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Sample records for kainic acid-induced seizure

  1. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus......The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice......, and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in kainic acid-induced limbic seizure status in cats

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yonemasu, Yukichi [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Kondo, Shinji; Hori, Tomokatsu; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Shindo, Kazuyuki

    1993-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging before, during, and after kainic acid (KA)-induced limbic seizure status in cats demonstrated the bilateral hippocampi as slightly high-intensity areas on the T[sub 2]-weighted images during the limbic seizure status, and isointensity areas 1-2 weeks after KA injection when the limbic seizure status subsided. However, the hippocampi again became high-intense 1-3 months after KA injection. Histological study suggested that the high-intensity area during the limbic seizure status resulted from regional edema, and in the chronic period from marked gliosis and/or atrophic change as a consequence of tissue damage in the hippocampus. (author).

  3. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Daniele Bertoglio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE. Wistar Han (Charles River, France and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase and 12 weeks (chronic phase post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein, and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001 in SD/H (median 8.3 days animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days. During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01. However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure

  5. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Bertoglio, Daniele; Amhaoul, Halima; Van Eetveldt, Annemie; Houbrechts, Ruben; Van De Vijver, Sebastiaan; Ali, Idrish; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE). Wistar Han (Charles River, France) and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands) rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA) and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG) in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase) and 12 weeks (chronic phase) post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei), microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein), and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C) were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) in SD/H (median 8.3 days) animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days). During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01). However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure burden

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack. in rats with kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure.

    Hsieh, C L; Chen, M F; Li, T C; Li, S C; Tang, N Y; Hsieh, C T; Pon, C Z; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and the physiological mechanisms of its action in rats. A total of 70 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected for study. Thirty four of these rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) CONTROL GROUP (n = 6): received intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg); 2) UR1000 group (n = 10), 3) UR500 group (n = 6) 4) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 5) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Behavior and EEG were monitored from 15 min prior to drug administration to 3 hours after KA administration. The number of wet dog shakes were counted at 10 min intervals throughout the experimental course. The remaining 36 rats were used to measure the lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex one hour after KA administration. These rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats as follows: 1) Normal group: no treatment was given; 2) CONTROL GROUP: received KA (12 mg/kg) i.p.; 3) UR1000 group, 4) UR500 group, 5) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 6) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Our results indicated that both UR 1000 and 500 mg/kg decreased the incidence of KA-induced wet dog shakes, no similar effect was observed in the UR 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg group. Treatment with UR 1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, or 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex and was dose-dependent. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsant effect of UR possibly results from its suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation in the brain.

  7. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12?mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mec...

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Chung-Hsiang Liu; Yi-Wen Lin; Nou-Ying Tang; Hsu-Jan Liu; Ching-Liang Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA-) induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treat...

  9. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity Regulates Brain Expression of P-Glycoprotein in the Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure Rats

    Nian Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB activity on the seizure susceptibility, brain damage, and P-gp expression in kainic acid- (KA- induced seizure rats. Male SD rats were divided into saline control group (NS group, KA induced epilepsy group (EP group, and epilepsy group intervened with NF-κB inhibitor-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate salt (PDTC group or with dexamethasone (DEX group. No seizures were observed in the rats of NS group. Compared with NS group, increased P-gp expression and NF-κB activation in the rat brain of the EP group were observed after KA micro-injection. Both PDTC and DEX pre-treatment significantly increased the latency to grade III or V seizure onset compared to EP group but failed to show neuron-protective effect as the number of survival neurons didn't significantly differ from that in EP group. Furthermore, PDTC pre-treatment significantly decreased P-gp expression along with NF-κB activation in the hippocampus CA3 area and amygdala complex of rats compared with the EP group, implying that NF-κB activation involved in the seizure susceptibility and seizure induced brain P-gp over-expression. Additionally, DEX pre-treatment only decreased P-gp expression level without inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting NF-κB independent pathway may also participate in regulating seizure induced P-gp over-expression.

  10. Electric Stimulation of Ear Reduces the Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway on Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures in Rats

    En-Tzu Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or of little benefit in 30% of epileptic patients and usually cause severe side effects. Emerging evidence indicates the crucial role of inflammatory mediators in epilepsy. The current study investigates the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and its underlying mechanisms in kainic acid- (KA- induced epileptic seizures in rats. Experimental KA injection successfully initiated an epileptic seizure accompanied by increased expression of TLR4 in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. In addition, calcium-sensitive phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKIIα increased after the initiation of the epileptic seizure. Furthermore, downstream-phosphorylated signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK, and p38 kinase simultaneously increased in these brain areas. Moreover, the transcriptional factor phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (pNF-κB increased, suggesting that nucleus transcription was affected. Furthermore, the aforementioned molecules decreased by an electric stimulation (ES of either 2 Hz or 15 Hz of the ear in the three brain areas. Accordingly, we suggest that ES of the ear can successfully control epileptic seizures by regulating the TLR4 signaling pathway and has a therapeutic benefit in reducing epileptic seizures.

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression.

    Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA-) induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  13. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats

    Nou-Ying Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p. and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg. Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

  14. Oral Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) reduces kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures and neuronal death accompanied by attenuating glial cell proliferation and S100B proteins in rats.

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2011-05-17

    Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Here we aim to determine the protective role of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), an herbal drug belong to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on epileptic rats. To address this issue, we tested the effect of UR on kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizures and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Oral UR successfully decreased neuronal death and discharges in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The population spikes (PSs) were decreased from 4.1 ± 0.4 mV to 2.1 ± 0.3 mV in KA-induced epileptic seizures and UR-treated groups, respectively. Oral UR protected animals from neuronal death induced by KA treatment (from 34 ± 4.6 to 191.7 ± 48.6 neurons/field) through attenuating glial cell proliferation and S100B protein expression but not GABAA and TRPV1 receptors. The above results provide detail mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective action of UR on KA-induced epileptic seizure in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats.

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg). Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

  16. Uncaria rhynchophylla and rhynchophylline improved kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures via IL-1β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Ho, Tin-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2014-05-15

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) has been used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. This study reported the major anti-convulsive signaling pathways and effective targets of UR and rhynchophylline (RP) using genomic and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings indicated that UR and RP improved KA-induced epileptic seizures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and neurotrophin signaling pathways were regulated by UR in both cortex and hippocampus of KA-treated rats. KA upregulated the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), which were involved in TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, respectively. However, UR and RP downregulated the KA-induced IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Our findings suggested that UR and RP exhibited anti-convulsive effects in KA-induced rats via the regulation of TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, and the subsequent inhibition of IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    Bing, Guoying

    2001-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  18. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    Bing, Guoying

    2000-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  19. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  1. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  2. Kainic acid-induced albumin leak across the blood-brain barrier facilitates epileptiform hyperexcitability in limbic regions.

    Noé, Francesco M; Bellistri, Elisa; Colciaghi, Francesca; Cipelletti, Barbara; Battaglia, Giorgio; de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid (KA) is a widely used procedure utilized to develop a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Despite its ability to induce status epilepticus (SE) in vivo, KA applied to in vitro preparations induces only interictal-like activity and/or isolated ictal discharges. The possibility that extravasation of the serum protein albumin from the vascular compartment enhances KA-induced brain excitability is investigated here. Epileptiform activity was induced by arterial perfusion of 6 μm KA in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Simultaneous field potential recordings were carried out bilaterally from limbic (CA1, dentate gyrus [DG], and entorhinal cortex) and extralimbic regions (piriform cortex and neocortex). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown associated with KA-induced epileptiform activity was assessed by parenchymal leakage of intravascular fluorescein-isothiocyanate albumin. Seizure-induced brain inflammation was evaluated by western blot analysis of interleukin (IL)-1β expression in brain tissue. KA infusion caused synchronized activity at 15-30 Hz in limbic (but not extralimbic) cortical areas, associated with a brief, single seizure-like event. A second bolus of KA, 60 min after the induction of the first ictal event, did not further enhance excitability. Perfusion of serum albumin between the two administrations of KA enhanced epileptiform discharges and allowed a recurrent ictal event during the second KA infusion. Our data show that arterial KA administration selectively alters the synchronization of limbic networks. However, KA is not sufficient to generate recurrent seizures unless serum albumin is co-perfused during KA administration. These findings suggest a role of serum albumin in facilitating acute seizure generation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Naringenin ameliorates kainic acid-induced morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Park, Jungha; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-10-19

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated whether intraperitoneal injections of naringenin could mimic naringin-induced effects against GCD caused by intrahippocampal KA injections in mice. Our results showed that treatment with naringenin delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and attenuated KA-induced GCD by inhibiting activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in both neurons and reactive astrocytes in the DG. In addition, its administration attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from microglial activation in the DG following KA treatment. These results suggest that naringenin may be an active metabolite of naringin and help prevent the progression of epileptic insults in the hippocampus in vivo; therefore, naringenin may be a beneficial metabolite of naringin for the treatment of epilepsy.

  4. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  5. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  6. Uncaria rhynchophylla upregulates the expression of MIF and cyclophilin A in kainic acid-induced epilepsy rats: A proteomic analysis.

    Lo, Wan-Yu; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Tang, Nou-Ying; Su, Shan-Yu; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Chun-Chung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is a traditional Chinese herb and is used for the treatment of convulsive disorders, including epilepsy. Our previous study has shown that UR, as well as its major component rhynchophylline (RH), has an anticonvulsive effect and this effect is closely related to its scavenging activities of oxygen free radicals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of (UR) on the expression of proteins using a proteomics analysis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizures. We profiled the differentially expressed proteins on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) maps derived from the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rat brain tissue 24 hours after KA-induced epileptic seizures. The results indicated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and cyclophilin A were under expressed in frontal cortex by an average of 0.19- and 0.23-fold, respectively. In the frontal cortex, MIF and cyclophilin A were significantly decreased in the KA group and these decreases were confirmed by the Western blots. However, in the hippocampus, only cyclophilin A was significantly decreased in the KA group. In addition, in real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), MIF and cyclophilin A gene expressions were also significantly under expressed in the frontal cortex, and only the cyclophilin A gene was also significantly under expressed in the hippocampus in the KA group. These under expressions of MIF and cyclophilin A could be overcome by the treatment of UR and RH. In conclusion, the under expressions of MIF and cyclophilin A in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in KA-treated rats, which were overcome by both UR and UH treatment, suggesting that both MIF and cyclophilin A at least partly participate in the anticonvulsive effect of UR.

  7. Involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin in Kainic Acid-Induced Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Male Rat

    zahra Kiasalari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuronal apoptosis. Curcumin has antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities, therefore this study was conducted to assess involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in protective effect of curcumin in epileptic rats. Methods: 28 rats were divided into sham, curcumin-pretreated sham, epileptic (kainate, and curcumin-pretreated epileptic groups. Experimental model of epilepsy was induced by intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid. Rats received curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Finally, Nissl staining and Bax and Bcl2 immunohistochemistry were conducted on hippocampal sections and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. The p-value less than 0.05was considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of epilepsy was followed by a significant seizure and curcumin pretreatment significantly reduced seizure intensity (p<0.01. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups in Nissl staining of CA3 area neurons. In addition, Bax positive neurons were observed in CA3 area in kainate group and significantly decreased in curcumin pretreated rats (p<0.05. Meanwhile, Bcl2 positive neurons were also moderately observed in kainate group and curcumin pretreatment significantly increased it (p<0.05. Conclusion: Curcumin pretreatment exhibits anticonvulsant activity in epileptic rats. It also decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and significantly enhances the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and hence could reduce neuronal apoptosis.

  8. Intracerebroventricular Kainic Acid-Induced Damage Affects Blood Glucose Level in d-glucose-fed Mouse Model.

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2015-03-01

    We have previously reported that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of kainic acid (KA) results in significant neuronal damage on the hippocampal CA3 region. In this study, we examined possible changes in the blood glucose level after i.c.v. pretreatment with KA. The blood glucose level was elevated at 30 min, began to decrease at 60 min and returned to normal at 120 min after D-glucose-feeding. We found that the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was higher than in the saline-pretreated group. The up-regulation of the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was still present even after 1~4 weeks. The plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were slightly higher in the KA-treated group. Corticosterone levels decreased whereas insulin levels were elevated when mice were fed with D-glucose. The i.c.v. pretreatment with KA for 24 hr caused a significant reversal of D-glucose-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level. However, the insulin level was enhanced in the KA-pretreated group compared to the vehicle-treated group when mice were fed with D-glucose. These results suggest that KA-induced alterations of the blood glucose level are related to cell death in the CA3 region whereas the up-regulation of blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group appears to be due to a reversal of D-glucose feeding-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level.

  9. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H

    2000-01-01

    (NITT) levels and by the expression of MT-I + II, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). MT-I + II deficiency potentiated the oxidative stress caused by KA. Both KA and MT-I + II deficiency significantly affected the expression of MT-III, granulocyte...

  10. Resistance of neurofilaments to degradation, and lack of neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in the developing rat hippocampus.

    Lopez-Picon, Francisco; Puustinen, Niina; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Holopainen, Irma E

    2004-12-01

    Neurofilament (NF) proteins, the major constituent of intermediate filaments in neurons, have an important role in cellular stability and plasticity. We have now studied the short-term (hours) and long-term (up to 1 week) effects of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) on the reactivity of NF proteins, and mossy fiber (MF) sprouting and neuronal death up to 4 weeks in 9-day-old rats. In Western blotting, the expression of the phosphorylation-independent epitopes of NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H rapidly but transiently increased after the treatment, whereas the phosphorylated NF-M remained elevated for 7 days. However, the treatment did not change the immunoreactivity of NF proteins, and no neuronal death or mossy fiber sprouting was detected at any time point. Our findings indicate seizure-induced reactivity of NF proteins but their resistance to degradation, which could be of importance in neuronal survival and may also prevent MF sprouting in the developing hippocampus.

  11. Alleviation of Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Barrier Dysfunction by 4-O-Methylhonokiol in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    Jin-Yi Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH, a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M. officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p. kainic acid- (KA- induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10–30 mg/kg time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan’s blue dye (EBD staining and malondialdehyde (MDA levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.. MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p. in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5 were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (IC50, 52.4 mM and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR signal rate constant of 4×109 M-1·S-1, which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  12. Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation

    Quirion, R.; Chabot, J.-G.; Dore, S.; Seto, D.; Kar, S.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [ 125 I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [ 125 I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [ 125 I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the

  13. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    actions of MT-I but also to direct MT-I effects on the neurons, in that significant extracellular MT presence was detected. Furthermore, MT-I overexpression stimulated astroglia and increased immunostaining of antiinflammatory IL-10, growth factors, and neurotrophins (basic fibroblastic growth factor...

  14. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore,...

  15. Evidence for increased cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the rat hippocampus during kainic acid seizures. A microdialysis study using the "indicator diffusion' method

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration of ....... The results indicate that during KA-induced seizures, uptake of glutamate and aspartate is increased, possibly aimed at maintaining the extracellular homeostasis of these two excitatory amino acids.......Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration...... of kainic acid (KA). With [14C]mannitol as an extracellular reference substance, the cellular extraction of the test substance [3H]D-aspartate was measured at different stages of seizure-activity. The results were compared to those obtained in a sham operated control group. During severe generalized clonic...

  16. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  17. Inhibiting HIF-1α Decreases Expression of TNF-α and Caspase-3 in Specific Brain Regions Exposed Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus

    Jixue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A recent study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs, i.e., IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in specific brain regions of rats play a role in regulating kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus (SE via a GABAergic mechanism. The purposes of this report were to examine contributions of hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α to expression of PICs in these specific brain regions in epileptic rats. Particularly, we investigated the parietal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In addition, we further examined expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis in those brain regions of epileptic rats after infusing 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MET, inhibitor of HIF-1α and etanercept (TNF-α receptor antagonist. Methods: ELISA was used to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs and western blot analysis was used to examine Caspase-3 expression. Results: Our data show that HIF-1α was significantly increased in the parietal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala 1, 3 and 7 days after induction of SE (Pvs. control rats. Our results also show that inhibiting HIF-1α by central infusion of 2-MET significantly decreased the amplified TNF-α expression in these brain regions evoked by SE (Pvs. vehicle control, but did not modify IL-1β and IL-6. Our results demonstrate that 2-MET and etanercept attenuated an increase in Caspase-3 evoked by SE. Conclusion: Overall, we suggest that HIF-1α activated by SE is likely to contribute to epileptic activity via a TNF-α pathway, which has pharmacological implications to target specific HIF-1α and TNF-α pathways for neuronal dysfunction and vulnerability related to epilepsy.

  18. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Hsin-Cheng Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA, which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and rhynchophylline (RP have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p. to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg, RP (0.25 mg/kg, and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  19. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats.

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg), RP (0.25 mg/kg), and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg) for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp) of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  20. Seizures

    Secondary seizures; Reactive seizures; Seizure - secondary; Seizure - reactive; Convulsions ... or kidney failure Very high blood pressure ( malignant hypertension ) Venomous bites and stings ( snake bite ) Withdrawal from ...

  1. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    Pozas, E. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Planas, A.M. [Departament de Farmacologia i Toxicologia, IIBB, CSIC Barcelona (Spain); Ferrer, I. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)

    1997-07-14

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  2. MicroRNA-Mediated Downregulation of the Potassium Channel Kv4.2 Contributes to Seizure Onset

    Christina Gross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are bursts of excessive synchronized neuronal activity, suggesting that mechanisms controlling brain excitability are compromised. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.2, a major mediator of hyperpolarizing A-type currents in the brain, is a crucial regulator of neuronal excitability. Kv4.2 expression levels are reduced following seizures and in epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Kv4.2 mRNA is recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex shortly after status epilepticus in mice and after kainic acid treatment of hippocampal neurons, coincident with reduction of Kv4.2 protein. We show that the microRNA miR-324-5p inhibits Kv4.2 protein expression and that antagonizing miR-324-5p is neuroprotective and seizure suppressive. MiR-324-5p inhibition also blocks kainic-acid-induced reduction of Kv4.2 protein in vitro and in vivo and delays kainic-acid-induced seizure onset in wild-type but not in Kcnd2 knockout mice. These results reveal an important role for miR-324-5p-mediated silencing of Kv4.2 in seizure onset.

  3. Effects of oxcarbazepine on monoamines content in hippocampus and head and body shakes and sleep patterns in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Ávila-Luna, Alberto; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Vargas-Sánchez, Javier

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on sleep patterns, "head and body shakes" and monoamine neurotransmitters level in a model of kainic-induced seizures. Adult Wistar rats were administered kainic acid (KA), OXC or OXC + KA. A polysomnographic study showed that KA induced animals to stay awake for the whole initial 10 h. OXC administration 30 min prior to KA diminished the effect of KA on the sleep parameters. As a measure of the effects of the drug treatments on behavior, head and body shakes were visually recorded for 4 h after administration of KA, OXC + KA or saline. The presence of OXC diminished the shakes frequency. 4 h after drug application, the hippocampus was dissected out, and the content of monoamines was analyzed. The presence of OXC still more increased serotonin, 5-hidroxyindole acetic acid, dopamine, and homovanilic acid, induced by KA.

  4. Seizures

    ... wake up between them. Seizures can have many causes, including medicines, high fevers, head injuries and certain diseases. People who have recurring seizures due to a brain disorder have epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  5. Seizures

    ... may be diagnosed with epilepsy , also known as seizure disorder. Seizure Basics Usually, electrical activity in the brain involves ... times. Fortunately, fainting rarely is a sign of epilepsy. Most kids recover very quickly (seconds to minutes) ...

  6. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina

  7. MDMA Decreases Gluatamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) 67-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Hippocampus and Increases Seizure Susceptibility: Role for Glutamate

    Huff, Courtney L.; Morano, Rachel L.; Herman, James P.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Gudelsky, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37–58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30 days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. PMID:27773601

  8. MDMA decreases glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility: Role for glutamate.

    Huff, Courtney L; Morano, Rachel L; Herman, James P; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37-58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serotonin depletion increases seizure susceptibility and worsens neuropathological outcomes in kainate model of epilepsy.

    Maia, Gisela H; Brazete, Cátia S; Soares, Joana I; Luz, Liliana L; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin is implicated in the regulation of seizures, but whether or not it can potentiate the effects of epileptogenic factors is not fully established. Using the kainic acid model of epilepsy in rats, we tested the effects of serotonin depletion on (1) susceptibility to acute seizures, (2) development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and (3) behavioral and neuroanatomical sequelae of kainic acid treatment. Serotonin was depleted by pretreating rats with p-chlorophenylalanine. In different groups, kainic acid was injected at 3 different doses: 6.5mg/kg, 9.0mg/kg or 12.5mg/kg. A single dose of 6.5mg/kg of kainic acid reliably induced status epilepticus in p-chlorophenylalanine-pretreated rats, but not in saline-pretreated rats. The neuroexcitatory effects of kainic acid in the p-chlorophenylalanine-pretreated rats, but not in saline-pretreated rats, were associated with the presence of tonic-clonic convulsions and high lethality. Compared to controls, a greater portion of serotonin-depleted rats showed spontaneous recurrent seizures after kainic acid injections. Loss of hippocampal neurons and spatial memory deficits associated with kainic acid treatment were exacerbated by prior depletion of serotonin. The present findings are of particular importance because they suggest that low serotonin activity may represent one of the major risk factors for epilepsy and, thus, offer potentially relevant targets for prevention of epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of glycemic control on seizures and seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death

    Schauwecker Paula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke, affecting more than 50 million persons worldwide. Metabolic disturbances are often associated with epileptic seizures, but the pathogenesis of this relationship is poorly understood. It is known that seizures result in altered glucose metabolism, the reduction of intracellular energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. In particular, it has been suggested that the duration and extent of glucose dysregulation may be a predictor of the pathological outcome of status. However, little is known about neither the effects of glycemic control on brain metabolism nor the effects of managing systemic glucose concentrations in epilepsy. Results In this study, we examined glycemic modulation of kainate-induced seizure sensitivity and its neuropathological consequences. To investigate the relationship between glycemic modulation, seizure susceptibility and its neuropathological consequences, C57BL/6 mice (excitotoxin cell death resistant were subjected to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, followed by systemic administration of kainic acid to induce seizures. Glycemic modulation resulted in minimal consequences with regard to seizure severity but increased hippocampal pathology, irrespective of whether mice were hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic prior to kainate administration. Moreover, we found that exogenous administration of glucose following kainic acid seizures significantly reduced the extent of hippocampal pathology in FVB/N mice (excitotoxin cell death susceptible following systemic administration of kainic acid. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that modulation of the glycemic index can modify the outcome of brain injury in the kainate model of seizure induction. Moreover, modulation of the glycemic index through glucose rescue greatly diminishes the extent of seizure

  12. A metallothionein mimetic peptide protects neurons against kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity

    Sonn, Katrin; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Metallothioneins I and II (MTI/II) are metal-binding proteins overexpressed in response to brain injury. Recently, we have designed a peptide, termed EmtinB, which is modeled after the beta-domain of MT-II and mimics the biological effects of MTI/II in vitro. Here, we demonstrate the neuroprotect...

  13. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  14. Absence seizure

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. Seizures (paroxysmal disorders). In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  15. Tandem Wittig-ene reaction approach to kainic acid

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    The first example of a tandem Wittig-intramolecular ene reaction approach and its application toward the synthesis of kainic acid is reported. The synthetic pathway involves conversion of prenyl bromide into phosphorane 3, followed by one-pot Wittig...

  16. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  17. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  18. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. A KCNQ channel opener for experimental neonatal seizures and status epilepticus

    Raol, YogendraSinh H.; Lapides, David A.; Keating, Jeffery; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Cooper, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neonatal seizures occur frequently, are often refractory to anticonvulsants, and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Genetic and electrophysiological evidence indicates that KCNQ voltage-gated potassium channels are critical regulators of neonatal brain excitability. This study tests the hypothesis that selective openers of KCNQ channels may be effective for treatment of neonatal seizures. Methods We induced seizures in postnatal day 10 rats with either kainic acid or flurothyl. We measured seizure activity using quantified behavioral rating and electrocorticography. We compared the efficacy of flupirtine, a selective KCNQ channel opener, with phenobarbital and diazepam, two drugs in current use for neonatal seizures. Results Unlike phenobarbital or diazepam, flupirtine prevented animals from developing status epilepticus (SE) when administered prior to kainate. In the flurothyl model, phenobarbital and diazepam increased latency to seizure onset, but flupirtine completely prevented seizures throughout the experiment. Flupirtine was also effective in arresting electrographic and behavioral seizures when administered after animals had developed continuous kainate-induced SE. Flupirtine caused dose-related sedation and suppressed EEG activity, but did not result in respiratory suppression or result in any mortality. Interpretation Flupirtine appears more effective than either of two commonly used anti-epileptic drugs, phenobarbital and diazepam, in preventing and suppressing seizures in both the kainic acid and flurothyl models of symptomatic neonatal seizures. KCNQ channel openers merit further study as potential treatments for seizures in infants and children. PMID:19334075

  20. Kainic acid in the seaweed Palmaria palmata (Dulse)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Olesen, Pelle Thonning

    2018-01-01

    Twenty samples of the seaweed Palmaria palmata (dulse) purchased mainly from commercial internet shops on the European market were analysed by a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method for the content of kainic acid, a naturally occurring neurotoxic compound...

  1. Febrile seizures

    ... proper care. Occasionally, a provider will prescribe a medicine called diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no drug is completely effective in preventing febrile seizures. Alternative Names Seizure - fever induced; Febrile convulsions Patient Instructions ...

  2. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO. In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons.

  3. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of α-Tocotrienol on Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    Bae Hwan Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E, such as alpha-tocopherol (ATPH and alpha-tocotrienol (ATTN, is a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the chain propagation step during lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ATTN on KA-induced neuronal death using organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC and compared the neuroprotective effects of ATTN and ATPH. After 15 h KA (5 µM treatment, delayed neuronal death was detected in the CA3 region and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also increased. Both co-treatment and post-treatment of ATPH (100 µM or ATTN (100 µM significantly increased the cell survival and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the CA3 region. Increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence and levels of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS were decreased by ATPH and ATTN treatment. These data suggest that ATPH and ATTN treatment have protective effects on KA-induced cell death in OHSC. ATTN treatment tended to be more effective than ATPH treatment, even though there was no significant difference between ATPH and ATTN in co-treatment or post-treatment.

  5. Different ketogenesis strategies lead to disparate seizure outcomes.

    Dolce, Alison; Santos, Polan; Chen, Weiran; Hoke, Ahmet; Hartman, Adam L

    2018-07-01

    Despite the introduction of new medicines to treat epilepsy over the last 50 years, the number of patients with poorly-controlled seizures remains unchanged. Metabolism-based therapies are an underutilized treatment option for this population. We hypothesized that two different means of systemic ketosis, the ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting, would differ in their acute seizure test profiles and mitochondrial respiration. Male NIH Swiss mice (aged 3-4 weeks) were fed for 12-13 days using one of four diet regimens: ketogenic diet (KD), control diet matched to KD for protein content and micronutrients (CD), or CD with intermittent fasting (24 h feed/24 h fast) (CD-IF), tested post-feed or post-fast. Mice were subject to the 6 Hz threshold test or, in separate cohorts, after injection of kainic acid in doses based on their weight (Cohort I) or a uniform dose regardless of weight (Cohort II). Mitochondrial respiration was tested in brain tissue isolated from similarly-fed seizure-naïve mice. KD mice were protected against 6 Hz-induced seizures but had more severe seizure scores in the kainic acid test (Cohorts I & II), the opposite of CD-IF mice. No differences were noted in mitochondrial respiration between diet regimens. KD and CD-IF do not share identical antiseizure mechanisms. These differences were not explained by differences in mitochondrial respiration. Nevertheless, both KD and CD-IF regimens protected against different types of seizures, suggesting that mechanisms underlying CD-IF seizure protection should be explored further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  7. Dopey's seizure.

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Copyright 1999 BEA Trading Ltd.

  8. Envenomation Seizures.

    Kharal, Ghulam Abbas; Darby, Richard Ryan; Cohen, Adam B

    2018-01-01

    Insect sting-related envenomation rarely produces seizures. We present a patient with confusion and seizures that began 24 hours after a yellow jacket (wasp) sting. Given the rapid onset and resolution of symptoms, as well as accompanying dermatological and orbital features, and the lack of any infectious or structural abnormalities identified, the toxic effect of the wasp venom (and related anaphylaxis reaction) was believed to be the cause of his presentation.

  9. Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline inhibit c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Ho, Tin-Yun; Su, Shan-Yu; Lo, Wan-Yu; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Tang, Nou-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) can reduce epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that UR and its major component rhynchophylline (RH), reduce epileptic seizures in rats treated with kainic acid (KA) by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator-protein-1 (AP-1) activity, and by eliminating superoxide anions. Therefore, the level of superoxide anions and the DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 were measured. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pre-treated with UR (1.0 g/kg, i.p.), RH (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.), or valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then KA was administered intra-peritoneal (i.p.). The results indicated that UR, RH, and VA can reduce epileptic seizures and the level of superoxide anions in the blood. Furthermore, KA was demonstrated to induce the DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1. However, these inductions were inhibited by pre-treatment with UR, RH, or VA for 3 days. Moreover, UR and RH were shown to be involved in the suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. This study suggested that UR and RH have antiepileptic effects in KA-induced seizures and are associated with the regulation of the innate immune system via a reduction in the level of superoxide anions, JNK phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB activation.

  10. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  11. Establishment of a rhesus monkey model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy using repetitive unilateral intra-amygdala kainic acid injections.

    Chi, Yajie; Wu, Bolin; Guan, Jianwei; Xiao, Kuntai; Lu, Ziming; Li, Xiao; Xu, Yuting; Xue, Shan; Xu, Qiang; Rao, Junhua; Guo, Yanwu

    2017-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common type of acquired epilepsy refractory to medical treatment. As such, establishing animal models of this disease is critical to developing new and effective treatment modalities. Because of their small head size, rodents are not suitable for comprehensive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation via scalp or subdural electrodes. Therefore, a larger primate model that closely recapitulates signs of TLE is needed; here we describe a rhesus monkey model resembling chronic TLE. Eight monkeys were divided into two groups: kainic acid (KA) group (n=6) and saline control group (n=2). Intra-amygdala KA injections were performed biweekly via an Ommaya device until obvious epileptiform discharges were recorded. Video-EEG recording was conducted intermittently throughout the experiment using both scalp and subdural electrodes. Brains were then analyzed for Nissl and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunostaining. After 2-4 injections of KA (approximately 1.2-2.4mg, 0.12-0.24mg/kg), interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were recorded in all KA-treated animals. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) accompanied by symptoms mimicking temporal lobe absence (undetectable without EEG recording), but few mild motor signs, were recorded in 66.7% (four of six) KA-treated animals. Both IEDs and seizures indicated a primary epileptic zone in the right temporal region and contralateral discharges were later detected. Segmental pyramidal cell loss and gliosis were detected in the brain of a KA-treated monkey. Through a modified protocol of unilateral repetitive intra-amygdala KA injections, a rhesus monkey model with similar behavioral and brain electrical features as TLE was developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulatory impairments following selective kainic acid lesions of the neostriatum.

    Dunnett, S B; Iversen, S D

    1980-12-01

    Kainic acid lesions were made to the anteromedial (AMC) or ventrolateral (VLC) caudate nucleus and the projection areas of medial and sulcal prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. By the second day following lesion, all control and AMC rats had recovered normal food and water intake. By contrast, VLC lesions resulted in severe aphagia and adipsia lasting 3-15 days, accompanied by a rapid loss in weight. Animals were kept alive by palatable food supplement and force-feeding as required. Once all animals had recovered normal food and water intake (3-5 weeks) drinking to various physiological challenges--5% hypertonic saline s.c., food deprivation, quinine adulteration of water and 40% polyethylene glycol--were found to be normal in both lesion groups. By 3 months after lesion the groups did not differ in weight. Acute aphagia and adipsia had been reported following ablation of the sulcal but not the medial PFC in rats. The present experiment obtains parallel results in the PFC projection areas within the neostriatum.

  13. Decreased levels of active uPA and KLK8 assessed by [111 In]MICA-401 binding correlate with the seizure burden in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Missault, Stephan; Peeters, Lore; Amhaoul, Halima; Thomae, David; Van Eetveldt, Annemie; Favier, Barbara; Thakur, Anagha; Van Soom, Jeroen; Pitkänen, Asla; Augustyns, Koen; Joossens, Jurgen; Staelens, Steven; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2017-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [ 111 In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [ 111 In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [ 111 In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the KASE model, in vitro autoradiography with [ 111 In]MICA-401 was performed at 7 days and 12 weeks post-SE. To assess seizure burden, rats were monitored using video-electroencephalography (EEG) for 1 month before the 12-week time point. In the CCI model, in vitro autoradiography was performed at 4 days and ex vivo autoradiography at 7 days post-TBI. At 7 days post-SE, in vitro autoradiography revealed significantly decreased [ 111 In]MICA-401 binding in hippocampal CA3 subfield and extrahippocampal temporal lobe (ETL). In the chronic phase, when animals had developed spontaneous seizures, specific binding was decreased in CA3 and CA1/CA2 subfields of hippocampus, dentate gyrus, ETL, and parietal cortex. Of interest, KASE rats with the highest frequency of seizures had the lowest hippocampal [ 111 In]MICA-401 binding (r = -0.76, p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, at 4 days post-TBI, in vitro [ 111 In]MICA-401 binding was significantly decreased in medial and lateral perilesional cortex and ipsilateral dentate gyrus. Ex vivo autoradiography at 7 days post-TBI, however, revealed increased tracer uptake in perilesional cortex and hippocampus, which was likely related to tracer leakage due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Strong association of reduced [ 111 In]MICA-401 binding with seizure burden in the KASE model suggests that analysis of reduced

  14. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  15. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  16. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  17. Febrile Seizure Simulation

    Victor Cisneros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session is appropriate for medical students, community physicians, or residents in emergency medicine, neurology, pediatrics, or family medicine. Introduction: Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures in childhood; they are thought to occur in 2-5% of all children.1-3 Febrile seizures are defined as a seizure in association with a febrile illness in children without a central nervous system infection, previous afebrile seizure, known brain disorder, or electrolyte abnormalities. 1,2 They typically occur between 6 months and 18 months of age though they can occur up to 5 years of age.3 Febrile seizures are categorized as: simple (generalized seizure lasting less than 15 minutes in a child aged 6 months to 5 years, and less than 1 in a 24 hour period or complex (a focal seizure or generalized seizure lasting greater than 15 minutes, or multiple seizures in a 24 hour period. 1,3 Treatment for febrile seizures is based on treating the underlying cause of the fever and giving reassurance and education to the parents.2 Mortality is extremely rare, and there is no difference in the patient’s cognitive abilities after a febrile seizure, even when the seizure is prolonged.1 Objectives: At the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 discuss the management of febrile seizures 2 discuss when placement of an advanced airway is indicated in the management of a febrile seizure 3 list the risk factors for febrile seizures 4 prepare a differential diagnosis for the causes of febrile seizures 5 educate family members on febrile seizures. Methods: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.

  18. Grand Mal Seizure

    ... grand mal seizures include: A family history of seizure disorders Any injury to the brain from trauma, a ... the risk of birth defects. If you have epilepsy and plan to become pregnant, work with your ...

  19. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  20. Seizure development after stroke.

    Misirli, H; Ozge, A; Somay, G; Erdoğan, N; Erkal, H; Erenoğlu, N Y

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been many studies on seizures following stroke, there is still much we do not know about them. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of seizures in stroke patients. There were 2267 patients with a first-ever stroke, and after excluding 387 patients, 1880 were available for analysis. Of these 1880 patients, we evaluated 200 patients with seizures and 400 patients without seizures. We investigated the seizures according to age, gender, stroke type, the aetiology of ischaemic stroke and the localisation of the lesion. The seizures were classified as early onset and late onset and the seizure type as partial, generalised or secondarily generalised. Seizures occurred in 200 (10.6%) of 1880 strokes. The number of patients with seizures were 138 (10.6%) in ischaemic stroke group and 62 (10.7%) in haemorrhagic stroke group. Patients with ischaemic strokes had 41 embolic (29.7%) and 97 thrombotic (70.3%) origin, and these were not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Cortical involvement for the development of seizures was the most important risk factor (odds ratios = 4.25, p < 0.01). It was concluded that embolic strokes, being younger than 65 years old, and cortical localisation of stroke were important risks for developing seizures.

  1. The role of rosemary extract in degeneration of hippocampal neurons induced by kainic acid in the rat: A behavioral and histochemical approach.

    Naderali, Elahe; Nikbakht, Farnaz; Ofogh, Sattar Norouzi; Rasoolijazi, Homa

    2018-01-01

    Systemic Kainic Acid (KA) administration has been used to induce experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract (RE, 40% Carnosic acid) against KA-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampus and impaired learning and memory. Animals received a single dose of KA (9.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) (KA group) and were observed for 2 h and were scored from 0 (for normal, no convulsion) to 5 (for continuous generalized limbic seizures). RE (100 mg/kg, orally) was administered daily for 23 days, starting a week before KA injection (KA+RE group). Neuronal degeneration in hippocampus was demonstrated by using Fluoro-Jade B immunofluorescence. The number of pyramidal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by Nissl staining. Also, the Morris Water Maze and Shuttle box have been used to assess spatial memory and passive avoidance learning, respectively. Our results revealed that, after treatment with RE, neuronal loss in CA1 decreased significantly in the animals in KA+RE group. The Morris water navigation task results revealed that spatial memory impairment decreased in the animals in KA+RE group. Furthermore, results in Shuttle box test showed that passive avoidance learning impairment significantly, upgraded in the animals in KA+RE group. These results suggest that RE may improve the spatial and working memory deficits and also neuronal degeneration induced by toxicity of KA in the rat hippocampus, due to its antioxidant activities.

  2. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition in cerebral cortex of immature rats following homocysteic acid-induced seizures

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Lisý, Václav; Haugvicová, Renata; Vojtíšková, Alena; Houštěk, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 2 (2007), s. 597-609 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261; GA MŠk 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cerebral cortex * homocysteic acid * free radical scavenger Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2007

  3. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  4. A seizuring alagille syndrome

    Jomon Mathew John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alagille syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder with incidence of one in 100,000 live births. This syndrome with seizure as a presentation has been rarely reported in Indian studies. We present a 3-month-old infant who presented to us with seizures was found to have a dysmorphic face, jaundice, hepatomegaly, and soft systolic murmur. Infant was stabilized and remained seizure free. A detailed clinical evaluation of a common presentation may reveal a rare syndrome.

  5. Microarray profile of seizure damage-refractory hippocampal CA3 in a mouse model of epileptic preconditioning.

    Hatazaki, S; Bellver-Estelles, C; Jimenez-Mateos, E M; Meller, R; Bonner, C; Murphy, N; Matsushima, S; Taki, W; Prehn, J H M; Simon, R P; Henshall, D C

    2007-12-05

    A neuroprotected state can be acquired by preconditioning brain with a stimulus that is subthreshold for damage (tolerance). Acquisition of tolerance involves coordinate, bi-directional changes to gene expression levels and the re-programmed phenotype is determined by the preconditioning stimulus. While best studied in ischemic brain there is evidence brief seizures can confer tolerance against prolonged seizures (status epilepticus). Presently, we developed a model of epileptic preconditioning in mice and used microarrays to gain insight into the transcriptional phenotype within the target hippocampus at the time tolerance had been acquired. Epileptic tolerance was induced by an episode of non-damaging seizures in adult C57Bl/6 mice using a systemic injection of kainic acid. Neuron and DNA damage-positive cell counts 24 h after status epilepticus induced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid revealed preconditioning given 24 h prior reduced CA3 neuronal death by approximately 45% compared with non-tolerant seizure mice. Microarray analysis of over 39,000 transcripts (Affymetrix 430 2.0 chip) from microdissected CA3 subfields was undertaken at the point at which tolerance was acquired. Results revealed a unique profile of small numbers of equivalently up- and down-regulated genes with biological functions that included transport and localization, ubiquitin metabolism, apoptosis and cell cycle control. Select microarray findings were validated post hoc by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The present study defines a paradigm for inducing epileptic preconditioning in mice and first insight into the global transcriptome of the seizure-damage refractory brain.

  6. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Results Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...

  8. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    ... tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This ... longer (called the post-ictal state) Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

  9. Seizures in multiple sclerosis

    Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Polman, Susan; De Keyser, Jacques

    Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the

  10. Anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging actions of two herbs, Uncaria rhynchophylla (MIQ) Jack and Gastrodia elata Bl., in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Hsieh, C L; Tang, N Y; Chiang, S Y; Hsieh, C T; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jack (UR) and Gastrodia elata BI. (GE) are traditional Chinese herbs that are usually used in combination to treat convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities of UR alone and UR in combination with GE in rats. For the in vitro studies, brain tissues from 6 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 120 microg/ml kainic acid (KA), with or without varied concentrations of UR or UR plus GE. For the in vivo studies, male SD rats (6 per group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of KA 12 mg/kg to induce epileptic seizures and generation of free radicals, with or without oral administration of UR 1 g/kg alone or UR 1 g/kg plus GE 1 g/kg. Epileptic seizures were verified by behavioral observations, and electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. These results showed that UR alone decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide levels in vitro, whereas UR plus GE did not produce a greater effect than UR alone. UR significantly reduced counts of wet dog shakes (WDS), paw tremor (PT) and facial myoclonia (FM) in KA-treated rats and significantly delayed the onset time of WDS, from 27 min in the control group to 40 min in the UR group. UR plus GE did not inhibit seizures more effectively than UR alone, but did further prolong the onset time of WDS to 63 min (P < 0.05 vs. UR alone). UR alone reduced the levels of free radicals in vivo, as measured by lipid peroxidation in the brain and luminol-chemiluminescence (CL) counts and lucigenin-CL counts in the peripheral whole blood, but the combination of GE and UR did not reduce free radical levels more markedly than UR alone. In conclusion, our results indicate that UR has anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities, and UR combined with GE exhibit greater inhibition on the onset time of WDS than UR alone. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsive effects of UR and

  11. Effect of intrahippocampal kainic acid injections and surgical lesions on neurotransmitters in hippocampus and septum

    Fonnum, F; Walaas, I

    1978-01-01

    Local injection of kainic acid (2 ..mu..g) was accompanied by destruction of intrinsic neurons in the dorsal part of hippocampus. The lesion was accompanied by a 75% reduction in glutamate decarboxylase activity, a 60% reduction in the high affinity uptake of L-glutamate, a 40 to 60% reduction in the endogeneous levels of aspartate, glutamate and GABA and no changes in the activities of choline acetyltransferase or aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in the dorsal hippocampus. Unilateral destruction of neurons in the dorsal hippocampus was followed by a 20 to 40% reduction in the high affinity uptake of glutamate in lateral, but not in medial septum, on both sides. There was no reduction in choline acetyltransferase, glutamate decarboxylase or aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activities in the lateral or medial part of the septum. Transection of fimbria and superior fornix was accompanied by a severe reduction in choline acetyltransferase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity in hippocampus, in the high affinity uptake of glutamate and in the endogenous level of glutamate in the lateral septum. The results are consistent with the concept that in the hippocampus kainic acid destroys intrinsic neurons and not afferent fibres. It seems therefore that all GABAergic fibres in the hippocampus belong to intrinsic neurons whereas glutamergic and aspartergic neurons belong partly to local neurons. The connection from the hippocampus to the lateral septum probably uses glutamate as a transmitter.

  12. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    ... and the people you work with about your seizure disorder. Driving your own car is generally safe and ... References Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  13. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  14. Fibromyalgia and seizures.

    Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (pFibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described.

  15. Effect of pertussis and cholera toxins administered supraspinally on CA3 hippocampal neuronal cell death and the blood glucose level induced by kainic acid in mice.

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cholera toxin (CTX) or pertussis toxin (PTX) administered supraspinally on hippocampal neuronal cell death in CA3 region induced by kainic acid (KA) was examined in mice. After the pretreatment with either PTX or CTX intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), mice were administered i.c.v. with KA. The i.c.v. treatment with KA caused a neuronal cell death in CA3 region and PTX, but not CTX, attenuated the KA-induced neuronal cell death. In addition, i.c.v. treatment with KA caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The i.c.v. PTX pretreatment alone caused a hypoglycemia and inhibited KA-induced hyperglycemic effect. However, i.c.v. pretreatment with CTX did not affect the basal blood glucose level and KA-induced hyperglycemic effect. Moreover, KA administered i.c.v. caused an elevation of corticosterone level and reduction of the blood insulin level. Whereas, i.c.v. pretreatment with PTX further enhanced KA-induced up-regulation of corticosterone level. Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of PTX alone increased the insulin level and KA-induced hypoinsulinemic effect was reversed. In addition, PTX pretreatment reduces the KA-induced seizure activity. Our results suggest that supraspinally administered PTX, exerts neuroprotective effect against KA-induced neuronal cells death in CA3 region and neuroprotective effect of PTX is mediated by the reduction of KA-induced blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Seizures Induced by Music

    A. O. Ogunyemi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  17. Brain superoxide anion formation in immature rats during seizures: Protection by selected compounds

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Otáhal, Jakub; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2012), s. 421-429 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR GAP303/10/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immature rats * DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * superoxide anion * SOD mimetics * protection * Fluoro-Jade B staining * brain damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2012

  18. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  19. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  20. Seizure recurrence after a first febrile seizure: a multivariate approach

    Offringa, M.; Derksen-Lubsen, G.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Lubsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a follow-up study of 155 Dutch children after the first febrile seizure. Of these initially untreated children 37 per cent had had at least one, 30 per cent at least two and 17 per cent at least three subsequent seizures. The vulnerable period for recurrent seizures

  1. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].

  2. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  3. Gallic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chiu, Ying-Ming; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chin-Tung; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tsay, Gregory J; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate worldwide. Current treatment of gastric cancer includes surgery and chemotherapy as the main modalities, but the potentially severe side-effects of chemotherapy present a considerable challenge. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found to exert an anticancer effect against a variety of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer activity of Galla chinensis and its main component gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assay and cell death ELISA were used to determine the apoptotic effect of Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. To determine the pathway and relevant components by which gallic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated through, cells were transfected with siRNA (Fas, FasL, DR5, p53) using Lipofectamine 2000. Reults: Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid induced apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gallic acid induced up-regulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in AGS cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced gallic acid-induced cell death. In addition, p53 was shown to be involved in gallic acid-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression as well as cell apoptosis in AGS cells. These results suggest that gallic acid has a potential role in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Auricular Electroacupuncture Reduced Inflammation-Related Epilepsy Accompanied by Altered TRPA1, pPKCα, pPKCε, and pERk1/2 Signaling Pathways in Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Yi-Wen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is often considered to play a crucial role in epilepsy by affecting iron status and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the curative effect of auricular acupuncture and somatic acupuncture on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy in rats. Methods. We established an epileptic seizure model in rats by KA (12 mg, ip. The 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA was applied at auricular and applied at Zusanli and Shangjuxu (ST36-ST37 acupoints for 20 min for 3 days/week for 6 weeks beginning on the day following the KA injection. Results. The electrophysiological results indicated that neuron overexcitation occurred in the KA-treated rats. This phenomenon could be reversed among either the auricular EA or ST36-ST37 EA treatment, but not in the sham-control rats. The Western blot results revealed that TRPA1, but not TRPV4, was upregulated by injecting KA and could be attenuated by administering auricular or ST36-ST37 EA, but not in the sham group. In addition, potentiation of TRPA1 was accompanied by increased PKCα and reduced PKCε. Furthermore, pERK1/2, which is indicated in inflammation, was also increased by KA. Furthermore, the aforementioned mechanisms could be reversed by administering auricular EA and could be partially reversed by ST36-ST37 EA. Conclusions. These results indicate a novel mechanism for treating inflammation-associated epilepsy and can be translated into clinical therapy.

  5. Intracerebroventricular kainic acid administration to neonatal rats alters interneuron development in the hippocampus.

    Dong, Hongxin; Csernansky, Cynthia A; Chu, Yunxiang; Csernansky, John G

    2003-10-10

    The effects of neonatal exposure to excitotoxins on the development of interneurons have not been well characterized, but may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the excitotoxin, kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion. At P14, P25, P40 and P60, Nissl staining and immunohistochemical studies with the interneuron markers, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), calbindin-D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) were performed in the hippocampus. In control animals, the total number of interneurons, as well as the number of interneurons stained with GAD-67, CB and PV, was nearly constant from P14 through P60. In KA-treated rats, Nissl staining, GAD-67 staining, and CB staining revealed a progressive decline in the overall number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields from P14 to P60. In contrast, PV staining in KA-treated rats showed initial decreases in the number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields at P14 followed by increases that approached control levels by P60. These results suggest that, in general, early exposure to the excitotoxin KA decreases the number of hippocampal interneurons, but has a more variable effect on the specific population of interneurons labeled by PV. The functional impact of these changes may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  6. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  7. Cerebrovascular Diseases and Early Seizure

    Ayşegül Gündüz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the important causes of seizures and epilepsy among the advanced age group. Seziures are found to be associated with lesion localization and size in previous studies. METHODS: Here, we aimed to detect prevelance of seizure, relation of seizure and lesion localization, and observed seizure types. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease or intraparenchymal hemorrhage who were followed in Cerrahpasa IVIedical School clinic were studied retrospectively and probability of seizure occurence within 1 month after stroke was evaluated. CONCLUSION: Among 378 patients hospitalized by acute stroke, 339 were diagnosed as ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 39 (10.3% had primary intraparenchymal hematoma. Seizures were observed in 16 patients (4.2%, 2 (%5.1 in intraparenchymal hematoma group and 14 (%4.1 in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Early seizures were detected in 33% of patients with anterior cerebral artery, in 6.8% of posterior cerebral artery and in 3.3% of middle cerebral artery infarcts and in three patients out of 12 who were known to have epilepsy. Seizure types were secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizure in nine cases (57%. Among whole group status epilepticus was observed in four patients (1.1%. Conclusion: Early seizure rates are found to be high among patients with anterior cerebral artery infarct and known epilepsy

  8. Identifying seizure clusters in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Baird, Grayson L; Harlow, Lisa L; Machan, Jason T; Thomas, Dave; LaFrance, W C

    2017-08-01

    The present study explored how seizure clusters may be defined for those with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a topic for which there is a paucity of literature. The sample was drawn from a multisite randomized clinical trial for PNES; seizure data are from participants' seizure diaries. Three possible cluster definitions were examined: 1) common clinical definition, where ≥3 seizures in a day is considered a cluster, along with two novel statistical definitions, where ≥3 seizures in a day are considered a cluster if the observed number of seizures statistically exceeds what would be expected relative to a patient's: 1) average seizure rate prior to the trial, 2) observed seizure rate for the previous seven days. Prevalence of clusters was 62-68% depending on cluster definition used, and occurrence rate of clusters was 6-19% depending on cluster definition. Based on these data, clusters seem to be common in patients with PNES, and more research is needed to identify if clusters are related to triggers and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Termination of seizure clusters is related to the duration of focal seizures.

    Ferastraoaru, Victor; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Lipton, Richard B; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Legatt, Alan D; Blumberg, Julie; Haut, Sheryl R

    2016-06-01

    Clustered seizures are characterized by shorter than usual interseizure intervals and pose increased morbidity risk. This study examines the characteristics of seizures that cluster, with special attention to the final seizure in a cluster. This is a retrospective analysis of long-term inpatient monitoring data from the EPILEPSIAE project. Patients underwent presurgical evaluation from 2002 to 2009. Seizure clusters were defined by the occurrence of at least two consecutive seizures with interseizure intervals of <4 h. Other definitions of seizure clustering were examined in a sensitivity analysis. Seizures were classified into three contextually defined groups: isolated seizures (not meeting clustering criteria), terminal seizure (last seizure in a cluster), and intracluster seizures (any other seizures within a cluster). Seizure characteristics were compared among the three groups in terms of duration, type (focal seizures remaining restricted to one hemisphere vs. evolving bilaterally), seizure origin, and localization concordance among pairs of consecutive seizures. Among 92 subjects, 77 (83%) had at least one seizure cluster. The intracluster seizures were significantly shorter than the last seizure in a cluster (p = 0.011), whereas the last seizure in a cluster resembled the isolated seizures in terms of duration. Although focal only (unilateral), seizures were shorter than seizures that evolved bilaterally and there was no correlation between the seizure type and the seizure position in relation to a cluster (p = 0.762). Frontal and temporal lobe seizures were more likely to cluster compared with other localizations (p = 0.009). Seizure pairs that are part of a cluster were more likely to have a concordant origin than were isolated seizures. Results were similar for the 2 h definition of clustering, but not for the 8 h definition of clustering. We demonstrated that intracluster seizures are short relative to isolated seizures and terminal seizures. Frontal

  10. Neurotrophic factors and receptors in the immature and adult spinal cord after mechanical injury or kainic acid.

    Widenfalk, J; Lundströmer, K; Jubran, M; Brene, S; Olson, L

    2001-05-15

    Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the injured spinal cord has been shown to stimulate neuronal survival and regeneration. This indicates that a lack of sufficient trophic support is one factor contributing to the absence of spontaneous regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord. Regulation of the expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors after spinal cord injury has not been studied in detail. We investigated levels of mRNA-encoding neurotrophins, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family members and related receptors, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and c-fos in normal and injured spinal cord. Injuries in adult rats included weight-drop, transection, and excitotoxic kainic acid delivery; in newborn rats, partial transection was performed. The regulation of expression patterns in the adult spinal cord was compared with that in the PNS and the neonate spinal cord. After mechanical injury of the adult rat spinal cord, upregulations of NGF and GDNF mRNA occurred in meningeal cells adjacent to the lesion. BDNF and p75 mRNA increased in neurons, GDNF mRNA increased in astrocytes close to the lesion, and GFRalpha-1 and truncated TrkB mRNA increased in astrocytes of degenerating white matter. The relatively limited upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord contrasted with the response of affected nerve roots, in which marked increases of NGF and GDNF mRNA levels were observed in Schwann cells. The difference between the ability of the PNS and CNS to provide trophic support correlates with their different abilities to regenerate. Kainic acid delivery led to only weak upregulations of BDNF and CNTF mRNA. Compared with several brain regions, the overall response of the spinal cord tissue to kainic acid was weak. The relative sparseness of upregulations of endogenous neurotrophic factors after injury strengthens the hypothesis that lack of regeneration in the spinal cord is attributable at least partly to lack of trophic support.

  11. Seizure Prediction and its Applications

    Iasemidis, Leon D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain’s normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brain’s electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  12. Aborting Seizures by Painful Stimulation

    R. L. Carasso

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that serious consequences may result from allowing seizures to continue. The opportunities for early interruption of seizures by medication is often restricted to medical personnel, leaving non-trained bystanders unable to intervene. We were able to interrupt seizures (including status epilepticus by application of painful dorsiflexion. The mode of action that enables pain to elevate the seizure threshold remains to be elucidated, although the phenomenon is consistent with earlier laboratory studies in experimental epilepsy. The technique may be recommended as an effective and easily learned procedure that may have wide applicability.

  13. Medial Olivocochlear Reflex Interneurons Are Located in the Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus: A Kainic Acid Lesion Study in Guinea Pigs

    De VENECIA, RONALD K.; LIBERMAN, M. CHARLES; GUINAN, JOHN J.; BROWN, M. CHRISTIAN

    2005-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex arc is probably a three-neuron pathway consisting of type I spiral ganglion neurons, reflex interneurons in the cochlear nucleus, and MOC neurons that project to the outer hair cells of the cochlea. We investigated the identity of MOC reflex interneurons in the cochlear nucleus by assaying their regional distribution using focal injections of kainic acid. Our reflex metric was the amount of change in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (at 2f1–f2)...

  14. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  15. Neuropeptides and seizures.

    Snead, O C

    1986-11-01

    There are four lines of evidence for or against a role of neuropeptides in epilepsy: Administration of a variety of opiate agonists into the ventricles or brain of animals produces a constellation of electrical and behavioral changes, seemingly receptor-specific, both sensitive to the specific opiate antagonist naloxone as well as certain anticonvulsant drugs. The primary reservation concerning these data in terms of their relevance to epilepsy regards the fact that the peptides are exogenously administered in relatively high doses. Hence, these data may reflect neurotoxic effects of peptides rather than physiologic function. A variety of opiate agonists are anticonvulsant and naloxone shortens the postictal state in some experimental seizure models. One could attempt to reconcile these data with those in No. 1 by hypothesizing that the spikes and behavioral changes examined in the latter experimental parodynes represented a sort of isolated model of the postictal state. Naloxone has little effect in clinical epilepsy. These data are far from conclusive for two reasons. First, few patients have been studied. Second, because of the issue of opiate receptor heterogeneity and the high doses of naloxone needed experimentally to block non-mu opiate effects, the doses of naloxone used clinically to date are too low to rule out possible delta- or epsilon-mediated effects. The negative clinical data are illustrative of the dangers and difficulties of extrapolating data generated in animal models of seizures to the human condition. ACTH, a peptide that is derived from the same precursor molecule as beta-endorphin, is clearly an effective anticonvulsant in certain childhood seizure states. However, whether this is due to a direct or indirect (that is, cortisol) effect on brain is far from clear. Paradoxically, in contradistinction to other data concerning pro- and anticonvulsant properties of various opioid peptides, there is no animal model of infantile spasms to help

  16. BDNF restores the expression of Jun and Fos inducible transcription factors in the rat brain following repetitive electroconvulsive seizures.

    Hsieh, T F; Simler, S; Vergnes, M; Gass, P; Marescaux, C; Wiegand, S J; Zimmermann, M; Herdegen, T

    1998-01-01

    The expression of inducible transcription factors was studied following repetitive electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), c-Fos, c-Jun, JunB, and JunD immunoreactivities were investigated following a single (1 x ECS) or repetitive ECS evoked once per day for 4, 5, or 10 days (4 x ECS, 5 x ECS, or 10 x ECS). Animals were killed 3 or 12 h following the last ECS. Three hours after 1 x ECS, c-Fos was expressed throughout the cortex and hippocampus. After 5 x ECS and 10 x ECS, c-Fos was reexpressed in the CA4 area, but was completely absent in the other hippocampal areas and cortex. In these areas, c-Fos became only reinducible when the time lag between two ECS stimuli was 5 days. In contrast to c-Fos, intense JunB expression was inducible in the cortex and hippocampus, but not CA4 subfield, after 1 x ECS, 5 x ECS, and 10 x ECS. Repetitive ECS did not effect c-Jun and JunD expression. In a second model of systemic excitation of the brain, repetitive daily injection of kainic acid for 4 days completely failed to express c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB after the last application whereas injection of kainic acid once per week did not alter the strong expressions compared to a single application of kainic acid. In order to study the maintenance of c-Fos expression during repetitive seizures, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was applied in parallel for 5 or 10 days via miniosmotic pumps and permanent cannula targeted at the hippocampus or the parietal cortex. Infusion of BDNF completely reinduced c-Fos expression during 5 x ECS or 10 x ECS in the cortex ipsilaterally to the cannula and, to a less extent, also increased the expression of c-Jun and JunB when compared to saline-treated controls. BDNF had no effect on the expression patterns in the hippocampus. ECS with or without BDNF infusion did not change the expression patterns of the constitutive transcription factors ATF-2, CREB, and SRF. These data demonstrate that various transcription factors substantially differ in their

  17. Characteristics of the initial seizure in familial febrile seizures

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E. van Beijeren; N.H. Wils; G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractComplex seizure characteristics in patients with a positive family history were studied to define familial phenotype subgroups of febrile seizures. A total of 51 children with one or more affected first degree relatives and 177 without an affected first degree

  18. Seizure disorders in 43 cattle.

    D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Bertone, I; Cagnotti, G; Iulini, B; Miniscalco, B; Casalone, C; Gianella, P; Cagnasso, A

    2015-01-01

    Large animals have a relatively high seizure threshold, and in most cases seizures are acquired. No published case series have described this syndrome in cattle. To describe clinical findings and outcomes in cattle referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Turin (Italy) because of seizures. Client-owned cattle with documented evidence of seizures. Medical records of cattle with episodes of seizures reported between January 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Evidence of seizures was identified based on the evaluation of seizure episodes by the referring veterinarian or 1 of the authors. Animals were recruited if physical and neurologic examinations were performed and if diagnostic laboratory test results were available. Forty-three of 49 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 8 months. Thirty-one animals were male and 12 were female. Piedmontese breed accounted for 39/43 (91%) animals. Seizures were etiologically classified as reactive in 30 patients (70%) and secondary or structural in 13 (30%). Thirty-six animals survived, 2 died naturally, and 5 were euthanized for reasons of animal welfare. The definitive cause of reactive seizures was diagnosed as hypomagnesemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 12), and hypomagnesemia-hypocalcemia (n = 16). The cause of structural seizures was diagnosed as cerebrocortical necrosis (n = 8), inflammatory diseases (n = 4), and lead (Pb) intoxication (n = 1). The study results indicate that seizures largely are reported in beef cattle and that the cause can be identified and successfully treated in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy/Seizure Disorders Seizures remain one of the most common neurological ... TSC Brain and Neurological Function Brain Abnormalities Epilepsy/Seizure Disorders Infantile Spasms Epilepsy in Adults with TSC Epilepsy ...

  20. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I in cerebral cortex of immature rats following seizures induced by homocysteic acid

    Ješina, P.; Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Drahota, Zdeněk; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisá, Věra; Pecinová, Alena; Houštěk, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 60-60 ISSN 0141-8955. [Annual Symposium of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism . 02.09.2008-05.09.2008, Lisboa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * immature rats * homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I inhibition Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect of (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine against seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel; Otáhal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2008), s. 665-675 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/02/1238; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid induced seizures * mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG * protection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2008

  2. Seizure clusters: characteristics and treatment.

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2015-04-01

    Many patients with epilepsy experience 'clusters' or flurries of seizures, also termed acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Seizure clustering has a significant impact on health and quality of life. This review summarizes recent advances in the definition and neurophysiologic understanding of clustering, the epidemiology and risk factors for clustering and both inpatient and outpatient clinical implications. New treatments for seizure clustering/ARS are perhaps the area of greatest recent progress. Efforts have focused on creating a uniform definition of a seizure cluster. In neurophysiologic studies of refractory epilepsy, seizures within a cluster appear to be self-triggering. Clinical progress has been achieved towards a more precise prevalence of clustering, and consensus guidelines for epilepsy monitoring unit safety. The greatest recent advances are in the study of nonintravenous route of benzodiazepines as rescue medications for seizure clusters/ARS. Rectal benzodiazepines have been very effective but barriers to use exist. New data on buccal, intramuscular and intranasal preparations are anticipated to lead to a greater number of approved treatments. Progesterone may be effective for women who experience catamenial clusters. Seizure clustering is common, particularly in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. Clustering worsens health and quality of life, and the field requires greater focus on clarifying of definition and clinical implications. Progress towards the development of nonintravenous routes of benzodiazepines has the potential to improve care in this area.

  3. Decreased number of interneurons and increased seizures in neuropilin 2 deficient mice: implications for autism and epilepsy.

    Gant, John C; Thibault, Oliver; Blalock, Eric M; Yang, Jun; Bachstetter, Adam; Kotick, James; Schauwecker, Paula E; Hauser, Kurt F; Smith, George M; Mervis, Ron; Li, YanFang; Barnes, Gregory N

    2009-04-01

    Clinically, perturbations in the semaphorin signaling system have been associated with autism and epilepsy. The semaphorins have been implicated in guidance, migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. The semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) ligand and its receptor, neuropilin 2 (NPN2) are highly expressed within limbic areas. NPN2 signaling may intimately direct the apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic locations, facilitating the development and maturity of hippocampal synaptic function. To further understand the role of NPN2 signaling in central nevous system (CNS) plasticity, structural and functional alterations were assessed in NPN2 deficient mice. In NPN2 deficient mice, we measured seizure susceptibility after kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol, neuronal excitability and synaptic throughput in slice preparations, principal and interneuron cell counts with immunocytochemical protocols, synaptosomal protein levels with immunoblots, and dendritic morphology with Golgi-staining. NPN2 deficient mice had shorter seizure latencies, increased vulnerability to seizure-related death, were more likely to develop spontaneous recurrent seizure activity after chemical challenge, and had an increased slope on input/output curves. Principal cell counts were unchanged, but GABA, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y interneuron cell counts were significantly reduced. Synaptosomal NPN2 protein levels and total number of GABAergic synapses were decreased in a gene dose-dependent fashion. CA1 pyramidal cells showed reduced dendritic length and complexity, as well as an increased number of dendritic spines. These data suggest the novel hypothesis that the Sema 3F signaling system's role in appropriate placement of subsets of hippocampal interneurons has critical downstream consequences for hippocampal function, resulting in a more seizure susceptible phenotype.

  4. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  5. Predicting epileptic seizures in advance.

    Negin Moghim

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6-0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling, is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance.

  6. Intraoperative seizures and seizures outcome in patients underwent awake craniotomy.

    Yuan, Yang; Peizhi, Zhou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shu, Jiang; Qing, Mao

    2016-11-25

    Awake craniotomies (AC) could reduce neurological deficits compared with patients under general anesthesia, however, intraoperative seizure is a major reason causing awake surgery failure. The purpose of the study was to give a comprehensive overview the published articles focused on seizure incidence in awake craniotomy. Bibliographic searches of the EMBASE, MEDLINE,were performed to identify articles and conference abstracts that investigated the intraoperative seizure frequency of patients underwent AC. Twenty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the 25 included studies, one was randomized controlled trials and 5 of them were comparable studies. The pooled data suggested the general intraoperative seizure(IOS) rate for patients with AC was 8%(fixed effect model), sub-group analysis identified IOS rate for glioma patients was 8% and low grade patients was 10%. The pooled data showed early seizure rates of AC patients was 11% and late seizure rates was 35%. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that awake craniotomy is a safe technique with relatively low intraoperative seizure occurrence. However, few RCTs were available, and the acquisition of further evidence through high-quality RCTs is highly recommended.

  7. Treating acute seizures with benzodiazepines: does seizure duration matter?

    Naylor, David E

    2014-10-01

    Several clinical trials have shown improved seizure control and outcome by early initiation of treatment with benzodiazepines, before arrival in the emergency department and before intravenous access can be established. Here, evidence is provided and reviewed for rapid treatment of acute seizures in order to avoid the development of benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the emergence of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Alterations in the physiology, pharmacology, and postsynaptic level of GABA-A receptors can develop within minutes to an hour and hinder the ability of synaptic inhibition to stop seizures while also impairing the efficacy of GABAergic agents, such as benzodiazepines, to boost impaired inhibition. In addition, heightened excitatory transmission further exacerbates the inhibitory/excitatory balance and makes seizure control even more resistant to treatment. The acute increase in the surface expression of NMDA receptors during prolonged seizures also may cause excitotoxic injury, cell death, and other pathological expressions and re-arrangements of receptor subunits that all contribute to long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment and chronic epilepsy. In conclusion, a short window of opportunity exists when seizures are maximally controlled by first-line benzodiazepine treatment. After that, multiple pathological mechanisms quickly become engaged that make seizures increasingly more difficult to control with high risk for long-term harm.

  8. Selective stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes and the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture: effect of kainic acid

    Balázs, R; Hack, N; Jørgensen, Ole Steen

    1990-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture is promoted by treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate. Here we report on the influence of another glutamate analogue, kainic acid, which, in contrast to N-methyl-D-aspartate, is believed to stimulate transmitter rec...

  9. HMPAO-SPECT in cerebral seizures

    Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Reichmann, K.; Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Durwen, H.; Buelau, P.; Elger, C.E.; Rohde, A.; Penin, H.

    1988-01-01

    In nine patients with suspected psychogenic seizures and in three patients with proven epileptic seizures HMPAO-SPECT was performed prior to and during seizure. In the patients with lateron-proven psychogenic seizures no, or only slight, changes of regional cerebral blood flow were found. Patients with proven epilepsy revealed partly normal findings interictally but during seizure a markedly increased circumscript blood flow was found in all patients. Even though PET is superior to SPECT with respect to spatial resolution, in the diagnosis of seizures HMPAO-SPECT has the advantage of enabling injection of the tracer during the seizure and the performance of the SPECT study subsequently. (orig.) [de

  10. The possible mechanisms of protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia

    Rana Arslan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to investigate the central antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid and the involvement of stimulation of opioidergic, serotonin 5-HT2A/2C, α2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia in mice. Time-dependent antinociceptive effects of protocatechuic acid at the oral doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were tested in hot-plate (integrated supraspinal response and tail-immersion (spinal reflex tests in mice. To investigate the mechanisms of action; the mice administered 300 mg/kg protocatechuic acid (p.o. were pre-treated with non-specific opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p., serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p. and non-specific muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p., respectively. The antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid was observed at the doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg in tail-immersion test, at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in hot-plate test at different time interval. The enhancement in the latency of protocatechuic acid-induced response to thermal stimuli was antagonized by yohimbine, naloxone and atropine in tail-immersion test, while it was antagonized only by yohimbine and naloxone pretreatments in hot-plate test. These results indicated that protocatechuic acid has the central antinociceptive action that is probably organized by spinal mediated cholinergic and opiodiergic, also spinal and supraspinal mediated noradrenergic modulation. However, further studies are required to understand how protocatechuic acid organizes the interactions of these modulatory systems. As a whole, these findings reinforce that protocatechuic acid is a potential agent that might be used for pain relief. Additionally, the clarification of the effect and mechanisms of action of protocatechuic acid will contribute to new therapeutic approaches and provide guidance for new drug

  11. Caffeic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells Through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Wei-Chun Chang

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Caffeic acid induces apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity, leading to release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-3, indicating that caffeic acid induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This also suggests that caffeic acid has a strong anti-tumor effect and may be a promising chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  12. Management of Reflex Anoxic Seizures

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation, Liverpool, UK, review the definition, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of reflex anoxic seizures (RAS in children.

  13. Management Of Post Stroke Seizures

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of seizures in relation to stroke is 8.9%, with a frequency of 10.6 and 8.6% in haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, respectively. In subarachnoid haemorrhage the incidence is 8.5%. Due to the fact that infarcts are significantly more frequent than haemorrhages, seizures are mainly related to occlusive vascular disease of the brain. The general view is to consider stroke-related seizures as harmless complications in the course of a prolonged vascular disease involving the heart and brain. Seizures can be classified as those of early and those of late onset in a paradigm comparable to post-traumatic epilepsy, with an arbitrary dividing point of two weeks after the event. Most early-onset seizures occur during the first day after the stroke. Late-onset seizures occur three times more often than early-onset ones. A first late-onset epileptic event is most likely to take place between six months and two years after the stroke. However, up to 28% of patients develop their first seizure several years later. Simple partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation, account for about 50% of total seizures, while complex partial spells, with or without secondary generalisation, and primary generalised tonic–clonic insults account for approximately 25% each. Status epilepticus occurs in 12% of stroke patients, but the recurrence rate after an initial status epilepticus is not higher than after a single seizure. Inhibitory seizures, mimicking transient ischaemic attacks, are observed in 7.1% of cases. The only clinical predictor of late-onset seizures is the initial presentation of partial anterior circulation syndrome due to a territorial infarct. Patients with total anterior circulation syndrome have less chance of developing epileptic spells, not only due to their shorter life expectancy but also due to the fact that the large infarcts are sharply demarcated in these patients. The optimal timing and type of antiepileptic drug

  14. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  15. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  16. Hyponatraemia and seizures after ecstasy use

    Holmes, S.; Banerjee, A.; Alexander, W.

    1999-01-01

    A patient presented to our unit with seizures and profound hyponatraemia after ingestion of a single tablet of ecstasy. The seizures proved resistant to therapy and ventilation on the intensive care unit was required. Resolution of the seizures occurred on correction of the metabolic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of seizures and hyponatraemia after ecstasy use is discussed. Ecstasy use should be considered in any young patient presenting with unexplained seizures and attention should be directed towards electrolyte levels, particularly sodium.


Keywords: ecstasy; seizures; hyponatraemia PMID:10396584

  17. Dentate gyrus and hilus transection blocks seizure propagation and granule cell dispersion in a mouse model for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Pallud, Johan; Häussler, Ute; Langlois, Mélanie; Hamelin, Sophie; Devaux, Bertrand; Deransart, Colin; Depaulis, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    Epilepsy-associated changes of the anatomical organization of the dentate gyrus and hilus may play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). This study evaluated the role of longitudinal projections in the propagation of hippocampal paroxysmal discharges (HPD) in dorsal hippocampus by performing a selective transection in a mouse model for MTLE obtained by a single unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA). Full transections of the dentate gyrus and hilus were performed in the transverse axis at 22 days after KA injection when spontaneous HPD were fully developed. They: (i) significantly reduced the occurrence of HPD; (ii) increased their duration at the KA injection site; (iii) abolished their spread along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampal formation and; (iv) limited granule cell dispersion (GCD) of the dentate gyrus posterior to the transection. These data suggest that: (i) longitudinal projections through the dentate gyrus and hilus are involved in HPD spread; (ii) distant hippocampal circuits participate in the generation and cessation of HPD and; (iii) GCD requires continuous HPD to develop, even when seizures are established. Our data reveal a critical role for longitudinal projections in the generation and spread of hippocampal seizures. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Automated seizure detection systems and their effectiveness for each type of seizure.

    Ulate-Campos, A; Coughlin, F; Gaínza-Lein, M; Fernández, I Sánchez; Pearl, P L; Loddenkemper, T

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy affects almost 1% of the population and most of the approximately 20-30% of patients with refractory epilepsy have one or more seizures per month. Seizure detection devices allow an objective assessment of seizure frequency and a treatment tailored to the individual patient. A rapid recognition and treatment of seizures through closed-loop systems could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality in epilepsy. However, no single detection device can detect all seizure types. Therefore, the choice of a seizure detection device should consider the patient-specific seizure semiologies. This review of the literature evaluates seizure detection devices and their effectiveness for different seizure types. Our aim is to summarize current evidence, offer suggestions on how to select the most suitable seizure detection device for each patient and provide guidance to physicians, families and researchers when choosing or designing seizure detection devices. Further, this review will guide future prospective validation studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sustained deficiency of mitochondrial complex I activity during long periods of survival after seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Haugvicová, Renata; Lisý, Václav; Houštěk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 394-403 ISSN 0197-0186 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : homocysteic acid-induced seizures * mitochondrial complex I activity * persisting decrease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2010

  20. Effect of free radical spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) on seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 1 (2006), s. 105-119 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid induced seizures * neuronal damage * protection Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.156, year: 2006

  1. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  2. Multiple Sclerosis: Can It Cause Seizures?

    ... multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M.D. Epileptic seizures are more common in ... controlled with anti-seizure medication. With B Mark Keegan, M.D. Lund C, et al. Multiple sclerosis ...

  3. Etiology and Outcome of Neonatal Seizures

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of seizure etiology, neurologic examination, EEG, and neuroimaging in the neurodevelopmental outcome of 89 term infants with neonatal seizures was determined at the Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

  4. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen

  5. Seizure progression and inflammatory mediators promote pericytosis and pericyte-microglia clustering at the cerebrovasculature.

    Klement, Wendy; Garbelli, Rita; Zub, Emma; Rossini, Laura; Tassi, Laura; Girard, Benoit; Blaquiere, Marine; Bertaso, Federica; Perroy, Julie; de Bock, Frederic; Marchi, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). NG2DsRed mice were used to visualize pericytes during seizure progression. The effect triggered by recombinant IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-6 on pericytes was evaluated in NG2DsRed hippocampal slices and in human-derived cell culture. Human brain specimens obtained from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with or without sclerosis (HS) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD-IIb) were evaluated for pericyte-microglial cerebrovascular assembly. A disarray of NG2DsRed + pericyte soma and ramifications was found 72 h post-SE and 1 week post-SE (epileptogenesis) in the hippocampus. Pericyte modifications topographically overlapped with IBA1 + microglia clustering around the capillaries with cases of pericytes lodged within the microglial cells. Microglial clustering around the NG2DsRed pericytes lingered at SRS. Pericyte proliferation (Ki67 + ) occurred 72 h post-SE and during epileptogenesis and returned towards control levels at SRS. Human epileptic brain tissues showed pericyte-microglia assemblies with IBA1/HLA microglial cells outlining the capillary wall in TLE-HS and FCD-IIb specimens. Inflammatory mediators contributed to pericyte modifications, in particular IL-1β elicited pericyte morphological changes and pericyte-microglia clustering in NG2DsRed hippocampal slices. Modifications also occurred when pro-inflammatory cytokines were added to an in vitro culture of pericytes. These results indicate the

  6. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Morphine potentiates seizures induced by GABA antagonists and attenuates seizures induced by electroshock in the rat.

    Foote, F; Gale, K

    1983-11-25

    In a naloxone-reversible, dose-dependent manner, morphine (10-50 mg/kg i.p.) protected against seizures induced by maximal electroshock and increased the incidence and severity of seizures induced by bicuculline, in rats. Morphine also potentiated seizures induced by isoniazid and by picrotoxin. Thus, opiate activity influences the expression of seizures in contrasting ways depending upon the mode of seizure induction. Since morphine consistently potentiated seizures induced by interference with GABA transmission, it appears that GABAergic systems may be of particular significance for the elucidation of the varied effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility.

  8. Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif1) mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2017-03-01

    Anacardic acid is a medicinal phytochemical that inhibits proliferation of fungal as well as several types of cancer cells. It induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types, but very little is known about the mechanism involved in the process. Here, we used budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study the involvement of some key elements of apoptosis in the anacardic acid-induced cell death. Plasma membrane constriction, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) indicated that anacardic acid induces apoptotic cell death in S. cerevisiae. However, the exogenous addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or deletion of the yeast caspase Yca1 showed that the anacardic acid-induced cell death is caspase independent. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF1) deletion mutant was resistant to the anacardic acid-induced cell death, suggesting a key role of Aif1. Overexpression of Aif1 made cells highly susceptible to anacardic acid, further confirming that Aif1 mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, instead of the increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally observed during apoptosis, anacardic acid caused a decrease in the intracellular ROS levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed downregulation of the BIR1 survivin mRNA expression during the anacardic acid-induced apoptosis.

  9. DDT exposure of zebrafish embryos enhances seizure susceptibility: relationship to fetal p,p'-DDE burden and domoic acid exposure of California sea lions.

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2009-01-01

    California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acid-induced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to either o,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acid-induced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p'-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p'-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity.

  10. Hippocampal Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry were performed on 84 consecutive patients (adolescents and adults with partial epilepsy submitted to antiepileptic drug (AED withdrawal after at least 2 years of seizure control, in a study at State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil.

  11. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures.

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun-Jung; Kim, Gyu Sik; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Won-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction, such as hyperexcitation, irritability, and disturbance of consciousness, may occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis. There are also a few case reports of seizures attributed to thyrotoxicosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of seizures that appeared to be related to the thyrotoxic state in patients with thyrotoxicosis. We retrospectively determined the prevalence and clinical features of seizures in 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism. Among patients with seizures, we excluded those with other causes of seizures or a history of epilepsy. We did not exclude two patients in whom later work-up showed an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, as their seizures resolved after they became euthyroid. Among the 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism, there were seven patients (0.2%) with seizures who met our criteria. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in four patients (57%), complex partial seizures with secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in two patients (29%), and one patient had a focal seizure (14%). The initial electroencephalography (EEG) was normal in two patients (29%), had generalized slow activity in four patients (57%), and had diffuse generalized beta activity in one patient (14%). On magnetic resonance imaging, one patient had diffuse brain atrophy, and one had an old basal ganglia infarct. After the patients became euthyroid, the EEG was repeated and was normal in all patients. During follow-up periods ranging from 18 to 24 months, none of the patients had seizures. Hyperthyroidism is the precipitating cause of seizures in a small percentage of these patients. In these patients, the prognosis is good if they become euthyroid. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures reported here can be used in conjunction with the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis in the population to estimate the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures in populations.

  12. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Electroencephalography after a single unprovoked seizure.

    Debicki, Derek B

    2017-07-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation of seizure disorders. In particular, EEG is used as an additional investigation for a single unprovoked seizure. Epileptiform abnormalities are related to seizure disorders and have been shown to predict recurrent unprovoked seizures (i.e., a clinical definition of epilepsy). Thus, the identification of epileptiform abnormalities after a single unprovoked seizure can inform treatment options. The current review addresses the relationship between EEG abnormalities and seizure recurrence. This review also addresses factors that are found to improve the yield of recording epileptiform abnormalities including timing of EEG relative to the new-onset seizure, use of repeat studies, use of sleep deprivation and prolonged recordings. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retigabine, a Kv7.2/Kv7.3-Channel Opener, Attenuates Drug-Induced Seizures in Knock-In Mice Harboring Kcnq2 Mutations.

    Ihara, Yukiko; Tomonoh, Yuko; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Zhang, Bo; Uchida, Taku; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The hetero-tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.2/Kv7.3, which is encoded by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, plays an important role in limiting network excitability in the neonatal brain. Kv7.2/Kv7.3 dysfunction resulting from KCNQ2 mutations predominantly causes self-limited or benign epilepsy in neonates, but also causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy. Retigabine (RTG), a Kv7.2/ Kv7.3-channel opener, seems to be a rational antiepileptic drug for epilepsies caused by KCNQ2 mutations. We therefore evaluated the effects of RTG on seizures in two strains of knock-in mice harboring different Kcnq2 mutations, in comparison to the effects of phenobarbital (PB), which is the first-line antiepileptic drug for seizures in neonates. The subjects were heterozygous knock-in mice (Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+) bearing the Y284C or A306T Kcnq2 mutation, respectively, and their wild-type (WT) littermates, at 63-100 days of age. Seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 12mg/kg) were recorded using a video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring system. Effects of RTG on KA-induced seizures of both strains of knock-in mice were assessed using seizure scores from a modified Racine's scale and compared with those of PB. The number and total duration of spike bursts on EEG and behaviors monitored by video recording were also used to evaluate the effects of RTG and PB. Both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice showed significantly more KA-induced seizures than WT mice. RTG significantly attenuated KA-induced seizure activities in both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice, and more markedly than PB. This is the first reported evidence of RTG ameliorating KA-induced seizures in knock-in mice bearing mutations of Kcnq2, with more marked effects than those observed with PB. RTG or other Kv7.2-channel openers may be considered as first-line antiepileptic treatments for epilepsies resulting from KCNQ2 mutations.

  15. Regulation of blood glucose level by kainic acid in mice: involvement of glucocorticoid system and non-NMDA receptors.

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2017-02-28

    Kainic acid (KA) is a well-known excitatory neurotoxic substance. In the present study, effects of KA-injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that KA administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) increased the blood glucose and corticosterone levels, suggesting that KA-induced hyperglycemia appeared to be due to increased blood corticosterone level. In support of this finding, adrenalectomy causes a reduction of KA-induced hyperglycemia and neuronal cell death in CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In addition, pretreatment with i.c.v. or i.t. injection of CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione; a non-NMDA receptor blocker) attenuated the i.p. and i.c.v. administered KA-induced hyperglycemia. KA administered i.c.v. caused an elevation of the blood corticosterone level whereas the plasma insulin level was reduced. Moreover, i.c.v. pretreatment with CNQX inhibited the decrease of plasma insulin level induced by KA i.c.v. injection, whereas the KA-induced plasma corticosterone level was further enhanced by CNQX pretreatment. Our results suggest that KA administered systemically or centrally produces hyperglycemia. A glucocorticoid system appears to be involved in KA-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, central non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may be responsible for KA-induced hyperglycemia.

  16. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon [Department of Neurosurgery, Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Masan, Gyeongnam 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Gu Seob, E-mail: anaroh@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  17. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P 1 ) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P 1 in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P 1 proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P 1 are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P 1 signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  18. Medial olivocochlear reflex interneurons are located in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus: a kainic acid lesion study in guinea pigs.

    de Venecia, Ronald K; Liberman, M Charles; Guinan, John J; Brown, M Christian

    2005-07-11

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex arc is probably a three-neuron pathway consisting of type I spiral ganglion neurons, reflex interneurons in the cochlear nucleus, and MOC neurons that project to the outer hair cells of the cochlea. We investigated the identity of MOC reflex interneurons in the cochlear nucleus by assaying their regional distribution using focal injections of kainic acid. Our reflex metric was the amount of change in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (at 2f(1)-f(2)) just after onset of the primary tones. This metric for MOC reflex strength has been shown to depend on an intact reflex pathway. Lesions involving the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), but not the other subdivisions, produced long-term decreases in MOC reflex strength. The degree of cell loss within the dorsal part of the PVCN was a predictor of whether the lesion affected MOC reflex strength. We suggest that multipolar cells within the PVCN have the distribution and response characteristics appropriate to be the MOC reflex interneurons. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neuroprotective Mechanisms Activated in Non-seizing Rats Exposed to Sarin

    2015-06-04

    after kainic acid-induced seizures. Brain Res. 1424, 1–8. Johnson, E.A., Kan, R.K., 2010. The acute phase response and soman-induced status epilepticus ...2011. Comparison of status epilepticus models induced by pilocarpine and nerve agents – a systematic review of the underlying aetiology and adopted...2007) Nqo2 Loss of Nqo1 and Nqo2 leads to altered intracellular redox status , decreased expression and activation of NF-κB, and altered

  20. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  1. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  2. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Neonatal Seizure Models to Study Epileptogenesis

    Yuka Kasahara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Current therapeutic strategies for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs and surgical treatments that are mainly focused on the suppression of existing seizures rather than the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure. These symptomatic treatments help a certain proportion of patients, but these strategies are not intended to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the primary process of epilepsy development, i.e., epileptogenesis. Epileptogenic changes include reorganization of neural and glial circuits, resulting in the formation of an epileptogenic focus. To achieve the goal of developing “anti-epileptogenic” drugs, we need to clarify the step-by-step mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis for patients whose seizures are not controllable with existing “anti-epileptic” drugs. Epileptogenesis has been studied using animal models of neonatal seizures because such models are useful for studying the latent period before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures and the lowering of the seizure threshold. Further, neonatal seizure models are generally easy to handle and can be applied for in vitro studies because cells in the neonatal brain are suitable for culture. Here, we review two animal models of neonatal seizures for studying epileptogenesis and discuss their features, specifically focusing on hypoxia-ischemia (HI-induced seizures and febrile seizures (FSs. Studying these models will contribute to identifying the potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers of epileptogenesis.

  4. Controlled-release oxycodone-induced seizures.

    Klein, Moti; Rudich, Zvia; Gurevich, Boris; Lifshitz, Matityahu; Brill, Silviu; Lottan, Michael; Weksler, Natan

    2005-11-01

    The use of the opioid oxycodone hydrochloride in the management of chronic pain is gaining popularity principally because of its tolerability. However, opioid-related seizure in patients with epilepsy or other conditions that may decrease seizure threshold has been described in the literature; in particular, oxycodone has been associated with seizure in a patient with acute renal failure. The aim of this article was to report a patient with a history of seizures but normal renal and hepatic function who developed seizure on 2 occasions after oxycodone ingestion. A 54-year-old male patient presented with a history of tonic-clonic seizures that developed immediately after intracranial surgery. Long-term treatment with carbamazepine 400 mg QD was started, and the patient was free of convulsions for approximately 7 years. The patient presented to us with severe headache that was nonresponsive to an NSAID and the opiate agonist tramadol. Treatment with controlled-release (CR) oxycodone and tramadol drops (50 mg QID if necessary) was started, and tonic-clonic seizures developed 3 days later. Based on laboratory analysis, the patient had normal renal and hepatic function. On discontinuation of oxycodone treatment, the seizures resolved. However, due to effective pain relief with oxycodone, the patient decided to continue treatment, and seizures recurred. Carbamazepine was then administered 4 hours before oxycodone dosing, which allowed continuation of treatment without seizure. A patient with a history of seizures controlled with long-term carbamazepine therapy developed seizures when he started treatment with oxycodone CR at recommended doses. Oxycodone CR should be used with extreme caution in patients with epilepsy or other conditions that may decrease seizure threshold.

  5. Gene expression analysis of the emergence of epileptiform activity after focal injection of kainic acid into mouse hippocampus

    Motti, Dario; Le Duigou, Caroline; Eugène, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    and contralateral hippocampus participated in the status epilepticus. However, neuronal death induced by KA treatment was restricted to the injected hippocampus, although there was some contralateral axonal degeneration. We profiled gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral regions of both the injected...... and contralateral hippocampus. Changes were detected in the expression of 1526 transcripts in samples from three time-points: (i) during the KA-induced status epilepticus, (ii) at 2 weeks, before recurrent seizures emerged, and (iii) at 6 months after seizures emerged. Grouping genes with similar spatio...

  6. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...... of an automatic channel selection method. The characteristics of the seizures are extracted by the use of a wavelet analysis and classified by a support vector machine. The best channel selection method is based upon maximum variance during the seizure. Results: Using only three channels, a seizure detection...... sensitivity of 96% and a false detection rate of 0.14/h were obtained. This corresponds to the performance obtained when channels are selected through visual inspection by a clinical neurophysiologist, and constitutes a 4% improvement in sensitivity compared to seizure detection using channels recorded...

  7. Epidemiology of early stages of epilepsy: Risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure.

    Rizvi, Syed; Ladino, Lady Diana; Hernandez-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2017-07-01

    A single unprovoked seizure is a frequent phenomenon in the general population and the rate of seizure recurrence can vary widely. Individual risk prognostication is crucial in predicting patient outcomes and guiding treatment decisions. In this article, we review the most important risk factors associated with an increased likelihood of seizure recurrence after a single unprovoked seizure. In summary, the presence of focal seizure, nocturnal seizure, history of prior brain injury, family history of epilepsy, abnormal neurological exam, epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography and neuroimaging abnormalities, portend increased risk of seizure recurrence. Elucidation of these risk factors in patient assessment will augment clinical decision-making and may help determine the appropriateness of instituting anti-epilepsy treatment. We also discuss the Canadian model of single seizure clinics and the potential use to assess these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Seizure Recognition and Observation: A Guide for Allied Health Professionals.

    Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

    Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…

  9. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a) General applicability. If it shall appear to any officer authorized to board conveyances and make seizures that there...

  10. Inhibition of IL-1β Signaling Normalizes NMDA-Dependent Neurotransmission and Reduces Seizure Susceptibility in a Mouse Model of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

    Bertani, Ilaria; Iori, Valentina; Trusel, Massimo; Maroso, Mattia; Foray, Claudia; Mantovani, Susanna; Tonini, Raffaella; Vezzani, Annamaria; Chiesa, Roberto

    2017-10-25

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic abnormalities, and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knock-out (KO) mice. Long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral-commissural synapses in the CA1 area of ∼100-d-old Tg(CJD) mice was comparable to that of wild-type (WT) controls, but there was an inversion of metaplasticity, with increased GluN2B phosphorylation, which is indicative of enhanced NMDAR activation. Similar but less marked changes were seen in PrP KO mice. At ∼300 d of age, the magnitude of LTP increased in Tg(CJD) mice but decreased in PrP KO mice, indicating divergent changes in hippocampal synaptic responsiveness. Tg(CJD) but not PrP KO mice were intrinsically more susceptible than WT controls to focal hippocampal seizures induced by kainic acid. IL-1β-positive astrocytes increased in the Tg(CJD) hippocampus, and blocking IL-1 receptor signaling restored normal synaptic responses and reduced seizure susceptibility. These results indicate that alterations in NMDA-dependent glutamatergic transmission in Tg(CJD) mice do not depend solely on PrP functional loss. Moreover, astrocytic IL-1β plays a role in the enhanced synaptic responsiveness and seizure susceptibility, suggesting that targeting IL-1β signaling may offer a novel symptomatic treatment for CJD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dementia and myoclonic jerks develop in individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), an incurable brain disorder caused by alterations in prion protein structure. These individuals are prone to seizures and have high

  11. SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

  12. Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Ng, Marcus C; Westover, M Brandon; Cole, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a rational approach toward treatment. Coincidentally, our case is the first report of CJD in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: benign familial neonatal seizures

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Epilepsy Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: My Child Has...Seizures and Epilepsy Centers ...

  14. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  15. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; p<0.001) and significantly more often lateralizing seizure phenomena pointing to bilateral seizure onset compared to patients with unilateral TLE (67% vs. 11%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of identical vs. different seizure semiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal langerhans cells

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Offermanns, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades. One of the major problems of the therapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong cutaneous vasodilation called flushing, which develops in almost every patient taking nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing has been

  17. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs often are used to help control the type of ... by damaged nerves. By Mayo Clinic Staff Anti-seizure medications were originally designed to treat people with ...

  18. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  19. Seizure Disorders: A Review for School Psychologists.

    Sachs, Henry T.; Barrett, Rowland P.

    1995-01-01

    Recognizing possible seizure disorders, medication side-effects, behavioral and cognitive effects of seizures, and their treatments are important skills for school psychologists because they affect 500,000 United States school-aged children attending regular education. A knowledgeable school professional serves a critical role in integrating…

  20. A Neonate with persistent hypoglycemia and seizures.

    MBY

    disorder was diagnosed and managed with limited success as the episodes hydroglycemic seizures persisted. ... the presence of hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the hypoglycemic dependent seizures. Case Presentation. A three day old girl was admitted to the neonatal .... the Prader-Willi syndrome, has been reported.

  1. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States, without...

  2. Effect of Seizure Clustering on Epilepsy Outcome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.

  3. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon

    testing of the brain revealed no structural abnormality. His blood examination findings were ... A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports ... seizures cause great personal distress and significantly affect marital relationships. Though ...

  4. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  6. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...... with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...... restricting the analyses to people with no history of epilepsy. A history of both febrile seizures and epilepsy was associated with a 204% increased risk of schizophrenia (RR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.79) as compared with people with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: We found a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia...

  7. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months,

  8. Do reflex seizures and spontaneous seizures form a continuum? - triggering factors and possible common mechanisms.

    Irmen, Friederike; Wehner, Tim; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Recent changes in the understanding and classification of reflex seizures have fuelled a debate on triggering mechanisms of seizures and their conceptual organization. Previous studies and patient reports have listed extrinsic and intrinsic triggers, albeit their multifactorial and dynamic nature is poorly understood. This paper aims to review literature on extrinsic and intrinsic seizure triggers and to discuss common mechanisms among them. Among self-reported seizure triggers, emotional stress is most frequently named. Reflex seizures are typically associated with extrinsic sensory triggers; however, intrinsic cognitive or proprioceptive triggers have also been assessed. The identification of a trigger underlying a seizure may be more difficult if it is intrinsic and complex, and if triggering mechanisms are multifactorial. Therefore, since observability of triggers varies and triggers are also found in non-reflex seizures, the present concept of reflex seizures may be questioned. We suggest the possibility of a conceptual continuum between reflex and spontaneous seizures rather than a dichotomy and discuss evidence to the notion that to some extent most seizures might be triggered. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurodevelopmental comorbidities and seizure control 24 months after a first unprovoked seizure in children.

    Jason, Eva Åndell; Tomson, Torbjörn; Carlsson, Sofia; Tedroff, Kristina; Åmark, Per

    2018-07-01

    To follow children with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures to determine (1) whether the prevalence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities and cerebral palsy (CP) changed after the initial seizure, and (2) the association between studied comorbidities and seizures 13-24 months after seizure onset or initiation of treatment. Analyses were based on 750 children (28 days-18 years) with a first unprovoked seizure (index) included in a population-based Incidence Registry in Stockholm between 2001 and 2006. The children were followed for two years and their medical records were examined for a priori defined neurodevelopmental/psychiatric comorbidities and CP and seizure frequency. Baseline information was collected from medical records from before, and up to six months after, the index seizure. Odds ratios (OR) of repeated seizures 13-24 months after the first seizure or after initiation of anti-epileptic drug treatment was calculated by logistic regression and adjusted for age and sex. At baseline, 32% of the children had neurodevelopmental/psychiatric comorbidities or CP compared to 35%, 24 months later. Children with such comorbidities more often experienced seizures 13-24 months after the index seizure (OR 2.87, CI 2.07-3.99) with the highest OR in those with CP or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children diagnosed at age neurodevelopmental comorbidities and CP in children with epilepsy tend to be present already at seizure onset and that such comorbidities are strong indicators of poor outcome regarding seizure control with or without treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving staff response to seizures on the epilepsy monitoring unit with online EEG seizure detection algorithms.

    Rommens, Nicole; Geertsema, Evelien; Jansen Holleboom, Lisanne; Cox, Fieke; Visser, Gerhard

    2018-05-11

    User safety and the quality of diagnostics on the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depend on reaction to seizures. Online seizure detection might improve this. While good sensitivity and specificity is reported, the added value above staff response is unclear. We ascertained the added value of two electroencephalograph (EEG) seizure detection algorithms in terms of additional detected seizures or faster detection time. EEG-video seizure recordings of people admitted to an EMU over one year were included, with a maximum of two seizures per subject. All recordings were retrospectively analyzed using Encevis EpiScan and BESA Epilepsy. Detection sensitivity and latency of the algorithms were compared to staff responses. False positive rates were estimated on 30 uninterrupted recordings (roughly 24 h per subject) of consecutive subjects admitted to the EMU. EEG-video recordings used included 188 seizures. The response rate of staff was 67%, of Encevis 67%, and of BESA Epilepsy 65%. Of the 62 seizures missed by staff, 66% were recognized by Encevis and 39% by BESA Epilepsy. The median latency was 31 s (staff), 10 s (Encevis), and 14 s (BESA Epilepsy). After correcting for walking time from the observation room to the subject, both algorithms detected faster than staff in 65% of detected seizures. The full recordings included 617 h of EEG. Encevis had a median false positive rate of 4.9 per 24 h and BESA Epilepsy of 2.1 per 24 h. EEG-video seizure detection algorithms may improve reaction to seizures by improving the total number of seizures detected and the speed of detection. The false positive rate is feasible for use in a clinical situation. Implementation of these algorithms might result in faster diagnostic testing and better observation during seizures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Ahmad K. Rahal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES. A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX. During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI. After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES.

  12. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  13. On the nature of seizure dynamics

    Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical

  14. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  15. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  16. 27 CFR 478.152 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture... Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.152 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Any firearm or ammunition... demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

  17. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs will send written notice of seizure as provided in this section to all known interested...

  18. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...

  19. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...

  20. 50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or consignee is personally notified or seizure is made pursuant to a search warrant, the...

  1. 50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section 12... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any authorized... the laws listed in § 12.2 will, if so requested, deliver such seizure to the appropriate Special Agent...

  2. Effect of amiloride on experimental acid-induced heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Bulsiewicz, William J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Hansen, Mark B; Pruitt, Amy; Orlando, Roy C

    2013-07-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are esophageal nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Amiloride, a diuretic, is known to inhibit ASICs. For this reason, we sought a role for ASICs in mediating heartburn by determining whether amiloride could block heartburn in NERD induced by esophageal acid perfusion. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, we perfused the esophagus with amiloride or (saline) placebo prior to eliciting acid-induced heartburn in patients with a history of proton pump inhibitor-responsive NERD. Those with NERD and positive modified Bernstein test were randomized to perfusion with amiloride, 1 mmol/l, or placebo for 5 min, followed by repeat acid-perfusion. Heartburn severity and time to onset was measured and the process repeated following crossover to the alternative agent. 14 subjects completed the study. Amiloride did not reduce the frequency (100 vs. 100 %) or severity of acid-induced heartburn (Mean 2.50 ± SEM 0.33 vs. 2.64 ± 0.45), respectively. There was a trend towards longer time to onset of heartburn for amiloride versus placebo (Mean 2.93 ± SEM 0.3 vs. 2.36 ± 0.29 min, respectively), though these differences did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Amiloride had no significant effect on acid-induced heartburn frequency or severity in NERD, although there was a trend towards prolonged time to onset of symptoms.

  3. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  4. Inhibition of acid-induced lung injury by hyperosmolar sucrose in rats.

    Safdar, Zeenat; Yiming, Maimiti; Grunig, Gabriele; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2005-10-15

    Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might protect against acid-induced ALI when given either before or after acid instillation. Our studies were conducted in anesthetized rats and in isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs. We instilled HCl through the airway, and we quantified lung injury in terms of the extravascular lung water (EVLW) content, filtration coefficient (Kfc), and cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. We infused hyperosmolar sucrose via the femoral vein. In anesthetized rats, airway HCl instillation induced ALI as indicated by a 52% increase of EVLW and a threefold increase in Kfc. However, a 15-min intravenous infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose given up to 1 h before or 30 min after acid instillation markedly blunted the increases in EVLW, as well as the increases in cell count, and in protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Hyperosmolar pretreatment also blocked the acid-induced increase of Kfc. Studies in isolated perfused lungs indicated that the protective effect of hyperosmolar sucrose was leukocyte independent. We conclude that a brief period of vascular hyperosmolarity protects against acid-induced ALI when the infusion is administered shortly before, or shortly after, acid instillation in the airway. The potential applicability of hyperosmolar sucrose in therapy for ALI requires consideration.

  5. EEG analysis of seizure patterns using visibility graphs for detection of generalized seizures.

    Wang, Lei; Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B A M; Aarts, Ronald M

    2017-10-01

    The traditional EEG features in the time and frequency domain show limited seizure detection performance in the epileptic population with intellectual disability (ID). In addition, the influence of EEG seizure patterns on detection performance was less studied. A single-channel EEG signal can be mapped into visibility graphs (VGS), including basic visibility graph (VG), horizontal VG (HVG), and difference VG (DVG). These graphs were used to characterize different EEG seizure patterns. To demonstrate its effectiveness in identifying EEG seizure patterns and detecting generalized seizures, EEG recordings of 615h on one EEG channel from 29 epileptic patients with ID were analyzed. A novel feature set with discriminative power for seizure detection was obtained by using the VGS method. The degree distributions (DDs) of DVG can clearly distinguish EEG of each seizure pattern. The degree entropy and power-law degree power in DVG were proposed here for the first time, and they show significant difference between seizure and non-seizure EEG. The connecting structure measured by HVG can better distinguish seizure EEG from background than those by VG and DVG. A traditional EEG feature set based on frequency analysis was used here as a benchmark feature set. With a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the seizure detection performance of the benchmark feature set (sensitivity of 24%, FD t /h of 1.8s) can be improved by combining our proposed VGS features extracted from one EEG channel (sensitivity of 38%, FD t /h of 1.4s). The proposed VGS-based features can help improve seizure detection for ID patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis for epileptic patient in seizure and seizure free status

    Ghosh, Dipak; Dutta, Srimonti; Chakraborty, Sayantan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze EEG of patients during seizure and in seizure free interval. • Data from different sections of the brain and seizure activity was analyzed. • Assessment of cross-correlation in seizure and seizure free interval using MF-DXA technique. - Abstract: This paper reports a study of EEG data of epileptic patients in terms of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA). The EEG clinical data were obtained from the EEG Database available with the Clinic of Epileptology of the University Hospital of Bonn, Germany. The data sets (C, D, and E) were taken from five epileptic patients undergoing presurgical evaluations. The data sets consist of intracranial EEG recordings during seizure-free intervals (interictal periods) from within the epileptogenic zone (D) and from the hippocampal formation of the opposite hemisphere of the epileptic patients’ brain, respectively (C). The data set (E) was recorded during seizure activity (ictal periods). MF-DXA is a very rigorous and robust tool for assessment of cross-correlation among two nonlinear time series. The study reveals the degree of cross-correlation is more among seizure and seizure free interval in epileptogenic zone. These data are very significant for diagnosis, onset and prognosis of epileptic patients

  7. Influence of vigilance state on physiological consequences of seizures and seizure-induced death in mice.

    Hajek, Michael A; Buchanan, Gordon F

    2016-05-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. SUDEP occurs more commonly during nighttime sleep. The details of why SUDEP occurs at night are not well understood. Understanding why SUDEP occurs at night during sleep might help to better understand why SUDEP occurs at all and hasten development of preventive strategies. Here we aimed to understand circumstances causing seizures that occur during sleep to result in death. Groups of 12 adult male mice were instrumented for EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and subjected to seizure induction via maximal electroshock (MES) during wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Seizure inductions were performed with concomitant EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and breathing assessment via whole body plethysmography. Seizures induced via MES during sleep were associated with more profound respiratory suppression and were more likely to result in death. Despite REM sleep being a time when seizures do not typically occur spontaneously, when seizures were forced to occur during REM sleep, they were invariably fatal in this model. An examination of baseline breathing revealed that mice that died following a seizure had increased baseline respiratory rate variability compared with those that did not die. These data demonstrate that sleep, especially REM sleep, can be a dangerous time for a seizure to occur. These data also demonstrate that there may be baseline respiratory abnormalities that can predict which individuals have higher risk for seizure-induced death.

  8. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy after Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure.

    Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Francis, Andrew W; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female subject after lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery that was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately after witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal, and subretinal involvement. At 4-month follow-up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy after lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted after episodes of seizure in adults.

  9. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  10. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Aging models of acute seizures and epilepsy.

    Kelly, Kevin M

    2010-01-01

    Aged animals have been used by researchers to better understand the differences between the young and the aged brain and how these differences may provide insight into the mechanisms of acute seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. To date, there have been relatively few studies dedicated to the modeling of acute seizures and epilepsy in aged, healthy animals. Inherent challenges to this area of research include the costs associated with the purchase and maintenance of older animals and, at times, the unexpected and potentially confounding comorbidities associated with aging. However, recent studies using a variety of in vivo and in vitro models of acute seizures and epilepsy in mice and rats have built upon early investigations in the field, all of which has provided an expanded vision of seizure generation and epileptogenesis in the aged brain. Results of these studies could potentially translate to new and tailored interventional approaches that limit or prevent the development of epilepsy in the elderly.

  12. Effect of prophylactic phenobarbital on seizures, encephalopathy ...

    cerebral metabolism and re-oxygenation, which lead to cerebral oedema .... their serum electrolytes and glucose, calcium and magnesium levels measured. ..... Dzhala V, Ben-Ari Y, Khazipov R. Seizures accelerate anoxia-induced neuronal.

  13. Counselling adults who experience a first seizure.

    Legg, Karen T; Newton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    A first seizure can result in significant uncertainty, fear and apprehension. One of the key roles of the clinician in the setting of first seizure is to provide accurate, timely information and counselling. We review the numerous components to be considered when counselling an adult patient after a first seizure. We provide a framework and manner to provide that counselling. We focus on an individualized approach and provide recommendations and information on issues of diagnosis, etiology, prognosis, the role and importance of medical testing, lifestyle considerations, driving, medication and other key counselling considerations. Accurate, timely counselling can allay fears and anxieties, remove misconceptions and reduce the risk for injury in seizure recurrence. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Epilepsies and Seizures: Hope Through Research

    ... epilepticus and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) . Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening condition ... otherwise experience good seizure control with their medication. status epilepticus – a potentially life-threatening condition in which a ...

  15. Posttreatment with group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate is only weakly effective on seizures in immature rats

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Haugvicová, Renata; Otáhal, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1273, - (2009), s. 144-154 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/07/1137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * posttreatment with 2R * 4R-APDC * partial protection Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2009

  16. Predictors of acute symptomatic seizures after intracranial hemorrhage in infants.

    Bansal, Seema; Kebede, Tewodros; Dean, Nathan P; Carpenter, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of acute symptomatic seizures in infants with supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage, to identify potential risk factors, and to determine the effect of acute seizures on long-term morbidity and mortality. Children less than 24 months with intracranial hemorrhage were identified from a neurocritical care database. All patients who received seizure prophylaxis beginning at admission were included in the study. Risk factors studied were gender, etiology, location of hemorrhage, seizure(s) on presentation, and the presence of parenchymal injury. Acute clinical and electrographic seizures were identified from hospital medical records. Subsequent development of late seizures was determined based on clinical information from patients' latest follow-up. Patients with idiopathic neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, premature infants, and those with prior history of seizures were excluded from analysis. Seventy-two infants met inclusion criteria. None. Forty percent of infants had acute symptomatic seizures. The prevalence was similar regardless of whether etiology of hemorrhage was traumatic or nontraumatic. Seizures on presentation and parenchymal injury were independent risk factors of acute seizures (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Younger children and women were also at higher risk (p Acute seizures were not predictive of mortality, but nearly twice as many patients with acute seizures developed late seizures when compared with those without. Electrographic seizures and parenchymal injury were also predictive of development of late seizures (p hemorrhage are at high risk for acute symptomatic seizures. This is regardless of the etiology of hemorrhage. Younger patients, women, patients with parenchymal injury, and patients presenting with seizure are most likely to develop acute seizures. Although the benefits of seizure prophylaxis have not been studied in this specific population, these results suggest that it is an important component

  17. 15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904... Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of the seizure, NOAA will serve the Notice of Seizure as provided in § 904.3 to the owner or consignee, if known or...

  18. Seizure characteristics in multiple sclerosis patients

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate seizure characteristic among multiple sclerosis patients with coexistent seizure activity compared to control group. Materials and Methods : This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted by reviewing the clinical records of patients with definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald′s criteria from March 2007 to June 2011, who referred to the MS clinic of the university. Results : A total of 920 patients with a diagnosis of MS were identified, among whom 29 patients (3.15% with seizure activity (case due to MS with the mean age of 32.6 ± 6.23 years were analyzed. Also, fifty MS patients without any seizure occurrence with the mean age of 33.7 ± 7.4 years were used as our control group. In case group, seizure was general tonic clonic in 23 patients (79.3%, complex partial in four (13.8%, and simple partial in two (5.9%. The 26 available interictal EEGs in MS patients showed abnormal EEG pattern in 22 (84.6% of them, including focal epileptic form discharge or focal slowing in 10 (38.5%, generalized discharge (spike-wave, polyspike, or general paroxysmal fast activity in 10 (38.5%, and general slowing activity in 10 record (38.5%. MRI reviews of the 26 available brain MRIs showed subcortical white mater lesions in 22 (84.6% of patients with seizure. All MRIs were performed within one month after the first seizure episode. Amongst 48 available MRIs in our control group, 91.7% (44 cases showed periventricular lesions and in 8.3% (4 cases subcortical white matter lesions were reported. Conclusion : The result of this study demonstrated the higher rate of subcortical whit matter lesion in MS patients with seizure occurrence compared to control group.

  19. Seizures in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease.

    Zarea, Aline; Charbonnier, Camille; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Nicolas, Gaël; Rousseau, Stéphane; Borden, Alaina; Pariente, Jeremie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pasquier, Florence; Formaglio, Maite; Martinaud, Olivier; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Sarazin, Marie; Croisile, Bernard; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Gabelle, Audrey; Chamard, Ludivine; Blanc, Frédéric; Sellal, François; Paquet, Claire; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Wallon, David

    2016-08-30

    To assess seizure frequency in a large French cohort of autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) and to determine possible correlations with causative mutations. A national multicentric study was performed in patients with ADEOAD harboring a pathogenic mutation within PSEN1, PSEN2, APP, or a duplication of APP, and a minimal follow-up of 5 years. Clinical, EEG, and imaging data were systematically recorded. We included 132 patients from 77 families: 94 PSEN1 mutation carriers (MCs), 16 APP duplication carriers, 15 APP MCs, and 7 PSEN2 MCs. Seizure frequency was 47.7% after a mean follow-up of 8.4 years (range 5-25). After 5-year follow-up and using a Cox model analysis, the percentages of patients with seizures were respectively 19.1% (10.8%-26.7%) for PSEN1, 28.6% (0%-55.3%) for PSEN2, 31.2% (4.3%-50.6%) for APP duplications, and no patient for APP mutation. APP duplication carriers showed a significantly increased seizure risk compared to both APP MCs (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.55 [95% confidence interval 1.87-16.44]) and PSEN1 MCs (HR = 4.46 [2.11-9.44]). Among all PSEN1 mutations, those within the domains of protein hydrophilic I, transmembrane II (TM-II), TM-III, TM-IV, and TM-VII were associated with a significant increase in seizure frequency compared to other domains (HR = 4.53 [1.93-10.65], p = 0.0005). Seizures are a common feature of ADEOAD. In this population, risk was significantly higher in the APP duplication group than in all other groups. Within PSEN1, 5 specific domains were associated with a higher seizure risk indicating specific correlations between causative mutation and seizures. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  1. Acute recurrent seizures in a dog

    Wheeler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed account is given, in question and answer format, of the diagnosis of meningioma in the left cerebral cortex of a 9-year-old male Shetland sheepdog with a history of sudden onset of seizures. The seizures were controlled by phenobarbital. Surgery was also performed to debulk the tumour. One year later the dog's neurological condition deteriorated again. Meningioma was confirmed by PM examination

  2. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures.

    Gunderson, C H

    1991-07-01

    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid findings after epileptic seizures.

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate ictally-induced CSF parameter changes after seizures in adult patients without acute inflammatory diseases or infectious diseases associated with the central nervous system. In total, 151 patients were included in the study. All patients were admitted to our department of neurology following acute seizures and received an extensive work-up including EEG, cerebral imaging, and CSF examinations. CSF protein elevation was found in most patients (92; 60.9%) and was significantly associated with older age, male sex, and generalized seizures. Abnormal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio was found in only nine patients (5.9%) and did not show any significant associations. CSF lactate was elevated in 34 patients (22.5%) and showed a significant association with focal seizures with impaired consciousness, status epilepticus, the presence of EEG abnormalities in general and epileptiform potentials in particular, as well as epileptogenic lesions on cerebral imaging. Our results indicate that non-inflammatory CSF elevation of protein and lactate after epileptic seizures is relatively common, in contrast to changes in CSF-to-serum glucose ratio, and further suggest that these changes are caused by ictal activity and are related to seizure type and intensity. We found no indication that these changes may have further-reaching pathological implications besides their postictal character.

  4. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

    Paolo Bazzigaluppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dysfunction and extracellular ionic species (dysregulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures. In the present review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical observations showing metabolic dysregulation during epileptogenesis, seizure initiation, and termination, and in the inter-ictal period. Recent preclinical studies have shown that 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG, a glycolysis blocker is a novel therapeutic approach to reduce seizures. Furthermore, we present initial evidence for the effectiveness of 2-DG in arresting 4-Aminopyridine induced neocortical seizures in vivo in the mouse.

  5. Intravenous Carbamazepine for Adults With Seizures.

    Vickery, P Brittany; Tillery, Erika E; DeFalco, Alicia Potter

    2018-03-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, potential drug-drug interactions, and place in therapy of the intravenous (IV) formulation of carbamazepine (Carnexiv) for the treatment of seizures in adult patients. A comprehensive PubMed and EBSCOhost search (1945 to August 2017) was performed utilizing the keywords carbamazepine, Carnexiv, carbamazepine intravenous, IV carbamazepine, seizures, epilepsy, and seizure disorder. Additional data were obtained from literature review citations, manufacturer's product labeling, and Lundbeck website as well as Clinicaltrials.gov and governmental sources. All English-language trials evaluating IV carbamazepine were analyzed for this review. IV carbamazepine is FDA approved as temporary replacement therapy for treatment of adult seizures. Based on a phase I trial and pooled data from 2 open-label bioavailability studies comparing oral with IV dosing, there was no noted indication of loss of seizure control in patients switched to short-term replacement antiepileptic drug therapy with IV carbamazepine. The recommended dose of IV carbamazepine is 70% of the patient's oral dose, given every 6 hours via 30-minute infusions. The adverse effect profile of IV carbamazepine is similar to that of the oral formulation, with the exception of added infusion-site reactions. IV carbamazepine is a reasonable option for adults with generalized tonic-clonic or focal seizures, previously stabilized on oral carbamazepine, who are unable to tolerate oral medications for up to 7 days. Unknown acquisition cost and lack of availability in the United States limit its use currently.

  6. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  7. Epileptic seizures in Neuro-Behcet disease: why some patients develop seizure and others not?

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Semercioglu, Sencer; Ucler, Serap; Erdal, Abidin; Inan, Levent E

    2015-03-01

    Behcet disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder. Neuro BD (NBD) is seen in approximately 5% of all patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency, type and prognosis of epileptic seizures in different forms of NBD. All files of 42 patients with NBD were evaluated between 2006 and 2012, retrospectively. The demographic data, the presentation of NBD, clinical findings including seizures, EEG and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 35.02±8.43 years. Thirty (71.4%) patients were male; the remaining 12 of them were female. Twenty-four patients had brainstem lesions; 16 patients had cerebral venous thrombosis. Spinal cord involvement was seen in two patients. Seven patients had epileptic seizures (six partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization). Six of them had cerebral sinus thrombosis (CVT). Four patients had a seizure as the first symptom of the thrombosis. One patient had late onset seizure due to chronic venous infarct. The other patient with seizure had brainstem involvement. The remaining was diagnosed as epilepsy before the determination of NBD. CVT seen in BD seems to be the main risk factor for epileptic seizures in patients with NBD. The prognosis is usually good especially in patients with CVT. Epileptic seizures in patients with brainstem involvement may be an indicator for poor prognosis. Superior sagittal thrombosis or cortical infarct would be predictor of seizures occurrence because of the high ratio in patients with seizures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  9. Towards an Online Seizure Advisory System—An Adaptive Seizure Prediction Framework Using Active Learning Heuristics

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Alblas, Huibert J.; Le Viet Duc, Duc Viet; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2018-01-01

    In the last decade, seizure prediction systems have gained a lot of attention because of their enormous potential to largely improve the quality-of-life of the epileptic patients. The accuracy of the prediction algorithms to detect seizure in real-world applications is largely limited because the

  10. EEG analysis of seizure patterns using visibility graphs for detection of generalized seizures

    Wang, Lei; Long, Xi; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The traditional EEG features in the time and frequency domain show limited seizure detection performance in the epileptic population with intellectual disability (ID). In addition, the influence of EEG seizure patterns on detection performance was less studied. New method A single-channel

  11. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    Koppert, M.M.J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This

  12. Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  14. Detection of Epileptic Seizures with Multi-modal Signal Processing

    Conradsen, Isa

    convulsive seizures tested. Another study was performed, involving quantitative parameters in the time and frequency domain. The study showed, that there are several differences between tonic seizures and the tonic phase of GTC seizures and furthermore revealed differences of the epileptic (tonic and tonic...... phase of GTC) and simulated seizures. This was valuable information concerning a seizure detection algorithm, and the findings from this research provided evidence for a change in the definition of these seizures by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Our final study presents a novel...

  15. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures

  16. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  18. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-κB signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-κB inhibitor. Activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:22761883

  20. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  1. Sex dimorphism in seizure-controlling networks.

    Giorgi, Fillippo Sean; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Moshé, Solomon L

    2014-12-01

    Males and females show a different predisposition to certain types of seizures in clinical studies. Animal studies have provided growing evidence for sexual dimorphism of certain brain regions, including those that control seizures. Seizures are modulated by networks involving subcortical structures, including thalamus, reticular formation nuclei, and structures belonging to the basal ganglia. In animal models, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) is the best studied of these areas, given its relevant role in the expression and control of seizures throughout development in the rat. Studies with bilateral infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol have identified distinct roles of the anterior or posterior rat SNR in flurothyl seizure control, that follow sex-specific maturational patterns during development. These studies indicate that (a) the regional functional compartmentalization of the SNR appears only after the third week of life, (b) only the male SNR exhibits muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects which, in older animals, is confined to the posterior SNR, and (c) the expression of the muscimol-sensitive anticonvulsant effects become apparent earlier in females than in males. The first three postnatal days are crucial in determining the expression of the muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects of the immature male SNR, depending on the gonadal hormone setting. Activation of the androgen receptors during this early period seems to be important for the formation of this proconvulsant SNR region. We describe molecular/anatomical candidates underlying these age- and sex-related differences, as derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as by [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. These involve sex-specific patterns in the developmental changes in the structure or physiology or GABA(A) receptors or of other subcortical structures (e.g., locus coeruleus, hippocampus) that may affect the function of seizure-controlling networks

  2. Seizures after intravenous tramadol given as premedication

    Lalit Kumar Raiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old, 50-kg female with a history of epilepsy was scheduled for elective breast surgery (fibroadenoma under general anaesthesia. She was given glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg and tramadol 100 mg i.v. as premedication. Within 5 min, she had an acute episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure that was successfully treated with 75 mg thiopentone i.v. and after 30 min, she was given general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Surgery, intra-operative period, extubation and post-operative period were uneventful. We conclude that tramadol may provoke seizures in patients with epilepsy even within the recommended dose range.

  3. Treating seizures and epilepsy with anticoagulants?

    Nicola eMaggio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin is a serine protease playing an essential role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent work, however, has identified a novel role for thrombin-mediated signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Binding of thrombin to protease-activated receptors (PARs in the brain appears to have multiple actions affecting both health and disease. Specifically, thrombin has been shown to lead to the onset of seizures via PAR-1 activation. In this perspective article, we review the putative mechanisms by which thrombin causes seizures and epilepsy. We propose a potential role of PAR-1 antagonists and novel thrombin inhibitors as new, possible antiepileptic drugs.

  4. Seizure After Local Anesthesia for Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Cheng-Jing Tsai

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a young male patient who experienced seizure after local injection of 3 mL 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 around a recurrent nasal angiofibroma. After receiving 100% oxygen via mask and thiamylal sodium, the patient had no residual neurologic sequelae. Seizure immediately following the injection of local anesthetics in the nasal cavity is probably due to injection into venous or arterial circulation with retrograde flow to the brain circulation. Further imaging study or angiography should be done before head and neck surgeries, especially in such highly vascular neoplasm.

  5. A systematic review of suggestive seizure induction for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Suggestive seizure induction is a widely used method for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite seven decades of multidisciplinary research, however, there is still no unified protocol, no definitive agreement on the ethical framework and no consensus on diagnostic utility. This systematic review surveys the evidence at hand and addresses clinically relevant aspects of suggestive seizure induction. In addition to its use for facilitating the diagnostic process, its mechanism of action and utility in elucidating the psychopathology of PNES will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed tomography and childhood seizure disorder in Ibadan ...

    Computed tomography and childhood seizure disorder in Ibadan. ... neuroimaging, it offers an opportunity to investigate structural lesions as a cause of seizures ... The presence of neurologic deficit increased the yield of abnormal CT features.

  7. Epileptic seizures in patients with glioma: A single centre- based ...

    were used for analysis of seizure incidence differences as per WHO Grades, histology, location ... Keywords: Brain tumour, Epilepsy, Glioma, Seizures, Levetiracetam, .... glioma patients. Characteristics. N (%). Gender. Male. Female. Histology.

  8. Puerperal seizures: not the usual suspects | Hayes | Southern ...

    Abstract. We present a case of puerperal seizures and neonatal flaccidity due to abuse and abrupt withdrawal from zolpidem, following an elective Caesarean delivery at term. Keywords: zolpidem, puerperal seizures, withdrawal ...

  9. Phenobarbital reduces EEG amplitude and propagation of neonatal seizures but does not alter performance of automated seizure detection.

    Mathieson, Sean R; Livingstone, Vicki; Low, Evonne; Pressler, Ronit; Rennie, Janet M; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital increases electroclinical uncoupling and our preliminary observations suggest it may also affect electrographic seizure morphology. This may alter the performance of a novel seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group. The objectives of this study were to compare the morphology of seizures before and after phenobarbital administration in neonates and to determine the effect of any changes on automated seizure detection rates. The EEGs of 18 term neonates with seizures both pre- and post-phenobarbital (524 seizures) administration were studied. Ten features of seizures were manually quantified and summary measures for each neonate were statistically compared between pre- and post-phenobarbital seizures. SDA seizure detection rates were also compared. Post-phenobarbital seizures showed significantly lower amplitude (pphenobarbital reduces both the amplitude and propagation of seizures which may help to explain electroclinical uncoupling of seizures. The seizure detection rate of the algorithm was unaffected by these changes. The results suggest that users should not need to adjust the SDA sensitivity threshold after phenobarbital administration. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors.

    Onorati, Francesco; Regalia, Giulia; Caborni, Chiara; Migliorini, Matteo; Bender, Daniel; Poh, Ming-Zher; Frazier, Cherise; Kovitch Thropp, Eliana; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Bidwell, Jonathan; Mai, Roberto; LaFrance, W Curt; Blum, Andrew S; Friedman, Daniel; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Mohammadpour-Touserkani, Fatemeh; Reinsberger, Claus; Tognetti, Simone; Picard, Rosalind W

    2017-11-01

    New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used to record electrodermal activity (EDA) and accelerometer (ACM) signals, obtaining 5,928 h of data, including 55 convulsive epileptic seizures (six focal tonic-clonic seizures and 49 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures) from 22 patients. Recordings were analyzed offline to train and test two new machine learning classifiers and a published classifier based on EDA and ACM. Moreover, wristband data were analyzed to estimate seizure-motion duration and autonomic responses. The two novel classifiers consistently outperformed the previous detector. The most efficient (Classifier III) yielded sensitivity of 94.55%, and an FAR of 0.2 events/day. No nocturnal seizures were missed. Most patients had seizure frequency. When increasing the sensitivity to 100% (no missed seizures), the FAR is up to 13 times lower than with the previous detector. Furthermore, all detections occurred before the seizure ended, providing reasonable latency (median = 29.3 s, range = 14.8-151 s). Automatically estimated seizure durations were correlated with true durations, enabling reliable annotations. Finally, EDA measurements confirmed the presence of postictal autonomic dysfunction, exhibiting a significant rise in 73% of the convulsive seizures. The proposed multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors provide seizure counts that are more accurate than previous automated detectors and typical patient self-reports, while maintaining a tolerable FAR for ambulatory monitoring. Furthermore, the multimodal system

  11. Specific features of early post-stroke seizures

    Tatyana Valeryevna Danilova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examining 101 patients (68 men and 33 women aged 48 to 89 years with seizures in the first 7 days of stroke. A control group comprised 97 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke without seizures. Early seizures more frequently occurred in the cardioembolic subtype of stroke as simple partial seizures. The neuroimaging features of ischemic foci were revealed and the cerebrovascular responsiveness was evaluated in different vascular basins in these patients.

  12. pre-hospital management of febrile seizures in children seen

    INTRODUCTION. A febrile seizure refers to a seizure occurring in infancy or childhood usually between three months and five years of age as a result of elevated body temperature in the absence of pathology in the brain.1 Febrile seizures are commonly encountered in emergency paediatric practice and have been ...

  13. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    Bruce eGreyson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. 55% of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients’ reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time.

  14. Complex partial seizure, disruptive behaviours and the Nigerian ...

    Background: Complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure which results in impairment of responsiveness or awareness such as altered level of consciousness. Complex partial seizures are often preceded by an aura such as depersonalization, feelings of de javu, jamais vu and fear. The ictal phase of complex partial ...

  15. The determinants of seizure severity in Nigerian epileptics | Imam ...

    This assesses generalisation of seizures, falls, injuries, urinary incontinence, warning interval before loss of consciousness, automatisms and time of recovery on a graded scale. Results: The most frequent indices of seizure severity in Nigerian epileptics is the generalisation of seizures in 85.7% of subjects, incontinence of ...

  16. 19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... authority for seizures. (a) Seizures by Customs officers. Property may be seized, if available, by any...

  17. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    Psyche eLoui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG. However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here we describe an algorithm we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determine whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures vs. non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.

  18. Patterns of antiepileptic drug use and seizure control among people ...

    Background Epilepsy is characterized by episodic and unpredictable seizure recurrences which are often amenable to medical treatment. Simple and readily available medications can be used to control seizures in epilepsy. However, in many communities in developing countries seizure control among people living with ...

  19. 26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25... AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his...

  20. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or oral...

  1. 27 CFR 447.63 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 447.63 Section 447.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.63 Seizure and forfeiture. Whoever knowingly...

  2. 77 FR 11437 - Inspection Service Authority; Seizure and Forfeiture

    2012-02-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 233 Inspection Service Authority; Seizure and Forfeiture AGENCY: Postal... Service's rules and regulations regarding the seizure and forfeiture of property into three sections, 39.... The proposed revision consolidates sections 233.8 and 233.9, and treats seizures involving personal...

  3. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... officer, or a Federal Aviation Administration safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued...

  4. 9 CFR 118.4 - Seizure and condemnation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and condemnation. 118.4... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.4 Seizure and condemnation. Any biological product which is prepared, sold, bartered...

  5. 27 CFR 555.166 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Unlawful Acts, Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 555.166 Seizure or forfeiture. Any explosive materials involved or used or intended to be used...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject... director or assistant regional commissioner (alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by...

  7. 19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...

  8. 76 FR 26660 - Consolidation of Seizure and Forfeiture Regulations

    2011-05-09

    ... CFR Parts 8 and 9 [Docket No. OAG 127; AG Order No. 3263-2011] RIN 1105-AA74 Consolidation of Seizure... seizure and forfeiture regulations, to conform those regulations to the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act..., Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives'' and generally transferred law enforcement functions, and seizure and...

  9. 8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section 274.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority. Any officer of Customs and Border...

  10. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555... Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent in violation of 18 U.S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1595a...

  11. Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals

    Feltane, Amal; Boudreaux-Bartels, G. Faye; Besio, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian electroencephalography (tEEG) recorded from rats using the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. Three features, namely, median absolute deviation, approximate entropy, and maximum singular value were calculated and used as inputs into two different classifiers: support vector machines and adaptive boosting. The relative performance of the extracted features on TCRE tEEG was examined. Results are obtained with an overall accuracy between 84.81 and 96.51%. In addition to using TCRE tEEG data, the seizure detection algorithm was also applied to the recorded EEG signals from Andrzejak et al. database to show the efficiency of the proposed method for seizure detection. PMID:23073989

  12. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: the boomerang effects of newly formed aberrant kainatergic synapses.

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders.

  13. Using Dictionary Pair Learning for Seizure Detection.

    Ma, Xin; Yu, Nana; Zhou, Weidong

    2018-02-13

    Automatic seizure detection is extremely important in the monitoring and diagnosis of epilepsy. The paper presents a novel method based on dictionary pair learning (DPL) for seizure detection in the long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. First, for the EEG data, wavelet filtering and differential filtering are applied, and the kernel function is performed to make the signal linearly separable. In DPL, the synthesis dictionary and analysis dictionary are learned jointly from original training samples with alternating minimization method, and sparse coefficients are obtained by using of linear projection instead of costly [Formula: see text]-norm or [Formula: see text]-norm optimization. At last, the reconstructed residuals associated with seizure and nonseizure sub-dictionary pairs are calculated as the decision values, and the postprocessing is performed for improving the recognition rate and reducing the false detection rate of the system. A total of 530[Formula: see text]h from 20 patients with 81 seizures were used to evaluate the system. Our proposed method has achieved an average segment-based sensitivity of 93.39%, specificity of 98.51%, and event-based sensitivity of 96.36% with false detection rate of 0.236/h.

  14. Protection against generalised seizured by Dalbergia saxatilis ...

    The aqueous root decoction of Dalbergia saxatilis (DS) is used to manage convulsive disorders in African herbal medicine practice. We had previously reported the anticonvulsant effects of the aqueous root extract of DS against strychnine and picrotoxin seizures. In this study, DS was tested against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) ...

  15. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  16. Treatment Of Seizures In The Elderly

    Aleem MA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing life expectancy over the preceding decades and trend towards further increase means that the elderly is now a growing section of the population. Seizures are a particularly common disorder in the age group. Considering that above the age of 50 years, one is prone to suffer from atleast one chromic illness, the interplay between associated medical and neurologic diseases and seizures need to be understood. These comorbidities like hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents, diabetes, renal failure and others not only contribute to seizures, they may also interfere with their appropriate treatment. Seizures, on the other hand, may be the cause of added morbidity like fractures, head injury and poor self esteem which may lead to poor quality of life. In addition, the unique pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effect profile of the various antieplileptic drugs in the elderly and the multiple drug interactions, require judicious use along with regular monitoring. However, an ideal antiepileptic drug for the elderly is yet to be found.

  17. Photosensitivity and visually induced seizures: review

    Parra, J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in visually induced seizures has increased in recent years as a result of the increasing number of precipitants in our modern environment. This review addresses new developments in this field with special attention given to the emergence of new diagnostic, therapeutic and

  18. febrile seizures, Tripoli, Libya, knowledge, attitude

    kim

    the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding febrile seizures in Tripoli, Libya. ... aim of the audit is to assess the attitude and knowledge of parents of children with .... The following exclusion criteria were used: child who has fever due CNS ... department after giving prior first aid-a similar results was reported.

  19. S100B proteins in febrile seizures

    Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti

    2011-01-01

    at the hospital after FS and S100B concentration in serum (r=-0.130, P=0.28) or in cerebrospinal fluid samples (r=-0.091, P=0.52). Our findings indicate that FS does not cause significant blood-brain barrier openings, and increase the evidence that these seizures are relatively harmless for the developing brain....

  20. Accelerometry based detection of epileptic seizures

    Nijsen, T.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Epileptic seizures are the manifestation of abnormal hypersynchronous discharges of cortical neurons that impair brain function. Most of the people affected can be treated successfully with drug therapy or neurosurgical procedures. But there

  1. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  2. Characteristics of seizure-induced signal changes on MRI in patients with first seizures.

    Kim, Si Eun; Lee, Byung In; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Hyung Chan; Lee, Joonwon; Bae, Soo-Young; Lee, Dongah; Kim, Sung Eun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors and identify the characteristics of the seizure-induced signal changes on MRI (SCM) in patients with first seizures. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with first seizures from March 2010 to August 2014. The inclusion criteria for this study were patients with 1) first seizures, and 2) MRI and EEG performed within 24h of the first seizures. The definition of SCM was hyper-intensities in the brain not applying to cerebral arterial territories. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with or without SCM as a dependent variable. Of 431 patients with seizures visiting the ER, 69 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of 69 patients, 11 patients (15.9%) had SCM. Epileptiform discharge on EEG (OR 29.7, 95% CI 1.79-493.37, p=0.018) was an independently significant variable predicting the presence of SCM in patients with first seizures. In addition, the topography of SCM was as follows; i) ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex (5/11), ii) unilateral cortex (4/11), iii) ipsilateral thalamus and cerebral cortex (1/11), iv) bilateral hippocampus (1/11). Moreover, 6 out of 7 patients who underwent both perfusion CT and MRI exhibited unilateral cortical hyperperfusion with ipsilateral thalamic involvement reflecting unrestricted vascular territories. There is an association between epileptiform discharges and SCM. Additionally, the involvement of the unilateral cortex and ipsilateral thalamus in SCM and its hyperperfusion state could be helpful in differentiating the consequences of epileptic seizures from other pathologies. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coprolalia as a manifestation of epileptic seizures.

    Massot-Tarrús, Andreu; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Dove, Carin; Hayman-Abello S, Susan; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Derry, Paul A; Diosy, David C; McLachlan, Richard S; Burneo, Jorge G; Steven, David A; Mirsattari, Seyed M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lateralizing and localizing value of ictal coprolalia and brain areas involved in its production. A retrospective search for patients manifesting ictal coprolalia was conducted in our EMU database. Continuous video-EEG recordings were reviewed, and EEG activity before and during coprolalia was analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) technique and was compared to the seizures without coprolalia among the same patients. Nine patients were evaluated (five women), eight with intracranial video-EEG recordings (icVEEG). Four had frontal or temporal lesions, and five had normal MRIs. Six patients showed impairment in the language functions and five in the frontal executive tasks. Two hundred six seizures were reviewed (60.7% from icVEEG). Ictal coprolalia occurred in 46.6% of them, always associated with limbic auras or automatisms. They arose from the nondominant hemisphere in five patients, dominant hemisphere in three, and independently from the right and left hippocampus-parahippocampus in one. Electroencephalographic activity always involved orbitofrontal and/or mesial temporal regions of the nondominant hemisphere when coprolalia occurred. Independent component analysis of 31 seizures in seven patients showed a higher number of independent components in the nondominant hippocampus-parahippocampus before and during coprolalia and in the dominant lateral temporal region in those seizures without coprolalia (p=0.009). Five patients underwent surgery, and all five had an ILAE class 1 outcome. Ictal coprolalia occurs in both males and females with temporal or orbitofrontal epilepsy and has a limited lateralizing value to the nondominant hemisphere but can be triggered by seizures from either hemisphere. It involves activation of the paralimbic temporal-orbitofrontal network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early and late postoperative seizure outcome in 97 patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures: a retrospective study.

    Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.

  5. Evaluation of Seizure Attacks in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Ebrahim Koochaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common reason for seizure in elderly duration is the stroke. This study was conducted aiming to assess the frequency of seizure attack occurrence in those patients. Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out through a cross-sectional method for one year on 330 patients admitted to the neurology ward as diagnosed with stroke. The required data was collected through the researcher-made questionnaire from the patients suffering from stoke which was diagnosed based on clinical findings, CT-Scan and MRI as required. Results: Among 330 patient suffering from stroke (162 men and 168 women, 48 cases (14.5% were suffering from seizure. Six percent of the patients had early seizure and another 8.5% had late seizure. Among 162 men suffering from the stroke, 32 ones were without seizures and 30 men were suffering the seizure. A number of 150 women out of total 168 ones suffering from the stroke, had no seizure and 18 others had seizures; frequency of seizure occurrence was more in male samples (p=0.044. In the people under 60 year, there were mostly early types of seizure (45% and in the age range above 60 year, it was mostly late type (89.3%. A 68.5% of the patients suffering from the seizure had experienced ischemic stroke. However, the frequency of seizure occurrence in the patients with hemorrhagic stroke was statistically greater (p=0.003. Conclusion: This examination showed that occurrence of seizure attacks in the people with stroke is 14.5% and it is seen more in the hemorrhagic strokes than ischemic ones. The frontoparietal area is the most common location involved and tonic clonic was the most common seizure in the patients suffering from it who have experienced the stroke

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  8. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  9. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Swathy, S S; Indira, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 microL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies.

  10. Microdroplet fusion mass spectrometry: accelerated kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation.

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was recorded in microdroplets by fusing a stream of microdroplets containing 40 µM chlorophyll a or b dissolved in methanol with a stream of aqueous microdroplets containing 35 mM hydrochloric acid (pH = 1·46). The kinetics of the demetallation of chlorophyll in the fused microdroplets (14 ± 6 µm diameter; 84 ± 18 m s-1 velocity) was recorded by controlling the traveling distance of the fused microdroplets between the fusion region and the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The rate of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was about 960 ± 120 times faster in the charged microdroplets compared with that reported in bulk solution. If no voltage was applied to the sprayed microdroplets, then the acceleration factor was about 580 ± 90, suggesting that the applied voltage is not a major factor determining the acceleration. Chlorophyll a was more rapidly demetallated than chlorophyll b by a factor of ~26 in bulk solution and ~5 in charged microdroplets. The demetallation kinetics was second order in the H+ concentration, but the acceleration factor of microdroplets compared with bulk solution appeared to be unchanged in going from pH = 1·3 to 7·0. The water:methanol ratio of the fused microdroplets was varied from 7:3 to 3:7 causing an increase in the reaction rate of chlorophyll a demetallation by 20%. This observation demonstrates that the solvent composition, which has different evaporation rates, does not significantly affect the acceleration. We believe that a major portion of the acceleration can be attributed to confinement effects involving surface reactions rather than either to evaporation of solvents or to the introduction of charges to the microdroplets.

  11. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  12. Evidence connecting old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion

    Kårhus, Martin L; Brønden, Andreas; Sonne, David P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have...... current evidence connecting established glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion and discusses whether bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion may constitute a new basis for understanding how metformin, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile acids transporter, and bile acid...... sequestrants - old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs - improve glucose metabolism....

  13. Unilateral Thalamic Infarct Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Brohi, Hazim; Mughul, Afshan

    2017-09-01

    Lesions of the thalamus and those extending into midbrain can cause various types of movement disorders such as dystonia, asterixis and ballism-chorea. Seizures are rare manifestation of thalamic disorder. Occurrence of seizures in bilateral thalamic infarct has been reported; but seizures in unilateral thalamic infarct have been reported very rarely. Literature review showed only single case of perinatal unilateral thalamic infarct presenting with seizures. We are reporting a unique case of convulsive seizure at the onset of unilateral thalamic infarct in an adult male, which has never been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage: acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy.

    Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy. To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012. Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test). Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous

  15. Disparity in regional cerebral blood flow during electrically induced seizure

    Sestoft, D; Meden, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1993-01-01

    This is a presentation of 2 cases in which the intraictal regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured with the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography technique during an electrically induced seizure. Although the seizure was verified as generalized on electroencepha......This is a presentation of 2 cases in which the intraictal regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured with the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography technique during an electrically induced seizure. Although the seizure was verified as generalized...... electroencephalography-verified generalized seizures....

  16. Probability of detection of clinical seizures using heart rate changes.

    Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (pprobability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictability of uncontrollable multifocal seizures - towards new treatment options

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian E.

    2016-04-01

    Drug-resistant, multifocal, non-resectable epilepsies are among the most difficult epileptic disorders to manage. An approach to control previously uncontrollable seizures in epilepsy patients would consist of identifying seizure precursors in critical brain areas combined with delivering a counteracting influence to prevent seizure generation. Predictability of seizures with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, even in an ambulatory setting, has been repeatedly shown, however, in patients with a single seizure focus only. We did a study to assess feasibility of state-of-the-art, electroencephalogram-based seizure-prediction techniques in patients with uncontrollable multifocal seizures. We obtained significant predictive information about upcoming seizures in more than two thirds of patients. Unexpectedly, the emergence of seizure precursors was confined to non-affected brain areas. Our findings clearly indicate that epileptic networks, spanning lobes and hemispheres, underlie generation of seizures. Our proof-of-concept study is an important milestone towards new therapeutic strategies based on seizure-prediction techniques for clinical practice.

  18. Risk Factors for Preoperative Seizures and Loss of Seizure Control in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors.

    Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Seizure Disorder

    Sumnima Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seizure occurs in up to 10% of the population, whereas epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent seizures that may affect up to 2% of the population. Modern neuroimaging is useful in diagnosis of  abnormalities underlying the epilepsies, but the information provided by imaging techniques can also contribute to proper classification of certain epileptic disorders and can delineate the genetics of some underlying syndromes. Neuroimaging is even more important for those patients who have medically intractable seizures. This study was carried out to establish different etiologies of seizures, to correlate the clinical data and radiological findings in cases of seizure, and to identify the common etiologies in different types of seizures. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis of Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital. Records of patients of past two years, admitted in any department of the hospital with history of seizure disorder and underwent a Computed Tomography  (CT of brain were included. The CT patterns were assessed and the data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: There were a total of 480 cases out of which 263 (55% were male and 217 (45% were female with M:F ratio of 1.2:1. Generalized seizure was more frequent than partial seizure in both gender. In 274 cases of generalized seizures, CT scan findings were abnormal in 151 cases and normal finding observed in 123 cases. In 206 cases of partial seizures, 125 cases were abnormal and 81 having normal CT scan findings. Age wise distribution showed highest number (n=218 of cases in young group (60 yr. The most common cause of seizure  was  calcified granuloma (n=79, 16.5% followed by neurocysticercosis (NCC, n=64, 13%. Diffuse cerebral edema, sub-arachnoid hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus was seen only in lower age group particularly among 1-20 years. Infarct and diffuse cortical

  20. Role of biomarkers in differentiating new-onset seizures from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    Mahendra Javali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Review of literature revealed very limited studies considering a combination of serum prolactin (PRL and serum creatine kinase (CK as markers for differentiating epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the role of serum PRL and serum CK, individually and in combination. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical teaching hospital over a period of 18 months. Patients aged over 15 years suspected to have new-onset seizures presenting within 5 h of ictus were included in this study. CK, serum PRL was measured at 0–1, 1–3, and 3–5 h after seizures. Results: Hundred subjects were studied for the role of serum PRL and serum CK in differentiating epileptic and PNES. The mean age was 42.24 years with a male:female ratio of 1.27:1. All patients of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCS, who presented within 1 h, had elevated PRL, whereas 75% of patients with partial seizures had elevated PRL within 1 h of presentation. Nearly 91.66% of patients with GTCS who presented within 1 h had elevated CPK, whereas 70% of patients with partial seizures had elevated CPK. None of the patients diagnosed with PNES showed rise in either of the markers. Conclusion: In the present study, none of the patients with PNES showed raise in either serum PRL or CK. However, there was no correlation between the types of seizure and PRL or serum CK levels.

  1. Zebrafish seizure model identifies p,p -DDE as the dominant contaminant of fetal California sea lions that accounts for synergistic activity with domoic acid.

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2010-04-01

    Fetal poisoning of California sea lions (CSLs; Zalophus californianus) has been associated with exposure to the algal toxin domoic acid. These same sea lions accumulate a mixture of persistent environmental contaminants including pesticides and industrial products such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Developmental exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its stable metabolite 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p -DDE) has been shown to enhance domoic acid-induced seizures in zebrafish; however, the contribution of other co-occurring contaminants is unknown. We formulated a mixture of contaminants to include PCBs, PBDEs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and chlordane at levels matching those reported for fetal CSL blubber to determine the impact of co-occurring persistent contaminants with p,p -DDE on chemically induced seizures in zebrafish as a model for the CSLs. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to p,p -DDE in the presence or absence of a defined contaminant mixture prior to neurodevelopment via either bath exposure or embryo yolk sac microinjection. After brain maturation (7 days postfertilization), fish were exposed to a chemical convulsant, either pentylenetetrazole or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was then monitored and analyzed for changes, using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Induced seizure behavior did not differ significantly between subjects with embryonic exposure to a contaminant mixture and those exposed to p,p -DDE only. These studies demonstrate that p,p -DDE--in the absence of PCBs, HCH, chlordane, and PBDEs that co-occur in fetal sea lions--accounts for the synergistic activity that leads to greater sensitivity to domoic acid seizures.

  2. Using trend templates in a neonatal seizure algorithm improves detection of short seizures in a foetal ovine model.

    Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Jellema, Reint K; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2015-03-01

    Seizures below one minute in duration are difficult to assess correctly using seizure detection algorithms. We aimed to improve neonatal detection algorithm performance for short seizures through the use of trend templates for seizure onset and end. Bipolar EEG were recorded within a transiently asphyxiated ovine model at 0.7 gestational age, a common experimental model for studying brain development in humans of 30-34 weeks of gestation. Transient asphyxia led to electrographic seizures within 6-8 h. A total of 3159 seizures, 2386 shorter than one minute, were annotated in 1976 h-long EEG recordings from 17 foetal lambs. To capture EEG characteristics, five features, sensitive to seizures, were calculated and used to derive trend information. Feature values and trend information were used as input for support vector machine classification and subsequently post-processed. Performance metrics, calculated after post-processing, were compared between analyses with and without employing trend information. Detector performance was assessed after five-fold cross-validation conducted ten times with random splits. The use of trend templates for seizure onset and end in a neonatal seizure detection algorithm significantly improves the correct detection of short seizures using two-channel EEG recordings from 54.3% (52.6-56.1) to 59.5% (58.5-59.9) at FDR 2.0 (median (range); p seizures by EEG monitoring at the NICU.

  3. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-01-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated

  5. Tramadol: seizures, serotonin syndrome, and coadministered antidepressants.

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-04-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care-two fields that are inexorably linked.Tramadol (Ultram(®)) is a commonly prescribed analgesic because of its relatively lower risk of addiction and better safety profile in comparison with other opiates. However, two significant adverse reactions are known to potentially occur with tramadol-seizures and serotonin syndrome. These two adverse reactions may develop during tramadol monotherapy, but appear much more likely to emerge during misuse/overdose as well as with the coadministration of other drugs, particularly antidepressants. In this article, we review the data relating to tramadol, seizures, and serotonin syndrome. This pharmacologic intersection is of clear relevance to both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  6. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  7. Acute Pancreatitis Case Presented with Epileptic Seizure

    Uygar Utku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis, defined as the acute non-bacte¬rial inflammatory condition of the pancreas. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency service after a first episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no past medical history. The initial laboratory findings showed a low serum calcium level (5.8 mg/dL normal value 8.8-10.2 mg/dL. High Amylase-802 U/L, Lipase-489 U/L levels. CT abdomen showed pancreatic edema and inflammation suggestive of acute pancreatitis. This case report demonstrates a rare but important differential diagnosis in generalised tonic-clonic seizures of adult onset

  8. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  9. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

    Paolo Bazzigaluppi; Azin Ebrahim Amini; Iliya Weisspapir; Bojana Stefanovic; Peter L. Carlen

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilizat...

  10. Biomarkers of epileptic seizures and epilepsy

    Bogdan Lorber

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review biological markers, their importance and usefulness in the diagnosis of epileptic seizure or epilepsy. Assessed are also their prognostic value, their use in the evaluation of antiepileptic therapy effect and some other useful properties. The article reviews prolactin, neuron specific enolase, S–100 protein, creatin kinase, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase, nesfatin–1, ghrelin, obestatin and chromogranin A. The authors stress the need for further research studies in this area.

  11. Seizure Following Topical Gammabenzene Hexachloride Therapy

    Biswas Animesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of short-lived, self-limiting major epileptic seizures following an improper application of gammabenzene hexachloride (GBHC lotion in a 15 month old boy suffering from scabies with secondary bacterial infection is reported here due to its rarity in clinical practice and, more particularly, to stress the need of correct instructions on the use of GBHC application for the prevention of iatrogenic neurotoxicity.

  12. Dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures: relationships with trauma and seizure symptoms.

    Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in complex partial seizures

    Furune, Sunao; Negoro, Tamiko; Maehara, Mitsuo; Nomura, Kazushi; Miura, Kiyokuni; Takahashi, Izumi; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed on 45 patients with intractable complex partial seizures. MRI was performed with a superconducting whole-body scanner operating at 0.5 tesla (T) and 1.5 T. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 8 of 24 patients had abnormal CT, but 16 or 24 patients showed abnormal MRI. 1.5 T MRI detected more abnormality than 0.5 T MRI when CT was normal. In patients with frontal lobe epilepsy, 5 of 7 patients had normal CT and MRI. In 2 other patients, MRI demonstrated an arachnoid cyst and increased signal intensity area on the T2-weighted images which were not detected by CT. In patients with occipital lobe epilepsy, 5 of 6 patients show abnormal CT and MRI. In patients with tuberous sclerosis, MRI revealed some increased signal intensity areas on the T2-weighted images in the occipital and temporal lobe, which were not detected by CT. Most surface EEG foci corresponded with the side of MRI abnormality. These data indicate that MRI is more informative than CT in complex partial seizures. MRI is the imaging technique of choice in the diagnosis of complex partial seizures. (author)

  14. Optimizing therapy of seizures in neurosurgery.

    Michelucci, Roberto

    2006-12-26

    The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the neurosurgical setting has a number of implications, including their possible role in the prevention of seizures after acute cerebral insults or brain tumors and the potential for toxicity and interactions when these agents are administered in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This review discusses these controversial issues and draws the following conclusions. 1) AEDs should be prescribed on a short-term basis to prevent seizures occurring within the first week after a cerebral insult (trauma, neurosurgical procedure) but are ineffective to avoid true post-traumatic epilepsy or first seizures in patients with primary or secondary cerebral neoplasms. 2) The use of phenytoin and, to a lesser extent, phenobarbital and carbamazepine during cranial irradiation is associated with an increased risk for severe, potentially fatal, mucocutaneous reactions. In this context, new AEDs with a very low potential for allergic cutaneous reactions should be preferred. 3) Enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, may increase the clearance and reduce the clinical efficacy of corticosteroids and anticancer agents that are also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system. The newly developed AEDs that are devoid of hepatic metabolism, such as levetiracetam and gabapentin, are now recommended because of good results in preliminary studies and because they do not show interactions with anticancer agents.

  15. Seizure Associated Takotsubo Syndrome: A Rare Combination

    Htay Htay Kyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC is increasingly recognized in neurocritical care population especially in postmenopausal females. We are presenting a 61-year-old African American female with past medical history of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and hypertension who presented with multiple episodes of seizures due to noncompliance with antiepileptic medications. She was on telemetry which showed ST alarm. Electrocardiogram (ECG was ordered and showed ST elevation in anterolateral leads and troponins were positive. Subsequently Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by left ventriculography findings and absence of angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Echocardiogram showed apical hypokinesia, ejection fraction of 40%, and systolic anterior motion of mitral valve with hyperdynamic left ventricle, in the absence of intracoronary thrombus formation in the angiogram. Electroencephalography showed evidence of generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She was treated with supportive therapy. This case illustrates importance of ECG in all patients with seizure irrespective of cardiac symptoms as TC could be the cause of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP and may be underdiagnosed and so undertreated.

  16. Unsupervised EEG analysis for automated epileptic seizure detection

    Birjandtalab, Javad; Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which can, if not controlled, potentially cause unexpected death. It is extremely crucial to have accurate automatic pattern recognition and data mining techniques to detect the onset of seizures and inform care-givers to help the patients. EEG signals are the preferred biosignals for diagnosis of epileptic patients. Most of the existing pattern recognition techniques used in EEG analysis leverage the notion of supervised machine learning algorithms. Since seizure data are heavily under-represented, such techniques are not always practical particularly when the labeled data is not sufficiently available or when disease progression is rapid and the corresponding EEG footprint pattern will not be robust. Furthermore, EEG pattern change is highly individual dependent and requires experienced specialists to annotate the seizure and non-seizure events. In this work, we present an unsupervised technique to discriminate seizures and non-seizures events. We employ power spectral density of EEG signals in different frequency bands that are informative features to accurately cluster seizure and non-seizure events. The experimental results tried so far indicate achieving more than 90% accuracy in clustering seizure and non-seizure events without having any prior knowledge on patient's history.

  17. Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with acute temporal lobe seizures.

    Castillo, M; Smith, J K; Kwock, L

    2001-01-01

    Decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as seen by proton MR spectroscopy are found in hippocampal sclerosis, and elevated levels of lipids/lactate have been observed after electroconvulsive therapy. Our purpose was to determine whether increased levels of lipids/lactate are found in patients with acute seizures of hippocampal origin. Seventeen patients with known temporal lobe epilepsy underwent proton MR spectroscopy of the mesial temporal lobes within 24 hours of their last seizure. Four of them were restudied when they were seizure-free. Five healthy individuals were used as control subjects. All MR spectroscopy studies were obtained using a single-voxel technique with TEs of 135 and 270. The relationship between the presence of lipids/lactate and seizures was tested using Fisher's exact test. Mean and standard deviations for NAA/creatine (Cr) were obtained in the hippocampi in patients with seizures on initial and follow-up studies and these values were compared with those in the control subjects. Seizure lateralization was obtained in 15 patients. Of the 17 seizure locations that involved hippocampi, 16 showed lipids/lactate by proton MR spectroscopy. Of the 13 hippocampi not directly affected by seizures, 10 showed no lipids/lactate and three showed lipids/lactate. The relationship between lipids/lactate and seizure location was confirmed. A comparison of NAA/Cr ratios for the involved hippocampi with those in control subjects showed significant differences on initial MR spectroscopy; however, no significant difference was found between acute and follow-up NAA/Cr ratios in hippocampi affected by seizures. Lipids/lactate were present in the hippocampi of patients with acute seizures and decreased when the patients were seizure-free. Thus, lipids/lactate may be a sensitive marker for acute temporal lobe seizures.

  18. Epileptic seizures in patients with a posterior circulation infarct

    Yüksel Kaplan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of seizures and the clinical features of patients with seizures related to a posterior circulation infarct (POCI. METHODS: We reviewed all ischemic stroke patients admitted to our clinic between January 2011 and January 2012. The patients’ database information was retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-five patients with a POCI were included in the study. We reviewed all patients with epileptic seizures related to a POCI. Age, gender, recurrent stroke, risk factors, etiology, radiographic localization, the seizure type and onset time, and the electroencephalographic findings of patients were evaluated. We excluded all patients who had precipitating conditions during seizures such as taking drugs, acid-base disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, and history of epilepsy. RESULTS: Seizures were observed in four patients (3 male, 1 female with a POCI related epileptic seizures (7.2%. The etiology of strokes was cardiac-embolic in 3 patients and vertebral artery dissection in 1 patient. Seizures occurred in 2 patients as presenting finding, in 1 patient within 7 days, and 1 patient within 28 days. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 3 patients and simple partial seizures with secondary generalization in 1 patient. Three patients had cerebellum infarction at the left hemisphere. One patient had lateral medullary infarction at the right side. The electroencephalographic findings of patients were normal. CONCLUSION: Studies involving patients with seizures related to a POCI are novel and few in number. Three patients with seizure had cerebellum infarction. The cerebellum in these patients may contribute via different mechanisms over seizure activity.

  19. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  20. Corosolic Acid Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death through Generation of Lipid Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    Seon Min Woo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corosolic acid is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of corosolic acid in cancer cell death. Corosolic acid induces a decrease of cell viability and an increase of cell cytotoxicity in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. Corosolic acid-induced cell death is not inhibited by apoptosis inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, necroptosis inhibitor (necrostatin-1, or ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and deferoxamine (DFO. Furthermore, corosolic acid significantly induces reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, but antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC and trolox do not inhibit corosolic acid-induced cell death. Interestingly, corosolic acid induces lipid oxidation, and α-tocopherol markedly prevents corosolic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. Anti-chemotherapeutic effects of α-tocopherol are dependent on inhibition of lipid oxidation rather than inhibition of ROS production. In addition, corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in other renal cancer (ACHN and A498, breast cancer (MDA-MB231, and hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-Hep1 and Huh7 cells, and α-tocopherol markedly inhibits corosolic acid-induced cell death. Therefore, our results suggest that corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in cancer cells through the increase of lipid peroxidation.

  1. CDKL5 controls postsynaptic localization of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the hippocampus and regulates seizure susceptibility.

    Okuda, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shizuka; Fukaya, Masahiro; Watanabe, Aya; Murakami, Takuto; Hagiwara, Mai; Sato, Tempei; Ueno, Hiroe; Ogonuki, Narumi; Komano-Inoue, Sayaka; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ogura, Atsuo; Asahara, Hiroshi; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Manabe, Toshiya; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2017-10-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders accompanied by intractable epilepsies, i.e. West syndrome or atypical Rett syndrome. Here we report generation of the Cdkl5 knockout mouse and show that CDKL5 controls postsynaptic localization of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus and regulates seizure susceptibility. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed normal sensitivity to kainic acid; however, they displayed significant hyperexcitability to NMDA. In concordance with this result, electrophysiological analysis in the hippocampal CA1 region disclosed an increased ratio of NMDA/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and a significantly larger decay time constant of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (NMDA-EPSCs) as well as a stronger inhibition of the NMDA-EPSCs by the GluN2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Subcellular fractionation of the hippocampus from Cdkl5 -/Y mice revealed a significant increase of GluN2B and SAP102 in the PSD (postsynaptic density)-1T fraction, without changes in the S1 (post-nuclear) fraction or mRNA transcripts, indicating an intracellular distribution shift of these proteins to the PSD. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region further confirmed postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B and SAP102 in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Furthermore, ifenprodil abrogated the NMDA-induced hyperexcitability in Cdkl5 -/Y mice, suggesting that upregulation of GluN2B accounts for the enhanced seizure susceptibility. These data indicate that CDKL5 plays an important role in controlling postsynaptic localization of the GluN2B-SAP102 complex in the hippocampus and thereby regulates seizure susceptibility, and that aberrant NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission underlies the pathological mechanisms of the CDKL5 loss-of-function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Febrile seizures: a population-based study

    Juliane S. Dalbem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve

  3. Minimum Electric Field Exposure for Seizure Induction with Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy.

    Lee, Won H; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2017-05-01

    Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been proposed as a means to produce stimulation closer to the neural activation threshold and more focal seizure induction, which could potentially reduce cognitive side effects. However, the effect of current amplitude on the electric field (E-field) in the brain has not been previously linked to the current amplitude threshold for seizure induction. We coupled MRI-based E-field models with amplitude titrations of motor threshold (MT) and seizure threshold (ST) in four nonhuman primates (NHPs) to determine the strength, distribution, and focality of stimulation in the brain for four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right-unilateral, and frontomedial) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) with cap coil on vertex. At the amplitude-titrated ST, the stimulated brain subvolume (23-63%) was significantly less than for conventional ECT with high, fixed current (94-99%). The focality of amplitude-titrated right-unilateral ECT (25%) was comparable to cap coil MST (23%), demonstrating that ECT with a low current amplitude and focal electrode placement can induce seizures with E-field as focal as MST, although these electrode and coil configurations affect differently specific brain regions. Individualizing the current amplitude reduced interindividual variation in the stimulation focality by 40-53% for ECT and 26% for MST, supporting amplitude individualization as a means of dosing especially for ECT. There was an overall significant correlation between the measured amplitude-titrated ST and the prediction of the E-field models, supporting a potential role of these models in dosing of ECT and MST. These findings may guide the development of seizure therapy dosing paradigms with improved risk/benefit ratio.

  4. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  5. Acid-induced autophagy protects human lung cancer cells from apoptosis by activating ER stress.

    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Li, Qi; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2015-12-10

    An acidic tumor microenvironment exists widely in solid tumors. However, the detailed mechanism of cell survival under acidic stress remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify whether acid-induced autophagy exists and to determine the function and mechanism of autophagy in lung cancer cells. We have found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy by increasing LC3-positive punctate vesicles, increasing LC3 II expression levels and reducing p62 protein levels. Additionally, autophagy was inhibited by the addition of Baf or knockdown of Beclin 1, and cell apoptosis was increased markedly. In mouse tumors, the expression of cleaved caspase3 and p62 was enhanced by oral treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which can raise the intratumoral pH. Furthermore, the protein levels of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2α, CHOP, XBP-1s and GRP78, were also increased in response to acidic pH. The antioxidant NAC, which reduces ROS accumulation, alleviated acid-mediated ER stress and autophagy, and knocking down GRP78 reduced autophagy activation under acidic conditions, which suggests that autophagy was induced by acidic pH through ER stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the acidic microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer cells promotes autophagy by increasing ROS-ER stress, which serves as a survival adaption in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antinociceptive Effect of Ondansetron in Albino Mice Using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Model

    Abhay Purohit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Pain is a protective mechanism. Pain occurs whenever any tissues are being damaged, and it causes the individual to react and to remove the pain stimulus. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ondansetron in comparison with the standard diclofenac. Material and Methods: The antinociceptive effect was tested by using the acetic acid induced writhing model in Swiss Albino mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. Animals were received distilled water (control, diclofenac (standard, ondansetron 0.5mg/kg (test I and ondansetron 1mg/kg (test II. After 30 minutes of drug administration, 0.1 ml of 1% acetic acid was injected. Mice were placed individually into glass beakers and five minutes were allowed to elapse. They were then observed for a period of ten minutes and the numbers of writhes were recorded in each animal. The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA with post-test was used for statistical calculation. Results: The numbers of writhes were 1.33±0.494 for diclofenac; 6.33±1.872 and 9.33±1.706 for ondansetron 0.5 and 1mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: Ondansetron demonstrated statistical significant antinociceptive activity at both doses (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg and statistically similar effect as diclofenac

  7. Mapping and reconstruction of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse brain.

    Colman, J R; Nowocin, K J; Switzer, R C; Trusk, T C; Ramsdell, J S

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin and glutamate analog produced by certain species of the marine diatom Pseudonitzschia, is responsible for several human and wildlife intoxication events. The toxin characteristically damages the hippocampus in exposed humans, rodents, and marine mammals. Histochemical studies have identified this, and other regions of neurodegeneration, though none have sought to map all brain regions affected by domoic acid. In this study, mice exposed (i.p.) to 4 mg/kg domoic acid for 72 h exhibited behavioral and pathological signs of neurotoxicity. Brains were fixed by intracardial perfusion and processed for histochemical analysis. Serial coronal sections (50 microm) were stained using the degeneration-sensitive cupric silver staining method of DeOlmos. Degenerated axons, terminals, and cell bodies, which stained black, were identified and the areas of degeneration were mapped onto Paxinos mouse atlas brain plates using Adobe Illustrator CS. The plates were then combined to reconstruct a 3-dimensional image of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration using Amira 3.1 software. Affected regions included the olfactory bulb, septal area, and limbic system. These findings are consistent with behavioral and pathological studies demonstrating the effects of domoic acid on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in rodents.

  8. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  9. Tranexamic acid-associated seizures: Causes and treatment.

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Whissell, Paul D; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2016-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in-hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid-associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid-associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. © 2015 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  10. Tranexamic acid–associated seizures: Causes and treatment

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian‐Shi; Whissell, Paul D.; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C. David

    2015-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in‐hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid–associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid–associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:18–26 PMID:26580862

  11. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with [3H]PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M.

    1990-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of [3H]PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in [3H]PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration

  12. 78 FR 24301 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2013-04-24

    ...-0106] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal... history of epilepsy/ seizures, off anti-seizure medication and seizure-free for 10 years, may be qualified.... Jandreau is a 46 year-old Class A CMV driver in Maine. He has a diagnosis of seizure disorder. He has...

  13. 75 FR 38599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2010-07-02

    ...-0203] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal... individuals with seizure disorders to operate CMVs in interstate commerce. DATES: Comments must be received on... anti-seizure medication. Drivers with a history of epilepsy/seizures off anti-seizure medication and...

  14. 76 FR 18822 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2011-04-05

    ...-0089] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal... individuals with seizure disorders to operate CMVs in interstate commerce. DATES: Comments must be received on... anti-seizure medication. Drivers with a history of epilepsy/seizures off anti-seizure medication and...

  15. 78 FR 41988 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2013-07-12

    ...-0107] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal... history of epilepsy/ seizures, off anti-seizure medication and seizure-free for 10 years, may be qualified... Bird Mr. Bird is a 29 year-old driver in Ohio. He has a diagnosis of epilepsy and has remained seizure...

  16. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: our video-EEG experience.

    Nežádal, Tomáš; Hovorka, Jiří; Herman, Erik; Němcová, Iveta; Bajaček, Michal; Stichová, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the number of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in our patients with a refractory seizure disorder, to determine the 'typical' PNES semiology using video-EEG monitoring and describe other PNES parameters. We evaluated prospectively 596 patients with pharmacoresistant seizures. All these patients underwent continuous video-EEG monitoring. In consenting patients, we used suggestive seizure provocation. We assessed seizure semiology, interictal EEG, brain MRI, psychiatric co-morbidities, personality profiles, and seizure outcome. In the sample of 596 monitored patients, we detected 111 (19.3%) patients with PNES. Of the 111 patients with PNES, 86.5% had spontaneous and 76.5% had provoked seizures. The five most typical symptoms were: initially closed eyelids (67.6%), rapid tremor (47.7%), asynchronous limb movement (37.8%), preictal pseudosleep (33.3%), and side-to-side head movement (32.4%). Interictal EEG was rated as abnormal in 46.2% and with epileptiform abnormality in 9%. Brain MRI was abnormal in 32 (28.8%) patients. Personality disorders (46.8%), anxiety (39.6%), and depression (12.6%) were the most frequent additional psychiatric co-morbidities. PNES outcome after at least 2 years is reported; 22.5% patients was seizure-free; one-third had markedly reduced seizure frequency. We have not seen any negative impact of the provocative testing on the seizure outcome. Video-EEG monitoring with suggestive seizure provocation supported by clinical psychiatric and psychological evaluation significantly contributes to the correct PNES diagnosis, while interictal EEG and brain MRI are frequently abnormal. Symptoms typical for PNES, as opposed to epileptic seizures, could be distinguished.

  17. Methadone-induced Torsades de Pointes Masquerading as Seizures

    David C. Traficante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors herein present the case of a 53-year-old female who was being treated as an outpatient for seizure disorder but was also receiving high-dose methadone therapy. She presented to the emergency department (ED for what appeared to be a seizure and was found to have a prolonged QT interval, as well as runs of paroxysmal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with seizure-like activity occurring during the arrhythmia. The markedly prolonged QT interval corrected after treatment with intravenous magnesium; subsequent electroencephalogram, neurology and cardiology consultations confirmed the cause of the recurrent seizure-like episodes to be secondary to the cardiotoxic effects of methadone.

  18. Seizures and the Role of Anticonvulsants After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Zimmermann, Lara L; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Vespa, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic seizures are a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Posttraumatic epilepsy accounts for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy in the general population and 5% of all epilepsy. Early posttraumatic seizures occur in more than 20% of patients in the intensive care unit and are associated with secondary brain injury and worse patient outcomes. Most posttraumatic seizures are nonconvulsive and therefore continuous electroencephalography monitoring should be the standard of care for patients with moderate or severe brain injury. The literature shows that posttraumatic seizures result in secondary brain injury caused by increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Epilepsy Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Seizures Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ...

  20. Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.

    Oyatsi, D P

    2005-08-01

    Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.

  1. Seizure precipitants (triggering factors) in patients with epilepsy.

    Ferlisi, Monica; Shorvon, Simon

    2014-04-01

    adult epilepsy clinic population: (a) to identify the frequency of seizure precipitants (triggering factors) and their relative frequency in those with psychiatric disorders, and in those in remission or with active epilepsy, differences in frequency with regard to gender, seizure duration, number of drugs taken; (b) to determine which precipitants patients most commonly report; and (c) to identify differences in the distribution of precipitants among generalized, temporal, and extratemporal epilepsies. Consecutive patients attending a tertiary-care epilepsy clinic were prospectively and an open personal interview to identify and characterize seizure precipitants. Information about the epilepsy and clinical characteristics of patients was collected during the interview and from medical records. Of 104 patients, 97% cited at least one precipitant. Stress, sleep deprivation, and fatigue were the most frequently reported precipitants. Patients with psychological comorbidities reported a greater percentage of seizures with seizure precipitants. Patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy seemed to be more sensitive to seizures during awakening and sleep deprivation, patients with extratemporal epilepsy reported more frequent seizures during sleep. There were no differences in frequency or type of seizure precipitants with regard to gender, seizure duration or frequency, and the number of antiepileptic drugs taken. The findings may have implications for the better management of epilepsy by increasing a focus on nonpharmacological therapy. The implications of the findings for nosology and causation of epilepsy are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  3. Abnormal radionuclide cerebral angiograms and scans due to seizures

    Stevens, J.S.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of recent seizures on the brain scan was determined in a retrospective study of patients who had had seizures. All patients who underwent brain scanning within eight days of seizures and who did not have a specific intracranial lesion were included. The /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate cerebral angiogram and/or delayed scan was abnormal in 73 percent of 22 patients. The data suggest that if seizures occur within six days of the brain imaging, the image is likely to be abnormal. (auth)

  4. Neuroprotective properties of a novel, non-haematopoietic agonist of the erythropoietin receptor

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Kiryushko, Dar'Ya; Sonn, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    they are involved in tissue protection. However, the use of erythropoietin as a neuroprotective agent may be hampered by its erythropoietic activity. Therefore, developing non-haematopoietic erythropoietin mimetics is important. Based on the crystal structure of the complex of erythropoietin and its receptor, we...... attenuated seizures, decreased mortality and reduced neurodegeneration in an in vivo model of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast to erythropoietin, Epotris did not stimulate erythropoiesis upon chronic administration. Thus, Epotris is a novel neuroprotective non-haematopoietic erythropoietin...

  5. Benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS: clinical characteristics of seizures according to age at first seizure

    Miziara Carmen Silvia M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BECTS is characterized by the presence of simple partial motor seizures in the face and/or oropharynx, with or without sensory symptoms and often with secondary generalization. These seizures tend to occur more often during sleep or drowsiness. According to some authors, generalized seizures prevail over other types particularly among children aged five or less. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the first epileptic episode among children with BECTS, grouped by age as of their first epileptic seizure, as well as to analyze how such seizures change over the course of clinical evolution. A total of 61 children were examined, 16 of whom below the age of 5 and 45 above. With regard to the first and recurrent epileptic episodes, our final assessment showed that partial seizures occurred more frequently than generalized tonic-clonic seizures in both groups. Although no conclusive relation could be established between the type of partial seizure (i.e. simple versus complex and the children's age as of their first epileptic episode, it was possible to correlate the type of epileptic seizure with their clinical evolution, in which case simple partial seizures proved to be more frequent than complex partial seizures. It should be noted that the number of children under the age of five was relatively small, which evinces the need for further studies. It should also be borne in mind that the reported frequency of generalized seizures in these children's first epileptic episode may be due to their parents' lack of attention and familiarity with this pathology and their attendant difficulty in characterizing its clinical symptoms.

  6. Regulation of emotions in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Urbanek, Monika; Harvey, Martin; McGowan, John; Agrawal, Niruj

    2014-08-01

    Despite the long history of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), relatively little is known about the mechanisms that cause and maintain this condition. Emerging research evidence suggests that patients with PNES might have difficulties in regulating their emotions. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of these difficulties and the emotional responses of individuals with PNES. This study aimed to gain a detailed understanding of emotion regulation processes in patients with PNES by examining differences between patients with PNES and a healthy control group with regard to intensity of emotional reactions, understanding of one's emotional experience, beliefs about emotions, and managing emotions by controlling emotional expression. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the group with PNES (n=56) and the healthy control group (n=88) on a range of self-report measures. Participants with a diagnosis of PNES reported significantly poorer understanding of their emotions, more negative beliefs about emotions, and a greater tendency to control emotional expression compared to the control group. While intensity of emotions did not discriminate between the groups, poor understanding and negative beliefs about emotions were found to be significant predictors of PNES, even after controlling for age, education level, and emotional distress. Furthermore, the presence of some emotion regulation difficulties was associated with self-reported seizure severity. The results of this study are largely consistent with previous literature and provide evidence for difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with PNES. However, this research goes further in bringing together different aspects of emotion regulation, including beliefs about emotions, which have not been examined before. As far as it is known, this is the first study to suggest that levels of alexithymia in a population with PNES are positively associated with self-reported seizure severity. The

  7. Acute postoperative seizures and long-term seizure outcome after surgery for hippocampal sclerosis.

    Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Casciato, Sara; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Mascia, Addolorata; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Grammaldo, Liliana G; De Risi, Marco; Meldolesi, Giulio N; Romigi, Andrea; Esposito, Vincenzo; Picardi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence and the prognostic value of acute postoperative seizures (APOS) in patients surgically treated for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). We studied 139 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent epilepsy surgery and were followed up for at least 5 years (mean duration of follow-up 9.1 years, range 5-15). Medical charts were reviewed to identify APOS, defined as ictal events with the exception of auras occurring within the first 7 days after surgery. Seizure outcome was determined at annual intervals. Patients who were in Engel Class Ia at the last contact were classified as having a favorable outcome. Seizure outcome was favorable in 99 patients (71%). Six patients (4%) experienced APOS and in all cases their clinical manifestations were similar to the habitual preoperative seizures. All patients with APOS had unfavorable long-term outcome, as compared with 35 (26%) of 133 in whom APOS did not occur (pseizure outcome. Given some study limitations, our findings should be regarded as preliminary and need confirmation from future larger, prospective, multicenter studies. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  9. Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas

    % from 16 cm2. The coherences of different frequency bands below 16 Hz all seem to have similar declines as a function of the Euclidean distance between channels. Frequencies between 16 and 30 Hz have a steeper decline and will only show coherent parts to cortical channels within 60 cm2....... There is no coherence for frequencies above 30 Hz at any distance. A lot of patients with epilepsy still struggle with a dreadful fear of suddenly having a seizure. The current PhD study identified topics where an EEG monitor could provide improvement in the patient’s quality of life. By algorithm development...

  10. S100B proteins in febrile seizures

    Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti

    2011-01-01

    S100B protein concentrations correlate with the severity and outcome of brain damage after brain injuries, and have been shown to be markers of blood-brain barrier damage. In children elevated S100B values are seen as a marker of damage to astrocytes even after mild head injuries. S100B proteins...... may also give an indication of an ongoing pathological process in the brain with respect to febrile seizures (FS) and the likelihood of their recurrence. To evaluate this, we measured S100B protein concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 103 children after their first FS. 33 children...

  11. Children with new onset seizures: A prospective study of parent variables, child behavior problems, and seizure occurrence.

    Austin, Joan K; Haber, Linda C; Dunn, David W; Shore, Cheryl P; Johnson, Cynthia S; Perkins, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Parent variables (stigma, mood, unmet needs for information and support, and worry) are associated with behavioral difficulties in children with seizures; however, it is not known how this relationship is influenced by additional seizures. This study followed children (ages 4-14 years) and their parents over a 24-month period (with data collected at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months) and investigated the effect of an additional seizure on the relationship between parenting variables and child behavior difficulties. The sample was parents of 196 children (104 girls and 92 boys) with a first seizure within the past 6 weeks. Child mean age at baseline was 8 years, 3 months (SD 3 years). Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square tests, and repeated measures analyses of covariance. Relationships between parent variables, additional seizures, and child behavior problems were consistent across time. Several associations between parent variables and child behavior problems were stronger in the additional seizure group than in the no additional seizure group. Findings suggest that interventions that assist families to respond constructively to the reactions of others regarding their child's seizure condition and to address their needs for information and support could help families of children with continuing seizures to have an improved quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  14. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  15. Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats.

    Castro, Jenny; Ocampo, Yanet; Franco, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Physalis peruviana [cape gooseberry] is highly appreciated for its commercial value. The Colombian ecotype is in great demand in the international market, particularly for the unique morphological characteristics of the calyx, which has extended use as a traditional herbal remedy in Colombia because of its anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethereal extract of Physalis peruviana calyces was evaluated in preventive and therapeutic protocols in a TNBS acid-induced colitis rat model. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS. An evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue was performed, along with the determination of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, cytokine levels and gene expression. Additionally, effects on nitric oxide release by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS free radicals were determined. The treatment with the Physalis peruviana extract produced a significant improvement in the colonic tissue at both macroscopic and histological levels. IL-1β and TNF-α production was reduced by the extract in both experimental approaches. The groups treated with Physalis peruviana showed a tendency to MUC2 up-regulation and down-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The Physalis peruviana extract showed intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS-induced colitis model, placing this species' calyx, a natural derivative, as a promising source of metabolites that could be used in treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Individualized Low-Amplitude Seizure Therapy: Minimizing Current for Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    Peterchev, Angel V; Krystal, Andrew D; Rosa, Moacyr A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at conventional current amplitudes (800–900 mA) is highly effective but carries the risk of cognitive side effects. Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude may reduce side effects by virtue of a less intense and more focal electric field exposure in the brain, but this aspect of ECT dosing is largely unexplored. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) induces a weaker and more focal electric field than ECT; however, the pulse amplitude is not individualized and the minimum amplitude required to induce a seizure is unknown. We titrated the amplitude of long stimulus trains (500 pulses) as a means of determining the minimum current amplitude required to induce a seizure with ECT (bilateral, right unilateral, bifrontal, and frontomedial electrode placements) and MST (round coil on vertex) in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, we investigated a novel method of predicting this amplitude-titrated seizure threshold (ST) by a non-convulsive measurement of motor threshold (MT) using single pulses delivered through the ECT electrodes or MST coil. Average STs were substantially lower than conventional pulse amplitudes (112–174 mA for ECT and 37.4% of maximum device amplitude for MST). ST was more variable in ECT than in MST. MT explained 63% of the ST variance and is hence the strongest known predictor of ST. These results indicate that seizures can be induced with less intense electric fields than conventional ECT that may be safer; efficacy and side effects should be evaluated in clinical studies. MT measurement could be a faster and safer alternative to empirical ST titration for ECT and MST. PMID:25920013

  17. Diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: Video-EEG monitoring, suggestive seizure induction and diagnostic certainty.

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Jungilligens, Johannes; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can remain undiagnosed for many years, leading to unnecessary medication and delayed treatment. A recent report by the International League Against Epilepsy Nonepileptic Seizures Task Force recommends a staged approach to the diagnosis of PNES (LaFrance, et al., 2013). We aimed to investigate its practical utility, and to apply the proposed classification to evaluate the role of long-term video-EEG monitoring (VEEG) and suggestive seizure induction (SSI) in PNES workup. Using electronic medical records, 122 inpatients (mean age 36.0±12.9years; 68% women) who received the diagnosis of PNES at our epilepsy center during a 4.3-year time period were included. There was an 82.8% agreement between diagnostic certainty documented at discharge and that assigned retroactively using the Task Force recommendations. In a minority of cases, having used the Task Force criteria could have encouraged the clinicians to give more certain diagnoses, exemplifying the Task Force report's utility. Both VEEG and SSI were effective at supporting high level diagnostic certainty. Interestingly, about one in four patients (26.2%) had a non-diagnostic ("negative") VEEG but a positive SSI. On average, this subgroup did not have significantly shorter mean VEEG recording times than VEEG-positive patients. However, VEEG-negative/SSI-positive patients had a significantly lower habitual seizure frequency than their counterparts. This finding emphasizes the utility of SSI in ascertaining the diagnosis of PNES in patients who do not have a spontaneous habitual event during VEEG due to, for example, low seizure frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs

    Lai, Y -L; Chiou, W -Y; Lu, F J; Chiang, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+phosphoramidon+citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU)+citric acid; and DMTU+phosphoramidon+citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl...

  19. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  20. Safety and efficacy of intravenous administration for tranexamic acid-induced emesis in dogs with accidental ingestion of foreign substances.

    Orito, Kensuke; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Ogawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2017-12-22

    A prospective observational study was performed in canine clinical medicine to evaluate the emetic action and adverse effects of tranexamic acid. Veterinarians treated 137 dogs with a single dose of tranexamic acid (50 mg/kg, IV) after accidental ingestion of foreign substances. If needed, a second (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 20-50 mg/kg, IV) or third dose (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 25-50 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in 116 of 137 (84.7%) dogs. Median time to onset of emesis was 116.5 sec (range, 26-370 sec), median duration of emesis was 151.5 sec (range, 30-780 sec), and median number of emesis episodes was 2 (range, 1-8). Second and third administrations of tranexamic acid induced emesis in 64.7 and 66.7% of dogs, respectively. In total, IV administration of tranexamic acid successfully induced emesis in 129 of 137 (94.2%) dogs. Adverse effects included a tonic-clonic convulsion and hemostatic disorder in two different dogs, both of which recovered after receiving medical care. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in most dogs following a single-dose. When a single dose was not sufficient, an additional dosage effectively induced emesis. Overall, adverse effects were considered low and self-limiting.

  1. Serum zinc status of neonates with seizure

    Olia Sharmeen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure is a common neurological disorder in neonatal age group!. Primary metabolic derangement is one of the important reason behind this convulsion during this period. Among primary metabolic derangement hypoglycemia, is most common followed by bypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, low zinc status etc. As causes of many cases of convul­sion remain unknown in neonate. Objectives: To see the zinc status in the sera of neonate with convulsion. So that if needed early intervention can be taken up and thereby prevent complications. Method: A total of 50 neonates (1-28 days who had convulsion with no apparent reasons of convulsion were enrolled as cases and 50 healthy age and sex matched neonates were enrolled as controls. After a quick clinical evaluation serum zinc status was estimated from venous blood by atomic absorption method in Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre. Low zinc was considered if serum value was <0.7mg/L. Results: Among a total of 50 cases 6% had low zinc value & 2% of controls also had low zinc level. The mean serwu zinc level of cases and controls were 1.57±0.95 and 2.37±1.06 mmol/1 respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: From the study it is seen that low zinc value is an important cause of neonatal seizure due to primary metabolic abnormalities. So early recognition and treatment could save these babies from long term neurological sequelies.

  2. Epileptic seizures due to multiple cerebral cavernomatosis

    Spasić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cavernous angiomas are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are present in 0.4−0.9 % of people, and represent around 5% of all cerebrovascular malformations. They can be single or multiple, and sporadic or familial. The presence of multiple lesions is more frequent in familial cavernomatosis. Ten to 30 % are associated with familial clustering. Case report. We presented the case of a 43-year-old man, admitted to the Emergency Department due to unprovoked seizure during the wide awake and everyday activities. Neurological examination was with no focal signs. A 32-channel standard digital EEG was without any significant changes of normal baseline activity. After sleep deprivation EEG showed multifocal, bilateral and asymmetric polyspikes and sharpwaves activity. Hyperventilation induced generalized epileptiform discharges. MRI scan demonstrated multiple small cavernous angiomas. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated a delayed memory impairment. Neurosurgery treatment was not recommended, and the therapy with valproate 1 250 mg/day had an excellent efficacy with no singnificant adverse effects. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with multiple cavernomatosis highlights the importance of neuroradiological examination in adult patients with the first epileptic seizure but with no focal neurological signs. .

  3. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  4. Barriers to Seizure Management in Schools: Perceptions of School Nurses.

    Terry, Debbie; Patel, Anup D; Cohen, Daniel M; Scherzer, Daniel; Kline, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess school nurses' perceptions of barriers to optimal management of seizures in schools. Eighty-three school nurses completed an electronic survey. Most agreed they felt confident they could identify a seizure (97.6%), give rectal diazepam (83.8%), and handle cluster seizures (67.1%), but fewer were confident they could give intranasal midazolam (63.3%), had specific information about a student's seizures (56.6%), or could swipe a vagus nerve stimulator magnet (47.4%). Nurses were more likely to be available at the time of a seizure in rural (17/20) (85%) versus suburban (21/34) (62%) or urban (8/25) (32%) schools (P = .001). School nurses are comfortable managing seizures in the school setting. However, a specific seizure plan for each child and education on intranasal midazolam and vagus nerve stimulator magnet use are needed. A barrier in urban schools is decreased availability of a nurse to identify seizures and administer treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in an alcoholic patient].

    Kozian, R; Otto, F G

    2000-09-01

    We introduce a case of a 66 year-old male with chronic alcoholism who suffered from confusion, Wernicke-aphasia and epileptic seizures. Several EEG revealed periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. The patient's case resembles the symptoms of a subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures which can occur in alcoholics.

  6. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed with the a......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  7. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric patients with seizure from an ...

    Background: Pediatric seizures in developing countries are often poorly investigated and consequently poorly managed. Sociocultural misconceptions, financial difficulties, and lack of facilities are often blamed. This study studies the structural intracranial abnormalities associated with pediatric seizures and the proportion of ...

  8. Paradoxical Seizure Response to Phenytoin in an Epileptic Heroin Addict.

    Vasagar, Brintha; Verma, Beni R; Dewberry, Robert G; Pula, Thaddeus

    2015-06-01

    Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window and seizures can occur at both ends of the spectrum. A 41-year-old man with a history of a seizure disorder and heroin addiction presented with dizziness following 2 generalized tonic-clonic seizures that occurred earlier that day. The patient had received a loading dose of phenytoin for seizures associated with a subtherapeutic level 5 days previously. Initial evaluation revealed an elevated phenytoin level of 32.6 mcg/mL and an opiate-positive toxicology screen. Levetiracetam was started on the day of presentation and phenytoin was held until the level returned to the therapeutic range. The patient's dizziness resolved and he had no additional seizures. Evaluation for reversible causes of seizure activity along with anticonvulsant administration is generally the standard of care for breakthrough seizures. Phenytoin blood levels, if supratherapeutic, may be at least partially responsible for breakthrough seizure activity; in this circumstance, holding phenytoin and temporarily adding another anticonvulsant may be indicated.

  9. Picrotoxin-induced seizures modified by morphine and opiate antagonists.

    Thomas, J; Nores, W L; Kenigs, V; Olson, G A; Olson, R D

    1993-07-01

    The effects of naloxone, Tyr-MIF-1, and MIF-1 on morphine-mediated changes in susceptibility to picrotoxin-induced seizures were studied. Rats were pretreated with naloxone, MIF-1, Tyr-MIF-1, or saline. At 15-min intervals, they received a second pretreatment of morphine or saline and then were tested for seizures following a convulsant dose of picrotoxin. Several parameters of specific categories of seizures were scored. Morphine increased the number of focal seizure episodes, duration of postseizure akinesis, and incidence of generalized clonic seizures. Naloxone tended to block the morphine-mediated changes in susceptibility. Tyr-MIF-1 had effects similar to naloxone on duration of postseizure immobility but tended to potentiate the effects of morphine on focal seizure episodes. The effects of morphine and the opiate antagonists on focal seizure episodes and postseizure duration suggest the general involvement of several types of opiate receptors in these picrotoxin-induced behaviors. However, the observation of antagonistic effects for Tyr-MIF-1 on immobility but agonistic effects for focal seizures suggests that the type of effect exerted by opiate agents may depend upon other neuronal variables.

  10. How the environment shapes genetically induced seizure activity in rats

    Schridde, U.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Takahashi, T.; Fukuyama, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Underling biology that governs the age-dependent seizure susceptibility is a new, exciting research field for every pediatric epileptologists and developmental nouroscientists. From daily practice, clinicians are well aware about a close correlation between the degree of seizure susceptibility and

  11. Congenital hypoparathyroidism presenting as recurrent seizures in an adult

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Singh, Dinesh; Deshpande, Rohit; Mahajan, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism may manifest as serious neurologic symptoms such as seizures, movement disorders, or raised intracranial pressure. Several patients were observed to have these dangerous neurologic complications even without subtle signs of hypocalcemia like tetany, chvostek's sign or carpopedal spasms. We present a case of recurrent hypocalcemic seizures due to congenital hypoparathyroidism.

  12. Responding to Seizures (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    2015-11-26

    As traumatic as epilepsy can be for the person experiencing seizures, it can be just as troubling for witnesses who want to try and help. In this podcast, Rosemarie Kobau discusses the appropriate way to help someone who is experiencing a seizure.  Created: 11/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/26/2015.

  13. Responding to Seizures (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    2015-11-26

    When helping someone with a seizure, it’s important to remain calm. This podcast discusses what to do if you witness someone having a seizure.  Created: 11/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/26/2015.

  14. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  15. Seizure Disorders: An Alternative Explanation for Students' Inattention.

    Agnew, Christina M.; Nystul, Michael S.; Conner, Mary Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of seizure disorders. They are more common than previously thought, and most have their onset in adolescence. Types of seizure disorders common in children, their symptoms, and treatment are described. A case example illustrates behavior in school and a paradoxical medication effect. (EMK)

  16. epilepsy following simple febrile seizure in a rural community in ...

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... family history of epilepsy did not significantly influence the development of later epilepsy X2 ... following a single simple febrile seizure. MATERIALS ANd ... If the parent did not witness the seizure, an adult who witnessed the ...

  17. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  18. Self‑perceived seizure precipitants among patients with epilepsy in ...

    Most (80%) patients rightly indicated that antiepileptic drug was the best treatment for their seizure control. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the leading perceived seizure precipitants among epilepsy patients attending the neurology clinic of UITH were stress, inadequate sleep, head trauma, and demonic ...

  19. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents

    Jacobsen, M; Bælum, Jesper; Bonde, J P

    1994-01-01

    Long term exposure to organic solvents is usually not considered as a possible cause of chronic epileptic seizures. A case that shows a remarkable coincidence between exposure to organic solvents and occurrence of epileptic seizures is reported. The man was a 58 year old sign writer with lifelong...

  20. Responding to Seizures (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    As traumatic as epilepsy can be for the person experiencing seizures, it can be just as troubling for witnesses who want to try and help. In this podcast, Rosemarie Kobau discusses the appropriate way to help someone who is experiencing a seizure.

  1. Seizure detection using dynamic warping for patients with intellectual disability

    Wang, L.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Long, X.; Wu, Y.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is paramount for both retrospective analysis and real-time monitoring of epileptic seizures. Studies have shown that EEG-based seizure detection is very difficult for a specific epileptic population with intellectual disability due to the cerebral development disorders.

  2. The debate: Treatment after the first seizure - The CONTRA.

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2017-07-01

    In many instances antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment of epilepsy patients is sustained for a long time and is even a lifelong therapy. Chronic drug treatment naturally means the potential burden of adverse effects. The prognosis to remain seizure-free is good after a first seizure even without AEDs. Therefore one has to consider the possibility that freedom from seizures when AED treatment has been initiated after the first seizure may not in fact be the result of the AED treatment. On the other hand seizure-free patients without severe side effects most probably will not consider discontinuing AEDs. Therefore in these cases it will not be possible to discover whether AEDs are really necessary to maintain freedom from seizures. Furthermore it has been shown that the long-term prognosis is independent of whether AED treatment started after the first or a following seizure. Therefore in most instances AED treatment after a first seizure should be avoided. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture...

  4. Validation of an automated seizure detection algorithm for term neonates

    Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Low, Evonne; Marnane, William P.; Rennie, Janet M.; Temko, Andrey; Lightbody, Gordon; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate the performance of a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group, on previously unseen, prolonged, unedited EEG recordings from 70 babies from 2 centres. Methods EEGs of 70 babies (35 seizure, 35 non-seizure) were annotated for seizures by experts as the gold standard. The SDA was tested on the EEGs at a range of sensitivity settings. Annotations from the expert and SDA were compared using event and epoch based metrics. The effect of seizure duration on SDA performance was also analysed. Results Between sensitivity settings of 0.5 and 0.3, the algorithm achieved seizure detection rates of 52.6–75.0%, with false detection (FD) rates of 0.04–0.36 FD/h for event based analysis, which was deemed to be acceptable in a clinical environment. Time based comparison of expert and SDA annotations using Cohen’s Kappa Index revealed a best performing SDA threshold of 0.4 (Kappa 0.630). The SDA showed improved detection performance with longer seizures. Conclusion The SDA achieved promising performance and warrants further testing in a live clinical evaluation. Significance The SDA has the potential to improve seizure detection and provide a robust tool for comparing treatment regimens. PMID:26055336

  5. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project

    Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)…

  6. 32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection...

  7. Frequency of fever episodes related to febrile seizure recurrence

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the number of fever episodes as a risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence during the first 6 months after the last previous febrile seizure. In a 6-month follow-up study of 155 children, aged 3 months to 5 y, with a first or a recurrent febrile

  8. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever...

  9. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  10. Complex partial seizure with severe depression and conduct ...

    Complex partial seizure complicated by psychiatric comorbidities like depression and conduct disorder presents management challenges for both the physician and parents. The etiology of such psychiatric comorbidities may be related to the seizure or to several other unrelated risk factors. The psychiatric comorbidities and ...

  11. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  12. Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

  13. Precipitants of seizure among patients with epilepsy: Experience at Kano, Northwestern Nigeria

    L F Owolabi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Common precipitating factors of seizure included stress, febrile illness and non adherence to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge of these precipitating factors are vital prevention of seizure.

  14. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Narges Karimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats.   Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity.Conclusion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  15. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats. Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity. Discussion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  16. Hypoparathyroidism Causing Seizures: When Epilepsy Does Not Fit

    Faheem Seedat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old man presented to the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital emergency department with recurrent seizures having previously been diagnosed with epilepsy from age 14. The biochemical investigations and brain imaging were suggestive of seizures secondary to hypocalcemia, and a diagnosis of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism was confirmed. After calcium and vitamin D replacement, the patient recovered well and is seizure free, and off antiepileptic therapy. This case highlights the occurrence of brain calcinosis in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism; the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures due to provoking factors other than epilepsy; and the importance, in the correct clinical setting, of considering alternative, and sometimes treatable, causes of seizures other than epilepsy.

  17. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    Velíšková, Jana; DeSantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced damage are complex to contradictory and depend on different mechanisms, which have to be accounted for in data interpretation. Both estradiol and progesterone/allopregnanolone may have beneficial effects for patients with epilepsy. Individualized hormonal therapy should be considered as adjunctive treatment in patients with epilepsy to improve seizure control as well as quality of life. PMID:22504305

  18. Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures

    Meyer, P.T.; Cortes-Blanco, A.; Pourdehnad, M.; Desiderio, L.; Jang, S.; Alavi, A.; Levy-Reis, I.

    2001-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the lateralization of temporal lobe seizure foci. The clinical charts and imaging data of 43 consecutive CPS patients were reviewed. Based on surface EEG, 31 patients were classified with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE; 25 lateralized, 6 not lateralized) and 12 with non-temporal lobe epilepsy. All were examined by FDG-PET, MRS and MRI within 6 weeks. FDG-PET and MRI were interpreted visually, while the N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio was used for MRS interpretation. One FDG-PET scan was invalid due to seizure activity post injection. The MR spectra could not be evaluated in five cases bilaterally and three cases unilaterally for technical reasons. A total of 15 patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. All showed a beneficial postoperative outcome. When the proportions of agreement between FDG-PET (0.77), MRI (0.58) and MRS (0.56) and surface EEG in TLE cases were compared, there were no significant differences (P>0.10). However, FDG-PET showed a significantly higher agreement (0.93) than MRI (0.60; P=0.03) with the side of successful temporal lobectomy. The concordance of MRS with the side of successful temporal lobectomy was intermediate (0.75). When the results of functional and morphologic imaging were combined, no significant differences were found between the rates of agreement of FDG-PET/MRI and MRS/MRI with EEG (0.80 vs 0.68; P=0.50) and with the side of successful temporal lobectomy (0.87 vs 0.92; P=0.50) in TLE cases. However, MRS/MRI showed

  19. Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures

    Meyer, P.T.; Cortes-Blanco, A.; Pourdehnad, M.; Desiderio, L.; Jang, S.; Alavi, A. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Levy-Reis, I. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Neurology

    2001-10-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the lateralization of temporal lobe seizure foci. The clinical charts and imaging data of 43 consecutive CPS patients were reviewed. Based on surface EEG, 31 patients were classified with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE; 25 lateralized, 6 not lateralized) and 12 with non-temporal lobe epilepsy. All were examined by FDG-PET, MRS and MRI within 6 weeks. FDG-PET and MRI were interpreted visually, while the N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio was used for MRS interpretation. One FDG-PET scan was invalid due to seizure activity post injection. The MR spectra could not be evaluated in five cases bilaterally and three cases unilaterally for technical reasons. A total of 15 patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. All showed a beneficial postoperative outcome. When the proportions of agreement between FDG-PET (0.77), MRI (0.58) and MRS (0.56) and surface EEG in TLE cases were compared, there were no significant differences (P>0.10). However, FDG-PET showed a significantly higher agreement (0.93) than MRI (0.60; P=0.03) with the side of successful temporal lobectomy. The concordance of MRS with the side of successful temporal lobectomy was intermediate (0.75). When the results of functional and morphologic imaging were combined, no significant differences were found between the rates of agreement of FDG-PET/MRI and MRS/MRI with EEG (0.80 vs 0.68; P=0.50) and with the side of successful temporal lobectomy (0.87 vs 0.92; P=0.50) in TLE cases. However, MRS/MRI showed

  20. Modeling Seizure Self-Prediction: An E-Diary Study

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Hall, Charles B.; Borkowski, Thomas; Tennen, Howard; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A subset of patients with epilepsy successfully self-predicted seizures in a paper diary study. We conducted an e-diary study to ensure that prediction precedes seizures, and to characterize the prodromal features and time windows that underlie self-prediction. Methods Subjects 18 or older with LRE and ≥3 seizures/month maintained an e-diary, reporting AM/PM data daily, including mood, premonitory symptoms, and all seizures. Self-prediction was rated by, “How likely are you to experience a seizure [time frame]”? Five choices ranged from almost certain (>95% chance) to very unlikely. Relative odds of seizure (OR) within time frames was examined using Poisson models with log normal random effects to adjust for multiple observations. Key Findings Nineteen subjects reported 244 eligible seizures. OR for prediction choices within 6hrs was as high as 9.31 (1.92,45.23) for “almost certain”. Prediction was most robust within 6hrs of diary entry, and remained significant up to 12hrs. For 9 best predictors, average sensitivity was 50%. Older age contributed to successful self-prediction, and self-prediction appeared to be driven by mood and premonitory symptoms. In multivariate modeling of seizure occurrence, self-prediction (2.84; 1.68,4.81), favorable change in mood (0.82; 0.67,0.99) and number of premonitory symptoms (1,11; 1.00,1.24) were significant. Significance Some persons with epilepsy can self-predict seizures. In these individuals, the odds of a seizure following a positive prediction are high. Predictions were robust, not attributable to recall bias, and were related to self awareness of mood and premonitory features. The 6-hour prediction window is suitable for the development of pre-emptive therapy. PMID:24111898

  1. Predictors of Recurrent Febrile Seizures in Iranian Children

    Yousef Veisani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A few factors appear to boost a child's risk of having recurrent febrile seizures, including young age during the first seizure, seizure type, and having immediate family members with a history of febrile seizures. The present study aimed to provide reliable information about recurrent febrile seizure in Iranian children. On the computerized literature valid on valid keyword with search in valid database PubMed, Scientific Information Databases (SID (, Global medical article limberly (Medlib, Iranian Biomedical Journals (Iran Medex, Iranian Journal Database (Magiran, and Google Scholar recruited in different geographic areas. To explore heterogeneity in studies I2 index was used. Meta-analysis used to data analysis with random effects model.Hospital data of 4,599 children with febrile seizure. Overall, 21 studies met our inclusion criteria. Febrile seizure in 2 age groups (<2 and 2-6 years were 55.8% (95% CI: 50.4-61.2 and 44.2% (95% CI: 38.8-61.2 respectively. Pooled recurrent rate of febrile seizure in Iran was 20.9% (95% CI: 12.3-29.5. In 28.8 (95% CI: 19.3-38.4, children there was positive family history. The mean prevalence of simple and complex seizures was 69.3% (95% CI: 59.5-79.0 and 28.3% (95% CI: 19.6-31.0 respectively. The rates in different geographical regions of central, east, and west of Iran, 25, 20.8 and 27.1% were estimated, respectively.According to the data the prevalence febrile seizure is higher in males and children under two years. Recurrence rate in Iran, similar to other studies performed in other regions of the world.

  2. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence in a prospective cohort study of Zambians with human immunodeficiency virus and first seizure

    Michael J. Potchen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male, 16 (37% were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79% had advanced HIV disease, and (28 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44% had opportunistic infections (OIs. During follow-up, 9 (21% died and 15 (35% experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236 and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002. Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05. Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment.

  4. Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

  5. Why are seizures rare in rapid eye movement sleep? Review of the frequency of seizures in different sleep stages.

    Ng, Marcus; Pavlova, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage.

  6. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Kim Dae-Hyuk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3 from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants measured using a laccase-specific substrate suggested that the lac3 gene was successfully expressed and the corresponding protein product secreted into the culture media. In addition, activity staining and Western blot analysis of a native gel revealed that the enzyme activity co-existed with the protein product specific to anti-laccase3 antibody, confirming that the cloned lac3 gene is responsible for the laccase activity. When transformants were grown on plates containing tannic acid-supplemented media, brown coloration was observed around transformed cells, indicating the oxidation of tannic acid. However, the enzymatic activity was measurable only in the selective ura- media and was negligible in nonselective nutrient-rich culture conditions. This was in part because of the increased plasmid instability in the nonselective media. Moreover, the protein product of lac3 appears to be sensitive to the cultured nonselective nutrient-rich broth, because a rapid decline in enzymatic activity was observed when the cultured broth of ura- media was mixed with that of nonselective nutrient-rich broth. In addition, constitutive expression of the lac3 gene resulted in a reduced cell number of the lac3 transformants compared to that of vector-only transformed control. However, the presence of recombinant vector without lac3 induction did not affect the growth of transformants. Conclusions The results suggest that expression of the lac3 gene has an inhibitory effect on the growth of

  7. Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures.

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Hauck, Sarah; Henning, Stephan; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kaila, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in children. FS are suggested to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying FS remain unclear. Using an animal model of experimental FS, it was demonstrated that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis with consequent brain alkalosis and seizures. Here we examine the acid-base status of children who were admitted to the hospital for FS. Children who were admitted because of gastroenteritis (GE), a condition known to promote acidosis, were examined to investigate a possible protective effect of acidosis against FS. We enrolled 433 age-matched children with similar levels of fever from two groups presented to the emergency department. One group was admitted for FS (n = 213) and the other for GE (n = 220). In the FS group, the etiology of fever was respiratory tract infection (74.2%), otitis media (7%), GE (7%), tonsillitis (4.2%), scarlet fever (2.3%) chickenpox (1.4%), urinary tract infection (1.4%), postvaccination reaction (0.9%), or unidentified (1.4%). In all patients, capillary pH and blood Pco(2) were measured immediately on admission to the hospital. Respiratory alkalosis was found in children with FS (pH 7.46 ± 0.04, [mean ± standard deviation] Pco(2) 29.5 ± 5.5 mmHg), whereas a metabolic acidosis was seen in all children admitted for GE (pH 7.31 ± 0.03, Pco(2) 37.7 ± 4.3 mmHg; p respiratory alkalosis, irrespective of the severity of the underlying infection as indicated by the level of fever. The lack of FS in GE patients is attributable to low pH, which also explains the fact that children with a susceptibility to FS do not have seizures when they have GE-induced fever that is associated with acidosis. The present demonstration of a close link between FS and respiratory alkalosis may pave the way for further clinical studies and attempts to design novel therapies for the treatment of FS by controlling the

  8. Automatic multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system for detection of motor seizures from electromyographic data and motion data

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    measures of reconstructed sub-bands from the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and the wavelet packet transformation (WPT). Based on the extracted features all data segments were classified using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm as simulated seizure or normal activity. A case study...... of the seizure from the patient showed that the simulated seizures were visually similar to the epileptic one. The multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system showed high sensitivity, short detection latency and low false detection rate. The results showed superiority of the multi- modal detection...... system compared to the uni-modal one. The presented system has a promising potential for seizure detection based on multi-modal data....

  9. Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system - A new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many epilepsy patients cannot call for help during a seizure, because they are unconscious or because of the affection of their motor system or speech function. This can lead to injuries, medical complications and at worst death. An alarm system setting off at seizure onset could help to avoid...... hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three...... test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG...

  10. Synchronous inhibitory potentials precede seizure-like events in acute models of focal limbic seizures.

    Uva, Laura; Breschi, Gian Luca; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Taverna, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2015-02-18

    Interictal spikes in models of focal seizures and epilepsies are sustained by the synchronous activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks. The nature of population spikes associated with seizure initiation (pre-ictal spikes; PSs) is still undetermined. We analyzed the networks involved in the generation of both interictal and PSs in acute models of limbic cortex ictogenesis induced by pharmacological manipulations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings from both principal cells and interneurons were performed in the medial entorhinal cortex of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain during focal interictal and ictal discharges induced in the limbic network by intracortical and brief arterial infusions of either bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or 4-aminopyridine (4AP). Local application of BMI in the entorhinal cortex did not induce seizure-like events (SLEs), but did generate periodic interictal spikes sensitive to the glutamatergic non-NMDA receptor antagonist DNQX. Unlike local applications, arterial perfusion of either BMI or 4AP induced focal limbic SLEs. PSs just ahead of SLE were associated with hyperpolarizing potentials coupled with a complete blockade of firing in principal cells and burst discharges in putative interneurons. Interictal population spikes recorded from principal neurons between two SLEs correlated with a depolarizing potential. We demonstrate in two models of acute limbic SLE that PS events are different from interictal spikes and are sustained by synchronous activation of inhibitory networks. Our findings support a prominent role of synchronous network inhibition in the initiation of a focal seizure. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353048-08$15.00/0.

  11. Masturbation mimicking seizure in an infant.

    Deda, G; Caksen, H; Suskan, E; Gümüs, D

    2001-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of infantile spasm. His developmental milestones and physical examination were normal. During the follow-up we recorded about six to nine attacks a day and the duration of attacks was changed between 15 seconds-1.5 minutes. During the episodic attacks he was flushed and had tonic posturing associated with crossing of thighs, without loss of consciousness and his eye movements were normal. Routine and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal during attack. The patient was diagnosed as masturbation according to the clinical and EEG findings. In conclusion, we would like to stress that masturbation should also be considered in infants who were admitted with complaint of seizure, and aside from EEG monitoring a detailed history and careful observation are very important factors in differential diagnosis of these two different conditions.

  12. Epileptic Seizure Forewarning by Nonlinear Techniques

    Hively, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Nicolet Biomedical Inc. (NBI) is collaborating with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to convert ORNL's patented technology for forewarning of epileptic seizures to a clinical prototype. This technical report describes the highlights of the first year's effort. The software requirements for the clinical device were specified from which the hardware specifications were obtained. ORNL's research-class FORTRAN was converted to run under a graphical user interface (GUI) that was custom-built for this application by NBI. The resulting software package was cloned to desktop computers that are being tested in five different clinical sites. Two hundred electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets from those clinical sites were provided to ORNL for detailed analysis and improvement of the forewarning methodology. Effort under this CRADA is continuing into the second year as planned

  13. Epileptic Seizure, Postictal Hemiparesis, and Hyperleukocytosis

    Martin Olivieri MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS is a rare event in infancy. Besides vasculopathy, thrombophilia, or cardiac disorders, cancer and chemotherapy are known predisposing factors for AIS. Leukemia can be associated with different abnormal coagulation parameters, but severe bleeding or thrombosis occurs rarely. Clinical Course: We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who was presented to our emergency ward after a prolonged seizure with right sided postictal hemiparesis. Cranial computed tomography scan revealed a large infarction and edema due to thrombosis of the left carotid artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the anterior cerebral artery. Laboratory workup showed 196 g/L leukocytes with 75% myeloid blast cells. Immediate exchange transfusion, hydration, and chemotherapy with cytarabine were started. During the hospital course intracranial pressure increased and the patient developed a unilateral dilated pupil unresponsive to light. Cranial computed tomography scan revealed a new infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory. Refractory increased intracranial pressure and brain stem herniation developed, and the child died 3 days after admission to hospital. Conclusion: Seizures with postictal hemiparesis due to cerebral infarction can be a rare manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. Leukocytosis and cancer-induced coagulopathy are main reasons for thrombosis and/or hemorrhage. High leukocyte counts need immediate interventions with hydration, careful chemotherapy, and perhaps exchange transfusion or leukapharesis. In the presence of thrombosis, anticoagulation must be discussed despite the risk of bleeding due to hyperfibrinolysis and low platelet counts. Mortality may be reduced by awareness of this rare presentation of leukemia and prompt institution of leucoreductive treatment.

  14. In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of canine status epilepticus

    Sandstrom, J.C.; Partington, C.R.; Perman, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Invasive studies of rodent seizure models have demonstrated twice-normal lactate accumulation at the seizure focus. The authors investigated metabolic changes in canine kainic acid-induced seizures by means of in vivo volume-selective water-suppressed proton MR spectroscopy (MVSTE pulse sequence). Spectra from several experiments are presented demonstrating changes in lactate and MR imaging-visible lipid concentration. Spectra were obtained with interlaced acquisition from the brain and an external standard for relative quantification, with best-case line width of 4 Hz and typical line widths of 7-15 Hz at 1.5 T. Direct injection of NAA and lactate in the brain allowed in vivo identification of resonances

  15. Clinical characteristics of patients seizure following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.

    Inatomi, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Yonehara, Toshiro; Ando, Yukio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with seizure following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. We retrospectively studied patients with seizure admitted to our hospital for 12weeks following the earthquake. We compared the clinical backgrounds and characteristics of the patients: before (the same period from the previous 3years) and after the earthquake; and the early (first 2weeks) and late (subsequent 10weeks) phases. A total of 60 patients with seizure were admitted to the emergency room after the earthquake, and 175 (58.3/year) patients were admitted before the earthquake. Of them, 35 patients with seizure were hospitalized in the Department of Neurology after the earthquake, and 96 (32/year) patients were hospitalized before the earthquake. In patients after the earthquake, males and non-cerebrovascular diseases as an epileptogenic disease were seen more frequently than before the earthquake. During the early phase after the earthquake, female, first-attack, and non-focal-type patients were seen more frequently than during the late phase after the earthquake. These characteristics of patients with seizure during the early phase after the earthquake suggest that many patients had non-epileptic seizures. To prevent seizures following earthquakes, mental stress and physical status of evacuees must be assessed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The oxidative and antioxidative status of simple febrile seizure patients

    Abuhandan, M.; Yetkin, I.; Calik, M.; Iscan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the oxidative status following a seizure in children experiencing a simple febrile seizure. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Harran University, Turkey, between January and September 2011. It comprised 32 paediatric patients who, within the preceding 8 hours, had experienced a seizure due to upper respiratory tract infection and had been diagnosed with simple febrile seizure, and 30 healthy children as the control group. Blood was taken from the patients 8 hours after the seizure. Total oxidant level and Total anti-oxidant level were measured according to the Erel technique and the oxidative stress index was calculated. Data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean values of the total oxidant level and the oxidative stress index of the cases were found to be significantly high compared to the controls and the total anti-oxidant level was found to be significantly low (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.03 respectively). Conclusion: The increased total oxidant level and decreased total anti-oxidant level resulting in increased oxidative stress associated with febrile seizure patients may increase the risk of experiencing febrile seizures. (author)

  17. Cocaine-Associated Seizures and Incidence of Status Epilepticus

    Majlesi, Nima DO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute complications from cocaine abuse are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED; one of the most consequential is status epilepticus. The incidence of this complication is not clearly defined in the prior literature on cocaine-associated sequelae. We evaluated the incidence of status epilepticus in patients with seizures secondary to suspected cocaine use.Methods: We performed a retrospective multi-center study of patients with seizures resulting from cocaine use. We identified study subjects at 15 hospitals by record review and conducted a computer-assisted records search to identify patients with seizures for each institution over a four-year period. We selected subjects from this group on the basis of cocaine use and determined the occurrence of status epilepticus among them. Data were collected on each subject using a standardized data collection form.Results: We evaluated 43 patients in the ED for cocaine-associated seizures. Their age range was 17 to 54, with a mean age was 31 years; 53% were male. Of 43 patients, 42 experienced a single tonic-clonic seizure and one developed status epilepticus. All patients had either a history of cocaine use or positive urine drug screen for cocaine.Conclusion: Despite reported cases of status epilepticus with cocaine-induced seizures, the incidence of this complication was unclear based on prior literature. This study shows that most cocaine-associated seizures are self-limited. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:157-160.

  18. Smoking prevalence and seizure control in Chinese males with epilepsy.

    Gao, Hui; Sander, Josemir W; Du, Xudong; Chen, Jiani; Zhu, Cairong; Zhou, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52.1%. We used two classifications: the first classified epilepsy as generalized, or by presumed topographic origin (temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital). The second classified the dominant seizure type of an individual as generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS), myoclonic seizure (MS), complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondary GTCS (sGTCS). The univariable analysis of satisfactory seizure control profile and smoking rate in both classifications showed a trend towards a beneficial effect of smoking although most were not statistically significant. Considering medication is an important confounding factor that would largely influence seizure control, we also conducted multi-variable analysis for both classifications with drug numbers and dosage. The result of our model also suggested that smoking is a protective factor. Our findings seem to suggest that smoking could have a potential role in seizure control although confounders need exploration particularly in view of the potential long term health effects. Replication in a much larger sample is needed as well as case control studies to elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Definition and classification of epilepsy. Classification of epileptic seizures 2016

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in childhood and adolescence. The incidence varies from 15 to 113 cases per 100 000 population with the maximum among children under 1 year old. The prevalence of epilepsy is high, ranging from 5 to 8 cases (in some regions – 10 cases per 1000 children under 15 years old. Classification of the disease has great importance for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The article presents a novel strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, developed in 2016. It contains a number of brand new concepts, including a very important one, saying that some seizures, previously considered as generalized or focal only, can be, in fact, both focal and generalized. They include tonic, atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms. The term “secondarily generalized seizure” is replace by the term “bilateral tonic-clonic seizure” (as soon as it is not a separate type of epileptic seizures, and the term reflects the spread of discharge from any area of cerebral cortex and evolution of any types of focal seizures. International League Against Epilepsy recommends to abandon the term “pseudo-epileptic seizures” and replace it by the term “psychogenic non-epileptic seizures”. If a doctor is not sure that seizures have epileptic nature, the term “paroxysmal event” should be used without specifying the disease. The conception of childhood epileptic encephalopathies, developed within this novel classification project, is one of the most significant achievements, since in this case not only the seizures, but even epileptiform activity can induce severe disorders of higher mental functions. In addition to detailed description of the new strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, the article contains a comprehensive review of the existing principles of epilepsy and epileptic seizures classification.

  20. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  1. Association of adherence to epilepsy quality standards with seizure control.

    Moura, Lidia M V R; Mendez, Diego Yacaman; Jesus, Jonathan De; Andrade, Rogger A; Weissman, Joel S; Vickrey, Barbara G; Hoch, Daniel B

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between adherence to epilepsy quality measures (EQM) and seizure control over 2-3 years in a retrospective cohort study. 6150 patients were identified at two large academic medical centers with a primary or secondary diagnosis of epilepsy, were 18-85 years old and seen in outpatient general neurology or epilepsy units between June 2011 and May 2014. Patients were included if: their initial visit was between June 2011 and June 2012, treatment was with ≥1 anti-seizure drug, there was ≥1 visit per year during the timeframe, and seizure frequency was documented at initial and final visits, yielding 162 patients/1055 visits from which socio-demographic, clinical and care quality data were abstracted. Quality care was assessed as (1) percent adherence to up to 8 eligible EQM, and (2) defect-free care (DFC: adherence to all eligible EQM). Seizure control (SC) was defined as ≥50% reduction in average seizures/month between initial and final visits. Chi-square and t-test compared care quality with seizure control. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between SC, quality of care and subspecialist involvement. Care quality, reflected by documentation of seizure frequency, addressing therapeutic interventions, and referral to a comprehensive epilepsy center, all exceeded 80% adherence. Care quality as reflected by documentation of seizure type, etiology or syndrome; assessment of side effects, counseling about epilepsy safety and women's issues, and screening for psychiatric disorders ranged from 40 to 57%. Mean EQM adherence across all applicable measures was associated with greater seizure control (p=0.0098). DFC was low (=8%) and did not covary with seizure control (p=0.55). The SC and non-SC groups only differed on epilepsy etiology (p=0.04). Exploratory analysis showed that mean quality scores are associated with seizure control (OR=4.9 [1.3-18.5], p=0.017) while controlling for the effect of subspecialty involvement

  2. Automatic Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection Using Matching Pursuit

    Sorensen, Thomas Lynggaard; Olsen, Ulrich L.; Conradsen, Isa

    2010-01-01

    . The combination of Matching Pursuit and SVM for automatic seizure detection has never been tested before, making this a pilot study. Data from red different patients with 6 to 49 seizures are used to test our model. Three patients are recorded with scalp electroencephalography (sEEG) and three with intracranial...... electroencephalography (iEEG). A sensitivity of 78-100% and a detection latency of 5-18s has been achieved, while holding the false detection at 0.16-5.31/h. Our results show the potential of Matching Pursuit as a feature xtractor for detection of epileptic seizures....

  3. Naloxone-induced electrographic seizures in the primate.

    Snyder, E W; Shearer, D E; Beck, E C; Dustmann, R E

    1980-01-01

    Electrographic seizure activity was recorded shortly following naxolone injections in artificially ventilated, methadone-treated stump-tailed macaques. Plasma-methadone concentrations prior to seizure activity were many times higher than those that have produced respiratory depression and death in nonventilated monkeys. The duration of seizure activity was clearly related to the dose of naloxone. Naloxone was without epileptogenic properties in animals that had not been pretreated with methadone. The results suggest that methadone and naloxone have additive epileptogenic properties when high blood levels of methadone are achieved in the artificially ventilated primate. Naloxone was devoid of antagonistic properties with respect to opiate-induced electroencephalographic spiking activity.

  4. Detection of tonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography

    Larsen, Sigge N.; Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design an algorithm for detection of tonic seizures based on surface electromyography signals from the deltoids. A successful algorithm has a future prospect of being implemented in a wearable device as part of an alarm system. This has already been done......, median frequency, zero crossing rate and approximate entropy. These features were used as input in the random forest classifier to decide if a data segment was from a seizure or not. The goal was to develop a generic algorithm for all tonic seizures, but better results were achieved when certain...

  5. Urinary urge seizure semiology localization by intracranial monitoring.

    Rengarajan, Ronak; Shamim, Sadat

    2018-01-01

    Seizures may present with many different symptom complexes. Seizure semiologies have localization value when contemplating surgical therapies. Epilepsy presenting as a desire to micturate is exceedingly rare, with only a handful of published cases. We present a patient who had initially unexplained childhood urinary urge that progressed into lapses of memory and confusion that was eventually diagnosed as epilepsy in adulthood. Due to refractoriness to medical management, our patient's epileptic focus was localized through both noninvasive and invasive subdural electrode arrays to the nondominant medial temporal lobe and successfully treated with an amygdalohippocampectomy. Only one other case of ictal urinary urgency seizures has been recorded with intracranial electroencephalogram monitoring in the literature.

  6. Approach to seizures in the neonatal period: a European perspective

    Vento, M; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira; Alberola, A

    2010-01-01

    In the neonatal period, seizures rank among the most common neurological symptoms, often indicating an underlying serious neurological condition. It is remarkable that although new tools have been incorporated into the diagnosis of neonatal seizures, there is no consensus about the therapeutic ap...... infusion is most common. Of note, clinical studies with newer drugs have been mostly performed in the United States but not in Europe....... approach among different doctors and institutions. Hence, although phenobarbital is still considered the initial drug of choice, the protocols reported in the literature show a great variability in the approach to treatment of refractory seizures. We used a questionnaire to gain information regarding...

  7. Clinical decision making in seizures and status epilepticus.

    Teran, Felipe; Harper-Kirksey, Katrina; Jagoda, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Seizures and status epilepticus are frequent neurologic emergencies in the emergency department, accounting for 1% of all emergency department visits. The management of this time-sensitive and potentially life-threatening condition is challenging for both prehospital providers and emergency clinicians. The approach to seizing patients begins with differentiating seizure activity from mimics and follows with identifying potential secondary etiologies, such as alcohol-related seizures. The approach to the patient in status epilepticus and the patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus constitutes a special clinical challenge. This review summarizes the best available evidence and recommendations regarding diagnosis and resuscitation of the seizing patient in the emergency setting.

  8. HMPAO-SPECT during epileptic seizures: Early and late images

    Overbeck, B.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Reinke, U.; Gratz, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    For presurgical evaluation of epilepsy a 44-year old patient with complex-partial seizures underwent HMPAO-SPECT. The morphology of the seizures, the MRI-scan, psychometry and ictal as well as interictal EEGs showed a left temporal origin of the seizures. Early images were obtained 20 min and late images 24 h following injection. On both scans a marked hyperperfusion was observed in the left temporal area. A crossed cerebellar diaschisis was also seen on both SPECTs. It could be shown that during ictal examinations there is no bloodflow-dependent wash-out from brain tissue. (orig.) [de

  9. New-Onset Seizures in Pregnancy and Puerperium

    Monton Wongwandee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seizures in pregnant women cause several maternal and fetal consequences. Eclampsia is usually diagnosed to be the etiology. However, seizures during pregnancy or puerperium could be caused by pre-existing epilepsy, the initial presentation of a non-pregnancy-related disorder or the new-onset pregnancy-related disorder. Therefore, thorough diagnostic evaluation is essential. Although the pathogenesis of new-onset pregnancy-related neurological disorders remains unknown, physiological changes during pregnancy and puerperium are believed to have a major role. Advanced neuroimaging of the brain and cerebral vessels can help in differentiating the specific causes of seizures in these patients.

  10. Epileptic seizures precipited by eating: a case report

    Fernando Carlos Aleixo Sepulveda

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available The case of one 23 year-old girl who had epileptic manifestations is reported. At first, generalized tonic seizures; afterwards, epileptic seizures precipited by eating. The electroencephalograms showed left temporal lobe disfunctions. Different types of drugs were used with no sucess. The best results were obtained by association of sodium valproate, clonazepan and phenobarbital. Comments are made about clinic and etiopathogenesis, believing the authors in the hipothesis of nervous structures chronic hiperactivity. To Walker8 the hiperactivity was reached by hormones production under neural control of specific cerebral centers. The continuous bombardment of epileptic discharges to hypothalamic centers is the probably responsible by epileptic seizures precipited by eating.

  11. Approach to seizures in the neonatal period: a European perspective

    Vento, M; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira; Alberola, A

    2010-01-01

    approach among different doctors and institutions. Hence, although phenobarbital is still considered the initial drug of choice, the protocols reported in the literature show a great variability in the approach to treatment of refractory seizures. We used a questionnaire to gain information regarding...... the treatment of seizures in the neonatal period in different European institutions. Conclusion: We conclude that phenobarbital is still the initial drug of choice followed by benzodiazepines, except in preterm infants with a birth weight below 1800 g. In refractory seizures, the use of continuous lidocaine...

  12. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy

    Van Campen, Jolien S.; Jansen, Floor E.; Pet, Milou A.; Otte, Willem M.; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures

  15. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study

    Jung, Keun-Hwa; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Doo Young; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Han-Sang; Jun, Jinsun; Kim, Dong-Yub; Kim, Man-Young; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Suh, Hong Il; Lee, Yoojin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Jin Ho; Choi, Woo Chan; Bae, Dae Woong; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and new-onset seizure. Methods Adult (age ≥18 years) patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2–4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as “seizure remission”, “> 50% seizure reduction”, or “no change” based on the degree of its decrease. Results Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2–4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events. Conclusion AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE. PMID:26771547

  16. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study.

    Jung-Ick Byun

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE and new-onset seizure.Adult (age ≥18 years patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2-4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as "seizure remission", "> 50% seizure reduction", or "no change" based on the degree of its decrease.Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2-4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events.AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE.

  17. Prognostic significance of clinical seizures after cardiac arrest and target temperature management

    Lybeck, Anna; Friberg, Hans; Aneman, Anders

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Clinical seizures are common after cardiac arrest and predictive of a poor neurological outcome. Seizures may be myoclonic, tonic-clonic or a combination of seizure types. This study reports the incidence and prognostic significance of clinical seizures in the target temperature management (...

  18. Prevalence, causes, and behavioral and emotional comorbidities of acute symptomatic seizures in Africa: A critical review

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar Ali, A.; Stein, A.; Marsh, K.; Newton, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures with fever includes both febrile seizures (due to nonneurological febrile infections) and acute symptomatic seizures (due to neurological febrile infections). The cumulative incidence (lifetime prevalence) of febrile seizures in children aged ≤6 years is 2–5% in American and European

  19. 9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure... Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition. Any poultry or other article subject to seizure and condemnation under this...

  20. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure... Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation and...

  1. 19 CFR 162.93 - Failure to issue notice of seizure.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to issue notice of seizure. 162.93 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.93 Failure to issue notice of seizure. If Customs does not send notice of a seizure of property in...

  2. Diagnostic decision-making after a first and recurrent seizure in adults

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The role of EEG after a first seizure has been debated. Epileptiform EEG activity is a good predictor of seizure recurrence, but is reported in only 8-50% of first-seizure adult patients. Even if the EEG is abnormal, the opinions about treatment after a first seizure differ. The role of EEG

  3. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone.

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J; Anderson, William S

    2015-08-01

    The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the [Formula: see text] Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately [Formula: see text]. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  4. Profile of seizures in adult falciparum malaria and the clinical efficacy of phenytoin sodium for control of seizures

    Manoj Ku Mohapatra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the profile of convulsion in adult severe falciparum malaria and efficacy of phenytoin sodium for its control. Methods: It comprised of two sub studies. Study-1 evaluated the pattern and risk factors of seizure in severe malaria and Study-2 investigated the efficacy of phenytoin sodium to control seizure in an open label trial. Patients of severe malaria were diagnosed as per WHO guideline. Clinical type and duration of convulsion were determined. Biochemical and haematological investigations including EEG and CT scan of brain were performed in all cases. All patients were treated with injection artesunate along with other supportive measures and patients with convulsions were treated with injection phenytoin sodium. Results: Out of 408 patients of severe malaria 118 (28.9% patients had seizure. Generalized tonic clonic seizure, partial seizure with secondary generalization, and status epilepticus was present in 89(75.4%, 25(21.2%, and 4(3.4% cases respectively. CT scan was abnormal in 16 (13.6% cases. EEG was abnormal in 108 (91.5% cases showing generalized seizure activity. Patients with convulsion (n=118 were treated with phenytoin sodium injection and convulsion was controlled within 12 hours [mean (6.2依2.1 hours] of treatment in 107 (90.6% patients. Recurrence of seizure occurred in 2 (1.7% patients and 11 (9.3% patients did not respond. The mortality and sequelae were more among patients with than without convulsion. Conclusions: Seizure is common in adult falciparum malaria and phenytoin is an effective drug for seizure control.

  5. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Anderson, William S.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the 70-110 Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. Approach. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. Main results. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately 9 m{{m}2}. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. Significance. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  6. Endorphin mediation of post-ictal effects of kindled seizures in rats.

    Kelsey, J E; Belluzzi, J D

    1982-12-16

    Brief electrical stimulation of the enkephalin-rich globus pallidus at 1-h intervals produced kindled, clonic seizures in rats as rapidly as similar stimulation of the amygdala. Massing the kindling trials at 10-min intervals inhibited the occurrence of subsequent seizures, especially following globus pallidus stimulation. Naloxone (20 mg/kg), an opiate receptor antagonist, reversed this post-ictal inhibition of seizures following massed trials, but had no effect on seizures kindled at 1-h intervals. Thus, endorphin-released during seizures do not appear to mediate the production of kindled seizures, but do appear to mediate the transient posts ictal inhibition of seizures.

  7. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study.

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-01-13

    Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6 ± 6.6 and 20.1 ± 5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448 could be a promising alternative treatment in patients with

  8. Opiate and non-opiate aspects of morphine induced seizures.

    Frenk, H; Liban, A; Balamuth, R; Urca, G

    1982-12-16

    The intraperitoneal administration of morphine hydrochloride at doses of 300 mg/kg produced analgesia, catalepsy, and electrographic spiking in rats that developed into electrographic seizure patterns after approximately 2.5 h. Whereas naltrexone (12 mg/kg) reversed analgesia and catalepsy, and diminished electrographic spiking, it precipitated electrographic seizure activity similar to that observed following intraperitoneal morphine alone. These seizures were accompanied by behavioral convulsions. No tolerance to these seizures developed with repeated paired administration of morphine and naltrexone or in morphine tolerant rats, but rather potentiation was observed. The epileptogenic effects were found to be potentiated in amygdaloid kindled rats, as well. It was concluded that morphine at these doses activates two different epileptogenic mechanisms, one mediated by opiate receptors, the other not. The possibility of the simultaneous activation of a morphine sensitive anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  9. Naloxone fails to prolong seizure length in ECT.

    Rasmussen, K G; Pandurangi, A K

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in animals has been shown to enhance endogenous opiate systems. The anticonvulsant effects of ECS are also partially blocked by the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, leading some investigators to postulate that the anticonvulsant effects of ECS are mediated by activation of endogenous opiates. If such a phenomenon occurs in humans, then naloxone might prolong seizure length in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In the present study, nine patients were given 2.0 mg intravenous (i.v.) naloxone 2 minutes prior to one-half of their ECT treatments. Motor seizure length was measured via the cuff technique. EEG tracings were read by an investigator blind to naloxone status. There was no difference between the two groups in either EEG or nonblindly evaluated motor seizure length. It is concluded that a dose of 2 mg naloxone does not effectively increase seizure length in ECT.

  10. Self‑perceived seizure precipitants among patients with epilepsy in ...

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... triggers especially idiopathic generalized epilepsy with myoclonic seizures ... with complex interactions so that it can be difficult for both patients and ... for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software (version 18). Frequency ...

  11. Seizure following the Use of the COX-2 Inhibitor Etoricoxib

    Valentina Arnao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of epileptic seizures occurring after the use of a COX-2 inhibitor. A 61-year-old man was admitted to our department because of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. EEG showed generalized slowdown of the activity. Neuroimaging and blood samples studies did not evidence alterations, but a careful pharmacological history revealed that the patient had taken the COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib to treat lumbago few days before the onset of clinical symptoms. No seizures were reported after etoricoxib discontinuation and an EEG resulted to be normal two months after this. Conclusion. Knowing the pharmacological history of a patient is important for understanding the clinical presentation and selecting appropriate treatment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of generalized seizures associated with the use of COX-2 inhibitors.

  12. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric patients with seizure from an ...

    Background: Pediatric seizures in developing countries are often poorly investigated and consequently poorly managed. ..... irrespective of age or sex of the patient; considering that, .... clinical presenting symptom in children with brain tumors.

  13. Atypical febrile seizures, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and dual pathology.

    Sanon, Nathalie T; Desgent, Sébastien; Carmant, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures occurring in the neonatal period, especially when prolonged, are thought to be involved in the later development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) in children. The presence of an often undetected, underlying cortical malformation has also been reported to be implicated in the epileptogenesis process following febrile seizures. This paper highlights some of the various animal models of febrile seizures and of cortical malformation and portrays a two-hit model that efficiently mimics these two insults and leads to spontaneous recurrent seizures in adult rats. Potential mechanisms are further proposed to explain how these two insults may each, or together, contribute to network hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis. Finally the clinical relevance of the two-hit model is briefly discussed in light of a therapeutic and preventive approach to mTLE.

  14. Oxcarbazepine versus carbamazepine monotherapy for partial onset seizures

    Koch, Marcus W.; Polman, Susanne K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial onset seizures are often treated with the standard antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. Oxcarbazepine is a newer antiepileptic drug related to carbamazepine that is claimed to be better tolerated. Objectives To compare efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine

  15. Antiseizure Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures Induced with ...

    olayemitoyin

    experimental data in Nigeria on the usefulness of KD in epilepsy models. This is ... Fasting glucose, ketosis level and serum chemistry were determined and seizure parameters recorded. ..... in animal occurs through the inhibition of GABA.

  16. Human seizures couple across spatial scales through travelling wave dynamics

    Martinet, L.-E.; Fiddyment, G.; Madsen, J. R.; Eskandar, E. N.; Truccolo, W.; Eden, U. T.; Cash, S. S.; Kramer, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy--the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures--is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling. We develop a corresponding computational model to propose specific mechanisms--namely, the effects of an increased extracellular potassium concentration diffusing in space--that support the observed spatiotemporal dynamics. Understanding the multi-scale, spatiotemporal dynamics of human seizures--and connecting these dynamics to specific biological mechanisms--promises new insights to treat this devastating disease.

  17. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chunsen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase...... the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal...... diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy...

  18. Levetiracetam for the Treatment of Refractor Neonatal Seizures

    Esengül KELEŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions are observed commonly in newborns and especially in premature babies. The afety and efficiency of conventional antiepileptic drugs have been extensively investigated. But long term side effects like apoptosis are newly recognized even with the the most commonly used antiepilectic drug, phenobarbital. Much research is related to the safety and efficiency of levetiracetam, one of the recent antiepileptic drugs, used in partial onset idiopathic or generalized seizures of adults and children. However, research on newborns, especially premature newborns is limited. In this paper we present two cases involving seven day newborn premature twins treated with refractory seizures. Seizures were controlled only with levetiracetam therapy. We did not observe any long term side effects which can be related to levetiracetam or seizures in a long term follow up of both patients.

  19. Unexpected marked seizure improvement in paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Mathiasen, René; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery is performed based on the assumption that medical refractory epilepsy will continue. Rarely seizure freedom occurs before surgery is performed, while the patient is being evaluated as an epilepsy surgery candidate. The aim of this study was to describe the number...... of children withdrawn from an epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected seizure improvement. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015. RESULTS......: At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number...

  20. Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures

    Chinta Sri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive profile of clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and to assess the short-term outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were consecutive cases of children with a diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures (N=17, mean age = 10.7 years, S.D. = 1.26 and two groups of control groups matched on age and sex: true seizure group and healthy controls. All the children were recruited from the out-patient services of the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was done in the case of every child. A standard 18 channel EEG was done in all the children and a video EEG was done in 12 cases of children with nonepileptic seizures. The Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS and Life Events Scale for Indian Children (LESIC were used to measure the children′s emotional and behavioral functioning at home, and the number of life events and the stress associated with these events in the preceding year and the year before that. Short-term outcome was examined three to six months after the diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures was made. Results: Unresponsiveness without marked motor manifestations was the most common "ictal" characteristic of the nonepileptic seizures. Pelvic thrusting, upper and lower limb movements, head movements, and vocalization were observed in less than one-third of the patients. Increased psychosocial stress and significantly higher number of life events in the preceding year were found to characterize children with nonepileptic seizures, as compared to the two control groups. The nonepileptic seizures and true seizures groups had a higher proportion of children with psychopathology scores in the clinically significant maladjustment range, as compared to those in the healthy control group. A majority of the patients

  1. Comparative sensitivity of quantitative EEG (QEEG) spectrograms for detecting seizure subtypes.

    Goenka, Ajay; Boro, Alexis; Yozawitz, Elissa

    2018-02-01

    To assess the sensitivity of Persyst version 12 QEEG spectrograms to detect focal, focal with secondarily generalized, and generalized onset seizures. A cohort of 562 seizures from 58 patients was analyzed. Successive recordings with 2 or more seizures during continuous EEG monitoring for clinical indications in the ICU or EMU between July 2016 and January 2017 were included. Patient ages ranged from 5 to 64 years (mean = 36 years). There were 125 focal seizures, 187 secondarily generalized and 250 generalized seizures from 58 patients analyzed. Seizures were identified and classified independently by two epileptologists. A correlate to the seizure pattern in the raw EEG was sought in the QEEG spectrograms in 4-6 h EEG epochs surrounding the identified seizures. A given spectrogram was interpreted as indicating a seizure, if at the time of a seizure it showed a visually significant departure from the pre-event baseline. Sensitivities for seizure detection using each spectrogram were determined for each seizure subtype. Overall sensitivities of the QEEG spectrograms for detecting seizures ranged from 43% to 72%, with highest sensitivity (402/562,72%) by the seizure detection trend. The asymmetry spectrogram had the highest sensitivity for detecting focal seizures (117/125,94%). The FFT spectrogram was most sensitive for detecting secondarily generalized seizures (158/187, 84%). The seizure detection trend was the most sensitive for generalized onset seizures (197/250,79%). Our study suggests that different seizure types have specific patterns in the Persyst QEEG spectrograms. Identifying these patterns in the EEG can significantly increase the sensitivity for seizure identification. Copyright © 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IRON DEFICIENCY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR FIRST FEBRILE SEIZURE

    Rahul; Haricharan; Venkatamurthy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Estimation of Iron status in children with first f ebrile seizure (FFS). Iron status was evaluated by including Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Serum ferritin. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Study was conducted all children with first febrile seizures and febrile illnesses (FI) in Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit and Pediatrics Wards of Sri Adichunchanag iri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G. Nagara ...

  3. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. ASPM mutations identified in patients with primary microcephaly and seizures

    Shen, J; Eyaid, W; Mochida, G; Al-Moayyad, F; Bodell, A; Woods, C; Walsh, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a heterogeneous disorder with at least six genetic loci (MCPH1–6), with MCPH5, caused by ASPM mutation, being the most common. Despite the high prevalence of epilepsy in microcephaly patients, microcephaly with frequent seizures has been excluded from the ascertainment of MCPH. Here, we report a pedigree with multiple affected individuals with microcephaly and seizures.

  5. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  6. Mechanisms of morphine enhancement of spontaneous seizure activity.

    Saboory, Ehsan; Derchansky, Miron; Ismaili, Mohammed; Jahromi, Shokrollah S; Brull, Richard; Carlen, Peter L; El Beheiry, Hossam

    2007-12-01

    High-dose opioid therapy can precipitate seizures; however, the mechanism of such a dangerous adverse effect remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine whether the neuroexcitatory activity of high-dose morphine is mediated by selective stimulation of opioid receptors. Mice hippocampi were resected intact and bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce spontaneous seizure-like events recorded from CA1 neurons. Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration (10 microM), morphine depressed electrographic seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations (30 and 100 microM) enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner. Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine. Selective mu and kappa opiate receptor agonists and antagonists enhanced and suppressed the spontaneous seizure activity, respectively. On the contrary, delta opioid receptor ligands did not have an effect. The proseizure effect of morphine is mediated through selective stimulation of mu and kappa opiate receptors but not the activation of the delta receptor system. The observed dose-dependent mechanism of morphine neuroexcitation underscores careful adjustment and individualized opioid dosing in the clinical setting.

  7. Behaviors induced or disrupted by complex partial seizures.

    Leung, L S; Ma, J; McLachlan, R S

    2000-09-01

    We reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying some postictal behaviors that are induced or disrupted by temporal lobe seizures in humans and animals. It is proposed that the psychomotor behaviors and automatisms induced by temporal lobe seizures are mediated by the nucleus accumbens. A non-convulsive hippocampal afterdischarge in rats induced an increase in locomotor activity, which was suppressed by the injection of dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist in the nucleus accumbens, and blocked by inactivation of the medial septum. In contrast, a convulsive hippocampal or amygdala seizure induced behavioral hypoactivity, perhaps by the spread of the seizure into the frontal cortex and opiate-mediated postictal depression. Mechanisms underlying postictal psychosis, memory disruption and other long-term behavioral alterations after temporal lobe seizures, are discussed. In conclusion, many of the changes of postictal behaviors observed after temporal lobe seizures in humans may be found in animals, and the basis of the behavioral change may be explained as a change in neural processing in the temporal lobe and the connecting subcortical structures.

  8. Versive seizures in occipital lobe epilepsy: lateralizing value and pathophysiology.

    Usui, Naotaka; Mihara, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Umeoka, Shuichi; Kondo, Akihiko; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Terada, Kiyohito; Usui, Keiko; Inoue, Yushi

    2011-11-01

    To clarify the value of versive seizures in lateralizing and localizing the epileptogenic zone in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy, we studied 13 occipital lobe epilepsy patients with at least one versive seizure recorded during preoperative noninvasive video-EEG monitoring, who underwent occipital lobe resection, and were followed postoperatively for more than 2 years with Engel's class I outcome. The videotaped versive seizures were analyzed to compare the direction of version and the side of surgical resection in each patient. Moreover, we examined other motor symptoms (partial somatomotor manifestations such as tonic and/or clonic movements of face and/or limbs, automatisms, and eyelid blinking) associated with version. Forty-nine versive seizures were analyzed. The direction of version was always contralateral to the side of resection except in one patient. Among accompanying motor symptoms, partial somatomotor manifestations were observed in only five patients. In conclusion, versive seizure is a reliable lateralizing sign indicating contralateral epileptogenic zone in occipital lobe epilepsy. Since versive seizures were accompanied by partial somatomotor manifestations in less than half of the patients, it is suggested that the mechanism of version in occipital lobe epilepsy is different from that in frontal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seizure Prediction: Science Fiction or Soon to Become Reality?

    Freestone, Dean R; Karoly, Philippa J; Peterson, Andre D H; Kuhlmann, Levin; Lai, Alan; Goodarzy, Farhad; Cook, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the field of epileptic seizure prediction. We argue that seizure prediction is possible; however, most previous attempts have used data with an insufficient amount of information to solve the problem. The review discusses four methods for gaining more information above standard clinical electrophysiological recordings. We first discuss developments in obtaining long-term data that enables better characterisation of signal features and trends. Then, we discuss the usage of electrical stimulation to probe neural circuits to obtain robust information regarding excitability. Following this, we present a review of developments in high-resolution micro-electrode technologies that enable neuroimaging across spatial scales. Finally, we present recent results from data-driven model-based analyses, which enable imaging of seizure generating mechanisms from clinical electrophysiological measurements. It is foreseeable that the field of seizure prediction will shift focus to a more probabilistic forecasting approach leading to improvements in the quality of life for the millions of people who suffer uncontrolled seizures. However, a missing piece of the puzzle is devices to acquire long-term high-quality data. When this void is filled, seizure prediction will become a reality.

  10. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperspherical Manifold for EEG Signals of Epileptic Seizures

    Tahir Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical modelling of EEG signals of epileptic seizures presents a challenge as seizure data is erratic, often with no visible trend. Limitations in existing models indicate a need for a generalized model that can be used to analyze seizures without the need for apriori information, whilst minimizing the loss of signal data due to smoothing. This paper utilizes measure theory to design a discrete probability measure that reformats EEG data without altering its geometric structure. An analysis of EEG data from three patients experiencing epileptic seizures is made using the developed measure, resulting in successful identification of increased potential difference in portions of the brain that correspond to physical symptoms demonstrated by the patients. A mapping then is devised to transport the measure data onto the surface of a high-dimensional manifold, enabling the analysis of seizures using directional statistics and manifold theory. The subset of seizure signals on the manifold is shown to be a topological space, verifying Ahmad's approach to use topological modelling.

  12. Early Seizure Detection Based on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation Dynamics

    Jonatas Pavei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the regulation of cardiac activity and autonomic nervous system tone. The early detection of epileptic seizures could foster the use of new treatment approaches. This study presents a new methodology for the prediction of epileptic seizures using HRV signals. Eigendecomposition of HRV parameter covariance matrices was used to create an input for a support vector machine (SVM-based classifier. We analyzed clinical data from 12 patients (9 female; 3 male; age 34.5 ± 7.5 years, involving 34 seizures and a total of 55.2 h of interictal electrocardiogram (ECG recordings. Data from 123.6 h of ECG recordings from healthy subjects were used to test false positive rate per hour (FP/h in a completely independent data set. Our methodological approach allowed the detection of impending seizures from 5 min to just before the onset of a clinical/electrical seizure with a sensitivity of 94.1%. The FP rate was 0.49 h−1 in the recordings from patients with epilepsy and 0.19 h−1 in the recordings from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the dynamics of HRV parameters for the early detection and, potentially, the prediction of epileptic seizures.

  13. Recognition and management of seizures in children in emergency departments.

    Caplan, Edward; Dey, Indranil; Scammell, Andrea; Burnage, Katy; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-09-01

    Seizure is defined as 'a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain, which usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time'. Children who have experienced seizures commonly present to emergency departments (EDs), and detailed history taking will usually help differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic events. ED nurses are often the first health professionals to manage children with seizures, and this is best done by following the ABCDE approach. Treatment involves termination of seizures with anticonvulsants, and children may need other symptomatic management. Seizures in children can be an extremely distressing experience for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced ED nurses. Nurses also play a vital role in educating parents on correct administration of anticonvulsants and safety advice. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with seizures, with particular emphasis on epilepsy. It includes two reflective case studies to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals managing children who present with convulsions.

  14. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  15. Why do seizures occur when they do? Situations perceived to be associated with increased or decreased seizure likelihood in people withepilepsy and intellectual disability

    Illingworth, Josephine L; Watson, Peter; Ring, Howard Anton

    2014-01-01

    Seizure precipitants are commonly reported in the general population of people with epilepsy. However, there has been little research in this area in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID). We conducted a survey of the situations associated with increased or decreased seizure likelihood in this population. The aim of the research was to identify situations of increased seizure likelihood (SISLs) and situations of decreased seizure likelihood (SDSLs) reported by carers of people...

  16. Clustering of spontaneous recurrent seizures separated by long seizure-free periods: An extended video-EEG monitoring study of a pilocarpine mouse model.

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Moon, Jangsup; Kim, Tae-Joon; Jun, Jin-Sun; Park, Byeongsu; Byun, Jung-Ick; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Jeon, Daejong; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2018-01-01

    Seizure clustering is a common and significant phenomenon in patients with epilepsy. The clustering of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) in animal models of epilepsy, including mouse pilocarpine models, has been reported. However, most studies have analyzed seizures for a short duration after the induction of status epilepticus (SE). In this study, we investigated the detailed characteristics of seizure clustering in the chronic stage of a mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model for an extended duration by continuous 24/7 video-EEG monitoring. A seizure cluster was defined as the occurrence of one or more seizures per day for at least three consecutive days and at least five seizures during the cluster period. We analyzed the cluster duration, seizure-free period, cluster interval, and numbers of seizures within and outside the seizure clusters. The video-EEG monitoring began 84.5±33.7 days after the induction of SE and continued for 53.7±20.4 days. Every mouse displayed seizure clusters, and 97.0% of the seizures occurred within a cluster period. The seizure clusters were followed by long seizure-free periods of 16.3±6.8 days, showing a cyclic pattern. The SRSs also occurred in a grouped pattern within a day. We demonstrate that almost all seizures occur in clusters with a cyclic pattern in the chronic stage of a mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. The seizure-free periods between clusters were long. These findings should be considered when performing in vivo studies using this animal model. Furthermore, this model might be appropriate for studying the unrevealed mechanism of ictogenesis.

  17. Temporal seizure focus and status epilepticus are associated with high-sensitive troponin I elevation after epileptic seizures.

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    Postictal elevation of high-sensitive troponin I (TNI), a highly specific biomarker for myocardial ischemia, has been reported. We aimed at evaluating its association of high-sensitive troponin I (TNI) with seizure type and focus, as well as vascular risk factors. TNI was measured in 247 patients admitted to our clinic via the emergency room with an acute epileptic seizure. TNI control measurements were performed in 61.5% of cases. All patients underwent electroencephalography and cerebral imaging. Seizure focus - when possible - was determined using results from these examinations as well as clinical data. Of 247 patients, 133 (53.8%) were men, the mean age was 59 ± 18 years. 70 (28.3%) patients had focal and 177 (71.7%) generalized seizures. Status epilepticus was present in 38 cases (15.4%). Mean TNI was 0.05 ± 0.17. TNI was elevated in 27 patients (10.9%). Higher age, status epilepticus and temporal seizure focus were significantly associated with TNI elevation in multivariate analysis. In 21 (13.8%) of the patients with TNI control measurement, TNI was continuously elevated. Higher age and temporal seizure focus were significantly associated with continuously high TNI. Coronary heart disease and vascular risk factors were significantly associated with high TNI only in univariate analysis. No patient had a symptomatic myocardial ischemia. Postictal TNI elevation is relatively common in older patients with status epilepticus or temporal seizure focus. These data support the concept of relevant and possibly dangerous ictal effects on cardiac function especially in temporal lobe seizures. Although the risk of manifest postictal myocardial infarction seems to be very low, selected patients could profit from closer monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain serotonin content regulates the manifestation of tramadol-induced seizures in rats: disparity between tramadol-induced seizure and serotonin syndrome.

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Funao, Tomoharu; Suehiro, Koichi; Takahashi, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol-induced seizures might be pathologically associated with serotonin syndrome. Here, the authors investigated the relationship between serotonin and the seizure-inducing potential of tramadol. Two groups of rats received pretreatment to modulate brain levels of serotonin and one group was treated as a sham control (n = 6 per group). Serotonin modulation groups received either para-chlorophenylalanine or benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin, dopamine, and histamine levels in the posterior hypothalamus were then measured by microdialysis, while simultaneously infusing tramadol until seizure onset. In another experiment, seizure threshold with tramadol was investigated in rats intracerebroventricularly administered with either a serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide) or saline (n = 6). Pretreatment significantly affected seizure threshold and serotonin fluctuations. The threshold was lowered in para-chlorophenylalanine group and raised in benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group (The mean ± SEM amount of tramadol needed to induce seizures; sham: 43.1 ± 4.2 mg/kg, para-chlorophenylalanine: 23.2 ± 2.8 mg/kg, benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan: 59.4 ± 16.5 mg/kg). Levels of serotonin at baseline, and their augmentation with tramadol infusion, were less in the para-chlorophenylalanine group and greater in the benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group. Furthermore, seizure thresholds were negatively correlated with serotonin levels (correlation coefficient; 0.71, P seizure threshold (P seizures, and that serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with seizure thresholds. Moreover, serotonin receptor antagonism precipitated seizure manifestation, indicating that tramadol-induced seizures are distinct from serotonin syndrome.

  19. Interictal hyperperfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus

    Park, J. M.; Hong, S. B.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the temporal changes of the perfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus. Interictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained I-14 days after ictal scan from 21 patients with intractable epilepsy (13 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and 8 neocortical epilepsy) were analysed. On ictal SPECT all patients had hyperperfusion in seizure foci that were successfully resected subsequently. No patient had an ictal event before interictal SPECT. In 4 patients, interictal FDG PET were performed within 1 day of interictal SPECT. Asymmetry indices of perfusion (pAI) and metabolism (mAI) between seizure focus and contralateral region ((ipsilateral-contralateral)/(ipsilateral + contralateral)x 200%) were obtained on interictal SPECT and PET images, respectively. During I-14 days after ictus, 57% of the patients had interictal hyperperfusion (pAI> 5%) in seizure foci. There was a significant inverse correlation between time interval after ictus and pAI (rho=-0.59, p<0.01). The pAI became close to zero 4 days after ictus. Interictal FDG PET images obtained within 1 day of interictal SPECT from 4 patients who had interictal hyperperfusion (mean pAI=7.2{+-}3.1%) revealed metabolic decrease in seizure foci (mean mAI-36.6{+-}31.0%). We found interictal hyperperfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus in more than 50% of the patients. Thus one should be cautious when interpreting interictal scans obtained within several days after ictus. In addition, our results demonstrate a mismatch between perfusion and metabolism in seizure focus during days after ictus.

  20. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Interictal hyperperfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus

    Park, J. M.; Hong, S. B.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the temporal changes of the perfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus. Interictal 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained I-14 days after ictal scan from 21 patients with intractable epilepsy (13 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and 8 neocortical epilepsy) were analysed. On ictal SPECT all patients had hyperperfusion in seizure foci that were successfully resected subsequently. No patient had an ictal event before interictal SPECT. In 4 patients, interictal FDG PET were performed within 1 day of interictal SPECT. Asymmetry indices of perfusion (pAI) and metabolism (mAI) between seizure focus and contralateral region (ipsilateral-contralateral)/(ipsilateral + contralateral )x 200%) were obtained on interictal SPECT and PET images, respectively. During I-14 days after ictus, 57% of the patients had interictal hyperperfusion (pAI> 5%) in seizure foci. There was a significant inverse correlation between time interval after ictus and pAI (rho=-0.59, p<0.01). The pAI became close to zero 4 days after ictus. Interictal FDG PET images obtained within 1 day of interictal SPECT from 4 patients who had interictal hyperperfusion (mean pAI=7.2±3.1%) revealed metabolic decrease in seizure foci (mean mAI-36.6±31.0%). We found interictal hyperperfusion in seizure focus during days after ictus in more than 50% of the patients. Thus one should be cautious when interpreting interictal scans obtained within several days after ictus. In addition, our results demonstrate a mismatch between perfusion and metabolism in seizure focus during days after ictus

  2. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD.

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Christensen, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were estimated by using Cox regression analysis, comparing children with epilepsy and febrile seizure with those without these disorders, adjusted for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, as well as family history of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. A total of 906 379 individuals were followed up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20-1.35). In individuals with both epilepsy and febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 3.22 (95% CI, 2.72-3.83). Our findings indicate a strong association between epilepsy in childhood and, to a lesser extent, febrile seizure and subsequent development of ADHD, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, and family history of epilepsy, febrile seizures, or psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Tschampa, Henriette J; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Bonn (Germany); Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G [University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  4. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst; Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G.

    2011-01-01

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  5. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs

    Fredsø, N; Toft, Nils; Sabers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with new...... structural epilepsy. A non-epileptic cause for seizures was identified in 13 dogs and suspected in 10 dogs. Four dogs in which no cause for seizures was identified experienced only one seizure during the study. In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy 60% had their second epileptic seizure within three months...... seizures motivated early treatment. In a few dogs with a high seizure frequency owners declined treatment against the investigators advice. Epilepsy is the most likely diagnosis in dogs presenting with new-onset seizures. The course of idiopathic epilepsy is highly individual and might not necessarily...

  6. Longitudinal changes in seizure outcomes after resection of cerebral cavernous malformations in patients presenting with seizures: a long-term follow-up of 46 patients.

    Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-08-01

    Seizure is the most common presentation in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although many articles have documented seizure outcomes after resection of CCM, few have conducted long-term follow-ups; thus, the fluctuating seizure outcomes have been neglected. The purpose of this study is to describe long-term postoperative seizure outcomes in patients with CCM and to compare seizure outcomes between patients with sporadic seizures and those with chronic seizures. Forty-six patients with CCM presenting with seizures underwent surgery. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the average age at initial seizure onset was 27.6 years. The mean preoperative seizure duration was 42.7 months. Patients were divided into two groups: a chronic group (N = 20) and a sporadic group (N = 26) according to seizure frequency and duration. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 96.3 months, and the postoperative seizure outcomes were checked annually based upon Engel's classification. After the first year of follow-up, 80.8 % of the sporadic group and 75.0 % of the chronic group were evaluated as Engel class I. These rates increased to 100.0 % and 90.0 %, respectively, at the eighth year of follow-up. Overall, 29 (63.0 %) of the 46 patients experienced changes in seizure outcomes over the follow-up period. Despite their delayed improvements, the chronic group showed less favorable outcomes throughout follow-up (p = 0.025). Long-term follow-up is indispensable for accurately assessing postoperative seizure outcomes because these outcomes change continuously. We recommend earlier surgery to achieve seizure-free status in patients with CCM. However, even in the chronic group, surgery is recommended, considering the overall delayed improvement.

  7. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    Thyrion, L.; Raedt, R.; Portelli, J.; van Loo, P.; Wadman, W.J.; Glorieux, G.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Janssens, S.; Vonck, K.; Boon, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in

  8. Effect of epileptic seizures on the cerebrospinal fluid--A systematic retrospective analysis.

    Tumani, Hayrettin; Jobs, Catherine; Brettschneider, Johannes; Hoppner, Anselm C; Kerling, Frank; Fauser, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are obligatory when epileptic seizures manifest for the first time in order to exclude life-threatening causes or treatable diseases such as acute infections or autoimmune encephalitis. However, there are only few systematic investigations on the effect of seizures themselves on CSF parameters and the significance of these parameters in differential diagnosis. CSF samples of 309 patients with epileptic and 10 with psychogenic seizures were retrospectively analyzed. CSF samples were collected between 1999 and 2008. Cell counts, the albumin quotient, lactate and Tau-protein levels were determined. Findings were correlated with seizure types, seizure etiology (symptomatic, cryptogenic, occasional seizure), and seizure duration. Pathological findings were only observed in patients with epileptic but not with psychogenic seizures. The lactate concentration was elevated in 14%, the albumin quotient in 34%, and the Tau protein level in 36% of CSF samples. Cell counts were only slightly elevated in 6% of patients. Different seizure types influenced all parameters except for the cell count: In status epilepticus highest, in simple partial seizures lowest values were seen. Symptomatic partial and generalized epileptic seizures had significantly higher Tau-protein levels than cryptogenic partial seizures. In patients with repetitive and occasional epileptic seizures, higher Tau-protein levels were seen than in those with psychogenic seizures. Duration of epileptic seizures was positively correlated with the albumin quotient, lactate and Tau-protein levels. High variability of investigated CSF parameters within each subgroup rendered a clear separation between epileptic and psychogenic seizures impossible. Elevated cell counts are infrequently observed in patients with epileptic seizures and should therefore not uncritically be interpreted as a postictal phenomenon. However, blood-CSF barrier disruption, increased glucose metabolism

  9. Evaluation of a novel median power spectrogram for seizure detection by non-neurophysiologists.

    Yan, Peter; Melman, Tamar; Yan, Sherry; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Grinspan, Zachary

    2017-08-01

    (1) To evaluate how well resident physicians use a novel EEG spectral analysis tool (the median power spectrogram; MPS) to detect seizures. (2) To assess the capability of the MPS to identify different seizure types. 120 EEG records from children with intractable seizures were converted to MPS by taking the median power across leads and using multi-taper spectral estimation. Twelve blinded neurology residents were trained to interpret the spectrogram with a five-minute video tutorial and post-test. Two residents independently assessed each set for presence of seizures. Their performance was compared to seizures identified using conventional EEG. Two blinded neurologists separately reviewed the EEGs and spectrograms to independently categorize the seizures. Their results were used to determine the spectrogram's capability to reveal seizures and visualize different seizure types for the user. Three key MPS features distinguished seizures from inter-ictal background: power difference relative to background, down-sloping resonance bands, and power in high frequencies. Using these features, residents identified seizures with 77% sensitivity and 72% specificity. 86% (51/59) of focal seizures and 81% (22/27) of generalized seizures were detected by at least one resident. Missed seizures included brief (seizures, tonic seizures, seizures with predominant delta (0-4Hz) activity, and seizures evident primarily in supplementary low temporal leads. The MPS is a novel qEEG modality that requires minimal training to interpret. It enables physicians without extensive neurophysiology training to identify seizures with sensitivity and specificity comparable to more complex multi-modal qEEG displays. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES

  11. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  12. Opiate receptor binding in the brain of the seizure sensitive Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Lee, R J; Olsen, R W; Lomax, P; McCabe, R T; Wamsley, J K

    1984-12-01

    Opiate receptor binding was studied in seizure sensitive (SS) and seizure resistant (SR) strains of the Mongolian gerbil. Cryostat sections of the brain were labeled with [3H]-dihydromorphine, subjected to autoradiography and analysed by microdensitometry. SS gerbils, prior to seizure induction, demonstrated overall greater brain opiate binding when compared to SR animals. Immediately following a seizure, binding in the interpeduncular nucleus fell to levels found in SR animals. The increased opiate binding in the SS (pre-seizure) compared to SR gerbils could reflect a deficit of endogenous ligand which could underlie the seizure diathesis in the gerbil.

  13. Refractory Seizures in Tramadol Poisoning: A Case Report

    Mohammad Majidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol, an analgesic drug abused by opioid addicts, is also abused accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Tramadol poisoning can induce CNS depression, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Case: In this report, a 30-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department due to suicidal attempt with ingestion of 14000 mg (140 tablet 100 mg of tramadol. He had history of suicidal attempts in past years as well as depression in his past medical history, but he had not abused tramadol and other drugs in his history. There was no history of epilepsy or head trauma in. He presented with generalized seizures two hours post ingestion, and, then, he was referred to hospital four hours later. Generalized seizures were poorly controlled by multiple medications. Due to respiratory arrest, endotracheal tube was inserted and he was admitted to the ICU immediately. At admission, he experienced hypovolemic shock, hypoglycemia, coma, apnea, refractory seizures, muscle spasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagolative disorder, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Despite medical managements, he died 38 days after ingestion. Conclusion: In this report, despite using inhalational anesthetic drugs, seizures continued and were very poorly controlled. Cause of death in this patient can be seen as the side effects of tramadol poisoning.

  14. Opiate modification of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in rats.

    Stone, W S; Eggleton, C E; Berman, R F

    1982-05-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally with bipolar electrodes in the central amygdala. Rats were then kindled once daily for 1 sec until 3 consecutive Stage V [25] kindled seizures were elicited. On the following day, animals were injected (IP) with either saline, naloxone (10 mg/kg), naltrexone (10mg/kg) or morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) and again stimulated at the kindling stimulation parameters. Saline injected animals continued to show long bilateral AD's and behaviors (i.e., forelimb clonus, rearing, falling) typical of Stage V kindled animals. In contrast, rats injected with naloxone or naltrexone showed reduced behavioral seizures. Potentiation of post-ictal spiking by morphine in amygdaloid-kindled rats was also observed supporting previous reports [7,21]. In a second experiment, the reduction of kindled seizure serverity by naloxone was systematically replicated. It is concluded that opiates can significantly modify amygdaloid-kindled seizures, and that brain endorphins may play a role in the development or maintenance of an amygdaloid-kindled seizure focus.

  15. Escitalopram causes fewer seizures in human overdose than citalopram.

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ceschi, Alessandro; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Sauer, Oliver; Stedtler, Uwe; Prasa, Dagmar; Seidel, Carola; Hackl, Elisabeth; Hoffmann-Walbeck, Petra; Gerber-Zupan, Gabriela; Bauer, Kathrin; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd-Achim; Wilks, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Seizures are a recognized complication of acute overdose with the racemic (1:1 ratio of R- and S-enantiomers) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant citalopram. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram (the therapeutically active S-enantiomer of citalopram) causes fewer seizures in overdose than citalopram at comparable doses of the S-enantiomer. Multicenter retrospective review of cases with citalopram and escitalopram overdose reported to German, Austrian, and Swiss Poisons Centers between 1997 and 2006. 316 citalopram and 63 escitalopram cases were analyzed. Somnolence, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, QT prolongation, and tremor occurred with similar frequency in both groups. There was a striking difference in the frequency of single and multiple seizures: 43 cases (13.5%) in the citalopram group and 1 case (1.6%) with a single seizure in the escitalopram group (p=0.0065). At comparable ingested doses of the S-enantiomer, the symptom profile for citalopram and escitalopram intoxications is similar except for seizures that occur more frequently in citalopram than in escitalopram poisoning.

  16. Seizures presenting as incessant laughter: a case of gelastic epilepsy.

    Holmes, Christina M; Goldman, Mitchell J

    2012-12-01

    Gelastic seizures are defined as seizure activity manifesting as laughter inappropriate to the situation, with supporting evidence on electroencephalogram or magnetic resonance imaging. Gelastic seizures are most commonly reported in patients with hypothalamic hamartomas causing precocious puberty. The differential diagnosis of incessant laughter is important to recognize in the Emergency Department, as some conditions warrant immediate treatment and others require further diagnostic work-up with implications for the entire family. The background and pathophysiology of gelastic epilepsy will be discussed. The case of a previously healthy girl with acute onset of incessant laughter is reported. This patient was diagnosed with a clinical case of gelastic seizures. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing this form of seizures for accurate treatment and follow-up. This case report illustrates the importance of a broad differential for a patient presenting emergently with uncontrollable laughter. Gelastic epilepsy is relatively rare but requires further work-up and often may require chronic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal Seizure Detection Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Ansari, Amir H; Cherian, Perumpillichira J; Caicedo, Alexander; Naulaers, Gunnar; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2018-04-02

    Identifying a core set of features is one of the most important steps in the development of an automated seizure detector. In most of the published studies describing features and seizure classifiers, the features were hand-engineered, which may not be optimal. The main goal of the present paper is using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and random forest to automatically optimize feature selection and classification. The input of the proposed classifier is raw multi-channel EEG and the output is the class label: seizure/nonseizure. By training this network, the required features are optimized, while fitting a nonlinear classifier on the features. After training the network with EEG recordings of 26 neonates, five end layers performing the classification were replaced with a random forest classifier in order to improve the performance. This resulted in a false alarm rate of 0.9 per hour and seizure detection rate of 77% using a test set of EEG recordings of 22 neonates that also included dubious seizures. The newly proposed CNN classifier outperformed three data-driven feature-based approaches and performed similar to a previously developed heuristic method.

  18. EEG and CT findings of infant partial seizures

    Kajitani, Takashi; Kumanomido, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Makoto; Ueoka, Kiyotaka

    1981-01-01

    Examination of EEG and cranial CT were performed in 19 cases of partial seizures with elementary symptomatology (PSES), 6 cases of partial seizures with complex symptomatology (PSCS), and 17 cases of benign focal pilepsy of childhood with Rolandic spikes (BFECRS). The results were as follows. 1) In 16 of 19 cases of PSES (84%), various abnormal CT findings such as localized cerebral atrophy (7 cases), localized cerebral atrophy complicated with porencephaly (4 cases), porencephaly alone (2 cases), and diffuse cerebral atrophy (3 cases) were found. 2) Of 6 cases of PSCS localized cerebral atrophy was found in 3 cases, porencephaly in one case, and localized calcification in one case. Normal CT findings were obtained in one case. 3) In comparison of EEG findings with CT findings in 25 cases of partial seizures CT findings correlated with the basic waves rather than the paroxysmal ones. 4) The fact that CT findings in patients with BFECRS were mostly normal suggests the functional origin of the seizures. 5) CT was valuable in partial seizures for detecting underlying disorders and predicting the prognosis. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Autistic characteristics in adults with epilepsy and perceived seizure activity.

    Wakeford, SallyAnn; Hinvest, Neal; Ring, Howard; Brosnan, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in epilepsy is approximately 15%-47%, with previous research by Wakeford and colleagues reporting higher autistic traits in adults with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate autistic characteristics and their relationship to having seizures by employing two behavioral assessments in two samples: adults with epilepsy and controls. The study employed the Social Responsiveness Scale - Shortened (SRS-S) (patients with epilepsy (n=76), control (n=19)) and the brief Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R) (patients with epilepsy (n=47), control (n=21)). This study employed a unique method to quantify the extent to which autistic characteristics are related to perceived mild seizure activity. Adults with epilepsy were instructed to rate their usual behavior on each assessment and, at the same time, rate their behavior again when they perceived that they were having mild seizure activity. Significantly higher SRS-S scores were related to having a diagnosis of epilepsy and were perceived by adults with epilepsy to increase during mild seizure activity. These scores positively correlated with antiepileptic drug control. No difference was found for RBS-R scores in adults with epilepsy compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that adults with epilepsy have higher autistic characteristics measured by the social responsiveness scale, while sameness behaviors remain unimpaired. The autistic characteristics measured by the social responsiveness scale were reported by adults with epilepsy to be more severe during their mild seizure activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral glucose utilization after vasopressin barrel rotation or bicuculline seizures

    Wurpel, J.; Dundore, R.; Bryan, R.; Keil, L.; Severs, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    Intraventricular (ivt) arginine vasopressin (AVP) causes a violent motor behavior termed barrel rotation (BR). AVP-BR is affected by visual/vestibular sensory input and may be related to other CNS motor disorders (seizures). Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was compared in SD rats during AVP-BR and bicuculline (BIC) seizures. Three groups were used: saline-ivt; AVP-ivt 0.5 μg; BIC-5.5 mg/kg,sc. 14 C-glucose (40 μCI iv) was injected 15 sec. after ivt-saline or AVP or onset of BIC seizures. Rats were decapitated 10 min. after 14 C-glucose. Brains were removed and dissected into 19 regions which were digested and glucose uptake quantified by liquid scintillation counting. LCGU was significantly increased in all CNS areas during BIC seizures vs controls (21-92%; p < 0.05 ANOVA). LCGU exhibits variable (upward arrow, downward arrow) changes in discrete areas during AVP-BR (p < .05). Glucose uptake increased in: cortex-olfactory (21%), sensory (9%), motor (8%) cerebellum-rt (13%) and 1t (17%) hemispheres, vermis (6%); pyramidal tract (6%); mesencephalon (5%); and pons (8%). Two areas decreased LCGU during AVP-BR: auditory cortex (-8%) and hippocampus (-11%). AVP-BR exhibits distinct changes in LCGU vs BIC seizures