In addition, iPS cell technology opens new avenues of disease research, for example, by construction of so-called “disease-specific iPS cells” from a patient's somatic cells.

  4. Senescence-inducible expression of isopentenyl transferase extends leaf life, increases drought stress resistance and alters cytokinin metabolism in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wen-Quan; Zhang, Gen-Liang; Kaminek, Miroslav; Dobrev, Petre; Xu, Jia; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) sheds its leaves during growth, especially within the tropical dry season. With the production of SAG12-IPT transgenic cassava we want to test the level of leaf retention and altered cytokinin metabolism of transgenic plants via the autoregulatory senescence inhibition system. After confirmation of transgene expression by molecular analysis and phenotype examination in greenhouse plants, two transgenic plant lines, 529-28 and 529-48, were chosen for further investigation. Detached mature leaves of 529-28 plants retained high levels of chlorophyll compared with wild-type leaves after dark-induced senescence treatment. Line 529-28 showed significant drought tolerance as indicated by stay-green capacity after drought stress treatment. Field experiments proved that leaf senescence syndrome was significantly delayed in 529-28 plants in comparison with wild-type and 529-48 plants. Physiological and agronomical characterizations of these plants also revealed that the induced expression of IPT had effects on photosynthesis, sugar allocation and nitrogen partitioning. Importantly, the 529-28 plants accumulated a high level of trans-zeatin-type cytokinins particularly of corresponding storage O-glucosides to maintain cytokinin homeostasis. Our study proves the feasibility of prolonging the leaf life of woody cassava and also sheds light on the control of cytokinin homeostasis in cassava leaves.

  5. Clinical and laboratory features, and quality of life assessment in wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis patients from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Huang, Nan; Li, Wen-Jing; Dong, Xiang; Qi, Shan-Shan; Wang, You-Na; Liu, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Rong-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a rare but potentially severe food allergy caused by the combination of wheat ingestion and physical exercise. The impact of WDEIA on quality of life (QOL) is unclear. This study characterized the clinical and laboratory features and investigated the QOL in WDEIA patients from Central China. Twenty-eight WDEIA patients were analyzed, and QOL was measured by validated Chinese version Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) and Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) after obtaining the diagnosis. The results showed that half of the patients were females. The median onset age was 37 years old. The symptoms occurred within 1 h after wheat ingestion (26/28). Symptoms of anaphylaxis included cutaneous (26/28), respiratory (11/28), gastro-intestinal (5/28) and cardiovascular manifestations (27/28). Skin prick tests were positive to salt soluble (89.3%) and salt insoluble wheat allergen extracts (100%). Positive rate to wheat, gluten and omega-5 gliadin specific IgE was 64.3%, 92.9% and 92.9% respectively. Specific IgE to omega-5 gliadin with a cut-off value 0.83 KU/L offered highly efficient diagnostic criterion for WDEIA (sensitivity: 89.3%; and specificity: 88.9%). The mean scores of FAQLQ-AF and FAIM were 4.70 and 4.98 respectively and level of anti-omega-5 gliadin IgE had positive correlations with FAQLQ scores. Thereby, WDEIA is commonly found in mid-age adults. In most cases, multi-organs especially skin and cardiovascular systems are involved. Salt insoluble wheat allergen skin test and serum specific IgE to gluten and omega-5 gliadin help to diagnose WDEIA. QOL in WDEIA patients is severely impaired.

  6. Assessing the impact of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity on the quality of life of cancer patients: the introduction of a new measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.M.L.; Kleine-Bolt, K.M. de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Mols, F.; Vreugdenhil, G.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity on daily activities and quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients. METHODS: QoL of all patients visiting the oncological outpatient ward of the Maxima Medical Centre in the Netherlands from October 2006 until March 2007 treated

  7. Protective effects of resveratrol on the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lixiong; Zhao, Jinghui; Cai, Yulong; Huang, Jing; Jing, Sheng; Bao, Xiaohang; Wang, Ying; Gao, Junwei; Xu, Haiwei; Fan, Xiaotang

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during early postnatal life triggers obvious neurotoxic effects on the developing hippocampus and results in long-term effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Resveratrol (RSV) has been demonstrated to exert potential neuroprotective effects by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effects of RSV on the EtOH-mediated impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis remain undetermined. Thus, mice were pretreated with RSV and were later exposed to EtOH to evaluate its protective effects on EtOH-mediated toxicity during hippocampal development. The results indicated that a brief exposure of EtOH on postnatal day 7 resulted in a significant impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis and a depletion of hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). This effect was attenuated by pretreatment with RSV. Furthermore, EtOH exposure resulted in a reduction in spine density on the granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG), and the spines exhibited a less mature morphological phenotype characterized by a higher proportion of stubby spines and a lower proportion of mushroom spines. However, RSV treatment effectively reversed these responses. We further confirmed that RSV treatment reversed the EtOH-induced down-regulation of hippocampal pERK and Hes1 protein levels, which may be related to the proliferation and maintenance of NPCs. Furthermore, EtOH exposure in the C17.2 NPCs also diminished cell proliferation and activated apoptosis, which could be reversed by pretreatment of RSV. Overall, our results suggest that RSV pretreatment protects against EtOH-induced defects in neurogenesis in postnatal mice and may thus play a critical role in preventing EtOH-mediated toxicity in the developing hippocampus.

  8. Life-cycle chronic gamma exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana induces growth effects but no discernable effects on oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Horemans, Nele

    2010-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to low-dose chronic gamma irradiation during a full life cycle (seed to seed) and several biological responses were investigated. Applied dose rates were 2336, 367 and 81 microGy h(-1). Following 24 days (inflorescence emergence), 34 days (approximately 50% of flowers open) and 54 days (silice ripening) exposure, plants were harvested and monitored for biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the antioxidative defence mechanisms (SOD, APOD, GLUR, GPOD, SPOD, CAT, ME), glutathione and ascorbate pool, lipid peroxidation products, altered gene expression of selected genes encoding for antioxidative enzymes or reactive oxygen species production, and DNA integrity. Root fresh weight was significantly reduced after gamma exposure compared to the control at all stages monitored but no significant differences in root weight for the different dose rates applied was observed. Leaf and stem fresh weight were significantly reduced at the highest irradiation level after 54 days exposure only. Also total plant fresh was significantly lower at silice riping and this for the highest and medium dose rate applied. The dose rate estimated to result in a 10% reduction in growth (EDR-10) ranged between 60 and 80 microGy h(-1). Germination of seeds from the gamma irradiated plants was not hampered. For several of the antioxidative defence enzymes studied, the enzyme capacity was generally stimulated towards flowering but generally no significant effect of dose rate on enzyme capacity was observed. Gene analysis revealed a significant transient and dose dependent change in expression of RBOHC indicating active reactive oxygen production induced by gamma irradiation. No effect of irradiation was observed on concentration or reduction state of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione. The level of lipid peroxidation products remained constant throughout the observation period and was not affected by dose rate. The comet assay

  9. Spin-Fluctuation-Induced Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior with Suppressed Superconductivity in LiFe1 -xCoxAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y. M.; Miao, H.; Xing, L. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Wang, P. S.; Xiao, H.; Qian, T.; Richard, P.; Qiu, X. G.; Yu, W.; Jin, C. Q.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, P. D.; Homes, C. C.; Ding, H.

    2015-07-01

    We study a series of LiFe1 -xCox As compounds with different Co concentrations by transport, optical spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. We observe a Fermi-liquid to non-Fermi-liquid to Fermi-liquid (FL-NFL-FL) crossover alongside a monotonic suppression of the superconductivity with increasing Co content. In parallel to the FL-NFL-FL crossover, we find that both the low-energy spin fluctuations and Fermi surface nesting are enhanced and then diminished, strongly suggesting that the NFL behavior in LiFe1 -xCox As is induced by low-energy spin fluctuations that are very likely tuned by Fermi surface nesting. Our study reveals a unique phase diagram of LiFe1 -xCox As where the region of NFL is moved to the boundary of the superconducting phase, implying that they are probably governed by different mechanisms.

  10. Enhancing glutamatergic transmission during adolescence reverses early-life stress-induced deficits in the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard M; Moloney, Rachel D; Glennon, Jeffrey; Vlachou, Styliani; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence marks a critical time when the brain is highly susceptible to pathological insult yet also uniquely amenable to therapeutic intervention. It is during adolescence that the onset of the majority of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder (SUDs), occurs. It has been well established that stress, particularly during early development, can contribute to the pathological changes which contribute to the development of SUDs. Glutamate as the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS plays a key role in various physiological processes, including reward function, and in mediating the effects of psychological stress. We hypothesised impairing glutamatergic signalling during the key adolescent period would attenuate early-life stress induced impaired reward function. To test this, we induced early-life stress in male rats using the maternal-separation procedure. During the critical adolescent period (PND25-46) animals were treated with the glutamate transporter activator, riluzole, or the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. Adult reward function was assessed using voluntary cocaine intake measured via intravenous self-administration. We found that early-life stress in the form of maternal-separation impaired reward function, reducing the number of successful cocaine-infusions achieved during the intravenous self-administration procedure as well impairing drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-taking behaviour. Interestingly, riluzole and memantine treatment reversed this stress-induced impairment. These data suggest that reducing glutamatergic signalling may be a viable therapeutic strategy for treating vulnerable individuals at risk of developing SUDs including certain adolescent populations, particularly those which may have experienced trauma during early-life.

  11. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cells therapy on the quality of life of patients with breast cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy: A prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of autologous cytokine-induced killer cells on the quality of life in patient with breast cancer who have already finished the adjuvant chemotherapy.Methods One hundred and twenty-eight postoperative patients with breast cancer who underwent anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this prospective study,and they were randomized into2 groups,i.e.,treatment group,which received the therapy of CIK cells transfusion,and control group,

  12. Energetic costs, underlying resource allocation patterns, and adaptive value of predator-induced life-history shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinke, K.; Hülsmann, S.; Mooij, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied costs and benefits of life history shifts of water fleas (genus Daphnia) in response to infochemicals from planktivorous fish. We applied a dynamic energy budget model to investigate the resource allocation patterns underlying the observed life history shifts and their adaptive value unde

  13. Guideline for service life design of structural concrete. A performance based approach with regard to chloride induced corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, G. van der; Polder, R.B.; Breugel, K. van

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays major structures require a service life of 100 years or even more. CUR committee VC81 has developed a guideline for service life design based on initiation of corrosion due to chloride penetration for exposure classes XD or XS. A semi-probabilistic simplification of the DuraCrete methodolog

  14. Guideline for service life design of structural concrete: A performance based approach with regard to chloride induced corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, G. Van der; Polder, R.B.; Breugel, K. Van

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays major structures require a service life of 100 years or even more. CUR committee VC81 has developed a guideline for service life design based on initiation of corrosion due to chloride penetration for exposure classes XD or XS. A semi-probabilistic simplification of the DuraCrete methodolog

  15. Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Rare but Potentially Life-Threatening Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Jaqua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male Marine with an uncomplicated medical history and a long history of strenuous, daily exercise presented to the emergency department after experiencing anaphylactic shock while running. Symptoms resolved following administration of intramuscular diphenhydramine, ranitidine, intravenous methylprednisolone, and intravenous fluids. On followup in the allergy clinic, a meticulous clinical history was obtained which elucidated a picture consistent with exercise-induced anaphylaxis. He had experienced diffuse pruritus and urticaria while exercising on multiple occasions over the last three years. His symptoms would usually increase as exercise continued. Prior to the first episode, he regularly exercised without symptoms. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome that requires a careful clinical history and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Treatment is primarily exercise avoidance. Prophylactic mediations are inconsistently effective but are empirically used. Successful treatment with omalizumab was recently reported in a case of refractory exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

  16. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  17. On the possibility of cosmic ray-induced ionizing radiation-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a highly efficient mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to cultivate alternative mechanisms in order to take advantage of other available energy sources. Studies have shown that in subsurface environments, life can use energy generated from geochemical and geothermal processes to sustain a minimal metabolism. Another mechanism is radiolysis, in which particles emitted by radioactive substances are indirectly utilized for metabolism. One such example is the bacterium fueled by radiation, found 2 miles deep in a South African mine, which consumes hydrogen formed from particles emitted by radioactive U, Th and K present in rock. An additional source of radiation in the subsurface environments is secondary particles, such as muons generated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). It ...

  18. Life history changes in the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger induced by low concentrations of sediment-bound cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.; Krips, O.E.; Admiraal, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sediment-bound cadmium on several life history parameters of the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger, was tested in the laboratory. It was investigated whether a test with C. piger is an ecologically realistic alternative for the Daphnia test applied to sediments. Therefore, a culture of

  19. Life history changes in the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger induced by low concentrations of sediment-bound cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.; Krips, O.E.; Admiraal, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sediment-bound cadmium on several life history parameters of the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger, was tested in the laboratory. It was investigated whether a test with C. piger is an ecologically realistic alternative for the Daphnia test applied to sediments. Therefore, a culture of

  20. Life cycle inventory modelling of land use induced by crop consumption - Part 1: Conceptual analysis and methodological proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Nielsen, Per H.

    2008-01-01

    to reflect long-term changes, and possibly establishment of a link between crop demand and technological development. Through this approach, life cycle inventories for crops reflecting the actual land use consequences of consumption can be established.Recommendations and Perspectives. Further work (based......Background, Aims and Scope. The actual land use consequences of crop consumption are not very well reflected in existing life cycle inventories. The state of the art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is produced, and consequently...... the inventories do not necessarily consider the land ultimately affected in the systems being studied. The aims of this study are to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and to propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within...

  1. Warfarin-induced sublingual hematoma mimicking Ludwig angina: Conservative management of a potentially life-threatening condition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, Emma

    2011-02-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to excessive anticoagulation is a rare, life-threatening condition. Reports in the literature have emphasized the importance of a prompt reversal of the causative coagulopathy by intravenous administration of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. In the event of an unstable airway, surgical intervention via tracheostomy or cricothyroidectomy is advocated. We report a case of sublingual hematoma that was treated conservatively, and we discuss the presentation and management of this entity.

  2. Warfarin-induced sublingual hematoma mimicking Ludwig angina: Conservative management of a potentially life-threatening condition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to excessive anticoagulation is a rare, life-threatening condition. Reports in the literature have emphasized the importance of a prompt reversal of the causative coagulopathy by intravenous administration of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. In the event of an unstable airway, surgical intervention via tracheostomy or cricothyroidectomy is advocated. We report a case of sublingual hematoma that was treated conservatively, and we discuss the presentation and management of this entity.

  3. Effect of hardening induced by cold expansion on damage fatigue accumulation and life assessment of Aluminum alloy 6082 T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendouba Mostefa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hole cold expansion (HCE is an effective method to extend the fatigue life of mechanical structures. During cold expansion process compressive residual stresses around the expanded hole are generated. The enhancement of fatigue life and the crack initiation and growth behavior of a holed specimen were investigated by using the 6082 Aluminum alloy. The present study suggests a simple technical method for enhancement of fatigue life by a cold expansion hole of pre-cracked specimen. Fatigue damage accumulation of cold expanded hole in aluminum alloy which is widely used in transportation and in aeronautics was analyzed. Experimental tests were carried out using pre-cracked SENT specimens. Tests were performed in two and four block loading under constant amplitude. These tests were performed by using two and four blocks under uniaxial constant amplitude loading. The increasing and decreasing loading were carried. The experimental results were compared to the damage calculated by the Miner's rule and a new simple fatigue damage indicator. This comparison shows that the 'damaged stress model', which takes into account the loading history, yields a good estimation according to the experimental results. Moreover, the error is minimized in comparison to the Miner's model.

  4. Spin-Fluctuation-Induced Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior with Suppressed Superconductivity in LiFe_{1−x}Co_{x}As

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a series of LiFe_{1−x}Co_{x}As compounds with different Co concentrations by transport, optical spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. We observe a Fermi-liquid to non-Fermi-liquid to Fermi-liquid (FL-NFL-FL crossover alongside a monotonic suppression of the superconductivity with increasing Co content. In parallel to the FL-NFL-FL crossover, we find that both the low-energy spin fluctuations and Fermi surface nesting are enhanced and then diminished, strongly suggesting that the NFL behavior in LiFe_{1−x}Co_{x}As is induced by low-energy spin fluctuations that are very likely tuned by Fermi surface nesting. Our study reveals a unique phase diagram of LiFe_{1−x}Co_{x}As where the region of NFL is moved to the boundary of the superconducting phase, implying that they are probably governed by different mechanisms.

  5. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016.

  6. Transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic alteration induced by p,p'-DDE exposure in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yang, Lei

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesis of fetal origins indicates that exposures in early development could induce epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, affecting the susceptibility of adult-onset disease for generations. p,p'-DDE, the primary metabolite of persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, is highly correlated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a strong contributing factor to type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation. It is still unknown whether this germline epigenetic defect would affect the somatic tissue endocrine pancreas. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to p,p'-DDE from gestation day 8 to 15. The F1 male offspring were mated with female to produce F2 progeny. F3 generation was obtained by intercrossing the control and treated male and female of F2 generation and divided as C♂-C♀, DDE♂-DDE♀, DDE♂-C♀ and C♂-DDE♀. Results indicated that F1 offspring in p,p'-DDE group exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), abnormal insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and altered Igf2 and H19 expression induced by Igf2/H19 hypomethylation, which could be transferred to the F3 offspring through the male germ line. IGT and abnormal insulin secretion were more obvious in males than those in females. Ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic defect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-7 Induces SAMHD1 Phosphorylation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes, Improving Early Steps of HIV-1 Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Coiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 post-integration latency in CD4+ lymphocytes is responsible for viral persistence despite treatment, but mechanisms involved in the establishment of latent viral reservoirs are not fully understood. We determined that both interleukin 2 (IL-2 and IL-7 induced SAMHD1 phosphorylation in T592, abrogating its antiviral activity. However, IL-7 caused a much more profound stimulatory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration than IL-2 that required chemokine co-stimulation. Both cytokines barely induced transcription due to low NF-κB induction, favoring the establishment of latent reservoirs. Effect of IL-7 on SAMHD1 phosphorylation was confirmed in IL-7-treated patients (ACTG 5214 study. Dasatinib—a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor—blocked SAMHD1 phosphorylation induced by IL-2 and IL-7 and restored HIV-1 restriction. We propose that γc-cytokines play a major role in the reservoir establishment not only by driving homeostatic proliferation but also by increasing susceptibility of CD4+ lymphocytes to HIV-1 infection through SAMHD1 inactivation.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Kairomone(s) in the Daphnia-Scenedesmus System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthoon, van F.L.

    2004-01-01

    Infochemicals play an important role in interactions between living organisms in aquatic environments. Although the presence of these chemical cues is confirmed in more and more systems, the chemical structures of the compounds involved remain predominantly elusive and the identification of these

  9. Isolation and Identification of Kairomone(s) in the Daphnia-Scenedesmus System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthoon, van F.L.

    2004-01-01

    Infochemicals play an important role in interactions between living organisms in aquatic environments. Although the presence of these chemical cues is confirmed in more and more systems, the chemical structures of the compounds involved remain predominantly elusive and the identification of these co

  10. Investigation of chloride induced corrosion of bridge pier and life-cycle repair cost analysis using fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Dinesh

    Bridges are the long term investment of the highway agencies. To maintain the required service level throughout the life of a bridge, a series of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRℝ) works can be performed. To investigate the corrosion deterioration and maintenance and repair practices in the bridge pier columns constructed in chloride-laden environment, a questionnaire survey was conducted within the 50 state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Based on the survey data, two corrosion deterioration phases were identified. They were corrosion crack initiation phase and corrosion propagation phase. The data showed that the mean corrosion crack initiation phase for bridge pier column having cover of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm was 18.9 years, 20.3 years, and 22.5 years, respectively. The corrosion propagation phase starts after the corrosion crack initiation. The corrosion propagation is defined in a single term, corrosion damage rate, measured as percentage of area damaged due to corrosion cracking, spalling, and delamination. From the survey, the corrosion damage rate was found 2.23% and 2.10% in the bridge pier columns exposed to deicing salt water and exposed to tidal splash/spray, respectively. For this study, two different corrosion damage rates were proposed before and after the repair criteria for minor damage repair as practiced by DOTs. This study also presents the collected data regarding the corrosion effectiveness of using sealers and coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and glass fiber/epoxy composites as maintenance and repair technique. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of wrapping carbon fiber/epoxy composites and glass fiber/epoxy composites in bridge pier columns constructed in a chloride-laden environment was investigated by conducting life-cycle cost analysis. As a repair work, externally bonded two layer of carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy composites were installed by wet

  11. Validation and the first results of clinical use of an EORTC QLQ PRT-23 module to assess quality of life in patients with radiation-induced rectitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Lutsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to make the language adaptation and testing of an EORTC QLQ PRT-23 module, a method to assess quality of life, which has been elaborated in conjunction with the European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life questionnaire group (EORTC QLQ group, in clinical practice. Subjects and methods. An initiative study of the language adaptation of the EORTC QLQ PRT-23 module was completed. The elaborated questionnaire was tested in clinical practice. The criteria for including patients (n = 176 in the study were successful radical antitumor therapy; at least three months’ duration of small pelvic radiotherapy (RT; clinical Stage 0–IV according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG and EORTC; and endoscopically verified signs of developed radiation-induced rectitis (Stages 0–IV after M.S. Bardychev; no recurrence of the underlying disease throughout the follow-up; patient compliance; availability of a patient to be followed. Results. The range of performed RT in the patients included in the study protocol was as follows: 61 (34.6 % patients had a total focal dose of RT, which was not higher than the tolerance values for the rectal mucosa (from 60 to 70 Gy; 115 (65.4 % patients had a radiation dose range of 70 to 80 Gy. At least 3 months passed from the completion of the given RT to the study inclusion. With the EORTC QLQ PRT-23 module, the differences between RTOG/EORTC 0 and RTOG/EORTC II–IV groups were as follows: p0–II < 0.02, p0–III < 0.0001, and p0–IV < 0.0006. When the EORTC QLQ С-30 and QLQ PRT-23 in RTOG/EORTC III group (n = 7 and the RTOG/EORTC 0 group, this was p0–III < 0.002.Assessment of the QLQ С-30 and QLQ PRT-23 modules and comparison of patients with RTOG/EORTC Stages I, II, and IV and those with RTOG/EORTC stage 0 revealed no statistically significant group difference: p0–I < 0.81, p0–II < 0.07, and p0–IV < 0.07, respectively. The use of the QLQ PRT-23 module only

  12. Factors that determine parents' perception of their child's risk of life-threatening food-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Jennifer; Wong, Jayne; Wan, Ming Wai; Davis, Naomi; Arkwright, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Although food allergy is known to be associated with increased disease burden, factors that shape parents' perception of their child's risk of future severe or fatal anaphylaxis are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with parents' perceived risk of food-induced anaphylaxis. A questionnaire-based survey of 202 parents was conducted in a single specialist center outpatient clinic that treats children with food allergies. Parents' perceived risk of their child experiencing further food-induced anaphylaxis was assessed by using a validated food allergy independent measure. Demographic data as well as parents' anxiety and depression scores were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score. Nineteen percent of parents believed that their child had a moderate-to-high chance of dying from food-induced anaphylaxis. A lack of a university education, higher anxiety score, and, particularly, possession of an epinephrine autoinjector (relative risk 9.9 [95% confidence interval, 3.3-30]) were key factors associated with heightened risk perception. Caring for a child with multiple food allergies was the main factor associated with parents feeling less able to manage future reactions (relative risk 9.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-53]). Parents' risk perception of fatal anaphylaxis correlated with anxiety and mood scores. Parents' education, affect, and possession of an epinephrine autoinjector were associated with a heightened perceived risk of future anaphylaxis. Clinicians should consider not only the child's needs but should also provide counseling for parents, particularly those who possess autoinjectors. Parents of children with multiple food allergies may need additional education and training to help them cope with future reactions.

  13. Stereoselective differentiation in the Salt-induced Peptide Formation reaction and its relevance for the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankensteiner, Kristof; Reiner, Hannes; Rode, Bernd M

    2005-04-01

    All living organisms on earth are almost totally made up of biomolecules of only one chiral form. For example, proteins are built almost exclusively of L-amino acids, and sugars are composed of D-saccharides, a fact that is usually referred to as biohomochirality. Its origin is the center of numerous investigations and theories but is not really elucidated yet. The results of experimental investigations of peptide formation in a prebiotically relevant scenario, as described in this paper, give indications on a possible pathway for the synthesis of homochiral L-peptides in the course of the Salt-induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) reaction.

  14. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  15. Similar Effects of Two Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy Protocols on Motor Impairment, Motor Function and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wilma Costa; Conforto, Adriana B; Orsini, Marco; Stern, Annette; André, Charles

    2015-03-23

    Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10) while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9). Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α plays roles in Epstein-Barr virus's natural life cycle and tumorigenesis by inducing lytic infection through direct binding to the immediate-early BZLF1 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard J; Yu, Xianming; Cordes, Blue-Leaf A; Sathiamoorthi, Saraniya; Iempridee, Tawin; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Ma, Shidong; Romero-Masters, James C; McChesney, Kyle G; Lin, Zhen; Makielski, Kathleen R; Lee, Denis L; Lambert, Paul F; Johannsen, Eric C; Kenney, Shannon C; Mertz, Janet E

    2017-06-01

    When confronted with poor oxygenation, cells adapt by activating survival signaling pathways, including the oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulators called hypoxia-inducible factor alphas (HIF-αs). We report here that HIF-1α also regulates the life cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Incubation of EBV-positive gastric carcinoma AGS-Akata and SNU-719 and Burkitt lymphoma Sal and KemIII cell lines with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, L-mimosine or deferoxamine, or the NEDDylation inhibitor MLN4924 promoted rapid and sustained accumulation of both HIF-1α and lytic EBV antigens. ShRNA knockdown of HIF-1α significantly reduced deferoxamine-mediated lytic reactivation. HIF-1α directly bound the promoter of the EBV primary latent-lytic switch BZLF1 gene, Zp, activating transcription via a consensus hypoxia-response element (HRE) located at nt -83 through -76 relative to the transcription initiation site. HIF-1α did not activate transcription from the other EBV immediate-early gene, BRLF1. Importantly, expression of HIF-1α induced EBV lytic-gene expression in cells harboring wild-type EBV, but not in cells infected with variants containing base-pair substitution mutations within this HRE. Human oral keratinocyte (NOK) and gingival epithelial (hGET) cells induced to differentiate by incubation with either methyl cellulose or growth in organotypic culture accumulated both HIF-1α and Blimp-1α, another cellular factor implicated in lytic reactivation. HIF-1α activity also accumulated along with Blimp-1α during B-cell differentiation into plasma cells. Furthermore, most BZLF1-expressing cells observed in lymphomas induced by EBV in NSG mice with a humanized immune system were located distal to blood vessels in hypoxic regions of the tumors. Thus, we conclude that HIF-1α plays central roles in both EBV's natural life cycle and EBV-associated tumorigenesis. We propose that drugs that induce HIF-1α protein accumulation are good candidates for development of a lytic

  17. The Lignan Pinoresinol Induces Nuclear Translocation of DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans but has No Effect on Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karoline; Büchter, Christian; Havermann, Susannah; Wätjen, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The lignan pinoresinol is a constituent of flaxseed, sesame seeds and olive oil. Because of different molecular effects reported for this compound, e.g. antioxidative activity, pinoresinol is suggested to cause positive effects on humans. Because experimental data are limited, we have analysed the effects of the lignan on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: in spite of a strong antioxidative capacity detected in an in vitro assay, no antioxidative effects were detectable in vivo. In analogy to this result, no modulation of the sensitivity against thermal stress was detectable. However, incubation with pinoresinol caused an enhanced nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor DAF-16 (insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway). Using a strain with an enhanced oxidative stress level (mev-1 mutant), we clearly see an increase in stress resistance caused by this lignan, but no change in reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of pinoresinol on the life span of the nematode, but no modulation was found, neither in wild-type nor in mev-1 mutant nematodes. These results suggest that pinoresinol may exert pharmacologically interesting effects via modulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway in C. elegans as well as in other species like mammals due to the evolutionary conservation of this signalling pathway.

  18. Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-12-01

    Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring.

  19. Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for spatial memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning.

  20. A matter of balance between life and death: targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced autophagy for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Spencer B

    2010-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many biological functions and diseases. Often their role is counterintuitive, where ROS can either promote cell survival or cell death depending on the cellular context. Similarly, autophagy is involved in many biological functions and diseases where it can either promote cell survival or cell death. There is now a growing consensus that ROS controls autophagy in multiple contexts and cell types. Furthermore, alterations in ROS and autophagy regulation contribute to cancer initiation and progression. However, how ROS and autophagy contribute to cancer and how to target either for cancer treatment is controversial. Blocking ROS generation could prevent cancer initiation, whereas blockage of autophagy seems to be required for initiation of cancer. In cancer progression, high levels of ROS correspond with increased metabolism and under metabolic stress autophagy is required to maintain cellular integrity. In cancer treatment, therapeutic drugs that increase ROS and autophagy have been implicated in their mechanism for cell death, such as 2-methoxyestrodial (2-ME) and arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), whereas other therapeutic drugs that induce ROS and autophagy seem to have a protective effect. This has led to different approaches to treat cancer patients where autophagy is either activated or inhibited. Both views of ROS and autophagy are valid and reflect the balance within a cell to either survive or die. Understanding this balancing act within a cell is essential to determine whether to block or activate ROS-controlled autophagy for cancer therapy.

  1. Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohlabeln, Hermann; Rach, Stefan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    -deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical...... during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from...... pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate...

  2. Functional continuity: did field-induced oriented aperiodic constraints at Life's origin aid its sequence-based evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra-Delmotte, G.; Mitra, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    A non-biological analog undergoing Darwinian-like evolution could have enhanced the probability of many crucial independent bottom-up emergent steps, engendered within its premises, and smoothen the inanimate-animate transition. Now, the higher-level environment-mutable DNA sequences influence the lower-level pattern of oriented templates (enzymes, lipid membranes, RNA) in the organized cell matrix and hence their associated substrate-dynamics; note how templates are akin to local fields, kinetically constraining reactant orientations. Since the lowerlevel is likely the more primitive of the two (rather than Cairns-Smith's "readily available" rigid clay crystal sequence-based replicators as a memory-like basis for slowly mutating predecessor-patterns enroute to complex RNA-based Darwinian evolution), a gradual thermodynamic-to-kinetic transition in an isotropic medium, is proposed as driven by some order-parameter --via "available" field-responsive dipolar colloid networks, as apart from bio-organics, mineral colloids also can display liquid crystal (LC) phases (see [1]). An access to solid-like orientational order in a fluid matrix suggests how aperiodic patterns can be influenced and sustained (a la homeostasis) via external inhomogeneous fields (e.g. magnetic rocks); this renders these cooperative networks with potential as confining host-media, whose environment-sensitivity can not only influence their sterically-coupled guest-substrates but also their network properties (the latter can enable 'functions' like spontaneous transport under non-equilibrium suggesting a natural basis for their selection by the environment). In turn LC systems could have been preceded by even simpler anisotropic fluid hosts, viz., external field-induced mineral magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) aggregates. Indeed, the capacity of an MNP to couple its magnetic and rotational d.o.f.s suggests how an environment-sensitive field-influenced network of interacting dipolar colloids close to

  3. Effects of Self-induced Unclassified Therapeutic Tremors on Quality of Life Among Non-professional Caregivers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berceli, David; Salmon, Melanie; Bonifas, Robin; Ndefo, Nkem

    2014-09-01

    背景:慢性应激对身体健康相关的 生活质量会产生负面作用。在有多 重性的压力、精神卫生资源有限以 及对医疗保健服务存在文化障碍的 充满挑战的环境中,高效、可利用 的压力管理至关重要。在这种情况 下 , 激 活 自 我 诱 导 治 疗 性 震 颤 (Self-induced therapeutic tremors, SUTT)可缓解过多的压 力,并改善生活质(QoL)。目的:调查研究(1)一个10周 SUTT培训和实践的可行性(2)参 与者使用SUTT与其自我报告健康相 关的生活质量变化之间的关联。方法:南非开普敦SOS儿童村的所 有工作人员(n=21)接受了10周 SUTT训练,每周一次SUTT培训和小 组练习及2至3次独立SUTT练习。 在干预前后,进行了基于健康的生 活质量问卷调查,并要求参与者记 录下其经历的日记。结果: 10周SUTT教学和练习后, (1)干预方案的依从率为91.3% ,(2)参与者报告他们对所有五 个QoL领域的整体印象 的增加具有 统计学意义:测试前后的平均评分 分别为3.81和4.35 (P<.05)。结论:10周SUTT教学和实践研究 方案对非专业护理人员和提高生 活质量的潜在的治疗方法都是非 常可行的。

  4. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in multiple myeloma : influence on quality of life and development of a questionnaire to compose common toxicity criteria grading for use in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, A. J M; Vreugdenhil, G.; Oerlemans, S.; Eurelings, M.; Minnema, M. C.; Eeltink, C. M.; van de Poll-Franse, L. V.; Mols, F.

    Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) may negatively influence multiple myeloma (MM) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Dose modification is the only way to minimize CIPN. To measure CIPN in daily practice, the Indication for Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Grading

  5. Studies on the mechanism of the epileptiform activity induced by U18666A. II. concentration, half-life and distribution of radiolabeled U18666A in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Sarkar, C.P.; Towns, L.

    1982-06-01

    The concentration, half-life, and distribution in brain of U18666A, a drug that can drastically alter cerebral lipids and induce a chronic epileptiform state, was determined following both acute and chronic drug administration. U18666A specifically labeled with tritium was prepared by custom synthesis. Brain levels of 1 x 10(-6)M and higher were reached soon after giving an acute 10-mg/kg dose (i.p. or s.c.) of U18666A containing 7-/sup 3/H-U18666A of known specific activity. A steady state concentration of 1 to 2 x 10(-6)M was reached with chronic injection of 10 mg/kg every 4th day, a treatment schedule that results in altered brain lipids and induction of epilepsy if begun soon after birth. The disappearance of U18666A from both brain and serum was described by two similar biexponential processes, a brief rapid clearance (t1/2 . 10 h) and a sustained and much slower one (t1/2 . 65 h). Brain levels of the drug were about 10 times higher than serum at all times examined. Few differences were seen in the regional distribution of radiolabeled drug in brain as determined by both direct analysis and by autoradiographic examination; but the drug did concentrate in lipid-rich subcellular fractions. For example, the synaptosome and myelin fractions each contained about 25-35% of both the total /sup 3/H-labeled drug and total lipid in whole brain. The lipid composition of these fractions was drastically altered in treated animals. In conclusion, the chronic epileptiform state induced by U18666A does not appear to involve localization of the drug in a specific brain region or particular cell type. Rather, the condition could involve localization of the drug in lipid-rich membranes and marked changes in the composition of these membranes.

  6. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  7. Cloning and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 subunits from Ascaris suum - a parasitic nematode highly adapted to changes of oxygen conditions during its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Miho; Amino, Hisako; Nakajima, Mikage; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris suum successfully adapts to a significant decrease in oxygen availability during its life cycle by altering its metabolic system dramatically. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxic environments in A. suum. In multicellular organisms, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, is a master regulator of genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding HIF-1α and HIF-1β were cloned from A. suum and characterized. The full-length A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β cDNAs contain open reading frames encoding proteins with 832 and 436 amino acids, respectively. In the deduced amino acid sequences of A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β, functional domains essential for DNA-binding, dimerization, and oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation were conserved. The interaction between A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Both A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β mRNAs were expressed at all stages examined (fertilized eggs, third-stage larvae, lung-stage larvae, young adult worms, and adult muscle tissue), and most abundantly in the aerobic free-living third-stage larvae, followed by a gradual decrease after infection of the host. hif-1 mRNA transcription was not sensitive to the oxygen environment in either third-stage larvae or adult worms (muscle tissue), and was regulated in a stage-specific manner. High expression of hif-1 mRNAs in third-stage larvae suggests its contribution to pre-adaptation to a hypoxic environment after infection of their host. Sequence analysis of 5'-upstream regions of mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase/quinol-fumarate reductase) genes, which show stage-specific expression and play an important role in oxygen adaptation during the life cycle, revealed that all subunits except for the adult-type flavoprotein subunit (Fp) possess putative hypoxia

  8. Differential peptide labeling (iTRAQ) in LC-MS/MS based proteomics in Daphnia reveal mechanisms of an antipredator response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Christoph; Müller, Stefan; Elert, Eric von

    2015-02-06

    Daphnia, an important model organism for studies on ecology and evolution, has become a textbook example for inducible defenses against predators. Inducible defenses are widespread in nature, and the underlying molecular mechanisms for this plasticity in general and in particular in Daphnia are not fully understood. Here, we provide for the first time a combination of established life-history changes (LHC), which are induced by chemical cues of a predator (fish kairomones), in Daphnia with differential peptide labeling (iTRAQ) in LC-MS/MS based proteomics. The aim of the present study is the elucidation of proteins involved in specific antipredator responses in a predator-prey system of ecological relevance by high-throughput proteomics. To obtain a highly specific antifish response of Daphnia, highly purified fish kairomones were applied in the presence or absence of light. We were able to identify a set of functional proteins, which are likely to explain the kairomone-mediated and light-dependent LHC in Daphnia.

  9. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange May Improve Hemodynamics and Organ Failure Among Children with Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yu; Cornell, Timothy T.; Cooley, Elaine G.; Beckman, Craig N.; Baldridge, Paula K.; Mottes, Theresa A.; Luckritz, Kera E.; Plomaritas, Kathryn S.; Meade, J. Michael; Odetola, Folafoluwa O.; Han, Yong Y.; Blatt, Neal B.; Annich, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on hemodynamics, organ failure, and survival in children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to sepsis requiring extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Design A retrospective analysis. Setting A pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in an academic children’s hospital. Patients 14 consecutive children with sepsis and MODS who received TPE while on ECLS from 2005 to 2013. Interventions Median of 3 cycles of TPE with median of 1.0 times the estimated plasma volume per exchange. Measurements and Main Results Organ Failure Index (OFI) and Vasoactive-Inotropic Score (VIS) were measured before and after TPE use. PICU survival in our cohort was 71.4%. OFI decreased in patients following TPE [pre: 4.1 ± 0.7 vs. post: 2.9 ± 0.9 (mean ±SD); p = 0.0004]. Patients showed improved VIS following TPE [pre: 24.5 (13.0–69.8) vs. post: 5.0 (1.5–7.0), median (25th–75th); p = 0.0002]. Among all patients, the change in OFI was greater for early TPE use than late use [pre: −1.7 ±1.2 vs. post: −0.9 ±0.6; p = 0.14], similar to the change in VIS [pre: −67.5 (28.0–171.2) vs. post: −12.0 (7.2–18.5); p = 0.02]. Among survivors, the change in OFI was greater among early TPE use than late use [early: −2.3 ±1.0 vs. late: −0.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.03], as was the change in VIS [early: −42.0 (16.0–76.3) vs. late: −12.0 (5.3–29.0); p=0.17]. The mean duration of ECLS after TPE according to timing of TPE was not statistically different among all patients or among survivors. Conclusions The use of TPE in children on ECLS with sepsis-induced MODS is associated with organ failure recovery and improved hemodynamic status. Initiating TPE early in the hospital course was associated with greater improvement in organ dysfunction and decreased requirement for vasoactive and/or inotropic agents. PMID:25599148

  10. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  11. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  12. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  13. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  14. Transgenerational disruption of functional 5-HT1AR-induced connectivity in the adult mouse brain by traumatic stress in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razoux, F; Russig, H; Mueggler, T; Baltes, C; Dikaiou, K; Rudin, M; Mansuy, I M

    2016-09-27

    Traumatic stress in early life is a strong risk factor for psychiatric disorders that can affect individuals across several generations. Although the underlying mechanisms have been proposed to implicate serotonergic transmission in the brain, the neural circuits involved remain poorly delineated. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we demonstrate that traumatic stress in postnatal life alters 5-HT1A receptor-evoked local and global functions in both, the exposed animals and their progeny when adult. Disrupted functional connectivity is consistent across generations and match limbic circuits implicated in mood disorders, but also networks not previously linked to traumatic stress. These findings underscore the neurobiology and functional mapping of transgenerational effects of early life experiences.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 27 September 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.146.

  15. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  16. Temporal genetic stability and high effective population size despite fisheries-induced life-history trait evolution in the North Sea sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuveliers, E.L.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Larmuseau, M.H.D.; Maes, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy fishing and other anthropogenic influences can have profound impact on a species’ resilience to harvesting. Besides the decrease in the census and effective population size, strong declines in mature adults and recruiting individuals may lead to almost irreversible genetic changes in life-hist

  17. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van Willemijn A.M.; Palen, van der Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  18. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  19. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  20. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  1. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  2. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  3. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures. Becaus

  4. Identification of pyridine analogues as new predator-derived kairomones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBrechbühl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, animals have developed survival strategies relying on their senses. The individual ability to identify threatening situations is crucial and leads to increase in the overall fitness of the species. Rodents, for example have developed in their nasal cavities specialized olfactory neurons implicated in the detection of volatile cues encoding for impending danger such as predator scents or alarm pheromones. In particular, the neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG, an olfactory subsystem, are implicated in the detection of danger cues sharing a similar chemical signature, a heterocyclic sulfur- or nitrogen-containing motif. Here we used a from the wild to the lab approach to identify new molecules that are involuntarily emitted by predators and that initiate fear-related responses in the recipient animal, the putative prey. We collected urines from carnivores as sources of predator scents and first verified their impact on the blood pressure of the mice. With this approach, the urine of the mountain lion emerged as the most potent source of chemical stress. We then identified in this biological fluid, new volatile cues with characteristic GG-related fingerprints, in particular the methylated pyridine structures, 2,4-lutidine and its analogues. We finally verified their encoded danger quality and demonstrated their ability to mimic the effects of the predator urine on GG neurons, on mice blood pressure and in behavioral experiments. In summary, we were able to identify here, with the use of an integrative approach, new relevant molecules, the pyridine analogues, implicated in interspecies danger communication.

  5. A systematic overview of harvesting-induced maturation evolution in predator-prey systems with three different life-history tradeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There are concerns that anthropogenic harvesting may cause phenotypic adaptive changes in exploited wild populations, in particular maturation at smaller size and younger age. In this paper, we study the evolutionarily stable size-at- maturation of prey subjected to size-selective harvesting in a simple predator-prey model, taking into account three recognized life-history costs of early maturation, namely reduced fecundity, reduced growth, and increased mortality. Our analysis sh...

  6. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis; Naoel Hassan Feres; Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza; Roberto Vilela Veloso; Vanessa Cristina Arantes; Nair Honda Kawashita; Edson Moleta Colodel; Bárbara Laet Botosso; Marise Auxiliadora de Barros Reis; Márcia Queiroz Latorraca

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and ...

  7. Neonatal exposure to oxidants induces later in life a metabolic response associated to a phenotype of energy deficiency in an animal model of total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Niina; Chessex, Philippe; Rouleau, Thérèse; Nuyt, Anne-Monique; Perreault, Maude; Lavoie, Jean-Claude

    2010-09-01

    Failure to protect total parenteral nutrition (TPN) from ambient light exacerbates the generation of peroxides, which affects blood glucose and plasma triacylglyceride (TG) in neonates. Based on the concept that the origin of adult diseases can be traced back to perinatal life, it was hypothesized that neonatal exposure to peroxides may affect energy availability later in life. Three-day-old guinea pigs, fitted with a jugular catheter, were fed regular chow (sham) +/- i.v. 350 microM H2O2 (sham + H2O2) or nourished with light-protected TPN [TPN(-)L, 209 +/- 9 microM peroxides] or light-exposed TPN [TPN(+)L, 365 +/- 15 microM peroxides]. After 4 d, infusions were stopped and animals fed chow. Spontaneous ambulatory movements, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, TG, hepatic activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase (key enzymes of glycolysis), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (key enzymes of lipogenesis) were determined at 12-14 wk and compared by ANOVA (p animals from sham + H2O2, TPN(-)L and TPN(+)L groups had lower plasma TG explained for 36% by low phosphofructokinase activity; they had lower glucose tolerance, lower body weight, and lower physical activity. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to oxidant molecules such as peroxides has important consequences later in life on lipid and glucose metabolism leading to a phenotype of energy deficiency.

  8. Barrier protective use of skin care to prevent chemotherapy-induced cutaneous symptoms and to maintain quality of life in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlrab J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Wohlrab,1 Nikola Bangemann,2 Anke Kleine-Tebbe,3 Marc Thill,4,5 Sherko Kümmel,6 Eva-Maria Grischke,7 Rainer Richter,8 Sophie Seite,9 Diana Lüftner10 1Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Halle (Saale, 2Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany, 3Breast Centre DRK Hospital, Berlin, 4Breast Centre University of Lübeck, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Lübeck, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Agaplesion Markus Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, 6Breast Centre and Clinic of Senology, Hospital Essen-Mitte, Essen, 7Breast Centre University of Tübingen, Department of Gynaecology, Tübingen, 8L'Oréal, Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, 9La Roche-Posay, Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 10University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumour Immunology, Berlin, Germany Purpose: Chemotherapy with anthracyclines, taxanes, or alkylating agents often causes cutaneous side effects. Nonspecific inhibition of the proliferative activity of keratinocytes has antidifferentiation effects that lead to defects in the barrier function and, thus, to dry, itchy, and irritable skin. These cutaneous symptoms reduce the quality of life of the patients considerably. Conditioning with topical application of niacinamide uses the cytoprotective and barrier stabilizing effect of vitamin B3. Patients and methods: A multicenter randomized crossover study investigated the influence of the test preparation on the quality of life compared to standard care for 73 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant cytostatic therapy. Primary target parameter was the Dermatology Life Quality Index with its respective subscales after 6 weeks of a twice-daily application of the respective preparations. Additionally, specific symptoms such as pruritus, dryness, and

  9. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  10. Impact of diabetes on treatment-induced changes in left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E; Okin, P M; Omvik, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and impaired systolic function in hypertensive patients, but less is known about its impact on LVH regression and functional improvement during antihypertensive treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed annual...... shortening (both pantihypertensive treatment....... echocardiography in 730 non-diabetic and 93 diabetic patients (aged 55-80 years) with hypertension and electrocardiographic LVH during 4.8-year losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Baseline mean blood pressure (BP) and LV mass did...

  11. Life-threatening course of pemphigus vulgaris complicated by sepsis caused by azathioprine-induced bone marrow suppression, successfully managed with combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Martin; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Sternbersky, Jan; Ditrichova, Dagmar; Hercogova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Severe forms of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) that are resistant to standard treatment present a life-threatening disease with a mortality of 5-10%. The treatment is usually individualized. The most popular procedures used today include intravenous applications of immunoglobulins and rituximab. Currently the common use of pulse corticosteroids, often in first-line treatment, is being neglected. This particular case documented the severity of the disease and also the need for combined and comprehensive care, in which corticosteroid pulse therapy still plays an important role.

  12. A Life for a Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严寒

    2004-01-01

    The English author, Richard Savage, was once living in London ingreat poverty. In order to earn a little money he had written the story" ofhis life. But not many copies of the book had been sold in the shops, and

  13. DLK-1, SEK-3 and PMK-3 Are Required for the Life Extension Induced by Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Disruption in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rebecca K.; Borror, Megan B.; Bokov, Alex F.; Link, Christopher D.; Rea, Shane L.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies numerous age-related pathologies. In an effort to uncover how the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction might be alleviated, we examined how the nematode C. elegans not only adapts to disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but in many instances responds with extended lifespan. Studies have shown various retrograde responses are activated in these animals, including the well-studied ATFS-1-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Such processes fall under the greater rubric of cellular surveillance mechanisms. Here we identify a novel p38 signaling cascade that is required to extend life when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is disrupted in worms, and which is blocked by disruption of the Mitochondrial-associated Degradation (MAD) pathway. This novel cascade is defined by DLK-1 (MAP3K), SEK-3 (MAP2K), PMK-3 (MAPK) and the reporter gene Ptbb-6::GFP. Inhibition of known mitochondrial retrograde responses does not alter induction of Ptbb-6::GFP, instead induction of this reporter often occurs in counterpoint to activation of SKN-1, which we show is under the control of ATFS-1. In those mitochondrial bioenergetic mutants which activate Ptbb-6::GFP, we find that dlk-1, sek-3 and pmk-3 are all required for their life extension. PMID:27420916

  14. DLK-1, SEK-3 and PMK-3 Are Required for the Life Extension Induced by Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Disruption in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Munkácsy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies numerous age-related pathologies. In an effort to uncover how the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction might be alleviated, we examined how the nematode C. elegans not only adapts to disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but in many instances responds with extended lifespan. Studies have shown various retrograde responses are activated in these animals, including the well-studied ATFS-1-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt. Such processes fall under the greater rubric of cellular surveillance mechanisms. Here we identify a novel p38 signaling cascade that is required to extend life when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is disrupted in worms, and which is blocked by disruption of the Mitochondrial-associated Degradation (MAD pathway. This novel cascade is defined by DLK-1 (MAP3K, SEK-3 (MAP2K, PMK-3 (MAPK and the reporter gene Ptbb-6::GFP. Inhibition of known mitochondrial retrograde responses does not alter induction of Ptbb-6::GFP, instead induction of this reporter often occurs in counterpoint to activation of SKN-1, which we show is under the control of ATFS-1. In those mitochondrial bioenergetic mutants which activate Ptbb-6::GFP, we find that dlk-1, sek-3 and pmk-3 are all required for their life extension.

  15. Development of device for trapping a superheated liquid drop and life-time measurements of the drop by radiation-induced evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Teruko; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Homma, Akira; Narita, Masakuni [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-08-01

    In this study a detection sensitivity evaluation was made by measuring the life time of a single liquid drop. A device trapping a superheated drop was developed, where a single drop of test liquid was trapped at a specified position and then irradiated. Therefore, the volume of the drop can be measured before the irradiation. Wakeshima originally developed the device, in which a test liquid drop was injected and superheated in a supporting liquid, to measure the limit of superheat of the liquid. Apfel modified Wakeshima's device by applying an acoustic field to be able to trap and decompress a superheated liquid drop. The device in the present study is similar to Apfel's. But the inlet part is cooled because the boiling point of the test liquid is lower than room temperature. In this device the superheated drop of trans-2-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}, boiling point=0.8degC) was exposed to Am-Be neutrons and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays and its life time was measured. (author)

  16. Mindfulness and zest for life buffer the negative effects of experimentally-induced perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness: Implications for theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Khan R L; Best, Ida; Stritzke, Werner G K; Page, Andrew C

    2016-07-01

    Suicide research can be enhanced by an ability to safely manipulate putative causal variables. The present studies developed an experimental task to modify risk factors identified by the interpersonal theory of suicide (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) and examine their hypothesized suppressive effect on persistence in adversity in undergraduate university students. Variables that may moderate the impact of these risk factors on persistence (zest for life and mindful awareness) were incorporated as potential resilience factors. Study 1 (N = 92) found elevated burdensomeness and diminished belongingness significantly impaired persistence. Additionally, these predicted effects were moderated by individual differences in zest for life. In Study 2 (N = 52), individuals trained in mindfulness prior to the experimental task displayed greater persistence relative to controls. Findings provide experimental support for the role of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in the manner predicted by the interpersonal theory, and demonstrate a way to experimentally test the effects of resilience factors that reduce the impact of these interpersonal factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Abnormal hippocampal BDNF and miR-16 expression is associated with depression-like behaviors induced by stress during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Bai

    Full Text Available Some environmental stressors lead to the onset of depression via inhibiting hippocampal BDNF expression, but other environmental stressors-induced depression exhibits no change in BDNF expression. The underlying mechanisms behind the divergence remain unknown. In this study, depression-like behaviors were induced in rats by maternal deprivation (MD and chronic unpredictable stress (CUPS. Depression-like behaviors were tested by open field test, forced swimming test, and sucrose consumption test. BDNF and miR-16 expressions in the hippocampus were examined by real-time PCR. MD and CUPS rats crawled less distance, exhibited decreased vertical activity, and produced more fecal pellets than control rats in the open field test. However, MD rats crawled less distance and produced significantly less fecal pellets than CUPS rats. In the forced swimming and sucrose consumption tests, CUPS and MD rats exhibited longer floating time and consumed less sucrose than control rats, but MD rats exhibited shorter floating time and consumed less sucrose than CUPS rats. MD but not CUPS rats showed lower BDNF mRNA and higher miR-16 expression than control rats. In MD rats, BDNF mRNA expression negatively correlated with the expression of miR-16. BDNF expression positively correlated with the total distance rats crawled and vertical activity in the open field test while miR-16 expression negatively correlated the two behaviors. BDNF positively correlated with sucrose preference rate while miR-16 negatively correlated with sucrose preference rate of the sucrose consumption test. Our study suggests that MD and CUPS induced different depression-like behaviors in rats. Depression induced by MD but not CUPS was significantly associated with upregulation of miR-16 and possibly subsequent downregulation of BDNF in hippocampus.

  18. Chronic early life stress induced by limited bedding and nesting (LBN) material in rodents: critical considerations of methodology, outcomes and translational potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Claire-Dominique; Bath, Kevin G; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko; Larauche, Muriel; Lucassen, Paul J; Morris, Margaret J; Raineki, Charlis; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M; Taché, Yvette; Baram, Tallie Z

    2017-07-12

    The immediate and long-term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional, and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans. Here, we describe limited bedding and nesting (LBN) procedures, with models that produce altered maternal behavior ranging from fragmentation of care to maltreatment of infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss important issues related to the implementation of this chronic ELS procedure and to describe some of the most prominent endpoints and consequences, focusing on areas of convergence between laboratories. Effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, gut axis and metabolism are presented in addition to changes in cognitive and emotional functions. Interestingly, recent data have suggested a strong sex difference in some of the reported consequences of the LBN paradigm, with females being more resilient in general than males. As both the chronic and intermittent variants of the LBN procedure have profound consequences on the offspring with minimal external intervention from the investigator, this model is advantageous ecologically and has a large translational potential. In addition to the direct effect of ELS on neurodevelopmental outcomes, exposure to adverse early environments can also have intergenerational impacts on mental health and function in subsequent generation offspring. Thus, advancing our understanding of the effect of ELS on brain and behavioral development is of critical concern for the health and wellbeing of both the current

  19. Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  20. Early weaning stress induces chronic functional diarrhea, intestinal barrier defects, and increased mast cell activity in a porcine model of early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C S; Medland, J E; Mackey, E; Edwards, L L; Bagley, K D; DeWilde, M P; Williams, K J; Moeser, A J

    2017-06-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for development of gastrointestinal disorders later in life. The underlying mechanisms through which ELA and sex interact to influence disease susceptibility remains poorly understood. Utilizing a porcine early weaning stress (EWS) model to mimic ELA, we investigated the long-term effects of EWS on functional diarrhea, ileal permeability, mast cell activity and mast cell relationship with enteric ganglia. Juvenile and adult EWS pigs exhibited chronic, functional diarrhea (EWS 43.6% vs late wean control(LWC) 4.8%, P<.0001), increased intestinal permeability (2 fold increase EWS vs LWC, P<.0001), and mast cell numbers (at 7 weeks and 20 weeks ~1.6 fold increase EWS vs LWC, P<.05). Compared with EWS male castrates (Male-C), females EWS pigs exhibited more frequent diarrhea (58.8% vs 29.9%, P=.0016), and increased intestinal permeability (1-2 fold higher in EWS females, P<.001). Increased mast cell numbers and their enhanced co-localization with neuronal ganglia were observed in both Male-C and female EWS pigs; however, female pigs exhibited greater release of mast cell tryptase upon activation with c48/80 (~1.5 fold increase, P<.05), compared with Male-C pigs. These data demonstrate that pigs exposed to ELA exhibit increased vulnerability to functional diarrhea, intestinal permeability and mast cell activity. Further, these studies also showed that EWS female and Male-C pigs exhibited dimorphic responses to EWS with female piglets exhibited greater susceptibility and severity of diarrhea, intestinal permeability and mast cell tryptase release. Together, these findings mimic some of the key pathophysiologic findings in human functional GI disorders functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) suggesting that the EWS porcine model could be a valuable preclinical translational model for FGID research associated with ELA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle During Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH during postnatal development (pCIH causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 hours of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 hrs per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH, where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  2. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  3. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  4. Life Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Zhang Wenzhi creates a rich variety of pottery works by coveringpottery roughcasts of different qualities with a range of coloredglazes,patterns and textures.Her works principally reflect differentsocial and personal themes,are not for practical use but moreendorse her interest in pottery,her feelings on life,and a sense ofmodernity.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in multiple myeloma: influence on quality of life and development of a questionnaire to compose common toxicity criteria grading for use in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, A J M; Vreugdenhil, G; Oerlemans, S; Eurelings, M; Minnema, M C; Eeltink, C M; van de Poll-Franse, L V; Mols, F

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) may negatively influence multiple myeloma (MM) patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Dose modification is the only way to minimize CIPN. To measure CIPN in daily practice, the Indication for Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Grading of Peripheral Neuropathy Questionnaire (ICPNQ) was developed which can be completed within five minutes by the patient. The aims of this study were to (1) perform a psychometric evaluation of the ICPNQ and (2) examine the prevalence of CIPN and its influence on HRQOL in population-based MM patients. One hundred fifty-six MM patients, diagnosed between 2000 and 2014, completed the ICPNQ, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 (EORTC QLQ-CIPN20), and EORTC QLQ-C30 (65 % response). The psychometric analyses showed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84, 0.74, and 0.61 for, respectively, the sensory, motoric, and autonomic subscales of the ICPNQ. Test-retest reliability and construct validity were good for all subscales. Overall, 65 % of patients reported grade 2-3 neuropathy according to the ICPNQ. Patients with the highest CTC grades (grade 2 with neuropathic pain and grade 3 (38 %)) according to the ICPNQ reported significantly worse scores on all EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 subscales compared to patients with lower CTC grades (p ≤ 0.002). In addition, they reported statistically significant and clinically relevant worse HRQOL scores on almost all EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales. CIPN is a common side effect in MM patients, which has a negative impact on HRQOL. The ICPNQ is a valid instrument to distinguish the highest CIPN CTC grades from the lower CTC grades necessary to decide on dose modifications of chemotherapy in daily clinical practice.

  6. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on nausea, vomiting and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chemotherapy breast cancer patients. Single-blind, controlled, randomized cross-over study. Patients received 5-day aromatherapy treatment using either ginger essential oil or fragrance-matched artificial placebo (ginger fragrance oil) which was instilled in a necklace in an order dictated by the treatment group sequence. Two oncology clinics in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. VAS nausea score, frequency of vomiting and HRQoL profile (EORTC QLQ-C30 scores). Sixty female patients completed the study (age=47.3±9.26 years; Malay=98.3%; on highly emetogenic chemotherapy=86.7%). The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after ginger essential oil inhalation compared to placebo during acute phase (P=0.040) but not sustained for overall treatment effect (treatment effect: F=1.82, P=0.183; time effect: F=43.98, Pessential oil inhalation. A clinically relevant 10 points improvement on role functioning (P=0.002) and appetite loss (Pessential oil. At present time, the evidence derived from this study is not sufficiently convincing that inhaled ginger aromatherapy is an effective complementary therapy for CINV. The findings for HRQoL were however encouraging with significant improvement in several domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  8. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein in a percentage of 17% (control, C or 6% (low, L during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp. or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp. after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  9. Modelling the impact of temperature-induced life history plasticity and mate limitation on the epidemic potential of a marine ectoparasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L Groner

    Full Text Available Temperature is hypothesized to contribute to increased pathogenicity and virulence of many marine diseases. The sea louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasite of salmonids that exhibits strong life-history plasticity in response to temperature; however, the effect of temperature on the epidemiology of this parasite has not been rigorously examined. We used matrix population modelling to examine the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of sea lice parasitizing farmed salmon. Demographically-stochastic population projection matrices were created using parameters from the existing literature on vital rates of sea lice at different fixed temperatures and yearly temperature profiles. In addition, we quantified the effectiveness of a single stage-specific control applied at different times during a year with seasonal temperature changes. We found that the epidemic potential of sea lice increased with temperature due to a decrease in generation time and an increase in the net reproductive rate. In addition, mate limitation constrained population growth more at low temperatures than at high temperatures. Our model predicts that control measures targeting preadults and chalimus are most effective regardless of the temperature. The predictions from this model suggest that temperature can dramatically change vital rates of sea lice and can increase population growth. The results of this study suggest that sea surface temperatures should be considered when choosing salmon farm sites and designing management plans to control sea louse infestations. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of matrix population modelling for epidemiological studies.

  10. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  11. Nucleotide excision repair genes are expressed at low levels and are not detectably inducible in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic tissues, but their function is required for normal adult life after UVC exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Windy A. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Crocker, Tracey L. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Rodriguez, Ana M. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Leung, Maxwell C.K. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wade Lehmann, D. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Freedman, Jonathan H. [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Van Houten, Ben [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Meyer, Joel N., E-mail: joel.meyer@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2010-01-05

    We performed experiments to characterize the inducibility of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in Caenorhabditis elegans, and to examine global gene expression in NER-deficient and -proficient strains as well as germline vs. somatic tissues, with and without genotoxic stress. We also carried out experiments to elucidate the importance of NER in the adult life of C. elegans under genotoxin-stressed and control conditions. Adult lifespan was not detectably different between wild-type and NER-deficient xpa-1 nematodes under control conditions. However, exposure to 6 J/m{sup 2}/day of ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) decreased lifespan in xpa-1 nematodes more than a dose of 100 J/m{sup 2}/day in wild-type. Similar differential sensitivities were observed for adult size and feeding. Remarkably, global gene expression was nearly identical in young adult wild-type and xpa-1 nematodes, both in control conditions and 3 h after exposure to 50 J/m{sup 2} UVC. Neither NER genes nor repair activity were detectably inducible in young adults that lacked germ cells and developing embryos (glp-1 strain). However, expression levels of dozens of NER and other DNA damage response genes were much (5-30-fold) lower in adults lacking germ cells and developing embryos, suggesting that somatic and post-mitotic cells have a much lower DNA repair ability. Finally, we describe a refinement of our DNA damage assay that allows damage measurement in single nematodes.

  12. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    of membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  13. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in a Drosophila Multiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis (i.e., local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans (i.e., distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span (r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  14. Estrogen Modulates Specific Life and Death Signals Induced by LH and hCG in Human Primary Granulosa Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Marino, Marco; Vecchi, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Nicoli, Alessia; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-04-28

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones used for assisted reproduction acting on the same receptor (LHCGR) and mediating different intracellular signaling. We evaluated the pro- and anti-apoptotic effect of 100 pM LH or hCG, in the presence or in the absence of 200 pg/mL 17β-estradiol, in long-term, serum-starved human primary granulosa cells (hGLC) and a transfected granulosa cell line overexpressing LHCGR (hGL5/LHCGR). To this purpose, phospho-extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2), protein kinase B (pAKT), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) activation and procaspase 3 cleavage were evaluated over three days by Western blotting, along with the expression of target genes by real-time PCR and cell viability by colorimetric assay. We found that LH induced predominant pERK1/2 and pAKT activation STARD1, CCND2 and anti-apoptotic XIAP gene expression, while hCG mediated more potent CREB phosphorylation, expression of CYP19A1 and procaspase 3 cleavage than LH. Cell treatment by LH is accompanied by increased (serum-starved) cell viability, while hCG decreased the number of viable cells. The hCG-specific, pro-apoptotic effect was blocked by a physiological dose of 17β-estradiol, resulting in pAKT activation, lack of procaspase 3 cleavage and increased cell viability. These results confirm that relatively high levels of steroidogenic pathway activation are linked to pro-apoptotic signals in vitro, which may be counteracted by other factors, i.e., estrogens.

  15. Floating Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ One in six people in China have left their hometown in search of a better life and the number continues to grow,creating a challenge for host cities,according to a government report.The floating population,or people who live and work outside their permanent home,reached 211 million last year and the number could reach 350 million by 2050 if govemment policies remain unchanged,said the Report on the Development of China's Floating Population issued on June 26 by the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC).

  16. Diet-induced developmental plasticity in life histories and energy metabolism in a beetle La dieta induce plasticidad del desarrollo en los rasgos de historia de vida y metabolismo energético en un escarabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO URREJOLA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, has been recognized as an important strategy by which organisms maximize fitness in variable environments, which vary through development. A disassociation among stages should represent a null effect of the environment experienced during early ontogeny in the expression of adult traits. Food quality greatly influences survival, development and reproduction in many arthropod herbivores. We examined the effects of diet protein in physiological and life-history traits in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor through ontogeny. We established four experimental treatments: Low Protein (LP, Low Protein Control (LPC, High Protein (HP, and High Protein Control (HPC with recently eclosioned larvae each. Individuals were maintained on the same diet or transferred to the opposite diet for all pupae period and almost all adult period. Contrary to the expected, the duration of life-cycle, larval growth rate and body mass in T. molitor were similar in diet treatments. We found intra-individual trade-offs between environmental diet (rich or poor in protein content during larval phase and egg number. Larvae fed on a protein-deficient diet exhibited significantly higher respiratory rates than larvae fed on a rich protein diet. Compensatory feeding could act in T. molitor larvae indicating differences in metabolism but not in growth rate, body mass and life-cycle characteristics. Our results demonstrate the plasticity of reproductive and metabolic traits and life-cycle characteristics of T. molitor and how changes that occur in relation to diet can have profound effects on progeny and female fitness.La plasticidad fenotípica adaptativa ha sido reconocida como una estrategia importante por el cual los organismos maximizan su adecuación biológica en ambientes variables y la cual varía a lo largo del desarrollo. En los organismos la plasticidad fenotípica generalmente se refiere a como los diferentes tipos de rasgos pueden

  17. Synthetic predator cues impair immune function and make the biological pesticide Bti more lethal for vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Lin; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-03-01

    The control of vector mosquitoes is one of the biggest challenges facing humankind with the use of chemical pesticides often leading to environmental impact and the evolution of resistance. Although to a lesser extent, this also holds for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), the most widely used biological pesticide to control mosquito populations. This raises the need for the development of integrated pest management strategies that allow the reduction of Bti concentrations without loss of the mosquito control efficiency. To this end, we tested in a laboratory experiment the combined effects of larval exposure to a sublethal Bti concentration and predation risk cues on life history and physiology of larval and adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Besides natural predator kairomones and prey alarm cues, we also tested synthetic kairomones of Notonecta predators. Neither Bti nor predation risk cues affected mortality, yet when both stressors were combined mortality increased on average by 133% compared to the treatment with only predation risk cues. This synergistic interaction was also present when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. This was further reflected in changes of the composite index of population performance, which suggested lowered per capita growth rates in mosquitoes exposed to Bti but only when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. Furthermore, predation risk cues shortened larval development time, reduced mass at metamorphosis in males, and had an immunosuppressive effect in larval and adult mosquitoes which may affect the mosquito vector competence. We provide the first demonstration that synthetic kairomones may generate similar effects on prey as natural kairomones. The identified immunosuppressive effect of synthetic kairomones and the novel lethal synergism type between a biological pesticide and synthetic predator kairomones provide an important proof of principle illustrating the potential of this combination for integrated

  18. Drug Induced Pneumonitis Secondary to Treatment with Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir and Dasabuvir (VIEKIRA PAK®) for Chronic Hepatitis C: Case Report of an Unexpected Life-Threatening Adverse Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faire, Bridget; Gane, Edward

    2017-01-01

    VIEKIRA PAK (ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir) is an approved treatment for compensated patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This oral regimen has minimal adverse effects and is well tolerated. Cure rates are 97% in patients infected with HCV GT 1a and 99% in those with HCV GT 1b. We report the first case of life-threatening allergic pneumonitis associated with VIEKIRA PAK. This unexpected serious adverse event occurred in a 68-year-old Chinese female with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. One week into treatment with VIEKIRA PAK without ribavirin, she was admitted to hospital with respiratory distress and acute kidney injury requiring intensive care input. She was initially diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia and improved promptly with intravenous antibiotics and supported care. No bacterial or viral pathogens were cultured. Following complete recovery, she recommenced VIEKIRA PAK but represented 5 days later with more rapidly progressive respiratory failure, requiring intubation and ventilation, inotropic support, and haemodialysis. The final diagnosis was drug induced pneumonitis.

  19. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts a micro-bio-politics of drugs, starting from an excerpt of an interview with a couple of young drug users in a Copenhagen social youth work facility that pushes harm reduction in 1996. The article is guided by Derrida’s idea of ‘drugs as the religion of atheist poets’ – that t......The author attempts a micro-bio-politics of drugs, starting from an excerpt of an interview with a couple of young drug users in a Copenhagen social youth work facility that pushes harm reduction in 1996. The article is guided by Derrida’s idea of ‘drugs as the religion of atheist poets......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...... practices, but also in the research practice that engaged with them through the interview....

  20. Discussion on Intervening Factor of Life Events Inducing Anger-in and Anger-out Emotion%生活事件引发愤怒郁怒情绪产生的中介因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉国; 乔明琦

    2011-01-01

    Diseases induced by seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine have been a concern focus in today's society. Anger is one of seven emotions, which cannot be tolerated, is the greatest impact on the harmonious society and is most closely related with diseases in the negative emotion. Physical and mental disorders caused by anger have caught the attention. "life events" is the main reason of anger-trigger, which is the desire to delay and acts to frustrate. It is also the originating factors of anger-trigger. Theory of psychological stress has been adopted to probe factors of life events which are main reason of anger-trigger. It analyzed effect of psychological characteristics, physical characteristics, and functional status in the anger generation. Research results will provide new theoretical basis for understanding correction and cause-prevention of one's physical and mental harm due to anger.%中医七情致病已成为当今社会关注的焦点.七情中的怒是负性情绪中最不可忍受、对人际关系与社会和谐影响最大、与疾病发生关系最为密切的情绪反应之一,怒对人的身心健康造成的危害,越来越受到人们的重视.“生活事件”是个体愿望受阻、行为受挫而导致怒产生的主要原因,也是怒的始发因素,而个体心理特点、体质特征、机能状态是怒情志产生的主要影响因素.本文通过心理应激原理探讨生活事件引发怒情志反应的中介因素,分析个体心理特点、体质特征、机能状态在怒情志产生过程中的影响作用,为正确认识和预防怒对人身心健康造成的危害提供理论依据,为怒致病发病机制研究提供基础性资料.

  1. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rabus

    Full Text Available The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca. Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  2. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphniamagna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triopscancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator’s mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research. PMID:23776711

  3. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  4. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  5. Water's quantum structures and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses several clues pointing to the spontaneous quantum origin of the recently discovered dissipative structures induced in liquid water by low-energy physical perturbations. These structures show an astonishing permanence, so much that large ponderal quantities of supramolecular aggregates of water - at ambient pressure and temperature - subsist even in the solid phase, strongly suggesting the possibility that these structures are the matrix itself of life.

  6. My Reproductive Life Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life plans. ...

  7. Rolling Contact Fatigue Life Prediction on Bearing Steel Pre-residual Stress Surfaces Induced by Hard Turning%轴承钢硬切削表面残余应力对滚动接触界面疲劳寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振; 张相琴; 张雪萍; LIU C Richard

    2011-01-01

    为了预测轴承钢硬切削表面残余应力对滚动接触寿命的影响规律,基于高级非线性有限元分析软件MARC,建立了具有平面应变特征的二维滚动接触寿命预测模型,并在二维有限元模型的表面和次表面对应施加了轴承钢硬切削实验所测残余应力,模拟计算典型服役条件下的滚动接触应力;采用基于S-N寿命理论的Miner法则,计算轴承钢滚动界面的疲劳接触寿命,分析了在不同摩擦系数、滚动接触频率和外加载荷工况下,硬切削残余压应力对疲劳寿命的影响.结果表明,硬切削残余压应力可使轴承钢的滚动接触疲劳寿命提高10%~30%.其中,载荷对滚动接触疲劳寿命影响最大,摩擦系数的影响最小.%To predict the effect of the hard turning-induced residual stress on the rolling fatigue life of bearing steel, 2D rolling contact fatigue life model characteristic with plane strain was developed based on MARC. The residual stress on the machined surface and subsurface from the hard turning bearing steel was applied to surface and subsurface of 2D model correspondingly. The rolling contact stress distribution was simulated under the typical services, and the rolling fatigue life of contact interface was predicted by Miner law based on the S-N life theory under compressive stress. After the analysis of rolling fatigue life under different conditions, the effect of different friction, rolling velocity, load on fatigue life with hard turning-induced residual stress was quantitatively investigated. The investigation shows that the hard turning-induced compressive residual stress increases 10%-30% the rolling fatigue life of bearing steel, and the load has the greatest effect on rolling fatigue life while the fiction coefficient has the minimal effect.

  8. Life is pretty meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  9. The Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  10. [Living, life and quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Santos, Urbano

    2008-01-01

    Human life and quality of life are approached unitarily from their common root in living person, since only the person can claim them as rights and observe them as duties. The passage from the natural inclination to live towards the moral order is fulfilled from the ethical-ontological bridge-concept of human dignity. The absolute character of dignity means that life appears in the ethical realm as a duty prior to a right, both with regard to its care by the subject itself and its respect by others. This right-duty extends from life to the quality of life, since the living person always has a margin between personal living and the vital achievements it is capable of: this margin must be respected and promoted.

  11. Multiple origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  12. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  13. YOUR LIFE@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Guinot, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Balancing work and home life, getting support for your family and thriving in an inclusive and respectful workplace: find out more about the support structures in place to enhance your working life@CERN!

  14. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  15. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  16. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Balance Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises to improve your balance! Balance is important because it can help reduce ...

  17. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Building Strength Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises to improve your strength! Stronger muscles can make it easier to do ...

  18. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; ...

  19. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  20. Life Among the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  1. Life Chances Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  2. Go4Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Stretching Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises ... how to do lower body exercises in her office with Go4Life's Toe Stand. CC 1:28 Play ...

  3. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Stretching Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises ... how to do lower body exercises in her office with Go4Life's Toe Stand. CC 1:28 Play ...

  4. End of Life Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  5. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    in 2010 this might be as high as 10 years more. The stage of midlife has always been considered an important step in the life of human beings. However, there is no agreement on which is the age or age-range that represents the middle phase. Here we have further added the notion that halfway......“Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. [In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost.]” (Dante 1308-1320) We have reached halfway in life when our age equals our remaining...... life expectancy at that age. This relationship in stable population models between life lived and life left has captured the attention of mathematical demographers since Lotka. Our paper aims to contribute to the halfway-age debate by showing its time trends under mortality models and with current data...

  6. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  7. Pyrazinamide induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Surya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of certain antitubercular drugs and is characterized by rapid destruction of platelets whenever offending drug is taken by a susceptible person. We report a case of pyrazinamide-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient receiving anti tubercular drugs.

  8. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  9. Life Before Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

  10. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  11. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelian, K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as...

  12. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U

    1997-01-01

    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  13. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    ELC – Extended Life Coolant SCA – Supplemental Coolant Additive SOW – Scope of Work SwRI – Southwest Research Institute TARDEC – Tank Automotive...ethylene or propylene glycol and 35% extended life coolant #1 (ELC1) with a balance of water. At a higher ELC1 content of 45% or 50%, the mass loss...UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 478 by Gregory A. T. Hansen Edwin A

  14. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  15. Longevity and Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, C.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy at all ages during the last two centuries is in need of a quantitative model capable of resuming the whole process under a single concept and simple mathematics. The basic hypothesis was that through improved hygiene, medicine, and life-style, the stumbling blocks to the full expression of longevity were progressively removed. The mathematics of learning processes were then applied to the secular evolution of life expectancy at various ages. The hypothesis prov...

  16. Curcuma alismatifolia vase life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevenzoli Favero, Bruno; Pace Pereira Lima, Giuseppina; Dole, John

    2017-01-01

    Cut curcuma stem has a reported vase life of 7 to 21 days and this difference in vase life is probably due to a combination of different factors such as growing conditions and postharvest treatments. However, the cut flower industry needs key postharvest information for new species and cultivars...... effect on the fresh weight keeping parameter, but further studies are necessary. STS did not improve vase life, nor did ethylene at 1 µL L-1 reduce it. The curcuma cultivars tested were not positively affected by vase solution composition and had an average vase life in deionized water of 21 days....

  17. The Greenlandic Life Script and Life Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of personal life events from their 15 - 30 years of age. This phenomenon is known as the reminiscence bump (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998). The reminiscence bump is highly populated by emotionally positive events (Rubin & Berntsen, 2...

  18. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    .3 and 41.4 for women and men respectively). Nevertheless, declines in mortality at young ages radically changed life expectancy and it is found today at the same level as double of halfway-age. While the period perspective puts halfway-age for females and males at 41 and 38.1 in 2010, for cohorts born...

  19. Life Is Hard But Life Is Good

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Cancer, paralysis, the death of her loved ones...Lei Juli has experienced more unexpected suffering than most other people. She was once in despair, but she managed to overcome all of these catastrophes. She tells the world what her experience has taught her: Love the life you’re given.

  20. Aspirations of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Ningxin

    2012-01-01

    After entering Senior Three, besides strenuous revisions and examinations, what the students think most and discuss most is aspirations of life. As far as I know, most of my classmates have already specified their choices of majors and their aspirations of life. Some classmates excel in science subjects, so they have chosen science and engineering subjects, hoping that they will become scientists or engineers.

  1. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  2. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these Go4Life exercises to improve your strength! Stronger muscles can make it easier to do everyday things ... 3:10 Play next Play now Go4Life Exercise--Hand Grip - Duration: 3 minutes, 10 seconds. National Institute ...

  3. Quality of life technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Fiordelli, M.; Gustarini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Inevitably, as basic human needs are assured in any developed society, differentiating factors for quality of life (QoL) relate to a greater capacity to make informed decisions across daily life activities, especially those related to health. The availability of powerful, personalized, and wearable...

  4. A life in books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  5. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  6. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  7. Happy Life Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractIntro Need for a measure of quality of life in nations How to assess how well a nation is doing? One way is to look at the quality-of-life of the people who live there. This view is gaining prominence, both among policy makers and the general public. This begs the question

  8. The Feast of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静

    2003-01-01

    The enjoyment of life covers many things: the enjoyment of ourselves, of home life, of trees, flowers, clouds, winding rivers and falling cataracts and the myriad things in Nature, and then the enjoyment of poetry, art, contemplation, friendship, conversation, and reading, which are all some form or other of the communion of soirits.

  9. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  10. Empowering Students for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  11. Time is Life

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2001-01-01

    The affirmative statement of the existence of extraterrestrial life is tentatively raised to the status of a principle. Accordingly, Fermi's question is answered and the anthropic principle is shown to be falsifiable. The time-scale for the development of life on Earth and the age of the universe are the fundamental quantities upon which the arguments are framed.

  12. Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term life expectancy is used for statistical estimates of how long a particular kind of people will live. Such estimates are based on the observed length of life of similar people who have died in the past and on probable future changes in mortality. Used in this

  13. Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term life expectancy is used for statistical estimates of how long a particular kind of people will live. Such estimates are based on the observed length of life of similar people who have died in the past and on probable future changes in mortality. Used in this se

  14. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Go4Life exercises to improve your strength! Stronger muscles can make it easier to do everyday things like ... 875 views Trainer Sandy shows Irene that you can do Go4Life exercises anywhere, even the kitchen! CC ...

  15. It's a Frog's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  16. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  17. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  18. Planets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  19. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  20. Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn; Bray, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the solar system has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the last few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harboring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modeling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we critically examine what it means to be an extremophile, the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology, and especially the search for life in the cosmos.

  1. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  2. Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  3. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...

  4. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  5. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  6. Emergence of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  7. Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W

    2011-02-07

    Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions.

  8. Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions. PMID:20739317

  9. Life on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  10. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  11. 酒精所致精神障碍患者家庭环境与生存质量的相关性研究%Correlation of family environment with quality of life in patients with alcohol-induced mental disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进才; 吴庆峰; 赖爱群; 许建雄; 李济田; 苏珊娜; 李晓玲; 邱秀英; 刘素芳

    2011-01-01

    Fifty five patients with alcohol induced-mental disorder (study group) and 43 local inhabitants without history of alcohol abuse (control group) were surveyed with family environment scale (FES-CV) and generic quality of life inventory-74 (GQOLI-74). The total score and the scores of all dimensions except material life in GQOLI-74 of study group were significantly lower than those of control group(P <0. 05). Compared with control group, the scores in FES of study group were lower for factors of cohesion, expressiveness, active-recreational orientation, moral-religious emphasis and organization in the patient's family, while the scores for conflict and control were higher( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The results indicate that family environment is closely correlated with quality of life in patients with alcohol-induced mental disorder, and family therapy would improve their quality of life.%运用家庭环境量表中文版(FES-CV)和生存质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)对55例酒精所致精神障碍患者(研究组)和43名无酗酒史的当地居民(对照组)进行问卷调查.结果示,研究组GQOLI-74各维度和总分除物质生活外均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).与对照组相比,研究组家庭表现为低亲密度、低情感表达、低娱乐性、低宗教道德观、低组织性和高矛盾性、高控制性(P<0.05或0.01).酒精所致精神障碍患者家庭环境与生存质量具有相关性.提示,酒精所致精神障碍患者家庭存在严重的家庭环境问题,因而影响其生存质量,加强家庭治疗可提高慢性酒精中毒患者的生存质量.

  12. Breathing fresh life into life science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cyrus

    2014-12-15

    In the US, higher education in the life sciences is being overhauled. There is now a move both to change the way we teach biology students, emphasizing more engaging approaches, and to clearly define what it is a student should know. And for advanced degrees, there is a push to prepare students for a range of possible career paths, not just the tenure track. Cyrus Martin reports.

  13. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  14. Telling life stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M; Butler, Frieda R

    2009-11-01

    A life review has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial to well or chronically ill older adults, as well as terminally ill older adults. Those living independently indicate feelings of relief and connectivity after telling their stories. Further, terminally ill patients at the end of their lives express feelings of peacefulness at being able to put pieces of their lives together in a meaningful way. It is well known that physicians and nurses have received inadequate training in how to address end-of-life issues. The life review process can be an important strategy for fostering helpful communication between health care professionals and older adults in all phases of health and illness.

  15. Virkeligheder i Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    "Virkeligheder i Second Life" er en beretning, der bygger på tre case studier samt omfattende observationer i den virtuelle verden Second Life i perioden 2006 til 2008. Beretningen er den ene af to bøger der bygger på forskning i virtuelle verdener; de tre case studier er: Wonderful Denmark, en...... virtuel virksomhed, Literary, et virtuelt bibliotek, Times, en afdeling af en real life virksomhed. Den anden bog: "Oplevelser i en virtuel verden" omhandler den virtuelle verden EverQuest - et masserollespil....

  16. Your Sex Life May Work Wonders for Your Work Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163925.html Your Sex Life May Work Wonders for Your Work Life ... happy, productive worker? It could be a good sex life. At least that's the suggestion of a ...

  17. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

  18. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...... researchers to grasp both continuity and change. The article refers to everyday life studies and social psychology and argues that the term ‘family life’ my serve as one stepping stone for transgressing the dichotomy. Furthermore the article unfolds the implications of this framework for the research design...

  19. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post......-imperial condition through the practice of life writing in its multifarious expressions, from auto/biography through travel writing to oral history and photography. Through interdisciplinary approaches that draw on literature and history alike, the contributors explore how we might approach these genres differently...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  20. Which way to life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    If the emergence of life is seen as the evolutionary transition between the non-living and the living, then it may be meaningless to draw a strict line between these two worlds. A comparison between the metabolic- and genetic-first origin-of-life proposals is made. A comparison of the empirical evidence used in favor of the metabolic-first and genetic-first theories of the origin of life shows that many of the observations and experimental findings that are used to argue in favor of one or another view are equally consistent with the premises of both theories and do not unambiguously support neither of them. However, current biology indicates that life could not have evolved in the absence of a genetic replicating mechanism insuring the stability and diversification of its basic components.

  1. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  2. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  3. Is life supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2015-09-01

    The big question of the origin of life is examined. The paradox created by Pasteur's resounding edict: Life only comes from life, pitted against the need for spontaneous generation is explored. This seemingly dead-end conundrum contrasts sharply with the great progress we have made in understanding the evolution of the species since Darwin's revolutionary insight. The conditions and sources of energy that might have promoted non-living molecules and compounds to cross the sharp line from inert to living are contemplated. Abiotic synthesis might help explain the origin, but still fails to explain the moment of vitalization. A different approach to discovering when the inert becomes alive is proposed. The need for, and a way to bring forth, a "Bio-Einstein" to solve this penultimate question of life's origin are presented.

  4. Life under alien skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  5. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  6. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  7. Life after stoma creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    , as well as an alteration in the bodily design. Research in the field may provide additional information about central elements when adapting to life with a stoma. There are currently no studies that adequately focus on the relationship between health-related quality of life and stoma construction...... in a Danish context, neither for temporary or permanent construction, nor in relation to the importance of stoma handling. Purpose: The overall objective of the study was to investigate health-related quality of life related to stoma creation and patient education. Methodologically, the project......: Impact on everyday life and Educational Needs. The study included 15 participants who were interviewed in groups related to whether they were treated for cancer or non-cancer. The results showed that participants often experienced the stoma as a taboo, and emotions related to stigma were identified...

  8. First Day of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  9. Life In The Universe!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 30 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists and astronomers have worked tirelessly to answer these questions. Yet just this past week at CERN students from all over Europe came to present their ideas on the subject and listen to the latest on extraterrestrial life from some of the world's most prestigious researchers.

  10. Technology makes life better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红

    2015-01-01

    There are many theories about the relationship between technology and society.With the development of world economy,technology has made great progress.However,many changes were taken place in our daily life,especially the appearance of computer.Sending emails,chatting with others online,search for information which is what we need to learn and many other demands in people’s daily life,computers make all of it into possibility.

  11. Philosophy and Life

    OpenAIRE

    Weiberg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To Ludwig Wittgenstein philosophy and life are inextricably linked, and ethical demands are made on both: the requirement for truthfulness in thought and action alike. According to Wittgenstein, truthfulness is the only means to prevent thought and life from becoming merely some artful trick, a Kunststück. To get an idea of Wittgenstein’s understanding of truthfulness, one first needs to go into various aspects of his later philosophy. Therefore, in the first part of this paper I will examine...

  12. Life Before Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A; Gordon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization,...

  13. Quantum Yields of Decomposition and Homo-Dimerization of Solid L-Alanine Induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Irradiation: An Estimate of the Half-Life of L-Alanine on the Surface of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2011-08-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10-2 photon-1) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10-3 photon-1) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon-1) of solid l-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of l-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid l-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that l-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth.

  14. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  15. Life extension and life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H., E-mail: hoa.hoang@ge.co [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Rd., Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    To continue the effort of nuclear energy as the clean energy offsetting the increase in greenhouse gas emission that contributes to the increased global warming effect, the nuclear industry is focused on the optimization of their current nuclear generation assets. Plant life extension (Plex) and Plant life management (Plim), together with power up rate, are the key strategies for the optimization effort. Plex begins with the process to obtain the regulatory approval for an additional 20 years of operation, beyond the current 40-year limit. This highly standardized process consists of the following steps: 1) Scoping: identify the systems, structures and components for inclusion in the license renewal scope of work. 2) Screening: narrow down the selection of the in-scope systems, structures and components based on passive and long-lived characteristics. 3) Aging management review: demonstrate that aging effects will continue to be managed during the additional 20 years of operation. 4) Time limiting aging analyses: confirm the acceptability of design bases analyses that assume the 40-year plant life as a key input assumptions. To provide a consistent approach for the preparation of the license renewal application, the following are the key guidance documents: NUREG-1800: Standard review plan; NUREG-1801: Generic aging lessons learned; Nuclear Energy Institute NEI 95-10. The objectives of Plim are to focus on improving plant reliability/availability, and to plan for equipment upgrades for efficiency improvement as well as technological obsolescence. Plim is a technical evaluation combined with a risk assessment to produce a long-range business plant with a time horizon of 10 years or longer. Due to its long view nature, this plan will be reviewed on a yearly basis for any required adjustments. The technical evaluation consists of the following major steps: 1) Select systems, structures and components with performance deficiencies experience. 2) Collect operating data

  16. Lost City and the Search For Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Since their discovery in 1979, high-temperature hot springs fueled by submarine volcanoes have served as models in the search for life elsewhere in the solar system. The early recognition of hot microbial biospheres associated with active volcanism along global mid-ocean ridges fundamentally shifted concepts of how planets and life co-evolve. These metal-rich, acidic systems were thought to represent the most extreme conditions on Earth, hosting novel life based on chemosynthesis. In 2000, this paradigm was profoundly impacted by the discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field, characterized by conditions never before seen. Here, 60 m-tall limestone chimneys vent pH 10-11, metal-poor, 90°C fluids rich in hydrogen and abiotically-produced methane and formate. The fluid chemistry is driven, not by volcanic heat, but by fluid-rock reactions in underlying ultramafic basement at up to ~ 200°C. These peridotite-hosted biotopes differ significantly from volcanic-hosted vent systems in which carbon dioxide is a dominant volatile species. Instead, serpentinzation reactions yield high hydrogen and low molecular-weight hydrocarbons that result in energy-rich habitats with cell concentrations that reach 109cells/gram carbonate. The absence of volcanism, and on-going serpentinization reactions result in a remarkably stable system with venting active for >150,000 years. With the discovery of Lost City, it is clear that high temperature volcanic activity is not a prerequisite for life. Exothermic serpentinization reactions occur under a wide-range of temperatures and can result in up to a 40% volume of expansion, which may both close and open fractures. Hence, Lost City may serve as a model in the search for life on other planets and moons with rocky, undifferentiated terranes and overlying oceans. Within such systems, interior cooling, coupled with tidally-induced heating may induce hydrothermal flow, and perhaps life-sustaining environments in the absence of volcanism.

  17. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  18. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor induction; Pregnancy - inducing labor; Prostaglandin - inducing labor; Oxytocin - inducing labor ... threaten the health of you or your baby. Oxytocin may also be started after a woman's labor has started, but her contractions have not been ...

  19. Quality of Life in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Popovici

    2016-01-01

    Many times we wondered why people want a certain comfort in exchange for sacrifices on longterm: we want houses, cars, holidays, quality services. All our life we work and give up many tothings (maybe more important than achieving material benefits. It's about quality of life. In thispaper we analyzed the quality of life in Europe addressing several factors, such as subjective wellbeing,living standards and material constraints, work-life balance, family life and social life,health and education.

  20. Meaning in life and intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2016-03-01

    Three correlational studies and 2 experiments examined the association between meaning in life (MIL) and reliance on intuitive information processing. In Studies 1-3 (total N = 5,079), Faith in Intuition (FI) scale and MIL were correlated positively, controlling for religiosity, positive mood, self-esteem, basic need satisfaction, and need for cognition. Two experiments manipulated processing style. In Study 4 (N = 614), participants were randomly assigned to complete the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT; Fredrick, 2005) either immediately before (reflective/low intuitive mindset condition) or immediately after (control condition) rating MIL. Condition did not affect MIL. However, low MIL rated before the CRT predicted superior performance and greater time spent on the task. The association between reflection and MIL was curvilinear, such that MIL was strongly negatively related to CRT performance particularly at low levels of MIL. In Study 5 (N = 804), intuitive or reflective mindsets were induced and FI and MIL were measured. Induced processing style study did not affect MIL. However, those high in MIL were more responsive to the intuitive mindset induction. The relationship between FI and MIL was curvilinear (in this and the correlational studies), with intuitive processing being strongly positively related to MIL particularly at higher levels of MIL. Although often considered in the context of conscious reflection, MIL shares a positive relationship with reliance on gut feelings, and high MIL may facilitate reliance on those feelings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. From Matter to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2017-02-01

    1. Introduction Sara Imari Walker, Paul C. W. Davies and F. R. Ellis; Part I. Physics and Life: 2. The 'hard problem' of life Sara Imari Walker and Paul C. W. Davies; 3. Beyond initial conditions and laws of motion: constructor theory of information and life Chiara Marletto; Part II. Bio from Bit: 4. (How) did information emerge? Anne-Marie Grisogono; 5. On the emerging codes for chemical evolution Jillian E. Smith-Carpenter, Sha Li, Jay T. Goodwin, Anil K. Mehta and David G. Lynn; 6. Digital and analogue information in organisms Denis Noble; 7. From entropy to information: biased typewriters and the origin of life Christoph Adami and Thomas Labar; Part III. Life's Hidden Information: 8. Cryptographic nature David Krakauer; 9. Noise and function Steven Weinstein and Theodore Pavlic; 10. The many faces of state space compression David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Joshua Grochow and Simon DeDeo; 11. Causality, information and biological computation: an algorithmic software approach to life, disease and the immune system Hector Zenil, Angelika Schmidt and Jesper Tegnér; Part IV. Complexity and Causality: 12. Life's information hierarchy Jessica Flack; 13. Living through downward causation: from molecules to ecosystems Keith D. Farnsworth, George F. R. Ellis and Luc Jaeger; 14. Automata and animats: from dynamics to cause-effect structures Larissa Albantakis and Giulio Tononi; 15. Biological information, causality and specificity - an intimate relationship Karola Stotz and Paul Griffiths; Part V. From Matter to Mind: 16. Major transitions in political order Simon DeDeo; 17. Bits from biology for computational intelligence Michael Wibral, Joseph Lizier and Viola Priesemann; 18. Machine learning and the questions it raises G. Andrew D. Briggs and Dawid Potgieter.

  2. Wrongful life and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgenia, Smyrnaki

    2012-03-01

    The main scope of the article is the bioethical and legal issues of wrongful birth and wrongful life with reference to doctors' medical liability. Nowadays, prenatal tests tend to substitute the eugenic practice of Spartan inspection to raise a strong and healthy child. Should the doctor misinform the parents that the child is healthy and the parents do not exercise the right to abort the pregnancy, the doctor can be held liable and claims on wrongful life or birth are raised against him. "Wrongful life" is an oxymoron itself since "life" which has an intrinsic value and sanctity is attributed a negative aspect and is regarded as damage. Courts around the world have awarded parents compensation on that legal ground. In the Perruche affair (2000), where the mother was wrongly diagnosed and gave birth to Nicholas, who had serious neurological problems, the court conferred the right on the child itself, causing an uproar in France. The decision was criticized for encouraging eugenics and diminishing the value of handicapped people. The different approaches to the above issues by different courts around the world (US, EU) with reference to (bio) ethical concerns are going to be examined. We will try to give an answer on whether it is possible for courts to support on legal and bioethical grounds that a child with disabilities should not have been born as a result of the doctor's negligent conduct. In such cases, the limits of normality and the value of life are challenged

  3. Intelligent life in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  4. Intelligent Life in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2003-01-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the Modern Synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski, and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Second, I shall develop the Fermi Paradox: if they existed they'd be here. Third, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  5. Work–Life Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lu Calvin Ong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite disparities in the conceptualization of work–life balance (WLB and work–life harmony (WLH in the literature, there remains no evidence till date to validate these differences. Furthermore, there are currently no insights that shed light on the relationship between work–life initiatives and key business strategies of contemporary organizations. Hence, the current study investigated the differences between the constructs of WLB and WLH using a cognitive dissonance approach and assessed the impact of work–life interventions, based on these approaches, on individual creativity at work. Hundred participants, age ranging from 18 to 32 years (M = 23.94, SD = 3.87, with at least 6 months of working experience were recruited. Using an online questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned into WLB (n = 55 or WLH (n = 45 conditions. Participants were tasked to complete pre- and post-intervention measures of individual creativity, as well as a manipulation check using a cognitive dissonance scale. Results showed that participants in the WLB condition elicit higher levels of cognitive dissonance compared with participants in the WLH condition. This indicates an implicit difference in the constructs of WLB and harmony. Second, findings also suggest that work–life interventions adopting a WLH approach will have a more positive impact on individuals’ creativity at work compared with interventions targeted at achieving balance. Research, practical, and cultural implications of the findings are discussed in the article.

  6. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  7. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  8. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... by using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...

  9. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...... by using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development...

  10. Life In The Universe!

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    An alien invasion of CERN? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 30 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists and astronomers have worked tirelessly to answer these questions. Yet just this past week at CERN students from all over Europe came to present their ideas on the subject and listen to the latest on extraterrestrial life from some of the world's most prestigious researchers. Students participating in the programme were encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively and boy did they! The team from Portugal ran performances of Greek Theatre, the team from Hungary created a board game, while the team from Belgium recited poetry questioning the existence of extraterrestrials. But all was not light hearted, there were touching presentations of violin and piano by the French team and a very thought provoking theatre performance by the German team contrasting the search for extraterrestrial...

  11. Habitats of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  12. Life with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna

    Background: Osteoporosis is considered a major worldwide public health problem. Men and women with osteoporosis are mostly unaware of the illness, until bone fractures occur. It is estimated that more than one in three European women and one in five men over 50 years will experience osteoporotic...... fractures followed by considerable morbidity and mortality. In line with many other chronic illnesses, one of the pronounced challenges related to osteoporosis is considered to be compliance and persistence to medical treatment. The causes of low compliance and persistence to treatment remain unclear....... Living with a chronic illness often affects the entire human life situation, specifically, emotionally and existentially. How this is experienced personally and how this affects the individual’s life is still unknown. Aim: To gain a deeper understanding of patients’ life with osteoporosis by determining...

  13. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...

  14. Strategies of Life Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Oliver; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Selsis, Franck; Summons, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The search for life outside the Earth has been one of mankind's most challenging quests. We have reached a level of technology that allows for initial steps toward thorough scientific investigation. The aim of this workshop was to take an interdisciplinary look at the signatures that would be indicative of past or present life on another planet and compare them to biosignatures on Earth. The purpose of the workshop was also to discuss state-of-the-art in-situ instruments that are envisioned to search for these signatures in the exploration of the solar system, as well as the discussion of concepts descriptive of the search for habitable planets around other stars. This book is intended to provide a reference to scientists and instrument developers working in the field of in-situ and remote life detection. It can also be used as an interdisciplinary introduction for students and post-doctoral researchers entering this new and exciting field.

  15. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...... or to support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved...

  16. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  17. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    becoming. Aspirations prevail over political interests: young people navigate and negotiate their engagement in party and community politics by making calculations concerning their own mobility, life strategies and obligations to kin. In this way, young men engage in, but also balance and shift...... to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... and their staying. Even though working abroad in particular has become an important way of rationalizing a respectable social status for young men, many have deliberately positioned themselves as stayers and returnees, rationalizing this choice through the need to develop their own community and Nepal itself. Women...

  18. The origami of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezon, Timothy R [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Banavar, Jayanth R [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Maritan, Amos [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G Galilei' and INFN, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-01-25

    All living organisms rely upon networks of molecular interactions to carry out their vital processes. In order for a molecular system to display the properties of life, its constituent molecules must themselves be endowed with several features: stability, specificity, self-organization, functionality, sensitivity, robustness, diversity and adaptability. We argue that these are the emergent properties of a unique phase of matter, and we demonstrate that proteins, the functional molecules of terrestrial life, are perfectly suited to this phase. We explore, through an understanding of this phase of matter, the physical principles that govern the operation of living matter. Our work has implications for the design of functionally useful nanoscale devices and the ultimate development of physically based artificial life.

  19. Life with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna

    quitters” were found to differ in socio-economics demographics from other patients with low refill compliance. An increased risk of quitting during the first year of treatment compared with those who were refill-compliant for more than one year was found to be associated with: fractures overall (as one...... treatment. 3) “being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis”: acceptance – the need to adapt, lifestyle changes. Furthermore, in the one-year longitudinal interview study found two key themes on to life with osteoporosis: 1) “to become influenced by the therapy”: taking the medication, stopping...... to take the medication. 2) “daily life with osteoporosis”: interpretation of symptoms, interpretation of scanning result and life style reflections. Conclusion: These quantitative and qualitative findings together contribute to the current knowledge regarding compliance and persistent, determinants...

  20. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  1. Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : electrophysiology and identification of kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto are important vectors of human malaria in Africa. It is generally assumed that they locate their human host by odours. These odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons

  2. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Corey, Elizabeth A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V

    2017-01-24

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication.

  3. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Maria Cattaneo; Francisco Gonzalez; Bengtsson, Jonas M.; Corey, Elizabeth A.; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly; Nicolas Montagné; Umberto Salvagnin; Walker, William B.; Peter Witzgall; Gianfranco Anfora; Yuriy V. Bobkov

    2017-01-01

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expr...

  4. Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : Electrophysiology and identification of kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto are important vectors of human malaria in Africa. It is generally assumed that they locate their human host by odours. These odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons situated within cuticular extensions on the antenna. T

  5. Invasive Vespula Wasps Utilize Kairomones to Exploit Honeydew Produced by Sooty Scale Insects, Ultracoelostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Unelius, C Rikard; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Suckling, David M

    2015-11-01

    Vespula wasps are widely distributed invasive alien species that are able to reach high population densities in the 1.2 M ha of beech forests (Fuscospora spp.) of New Zealand's South Island. These endemic temperate forests have an abundance of carbohydrate-rich honeydew produced by native scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.). A characteristic aroma is associated with the honeydew in beech forests, which we hypothesized is the signal used by wasps to harvest the vast resources previously exploited by birds and other insects. Volatile collections were taken of black beech tree trunks with honeydew and sooty mold present, and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Eleven compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl 2-phenylacetate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, methyl salicylate, n-octanol, octan-3-ol, and 1-octen-3-ol) were positively identified from the headspace, and were shown to elicit an electrophysiological response from Vespula vulgaris worker antennae by using electroantennography (EAG). Field trials with delta traps individually baited with these compounds confirmed wasp attraction to 8 of the 11 compounds tested, with 2-phenylethyl acetate, methyl salicylate, and octan-3-ol capturing the same numbers of wasps as the control. In later trials, attraction to a 1:1 blend of benzaldehyde and n-octanol was significantly higher (45%) than to any other treatment. Many of the chemicals identified are known to be associated with fermenting sugars, or with fungal aroma. Benzaldehyde and n-octanol are common compounds produced by many different species in nature. The ability to respond to generic signals emanating from sugar resources is likely to contribute to the success of V. vulgaris as an invasive species.

  6. Kairomonal effect of sex pheromone components of two lepidopteran olive pests on Trichogramma wasps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panos Milonas; Basilios E. Mazomenos; Maria A. Konstantopoulou

    2009-01-01

    Egg parasitoids are known to use a wide range of chemicals, emitted by plants, host eggs or adults, for host selection. The effect of the sex pheromone components of the lepidopteran olive pests Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Palpita unionalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under laboratory conditions, on the foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma oleae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). The re-sponse of T. oleae wasps to (Z)-7-tetradecenal and (E)-11-hexadecenal, major sex phero-mone components of P. oleae and P. unionalis respectively, depended on the dose of the pheromone used in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. (E)-11-hexadecenal elicited maximum attraction (70%) at a dose of 1 μg, while a dose of 100 μg (Z)-7-tetradecenal attracted 80% of the tested wasps. (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, the second sex pheromone component of P. unionalis, and the binary blend of (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate: (E)-11-hexadecenal (7:3) were not attractive at these doses. The results of this research are discussed in view that they may he considered as alternatives in the biological control of these pests.

  7. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M.; Corey, Elizabeth A.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B.; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication. PMID:28117454

  8. Kairomone utilization in the host range evaluation of potential biological control agent Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous species native to Asia that has become a serious invasive agricultural and nuisance pest across North America. Its ability to feed on over 120 plant species, ranging from field crops and orchard fruit to ornamentals and nativ...

  9. Life, Intelligence and Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Galantai, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hypothetical existence of other universes gives an opportunity not only to extend the scope of physics, but the scope of biology, SETI, and METI as well. Some steps of the development of alien life concept shall be briefly summarized, then the multiverse proposal shall be used as a framework of interpretation to introduce an extended taxonomy of possible or at least imaginable types of life and intelligence based on either different biochemistry or physics. Some consequences shall be presented about SETI and METI in connection with both multiverse hypothesis and anthropic principle.

  10. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  11. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  12. Fatigue life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  13. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  14. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  15. Contemporary family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    2011-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal interview-study of ten heterosexual couples and first-time parents, in Denmark the author argues that addressing contemporary everyday family life as a joint venture with contradictions contribute new insights into the complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities linked...... of complementary gender roles as well as in new understandings of gender equality based on ideals of mutual trust, respect and support. As a result, it is important to investigate how parenthood, family life and parental roles are constantly reflected upon and reproduced, negotiated and transformed through...

  16. Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  17. Encaustic Still Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  18. Live Your Life Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Wellness Work-Life Balance Mental Illness and Work Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace ... you can thrive even in the face of stress. We want you to know that you can ... you focus at work, overcome obstacles, get along with the people around ...

  19. Chemical Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  20. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...

  1. Orientation in Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭霞

    2004-01-01

    How does a person fix on his life position? What field to devote him in the future?Many people can not make sure. As a matter of fact, first you should get a clear understanding of yourself. As the saying goes: it is easy to change rivers and mountains, but hard to change a person's nature. It is very classic.

  2. Learning for Life Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  3. Chemical Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  4. Life Sciences MIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, R. A.; Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    Management Information System, MIS, provides Life Sciences Projects Division at Johnson Space Center with automated system for project managment. MIS utilizes Tektronix 4027 color graphics display terminal and form-fillout capability. User interface with MIS data base is through series of forms.

  5. Music Is My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天梅

    2007-01-01

    I love music as if it were my life. Music has a good effect on me. In my mind, music is like a nice angel, bringing me happiness and excitement. So I can't imagine what would happen if there weren't any music in the world.

  6. Love for new Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    MORE and more newlyweds, pregnant women and mothers of newborn babies have learnt that there is a special group showing care and love for them. Set up in 1994, the group "Love for New Life", is supported by the Children's Department of the All-China Women's Federation, the Publicity and

  7. My father's life.

    OpenAIRE

    Porth, R

    1995-01-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies.

  8. My father's life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1995-09-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies.

  9. Standing Up for Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A rehabilitation center endeavors to heal the disabled and help them live a normal life Nobody could tell the man who was walking back and forth in the lobby hall of the Deyang Rehabilitation Center for People With Disabilities has anything different from normal people,

  10. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  11. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  12. FRIDA KHALO: ONE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Miranda Bastos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a search psychoanalysis about the life and work of Frida Kahlo through the concept of sublimation. Our cut falls on what we believe to be the most relevant facts of her biography, which allow us to work the concept of sublimation.

  13. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  14. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14,606 views Exercise your upper body at work like Linda with Go4Life's Wall Pushups. CC 1: ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  15. The soil life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil is one of the most important natural resource for life on Earth and provides important ecosystem services, such as food production, carbon sequestration, water regulation and contaminant attenuation. Soil quality, defined as the soil’s ability to provide these services, is drastically red

  16. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  17. Alien Life Imagined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  18. My Volunteer Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengAi

    2004-01-01

    SEVERAL years ago, I read a notice soliciting volunteer teachers to work in the west.It caught my interest and I clipped it. Upon graduation in August 2000, 1 postponed my graduate stud-ies in sociology and joined the Fudan Team of China Youth Volunteer Aid.My one-year volunteer life began in

  19. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  20. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  1. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Trampe

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  2. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  3. Second Life as Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

  4. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...

  5. Second Life, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An article this author wrote about avatar harassment and assault in Second Life (SL) inspired a considerable response after it was published. Perhaps the most notable reply was from Linden Lab, the company that created the virtual-reality world. In his initial essay ("The Chronicle of Higher Education," September 14, 2007; "The Education Digest,"…

  6. A Busy Beijing Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN; LIM; CHIOWANG

    2011-01-01

    Since uprooting myself from a sentimental hutong inside the Second Ring Road to the outlying outer east Fifth Ring Road about a month ago,I am still in the process of acquainting myself with the new surroundings.To the locals,life has gone on unchanged.But for a foreigner,everything seems to be refreshingly new.

  7. Learning from Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David

    2009-01-01

    There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

  8. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content HIV Replication Cycle Antiretroviral Drug Discovery and Development Need Help? Call 1-800-448-0440 (1 p.m. to 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email The HIV Life Cycle Last Reviewed: August 18, 2017 Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune system by attacking and killing a type of white ...

  9. Change in phenotypic plasticity of a morphological defence in Daphnia galeata (Crustacea: Cladocera in a selection experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi FUJII

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Some water fleas Daphnia change their head morphology to reduce predation risk in response to chemical substances (kairomones released from larvae of the invertebrate predator Chaoborus (Insecta: Diptera. We tested for evidence of the costs associated with elongation of the head spine in Daphnia galeata and the consequences of these costs on the inducibility of head spine elongation in predictable and unpredictable environments. We exposed D. galeata in outdoor experimental ponds to conditions under which predation pressure by Chaoborus larvae and the concentration of kairomones from this predator were controlled for about 70 days. In the laboratory, we then used Daphnia clones collected from the outdoor ponds to investigate the inducibility of head spine formation in response to Chaoborus kairomones. The inducibility of head spine formation increased in D. galeata from the ponds that had contained both predators and kairomones, whereas in water fleas from the ponds containing only kairomones the plasticity (inducibility of head spine formation decreased compared with that in the control ponds. These results suggest that the production of a defensive head spine, its phenotypic plasticity, or both entail some costs. Contrary to our predictions, exposure to Chaoborus kairomones in the laboratory resulted in head lengths that were not significantly different among any of the clones from the three outdoor treatments. We found no evidence for costs associated with head spine elongation in terms of fecundity, time to maturity, or intrinsic rate of natural population increase. Average within-clone partial correlations calculated for head length and intrinsic rate of natural population increase, corrected for body length, were not significantly negative, indicating no cost of defence. This was probably because food conditions in the laboratory were so good that the costs of defence could not be detected. Furthermore, community-level changes, such as

  10. 生活方式对高脂肥胖大鼠APPL1和GLUT4的影响%The effects of life style on APPL1 and glucose transporter 4 in high fat induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童俊露; 王佑民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨饮食、运动对高脂饲料喂养的肥胖大鼠肌肉组织中细胞内转接蛋白(APPL1)、葡萄糖转运蛋白4(GLUT4)的影响,以及APPL1与GLUT4的关系.方法 70只4周龄SD大鼠随机分为5组:正常对照组(NC组)、高脂肥胖组(HF组)、饮食控制组(DC组)、运动锻炼组(EC组)、饮食运动结合组(DE组).NC组给予普通饮食,其余各组给予高脂饮食.12周后,DC组饮食限制,EC组进行游泳运动,DE组两者结合,共 6周,空腹取血检测相关代谢指标,取骨骼肌组织检测甘油三脂(TG)的含量和APPL1、GLUT4的表达.结果 HF组大鼠体重、TG、总胆固醇(TCH)、空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)明显高于NC组(P<0.05),APPL1、GLUT4的水平明显低于NC组(P<0.05),骨骼肌组织中的TG水平明显增加(P<0.05).饮食、运动干预后能减轻体重(P<0.05),降低TG、TCH水平(P<0.05),增加胰岛素敏感指数(P<0.05),降低骨骼肌组织中的TG水平(P<0.05),上调APPL1、GLUT4的表达(P<0.05).结论 高脂饮食可诱导大鼠的胰岛素抵抗模型.通过饮食控制和(或)运动锻炼均可降低高脂喂养的脂质水平,改善胰岛素抵抗,上调骨骼肌组织中APPL1、GLUT4水平.%Objective To investigate the effects of diet control and exercise on APPL1, glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4 ) and their correlation in high fat diet induced obese rats. Methods 70 SD rats of 4 weeks, age were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group ( NC group ), high-fat diet group( HF group ), diet control group ( DC group ),exercise control group( EC group )and diet and exercise control group( DE group ). The animals of NC group were fed with normal chow and the others with high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the rats of DC group were given diet control for 6 weeks, at the same time, EC group swam everyday, DE group had to do both two interventions. Then the blood of rats in fasting was obtained to measure metabolic indexs, triglyceride lipid and expression of AP-PL1

  11. Starship Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  12. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  13. Group life insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  14. Patient life in hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    Patient life in hospital.A qualitative study of informal relationships between hospitalised patients Introduction Within a patientology framework, this PhD dissertation is about an empirical study on patient life that provides insight into the nature of informal relationships between patients...... in hospitals today. Purpose The purpose was to explore how informal relationships between patients affect their hospital experiences in the hospital. The assumption is that, on the one hand, the impacts on patients' suffering affect the way they act and experience encounters with fellow patients for good....... Methods The study is designed within a phenomenological-hermeneutical philosophic frame of reference and is based on ethnographic fieldwork among hospitalised patients in a Danish university hospital. Data for the study were collected through participant observations over a period of 18 months. Nine males...

  15. Reading and My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟

    2005-01-01

    @@ Reading has accompanied me for many years, from1 a pupil to an undergraduate. It enriches my life, and the most significant2 is that it teaches me how to live. Reading instructs me to treat life unperturbedly(泰然自若地). There is such a story.3 An angler(钓鱼者) went fishing in the early morning and came back at dusk without any fish, He spent the whole day but gained nothing. However, he was blissful(有福的). To the angler, it's none of his business for fish doesn't bite the baits4, but5 what he has angled is happiness. We live calmly and confidently, so we can get delightful experiences.

  16. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  17. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    across cultures and disciplines and for my work as a management consultant. Naturally, I would include the tool for my students in educational psychology when I began teaching a course on qualitative interviews last semester. Large was my surprise when I failed to find any references to the specific time...... line tool. I wondered where I had first read about this type of interview and looked through my old books on development research. While I was sure the inspiration came from Britha Mikkelsen’s Methods for Development Work and Research, I did not succeed in finding to find any instruction to the use......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...

  18. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    Young people in rural eastern Nepal have experienced a recent civil war (1996-2006) and are still living in a situation of continuous political instability, regional ethnic activism, slow development and remoteness. Nevertheless, they are also the first generation for whom the majority can aspire...... to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... of Nepal's Panchthar District. The research sheds light on rural and non-activist young men and women, in contrast to prevailing studies of the urban young, or the young as either revolutionary or as combatants. The findings show that mobility has come to be seen as a way of reaching an appropriate social...

  19. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  20. Life seems pretty meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Austin John; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King argue that, contrary to popular perception, our lives hold a great deal of meaning. The study of perceived meaning is an interesting and fruitful avenue. The current authors are concerned, however, that Heintzelman and King may have misrepresented and exploited the philosophical debate surrounding meaning to generate interest in their topic. Unless Heintzelman and King wish to argue that life truly is meaningful and that the perception of meaning is evidence enough, the current authors recommend that for the sake of clarity they make the explicit distinction between the widespread perception of meaning and its intrinsic existence. Unfortunately, once this distinction is made clear, these findings are less compelling to individuals who seek confirmation that intrinsic meaning exists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  2. An Alternative Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Young genius left school to pursue genetic code analysis University students are expected to enjoy campus life.But for more than one year, 19-year-old Zhao Bowen has assumed the leadership of a research team probing one of the world’s toughest problems—the genetic basis for human IQ.In 2009,Zhao,still a student in his third year at the High School Affiliated to Renmin

  3. Scientists taste entrepreneurial life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gould

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Financing retirement from university life with the proceeds of a smart invention is undeniably an attractive prospect. Unfortunately, attempts to commercialize academic research can result all too easily in knock-backs and disappointed investors, rather than a generous pension deposit. But, if you pitch the right idea to the right market, money can be made. Not only that, the technology could do a great deal of good, while also bolstering its inventor's curriculum vitae.

  4. Revolutionizing tire life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2006-09-15

    Many oil sands operations are optimizing processes to prevent the current tire shortage from affecting profits. Typically, there are 3 options available to operators when dealing with a tire shortage: (1) increase the life of tires; (2) buy more tires from unconventional sources; and (3) park trucks. However, operators in the Elk Valley have seen a 28 per cent increase in the lifespan of their tires through using a variety of different options. Lifespan increases have been attributed to greater awareness of the tire shortage, and improved maintenance practices. Suncor's plant in Fort McMurray has made tires a focus of their operational excellence program. Over the last year a cross-functional task team of operations, maintenance, internal supply and technical personnel has met once a week to review tire strategies. Through a combination of supplier technology improvements and onsite initiatives, tire life has increased from the usual 2000 to 3000 hours to over 10,000 hours. Syncrude Canada has seen a 25 per cent increase in tire life through focusing on payloads, improvements in repair technologies and avoiding spillage from trucks to keep roads clean. Developed to aid operators in prolonging the lives of their tires, the Rimex Tyresense System is currently being tested on the tires of six 930E trucks. The system offers wireless reporting on 6 wheel positions in real time, and monitors heat and pressure on the front and rear axle tires. Operators in the Elk Valley are also optimizing forecasting methods to predict lifetimes of tires in order to adjust tire rotation strategies. Suncor and Syncrude are also working with tire suppliers to develop a tire design for oil sands operations, and are currently testing tires from a variety of international suppliers. Tire-swapping between operations that have varying impacts on tires has also been considered. It was concluded that increasing tire life requires a variety of approaches and solutions. 2 figs.

  5. Life Is Elsewhere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ecological migration is helping hundred of thousands enjoy a better life in Ningxia A decade has slid away since Hongsipu Development Zone was first built to accommodate migrants from the poverty-stricken areas of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The average yearly income of migrants soared nearly five fold to 2,300 yuan ($336) last year from a mere 500 yuan ($73) when they lived deep in the mountains.

  6. Earth before life

    OpenAIRE

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  7. On the goodness of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is life? Different people may have different opinions. For me, life is more than life and it is that brings the goodness of life. And the goodness of life lies in itself. This paper will study the goodness of life from four aspects. It nurtures from the moments. It benefits me from the moment when I have great expectations for the future, when I have huge thankfulness for my parents, when I have appreciation on the friends and teachers, and when I have great longings for the freedom.

  8. Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About AOA Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside ... Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life ...

  9. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  10. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  11. Life on the cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    While the first 30 years of new China's scientific development was a self-reliant era marked by the detonations of the atomic bomb, the hydrogen bomb, and the launch of the first artificial satellite, the second 30 years after the reform and opening up was signified by the introduction of the Internet to China. Weimin Wu is a unique legendary figure whose career spanned both periods. He not only contributed to the bomb and satellite projects, but also sent out the email from China to Switzerland in 1986, which was listed as the first event in the history of China's Internet development. The Tiananmen Square Protest in 1989 changed his life's trajectory, leading him to eventually immigrate to the US. His personal emotional life is also remarkable. With his experiences immersed in both Eastern and Western cultures, Wu came to believe in the convergence theory of social development, which provides a refreshing perspective for the readers. The autobiography records the details of his legendary life stories, from ...

  12. Life activities in space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    This review summarized biological life activities in space environment for investigating which many experiments had been done in spacecraft's. The space is characterized by a good view, high vacuum, scarce gravity and cosmic ray of which exposure dose in the craft at 4,000 km height is around 1,000 times higher than the dose on the ground. In humans, reductions of bone content, muscle strength, immune function are known as well as space intoxication and eye-flash. Authors carried out 17 experiments in American and Russian space stations from 1992. The experiments concerned DNA breakage by cosmic ray where they first visualized the DNA damage by the ray with autoradiographic method with [{sup 3}H]dATP in HMV1 cells; cell differentiation and morphogenesis in the space with the use of radio-sensitive cellular slime mold of {gamma}s13 strain; influences of the scarce gravity on the repair of broken artificially prepared double-strand DNA and on the induced-mutation in E. coli and yeast; and stress proteins which were shown to be accumulated in the space. The space experiments are concluded to be useful for radiation biology further in future. (K.H.)

  13. Life as we know it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl

    2013-09-06

    This paper presents a heuristic proof (and simulations of a primordial soup) suggesting that life-or biological self-organization-is an inevitable and emergent property of any (ergodic) random dynamical system that possesses a Markov blanket. This conclusion is based on the following arguments: if the coupling among an ensemble of dynamical systems is mediated by short-range forces, then the states of remote systems must be conditionally independent. These independencies induce a Markov blanket that separates internal and external states in a statistical sense. The existence of a Markov blanket means that internal states will appear to minimize a free energy functional of the states of their Markov blanket. Crucially, this is the same quantity that is optimized in Bayesian inference. Therefore, the internal states (and their blanket) will appear to engage in active Bayesian inference. In other words, they will appear to model-and act on-their world to preserve their functional and structural integrity, leading to homoeostasis and a simple form of autopoiesis.

  14. Did meteorites bring the ingredients of life ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are commonly considered as the most primitive meteorites and they accreted the primordial constituents of the Solar System. They are called "carbonaceous" due their high amount in extraterrestrial organic compounds. These compounds mainly formed 4.5 billion years ago by processes involving non-biologic chemical reactions, as shown by their isotopes. Among these molecules, several are considered as of biological interest because they could participate to processes equivalent to present day metabolic pathways in living cells; they include sugars, amino acids or nucleobases. These molecules being brought continuously on Earth, they may have induced the appearance of Life on Earth and/or could have an influence on the primitive forms of life.

  15. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  16. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

  17. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body By Alison Davis Posted ... field that studies how the body reacts to medicines and how medicines affect the body. Scientists funded ...

  18. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  19. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  20. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  1. Life on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylaja, B. S.

    1997-06-01

    The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of "cities of Moon", "colonies of Mars" and so on. However, the sophisticated tools of the modern era quickly put a full stop to these developments revealing that the other planets are not hospitable, and infact hostile for a life form like ours to exist there. That explains why in the last few decades the efforts shifted to observing the satellites of large planets. The anxiety grew with the knowledge of their atmospheric structure, chemical composition and volcanic activity. Detection of water, albeit frozen, was a welcome surprise. The flyby of Voyager and Pioneer provided ample evidence for the presence of water, one of the most important ingredients for the germination of the seed of life. The detection of the fossil of a microorganism on a stone believed to have fallen from Mars, boosted the scientists zeal to pursue the research, although the date for life on Mars (more than 3 billion years ago) is not very convincing. Last year, many scientists, from different branches like astrophysics, geology, oceanography, biology and astrogeology discussed the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. The focal point was not Mars, but Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Their studies based on Voyager images supported the possibility of liquid water beneath the frozen sheets of ice. However, heat is also an essential parameter. Europa, being at a distance five times the sun-earth separation can have only 1/25th the warmth of the earth. Then, where does it get the necessary warmth from? There are other important sources of heat in many of these satellites that lie concealed from our view. They are the volcanoes. If present, can these keep the water warm below the ice sheets? The unmanned

  2. Classifying Life: The Astrobiological Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, E.

    2013-09-01

    This paper will discuss efforts to define life. I will address how astrobiological research might allows us to conceptualise extreme conditions for life and thus allow us to give a much more nuanced definition of life. I also look at why this has ethical implications for society and humankin.

  3. Life skills and children's characterstrengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie; Linder, Anne

    Psychologist Anne Linder and Psychologist and PhDstudent Mette Marie Ledertoug focus in ‘Life skills and Childrens’ Character Strengths’ on improving life skills for children and adolescents by adopting a strengths-based approach combining a theoretical foundation based on VIA strengths...... a combination of characterstrengths and these strategies can improve life skills....

  4. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  5. Educators Get a "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

  6. Life Stories and Interculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toldi Éva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two short stories: Teréz Müller’s Igaz történet [A True Story] and József Bálint senior’s Imádkozzál és dolgozzál [Pray and Work]. The argument explores the way the texts reflect on shifts in power in the Hungarian region of Vojvodina, and the way power structures define the relationship between majority and minority in a society that undergoes constant and radical changes. Contemporary historical events of the twentieth century, changes, faultlines, traumatic life events and identity shifts emerge as the contexts for these narratives of the daily experiences of a Jewish merchant family and a farmer family respectively. Thus, the two texts analysed are representative works rooted in two fundamentally different social backgrounds. The discourse about the I is always also about the other; the construction of identity is already in itself a dialogic, intercultural act, which makes it an ideal topic for the exploration of the changes and shifts in one’s own and the other’s cultural identity. Translational processes of transmission are also required for the narration of traumatic experiences. Teréz Müller was the grandmother of the Serbian writer Aleksandar Tišma. Her book is not primarily a document of their relationship; however, it does throw light on diverse background events of the writer’s life and oeuvre. Comparing the experiences of identity in the autobiographical novel of Aleksandar Tišma and the recollections of his grandmother reveals geocultural characteristics of their intercultural life experiences.

  7. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  8. [Health and life style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belau, D

    1994-01-01

    In the theoretically top-heavy, demanding and over-fastidiously artificial and abstract variety of Marxism, some seeds of certain anthropological and biological "constants" of illness and health had been at least sown. This notwithstanding, society as conceived and practised in the former so-called German Democratic Republic was governed by an oversocialised image of Man. The positive core of this tendency to oversocialisation was the axiom that humanising Man coincided with humanising Man's social environment. Negative sequels of such oversocialisation of the human image were, among others, separating Man's anthropological mode of existence from the social context; underestimating the role of borderline situations in human life (as conceived by Jaspers); and massive intrusions by the State into Man's private sphere. Last but by no means least, the vision of the emerging new "rich human being", of a "human being in need of the entirety of human manifestations of life" (Marx) proved to be nothing but a Utopian abstraction. One of the arguments brought forward was that chances to acquire and preserve health are actually options for translating aims of life into reality by means of the possibilities of individual development of one's innate propensities, possibilities offered to Man by and within the framework of social structures. It follows from this manner of reasoning that both the political and the intellectual strata in the German Democratic Republic were convinced that their ideological construction of "congruence" between the interests of society and those of the individual was indeed a reality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Actinides and Life's Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  10. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  11. Life raft stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  12. Life in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Grufstedt Kjeldgaard, Heidi; Egerod, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    and frustration toward the LVAD, and during preparation for cardiac transplantation, they experienced the ambivalence of hope and fear. Some resolved their emotional ambiguity by procrastination in relation to vocational adjustments that were necessary due to their illness. Older patients with occupational...... security were quicker to resume work and everyday life. CONCLUSIONS:: Patients with LVAD succeeded somewhat in reestablishing their lives, but the younger individuals still need to consider vocational options. Some patients need help to get out of the sick role that kept them on disability benefits...

  13. Mathematical Physics and Life

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, A

    2002-01-01

    It is a fascinating subject to explore how well we can understand the processes of life on the basis of fundamental laws of physics. It is emphasised that viewing biological processes as manipulation of information extracts their important features. This information processing can be analysed using well-known methods of mathematical physics. The lowest level of biological information processing, involving DNA and proteins, is the easiest one to link to physical properties. Physical underpinnings of the genetic information that could have led to the universal language of 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids are pointed out. Generalisations of Boolean logic, especially features of quantum dynamics, play a crucial role.

  14. The chemical life(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond.

  15. The formation of life

    CERN Document Server

    Kurucz, R L

    2000-01-01

    The formation of life is an automatic stage in the consolidation of rocky or "terrestrial" planets. The organic (=carbonaceous) matter, light elements, gases, and water must "float" toward the surface and the heavier metals must sink toward the center. Random processes in the molecular soup that fills microfractures in unmelted crust eventually produce self-replicating microtubules. In an appendix I suggest that some primordial crust remains because there is not enough consolidation energy to melt the whole planet. Energy is lost when iron planetesimals first partially melt and then coalesce to form the molten iron planetary core. Stony planetesimals accrete onto the surface of an already consolidated core.

  16. What is Everyday Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    The notion of ‘everyday life’ (EDL) has found renewed analytical purchase in recent years and has become a widely used term in explorations of social life, moving all the way from studies of the family to the financial system. But what exactly is EDL and how can we understand it? This paper...... undertakes a preliminary investigation into how the term has been interpreted in various literatures. There are a wide variety of analytical takes on EDL and the objective is to utilize this preliminary discussion to provide the intellectual resources to deal with its connections to politics...

  17. Life of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin; Margot Ricard, Lykke

    Learning Lab Denmark, København. 2003 Short description: In connection to the conference Changes and Challenges the White Book "Life of Science" was published. Member states of the European Union as well as applying countries were invited to contribute to the book with texts in order to present...... inspiring cases of concrete educational strategies for improving learning, teaching and recruitment in the fields of science and technology. Abstract: The aim of this white book is to present some of the most inspiring examples of Science and Technology Education in Europe. In creating the white book, we...

  18. Zebra mussel life history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.D. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  19. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  20. Life of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin; Margot Ricard, Lykke

    Learning Lab Denmark, København. 2003 Short description: In connection to the conference Changes and Challenges the White Book "Life of Science" was published. Member states of the European Union as well as applying countries were invited to contribute to the book with texts in order to present i...... occurred, and the challenges we currently face in Scienceand Technology Education. We extend our deepest gratitude to all who contributed to the volume.......Learning Lab Denmark, København. 2003 Short description: In connection to the conference Changes and Challenges the White Book "Life of Science" was published. Member states of the European Union as well as applying countries were invited to contribute to the book with texts in order to present...... inspiring cases of concrete educational strategies for improving learning, teaching and recruitment in the fields of science and technology. Abstract: The aim of this white book is to present some of the most inspiring examples of Science and Technology Education in Europe. In creating the white book, we...

  1. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  2. Life History Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚平; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    Life history research,as one of the most powerful research methods in sociology,brings some re-freshened air into interpretive research.In this paper,the development of life history research,from modernism to postmodemism,from life story to life history,is firstly illustrated.Then the process of conducting life history research is analyzed specifically,which is followed by its unique strengths.Finally,its issues,its general issues and its special issues in Chinese context,are critically examined.

  3. GEMCITABINE-INDUCED RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Jaclyn L

    2016-10-31

    To report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy associated with gemcitabine. The author reports a 68-year-old woman who presented with a 4-month history of bilateral vision loss. She had a history of diabetes, hypertension, and leiomyosarcoma, diagnosed 5 months before presentation and had completed 5 cycles of combination treatment with gemcitabine and docetaxel. Clinical examination revealed a Purtscher-like retinopathy that improved after gemcitabine cessation without the development of cystoid macular edema or retinal neovascularization. This case highlights the importance of recognizing gemcitabine-induced ischemic retinopathy that can be associated with life-threatening myocardial or renal ischemia.

  4. Venus: Water and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditkof, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Amphiboles that contain the hydroxide ion form only in the presence of water and this fact has become the way for scientists to prove that Venus was once a water world. Though, tremolite is considered the main mineral to look for, it requires life that is analogous to the ancient life here on Earth for it to form. Dolomite is the main ingredient for the formation of this low grade metamorphic mineral and without it would be very difficult for tremolite to form, unless there is another process that is unknown to science. Venus is known to have extensive volcanic features (over 1600 confirmed shield volcanoes dot its surface) and with little erosion taking place; a mineral that is associated with volcanism and forms only in the presence of water should be regarded as the main goal. Hornblende can form via volcanism or a metamorphic process but requires water for initial formation. The European Space Agency is currently trying to determine whether or not the continents on Venus' surface are made of granite, as they argue granite requires water for formation. Either way, computer models suggest that any oceans that formed on the surface would have lasted at best 2 billion years, as the surface is estimated to be only 800 million years old, any hornblende that would have formed is more than likely going to be deep underground. To find this mineral, as well as others, it would require a mission that has the ability to drill into the surface, as the easiest place to do this would be on the mountain peaks in the Northern Hemisphere on the Ishtar Terra continent. Through the process of uplift, any remaining hornblende may have been exposed or very near exposed to the surface. Do to the amount of fluorine in the atmosphere and the interaction between this and the lithosphere, the hydroxyl ions may have been replaced with fluorine turning the hornblende into the more stable fluoro-hornblende. To further add to the mystery of Venus is the unusual atmospheric composition. The

  5. Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

  6. Auditory Plasticity Induced by Cochlear Implants in Early Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang

    2009-01-01

    人工电子耳蜗植入是对重度或完全感音神经性聋患者建立听觉功能的最有效装置.但是不同个体耳蜗植入后的效果,即言语识别能力之差别甚大.除了家庭、社会所能提供的术后服务与支持的差别以外,电子耳蜗移植的效果很大程度上决定于植入者中枢神经系统在电子耳蜗下发生可塑性改变的能力.另一方面电子耳蜗和其他电刺激装置的出现对听觉中枢可塑性改变和机制的研究提供了有力的工具.本文从电子耳蜗临床应用的角度出发,重点总结了近年来国外关于电子耳蜗或其他类似慢性电刺激装置植入后在先天性或语前聋个体听觉中枢通路产生的可塑性改变的研究进展,通过对已有资料的分析,探讨可塑性改变的特征、影响因素、可能机理以及对临床工作的意义.

  7. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  8. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  9. Longevity of Daphnia and the attenuation of stress responses by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Christjani, Mark; Wacker, Alexander

    2014-11-06

    The widespread occurrence of melatonin in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes indicates that this indoleamine is considerably old. This high evolutionary age has led to the development of diverse functions of melatonin in different organisms, such as the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and anti-stress effects. In insects, i.e. Drosophila, the addition of melatonin has also been shown to increase the life span of this arthropod, probably by reducing age-related increasing oxidative stress. Although the presence of melatonin was recently found to exist in the ecological and toxicological model organism Daphnia, its function in this cladoceran has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, we challenged Daphnia with three different stressors in order to investigate potential stress-response attenuating effects of melatonin. i) Female and male daphnids were exposed to melatonin in a longevity experiment, ii) Daphnia were confronted with stress signals from the invertebrate predator Chaoborus sp., and iii) Daphnia were grown in high densities, i.e. under crowding-stress conditions. In our experiments we were able to show that longevity of daphnids was not affected by melatonin. Therefore, age-related increasing oxidative stress was probably not compensated by added melatonin. However, melatonin significantly attenuated Daphnia's response to acute predator stress, i.e. the formation of neckteeth which decrease the ability of the gape-limited predator Chaoborus sp. to handle their prey. In addition, melatonin decreased the extent of crowding-related production of resting eggs of Daphnia. Our results confirm the effect of melatonin on inhibition of stress-signal responses of Daphnia. Until now, only a single study demonstrated melatonin effects on behavioral responses due to vertebrate kairomones, whereas we clearly show a more general effect of melatonin: i) on morphological predator defense induced by an invertebrate kairomone and ii) on life history characteristics

  10. Gender and Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Bergholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of occupational segregation by sex and gendered practices in the workplace are complex, multidimensional and contested fields of research and academic discourse. Since the 1960s, we have seen a rapid growth in both quantity and quality of academic work in this field. Earlier simplistic main (male stream as well as straightforward feminist explanations has been roundly criticised and deconstructed. It is now clear that the study of gender relations in working life is far more complicated than it was believed decades ago. The central question in gender research is how gendered structures – in which men in general have more power, more prestigious positions and higher pay – are reproduced in a world in which demography, economy, production, education and therefore society and family have changed over time. Nordic countries represents an interesting geographical arena to examine gender relations in working life, because many factors, which have been seen in other countries as causes for female subordination, appear in other forms. At present, the labour force participation rate of women in Nordic countries is nearly equal to that of men, but there are still substantial differences. Women are better educated than men, and also, to a large extent unionised. Although these factors make Nordic women stand out globally, gender equality at work or at home has not yet been achieved. The male breadwinner is still a societal norm and a construct, which conditions the behaviour of organisations and individuals in many circumstances in working life. This influence can be obvious or obscure. From the 1990s, research has turned to focus also on the fate of the male workforce during deindustrialisation and global restructuring. Participation rate of men in gainful employment have diminished in all industrialised countries (Crouch; 1999, Walby; 1997. Nordic countries are not an exception to this trend. Men’s difficulties to adapt to a new service

  11. Mathematics in everyday life

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, John

    2016-01-01

    How does mathematics impact everyday events? The purpose of this book is to show a range of examples where mathematics can be seen at work in everyday life. From money (APR, mortgage repayments, personal finance), simple first and second order ODEs, sport and games (tennis, rugby, athletics, darts, tournament design, soccer, snooker), business (stock control, linear programming, check digits, promotion policies, investment), the social sciences (voting methods, Simpson’s Paradox, drug testing, measurements of inequality) to TV game shows and even gambling (lotteries, roulette, poker, horse racing), the mathematics behind commonplace events is explored. Fully worked examples illustrate the ideas discussed and each chapter ends with a collection of exercises. Everyday Mathematics supports other first year modules by giving students extra practice in working with calculus, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry and probability. Secondary/high school level mathematics is all that is required for students to und...

  12. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  13. Contemporary family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    2011-01-01

    of complementary gender roles as well as in new understandings of gender equality based on ideals of mutual trust, respect and support. As a result, it is important to investigate how parenthood, family life and parental roles are constantly reflected upon and reproduced, negotiated and transformed through...... to parents’ daily practices with their child. Contrary to the paradox in existing research between the ideal of gender equality on the one hand, and the differentiated and gender-based division of housework and care on the other, it is argued that changes are accruing even though parents still appear...... to adopt gender-based models when it comes to the day-to-day care and the distribution of domestic chores. Through empirical analyses it is demonstrated how the advent of the child becomes a fulcrum, and also how female and male parents’ expectations, beliefs and practises are rooted in traditional notions...

  14. Origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The pathways of organic chemical synthesis, the chemical evolution on the early Earth leading to life was constrained by the development of the planet by accretion and core formation. The accretion and differentiation into the core-mantle-crust-atmosphere system strongly influenced the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, surface, and interior; but large gaps persist in our understanding of these processes. The time-span over which Earth acquired its volatiles, the composition of these volatiles, and the conditions under which outgassing of volatiles occurred to form the atmosphere, are unknown. Uncertainties in existing models for Earth accretion and early planetary development allows a wide range of possible prebiotic atmospheric compositions at the time and temperature when liquid water appeared and thermally-labile organic compounds could survive. These compositions range from strongly reducing atmospheres to mildly reducing ones.

  15. Life in the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉珠

    2006-01-01

    These days people are getting richer and richer.In20or30years’time,what will the life be like?Maybe each family will have a robot.Our mother won’tbe busy with housework.They won’t be tired.Maybe whenwe don’t feel very well,we needn’t go to a hospital to see adoctor.Our children needn’t go to school every day,becausebooks will be on computers but not on paper.The teachersneedn’t go to the school to work,and they can stay at hometeaching us students through world wide web.We’ll havefriends all over the world....

  16. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  17. Life Extinctions due to Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Shaviv, N J; Dar, Arnon; Laor, Ari; Shaviv, Nir J.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper, Shaviv and Dar have shown that highly relativistic ejecta of high Z material from merger or accretion induced collapse of neutron stars can boost and beam star-light in dense stellar regions into cosmological gamma ray bursts (GRBs) whose predicted properties reproduce remarkably well the observed properties of GRBs. Generally, only a small fraction of the relativistic kinetic energy of the ejecta is converted into gamma rays and most of it is injected into the interstellar medium as a very powerful cosmic ray burst (CRB). Here we show that such CRBs can extinct life on Earth-like planets if they are closer than $\\sim 1 ~kpc$ from the merger/explosion. Such CRBs produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground, underground and underwater. They also destroy the ozone layer, radioactivate the atmosphere and the surface of the planet and induce large climatic changes. They are enormously more violent than the GRBs alone or supernova explosions. In Milky-Way like galaxies they destroy life ...

  18. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  19. Life Assessment and Life Extension of an Aircraft Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghaie-Khafri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment and shot peening on the fatigue life of an aluminum aircraft wheel was studied. The effect of residual stress and heat treatment on the fatigue of specimens was studied by means of fatigue testing, residual stress measurement, and fractography. Finite element simulation was used for life assessment and evaluation of the effect of surface treatments on the life extension of the aircraft wheel. The results obtained show that the operational life of the aircraft wheel extended by imposed compressive residual stress and aging treatment.

  20. Quality of Life Philosophy I. Quality of Life, Happiness, and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL. The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one’s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it “coherence”. Maslow called it “transcendence”. Frankl called it “meaning of life”. We call it simply “being”.To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with “quality of life as medicine” that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient’s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  1. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  2. Origins and Evolution of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing

  3. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  4. Media life of the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Bjur, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This is a thorough investigation into contemporary young people and their media life. The article conceptualizes a typology of media life, drawing on a theoretical body involving the sociology of generations, life course research, media life and individualization. This empirically derived typology...... makes a strong instrument for an understanding of the media life of the young, furnishing insights into how they have constructed their use of media. The investigation is based on a robust national survey with Swedes born 1994–2001, conducted in 2010, and focusing on four media: television, gaming......, the Internet and mobile devices. Two of the findings are particularly surprising. Firstly, the results reveal that the young generally lead heterogeneous media lives, varying with age and sex. Secondly, although some young people literarily live their life in media, there are also de facto young who live...

  5. Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Gerald H; Figueroa, Xavier; Zhao, Qing

    2009-03-27

    We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun's radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.

  6. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Vitaly; Gregory S Miller; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; Mark F A VanBerkum; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone ...

  7. Zoological detective stories: the case of the facetotectan crustacean life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    The reconstruction of complete animal life cycles is sometimes a considerable problem, even though the knowledge of the full life cycle may have far-reaching evolutionary implications. A new study published in BMC Biology on artificially induced metamorphosis in an enigmatic crustacean group that was only known from larval stages sheds new light on the evolution of parasitism.

  8. Life and Death Decision Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: DEATH , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: DEATH , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my death . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME DEATH DEATH (r A(excluding death ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI DEATH DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036

  9. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Black Hole Life Preserver

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J R; Freedman, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

  11. Life in a ligand sphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Wächtershäuser, G

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental divide in biology is that between heterotrophic and autotrophic ways of life. Two of the leading proponents of a heterotrophic origin of life ("hetero-origin") in a prebiotic broth, C. de Duve and S. L. Miller, have criticized my theory of a pyrite-pulled chemo-autotrophic origin of life ("auto-origin") [De Duve, C. & Miller, S. L. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 10014-10017]. This criticism is now answered.

  12. Halophilic life on Mars ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the Bac

  13. Tropical birds have a slow pace of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Popko; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Walker, Amy; Williams, Joseph B

    2007-05-29

    Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of tropical birds, the largest data set amassed on metabolic rates of tropical birds, and compared these measurements with 59 estimates of BMR for temperate birds. Our analyses included conventional least squares regression, regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts, and a comparison of BMR of 13 phylogenetically matched pairs, one species from the tropics and one from northerly temperate areas. Our triptych showed that tropical birds had a reduced BMR, compelling evidence for a connection between the life history of tropical birds and a slow pace of life. Further, tropical migrants breeding in temperate habitats had a lower BMR than did temperate residents, suggesting that these migrants have physiological traits consistent with a slow pace of life. In addition, we determined that tropical birds had a lower cold-induced peak metabolic rate and thermogenic metabolic scope than temperate species, a finding that is consistent with the hypothesis that their environment has not selected for high levels of thermogenesis, or alternatively, that a slow pace of life may be incompatible with high thermogenic capacity. We conclude that physiological function correlates with the suite of life-history traits.

  14. How Mathematics Describes Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  15. Life Quality of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorallah Tahery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic and advanced kidney failure undergo hemodialysis treatment and because of various drug therapies have basic problems in their life style which affects their psychosocial operation. The purpose of this study was to determine the hemodialysis patients’ quality of life in Abadan and Khorramshahr in 2011. Methods: This is a cross - sectional study in which all patients (80 cases referring to Abadan and Khorramshahr hemodialysis clinics completed a questionnaire which included two sections of demographic data and kidney diseases quality of life (KDQOL. Data analysis was done using SPSS-17 software and statistical tests such as ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Independent T test were used. Results: The mean score of life quality of the participants was 47.22 ± 8.82 which indicates their low quality of life. Result showed that between quality of life and age (P = 0.04 & r = 0.5 and ESRD patience period (P=0.03 & r= 0.23, there exists a statistically significant relationship. A positive and significant association was also observed between education and quality of life (p= 0.003 and between income level and quality of life (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Life quality of Hemodialysis patients is low and authorities need to provide these patients with more social support and see into their welfare.

  16. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...... at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy...

  17. Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmitz, Tim G; Besier, Tanja; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent's life satisfaction. 1,274 German adolescents (aged 11-16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version of the Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ(M) - Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit), a multidimensional instrument measuring the subjective importance and satisfaction with eight domains of general and eight domains of health-related life satisfaction. Effects of gender and age were analysed using ANOVAs. Girls reported significantly lower general (F = 5.0; p = .025) and health-related life satisfaction (F = 25.3; p life domains, there was a significant decrease in general (F = 14.8; p life satisfaction (F = 8.0; p Satisfaction with friends remained on a high level, whereas satisfaction with family relations decreased. Only satisfaction with partnership/sexuality increased slightly, however this effect cannot compensate the general loss of satisfaction. Decreasing life satisfaction has to be considered as a developmental phenomenon. Associations with the increasing prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation during adolescence are discussed. Life satisfaction should be considered a relevant aspect of adolescent's well-being and functioning.

  18. Smartphones and hyper everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Amigo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some results from our research on technological media convergence and everyday life. The results suggest that new changes would be happening on the space-temporal dimension of daily experience on people and in the way in which those give stability, structure and meaning to the intersubjective world, as a consequence of uses, appropriations and meanings about smartphones. We propose the concept of enriched everyday life or hyper everyday life in order to explain what we consider one of the principal transformations in daily life to people in the contemporary world related to the incorporation of smartphones.

  19. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  20. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  1. Using Second Life® to assist your First Life

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Jane; Duke-Williams, Emma; Crellin, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Worlds, in particular Second Life, have achieved increasing prominence as a place to do business. This session will use Second Life to explore how they are used within organisations to facilitate co-operative work and as tools to work with clients.

  2. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided, or...

  3. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  4. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of several key players in the fungal mating pathway has provided further evidence for the existence of conjugation and meiosis in Pneumocystisorganisms. Dynamic follow-up of stage-to-stage transition as well as studies of stage-specific proteins and/or genes would provide a better understanding of the still hypothetical Pneumocystislife cycle. Although difficult to achieve, stage purification seems a reasonable way forward in the absence of efficient culture systems. This mini-review provides a comprehensive overview of the historical milestones leading to the current knowledge available on the Pneumocystis life cycle.

  5. The elements of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Fedotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Article "Elements of Life" offers a hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine with the physical laws. It shows the principle of forming a sequence of daily activity of the acupuncture meridians as a consequence of the Doppler effect in the process of flowing around the planet Earth by cosmic wind (by Ether. In accordance with this specification the daily structure of meridians had been built. It is suggested that the essence of the Chinese Qi (Chi are vibrations of a certain range in the medium. Consequently, it became possible to set the interrelation of frequencies of the visible spectrum with certain meridians. It is shown that the topological relationship of ancient (barrier points of the Five Elements (Wu-Shu points are associated with the wave lengths of the so-called Qi. It is shown also that the essence of the Wu-Xing law is based on daily circulation patterns of meridians. The examples of the surrounding world, including pulses processes in the human body, are confirming the above mentioned theses. A correlation diagram between the main elements by Dr. Samohotsky A.S. (dissertation "The experience of the definition of medical laws", 1946 and the Five Elements of traditional Chinese philosophy is established. The above represented hypotheses are yet introduced in practice in form of pulse spectral analysis system.

  6. Managing water for life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel P. LOUCKS; Haifeng JIA

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for life. In spite of the entire engineering infrastructure devoted to the treatment, regulation and beneficial uses of water, occasionally sufficient quantities and qualities of water become scarce. When this happens, just how do we decide how much less water to allocate to all of us and the activities we engage in to sustain and enhance our quality of life? This paper addresses some of the complexities of answering such a question, especially as society increasingly recognizes the need to provide flow regimes that will maintain healthy aquatic and floodplain ecosystems that also impact the economic, physical and even the spiritual quality of our lives. For we depend on these ecosystems to sustain our wellbeing. We are indeed a part of our ecosystems. We depend upon on aquatic ecosystems to moderate river flow qualities and quantities, reduce the extremes of floods and droughts, reduce erosion, detoxify and decompose water- borne wastes, generate and preserve flood plain soils and renew their fertility, regulate disease carrying organisms, and to enhance recreational benefits of river systems. This question of deciding just how much water to allocate to each water user and for the maintenance of viable aquatic ecosystems, especially when there is not enough, is a complex, and largely political, issue. This issue is likely to become even more complex and political and contentious in the future as populations grow and as water quantities and their qualities become even more variable and uncertain.

  7. Larger Than Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Harrison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts over natural resources are often misunderstood as being driven primarily by economic concerns or failings of human nature. However, human dimensions research has shown that conflicts are more often driven by problems and shortcomings in institutions for governance and management. In this article, we explore long-standing conflicts over the salmon fisheries of the Kenai River and Upper Cook Inlet region of Southcentral Alaska, fisheries that are embroiled in a long-standing conflict and controversy. We engaged in ethnographic research with participants from commercial, sport, and personal use fisheries in the region to understand their perceptions of these local “salmon wars.” We find that these disputes are more nuanced than is captured by existing typologies of natural resource conflicts, and argue that conflicts can take on a life of their own wherein people stop responding to each other and start responding to the conflict itself, or at least the conflict as they understand it. This perspective is helpful for understanding how conflict in the region has escalated to a point of apparent dysfunction via a process known as schismogenesis. We conclude with a discussion that considers this conflict as an indicator of institutional failure from a social justice perspective, and argue that attempts for conflict management and/or resolution in cases such as these must focus first on protecting the human rights of all participants.

  8. Photonics for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  9. Life Sciences and employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  10. Learning through life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingolf Waßmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 and social networks introduced impulses for novel forms of online teaching using the comprehensive interconnections of objects and users within the Internet. The diversity of existing systems complicates a holistic usage in broad learning scenarios which meet the requirements of the modern information society. This contribution presents a connectivism-based platform for online teaching called “Wiki-Learnia”, which covers the most important periods of lifelong learning. Contemporary technologies are the foundation, which not only connect users to each other but also users with dedicated contents and possibly associated authors and/or tutors. For the former, various communication tools of Web 2.0 (social networks, chats, forums, etc. are used. The latter is using the so-called “Learning Hub”, which is based on Web 3.0 mechanisms, in particular a semantic meta-search engine. To show the practical relevance of the approach the media-based Junior Studies is presented, a project of the University of Rostock with the aim of preparing pupils to be fit for university life. Based on the specific requirements of this project, the enormous function range and the great flexibility of Wiki-Learnia are demonstrated.

  11. On the decomposition of life expectancy and limits to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Les; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy is a measure of how long people are expected to live and is widely used as a measure of human development. Variations in the measure reflect not only the process of ageing but also the impacts of such events as epidemics, wars, and economic recessions. Since 1950, the influence of these events in the most developed countries has waned and life expectancy continues to lengthen unabated. As a result, it has become more difficult to forecast long-run trends accurately, or identify possible upper limits. We present new methods for comparing past improvements in life expectancy and also future prospects, using data from five developed, low-mortality countries. We consider life expectancy in 10-year age intervals rather than over the remaining lifetime, and show how natural limits to life expectancy can be used to extrapolate trends. We discuss the implications and compare our approach with other commonly used methods.

  12. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  13. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  14. Work flows in life science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computer science technology in the life science domain has resulted in a new life science discipline called bioinformatics. Bioinformaticians are biologists who know how to apply computer science technology to perform computer based experiments, also known as in-silico or dry lab

  15. Life in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A

    1999-01-01

    Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or near hydrothermal vents. A large fraction of prebiotic organic molecules might have been brought by extraterrestrial-meteoritic and cometary dust grains decelerated by the atmosphere. Any celestial body harboring permanent liquid water may therefore accumulate the ingredients that generated life on the primitive Earth. The possibility that life might have evolved on early Mars when water existed on the surface marks it as a prime candidate in a search for bacterial life beyond the Earth. Europa has an icy carapace. However, cryovolcanic flows at the surface point to a possible water subsurface region which might harbor a basic life form. The atmosphere and surface components of Titan are also of interest to exobiology for insight into a hydrocarbon-rich chemically evolving world. One-handed complex molecules and preferential isotopic fractionation of carbon, common to all terrestrial life forms, can be used as basic indicators when searching for life beyond the Earth.

  16. Work flows in life science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computer science technology in the life science domain has resulted in a new life science discipline called bioinformatics. Bioinformaticians are biologists who know how to apply computer science technology to perform computer based experiments, also known as in-silico or dry lab

  17. End of Life (Hospice Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life Hospice care might be an option if you or a loved one has a terminal illness. Understand how hospice care ... care is for people who are nearing the end of life. Hospice care services are provided by a team of health ...

  18. Quality of life: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term “quality of life” serves as a catchword for different notions of the good life. It is used in fact to denote a set of qualities of life, which can be ordered on the basis of the following two distinctions. One distinction is between opportunities for a good lif

  19. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  20. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  1. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  2. Roots: The Life Space Pioneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with…

  3. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  4. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  5. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  6. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhou

  7. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  8. Roots: The Life Space Pioneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with troubled…

  9. Perspectives on a New Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; KAIYUAN

    2002-01-01

    WHAT does life mean? According to the traditional Chinese mentality, it means to clothe, feed and shelter oneself, and to be mobile. Today, these staples still apply, alongside an additional two: entertainment and education. The acquisition of two more essentials within a definition of the meaning of life indicates, from another perspective,

  10. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  11. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  12. Ethical Issues in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

  13. A "Second Life" for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

  14. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Before Diane ... for her life. Was there any hope at all? Dr. Richard ...

  15. Life Cycle of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  16. The Life Mission Theory II. The Structure of the Life Purpose and the Ego

    OpenAIRE

    Soren Ventegodt; Niels Jorgen Andersen; Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    Pursuing your life mission is often very difficult, and many frustrations are experienced along the way. Major failures to bring out our potential can cause us considerable emotional pain. When this pain is unbearable, we are induced to shift from one intention and talent to another that better allows us to adapt and survive. Thus, we become set on a course that brings out a secondary or tertiary talent instead of the primary talent. This talent displacement may be expressed as a loss of our ...

  17. Cervical esophagostomy improves the life quality of patients with dysphagia induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma%颈部食管造口术提高鼻咽癌放疗后吞咽困难患者生活质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟雄; 王凯; 唐隽; 张剑利; 汤苏成; 何发尧; 朱肇峰; 王跃建

    2016-01-01

    patients was measured at five given time before and after operation.The occurrence of pneumonia and reflux esophagitis before and after operation was recorded, and the quality of life based on SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scale was studied.Results After operation, the nutritional status of these patients improved substantially, including the weight, levels of hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and transferring(P < 0.05).The pneumonia-infection decreased from 60.38% (32/53) before operation to 15.22% (7/46) after operation (x2 =21.04, P < 0.01).The incidences of reflux esophagitis decreased from 26.42% (14/53) without operation to 6.52% (3/46) after operation (x2 =5.00, P < 0.01).Meanwhile, the status of physical health, mental health as well as physical function and social function of these patients were improved significantly at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after operation (P < 0.05).Conclusion Cervical esophagostomy can improve the life quality of patients with dysphagia induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. Physics of the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Originally developed for the author's course at Union College, this text is designed for life science students who need to understand the connections of fundamental physics to modern biology and medicine. Almost all areas of modern life sciences integrally involve physics in both experimental techniques and in basic understanding of structure and function. Physics of the Life Sciences is not a watered-down, algebra-based engineering physics book with sections on relevant biomedical topics added as an afterthought. This authoritative and engaging text, which is designed to be covered in a two-semester course, was written with a thoroughgoing commitment to the needs and interests of life science students. Although covering most of the standard topics in introductory physics in a more or less traditional sequence, the author gives added weight and space to concepts and applications of greater relevance to the life sciences. Students benefit from occasional sidebars using calculus to derive fundamental relations,...

  19. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  20. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...