Sample records for kaidun cm1 lithology

  1. The Kaidun Meteorite: Where Did It Come From? (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrei; Zolensky, Michael


    The Kaidun meteorite, which fell on 3.12.1980 at lat. 15 deg N, long. 48.3 deg E, holds a special place in the world meteorite collection. Kaidun is characterized by an unprecedentedly wide variety of meteorite material in its makeup. The high degree of variability in this meteorite s material is evidenced by the richness of its mineral composition - nearly 60 minerals and mineral phases have been identified in Kaidun, including several never before found in nature, such as florenskiite FeTiP, the first known phosphide of a lithophilic element.

  2. Brachinite-Like Clast in the Kaidun Meteorite: First Report of Primitive Achondrite Material (United States)

    Higashi, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.


    Kaidun is a brecciated meteorite containing many different types of meteorites. It is composed of carbonaceous, enstatite, ordinary and R chondrites with smaller amounts of basaltic achondrites, impact melt products and unknown [1, 2]. Because of the multiple components and high abundance of carbonaceous chondrites, the Kaidun parent body was probably a large C-type asteroid in order to have accumulated clasts of many unrelated asteroids, and thus Kaidun contains previously unknown materials[1]. It has been suggested that the Kaidun parent body trawled through different regions of the solar system [3], but the formation of Kaidun meteorite is still uncertain. In this abstract, we report the first discovery of a brachinite-like clast in Kaidun.

  3. Porphyritic Olivine-Pyroxene Clast in Kaidun: First Discovery of an Ordinary Chondrite Clast? (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Makishima, J.; Koizumi, E.; Zolensky, M. E.


    Kaidun is an enigmatic meteorite showing a micro-brecciated texture composed of variable kinds of lithic clasts and mineral fragments. The constituent components range from primitive chondritic materials to differentiated achondritic materials, and thus believed to have originated from a large parent body accumulating materials from many different bodies in the asteroid belt. One of the interesting observations is that no ordinary chondrite component has been found yet, although C and E chondrites components are abundant. In this abstract, we report mineralogy of the clast (Kaidun #15415- 01.3.13a) showing a porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrule-like texture similar to those found in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  4. FLUKA Monte Carlo Simulations about Cosmic Rays Interactions with Kaidun Meteorite

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    Turgay Korkut


    Full Text Available An asteroid called Kaidun fell on December 3, 1980, in Yemen (15° 0′N, 48° 18′E. Investigations on this large-sized meteorite are ongoing today. In this paper, interactions between cosmic rays-earth atmosphere and cosmic rays-Kaidun meteorite were modeled using a cosmic ray generator FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Isotope distributions and produced particles were given after these interactions. Also, simulation results were compared for these two types of interactions.

  5. 15 cm$^{-1}$ to 12000 cm$^{-1}$ spectral coverage without changing optics: diamond beam splitter adaptation of an FTIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Strelnikov, Dmitry; Sürgers, Christoph; Kappes, Manfred


    In order to facilitate IR absorption measurements of mass-selected ions isolated in cryogenic matrices, we have upgraded an ion beam deposition apparatus encompassing a Bruker IFS66v/S FTIR spectrometer. A synthetic diamond beam splitter without compensator plate and UHV diamond viewports were installed. We have also modified the IR detector chamber to allow measurements with 5 different detectors. As a result we can now obtain FT absorption spectra from 12000 cm$^{-1}$ to 15 cm$^{-1}$ with the same sample held under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, simply by switching between appropriate IR detectors. We demonstrate performance of the upgraded FTIR spectrometer by presenting measurements of matrix isolated fullerene ions and an adhesive tape.

  6. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.


    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  7. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud (United States)

    Jennings, Donald


    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  8. Charge states of a hydrogen defect (3326 cm-1 line) in ZnO (United States)

    Herklotz, F.; Lavrov, E. V.; Weber, J.


    The hydrogen defect in ZnO that gives rise to a local vibrational mode at 3326 cm-1 is investigated by means of IR absorption. Sub-band gap illumination results in the appearance of a new line at 3358 cm-1 at the expense of the 3326 cm-1 signal. The measurements identify both IR absorption signals as O-H stretch modes of the same defect in different charge states. The effect of the sub-band gap light strongly suggest that this defect has a deep level in the band gap. Additionally, results on the thermal stability of the 3326 cm-1 feature are presented.


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    Kristijan Posavec


    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. New Raman measurements for H2O ice VII in the range of 300 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 at pressures up to 120 GPa (United States)

    Zha, Chang-Sheng; Tse, John S.; Bassett, William A.


    Raman spectroscopic measurements for H2O ice VII have been conducted to 120 GPa at 300 K in the spectroscopic range of 300-4000 cm-1. Both moissanite and diamond anvils were used for the experiments. This overcomes the problems of overlapping spectra between the diamond anvil and sample, which had prevented the observation of the stretching modes at pressures higher than ˜23 GPa in all previous measurements. The new results reveal many bands which have not been reported before. The pressure dependences of the Raman modes show anomalous changes at 13-15, ˜27, ˜44, ˜60, and 90 GPa, implying possible structural changes at these pressures. The new results demonstrate that the predicted symmetric hydrogen bond phase X transition does not occur below 120 GPa.

  11. New Raman measurements for H2O ice VII in the range of 300 cm(-1) to 4000 cm(-1) at pressures up to 120 GPa. (United States)

    Zha, Chang-Sheng; Tse, John S; Bassett, William A


    Raman spectroscopic measurements for H2O ice VII have been conducted to 120 GPa at 300 K in the spectroscopic range of 300-4000 cm(-1). Both moissanite and diamond anvils were used for the experiments. This overcomes the problems of overlapping spectra between the diamond anvil and sample, which had prevented the observation of the stretching modes at pressures higher than ∼23 GPa in all previous measurements. The new results reveal many bands which have not been reported before. The pressure dependences of the Raman modes show anomalous changes at 13-15, ∼27, ∼44, ∼60, and 90 GPa, implying possible structural changes at these pressures. The new results demonstrate that the predicted symmetric hydrogen bond phase X transition does not occur below 120 GPa.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The absorption spectrum of HD16 O was recorded at a resolution of 0.02 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier Transform Spectrometer in the region of 9600-10200 cm-1. As far as we know it is the first time to record and analyze the HDO spectrum in this region which was assigned as the ν1 + 2ν3 and 2ν2 + 2ν3 bands. With the strong resonance interactions between these two bands considered, the spectroscopic parameters were optimized by the nonlinear least squares method.

  13. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1 (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg


    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  14. High resolution quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, between 1273 cm-1 and 1290 cm-1 (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Merer, Anthony J.; Chang, Hsun-Hui; Jhang, Li-Ji; Chao, Wen; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.


    The region 1273-1290 cm-1 of the ν4 fundamental of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been measured using a quantum cascade laser transient absorption spectrometer, which offers greater sensitivity and spectral resolution (works based on thermal light sources. Gas phase CH2OO was generated from the reaction of CH2I + O2 at 298 K and 4 Torr. The analysis of the absorption spectrum has provided precise values for the vibrational frequency and the rotational constants, with fitting errors of a few MHz. The determined ratios of the rotational constants, A'/A″ = 0.9986, B'/B″ = 0.9974, and C'/C″ = 1.0010, and the relative intensities of the a- and b-type transitions, 90:10, are in good agreement with literature values from a theoretical calculation using the MULTIMODE approach, based on a high-level ab initio potential energy surface. The low-K (=Ka) lines can be fitted extremely well, but rotational perturbations by other vibrational modes disrupt the structure for K = 4 and K ≥ 6. Not only the spectral resolution but also the detection sensitivity of CH2OO IR transitions has been greatly improved in this work, allowing for unambiguous monitoring of CH2OO in kinetic studies at low concentrations.

  15. Absolute intensities of CO(2) lines in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region. (United States)

    Benner, D C; Devi, V M; Rinsland, C P; Ferry-Leeper, P S


    Absolute intensities for 430 transitions belonging to eleven rotation-vibration bands of (12)C(16)O(2),(13)C(16)O(2) and(16)O(12)C(18)O in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region have been determined by analyzing spectra recorded at 0.01-cm(-1) resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. The data were recorded at room temperature and low pressures (Coriolis effect is large and the Q-branch line intensities were not determinate either because they were severely blended or absent from the spectra. Comparisons are made between the results obtained in this study and other published values.

  16. Large aperture cube corner interferometer with a resolution of 0.001 cm(-1). (United States)

    Kauppinen, J; Horneman, V M


    The interferometer of the Fourier transform spectrometer at the University of Oulu has been modified so that the maximum instrumental resolution is better than 10(-3) cm(-1). The resolution of the previous interferometer was 4.5 x 10(-3) cm(-1). The present interferometer consists of large cube corner mirrors and a large Mylar beam splitter. Each corner mirror has been made with three flat mirrors on an adjustable supporting frame. The interferometer was already in practical use in 1985. The first spectra (H(2)O, CO(2), N(2)O, OCS) recorded on this interferometer have been presented in HANDBOOK OF INFRARED STANDARDS WITH SPECTRAL MAPS AND TRANSITION ASSIGNMENTS BETWEEN 3 AND 2600 microm, G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1986).

  17. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 2100-5500 cm-1 (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander


    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 2100-5500 cm-1 at 1027 °C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1045±3 mbar) are measured. An NH3 concentration of 10% in volume fraction is used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in a high-temperature gas-flow cell using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09 cm-1. The spectra are analysed by comparison to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. 2308 lines have been assigned to 45 different bands, of which 1755 and 15 have been assigned or observed for the first time in this work.

  18. Investigation of thermal acoustic effects on SRF cavities within CM1 at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, M W; Klebaner, A; Leibfritz, J; Martinez, A; Pischalnikov, Y; Schappert, W


    Radio Frequency (RF) power studies are in progress following the cryogenic commissioning of Cryomodule #1 (CM1) at Fermilab's Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. These studies are complemented by the characterization of thermal acoustic effects on cavity microphonics manifested by apparent noisy boiling of helium involving vapor bubble and liquid vibration. The thermal acoustic measurements also consider pressure and temperature spikes which drive the phenomenon at low and high frequencies.

  19. Pressure-broadening of water transitions near 7180 cm(-1) by helium isotopes. (United States)

    Campbell, H M; Havey, D K


    In this study, pressure-broadening parameters for several H2O transitions near 7180 cm(-1) are obtained which describe collisions with (3)He and (4)He. The sensitivity of those parameters to choice of theoretical line profile (Galatry vs. Voigt) is investigated. H2O is an important species in atmospheric chemistry and astronomy. Because of this, basic fundamental research, which explores the nature of the H2O spectrum in the presence of different gases of varying physical properties, can provide useful reference data which can be applied in the fields of atmospheric and planetary remote sensing. Measurements were made using an intensity-modulated laser photoacoustic spectrometer. Results from the present work show that Galatry line profiles, with a constrained narrowing parameter, more accurately describe experimental spectra than Voigt profiles over a wide range of experimental pressure conditions. Average pressure-broadening parameters were found to be 0.0216 cm(-1)/atm and 0.0209 cm(-1)/atm for H2O in (3)He and (4)He, respectively, and were compared to a literature model for the mass-dependence of line broadening. Specific values were obtained for each transition with nominal combined uncertainties of 2-6%.

  20. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.


    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  1. Remarks on the BRST-cohomology for $c_M > 1$ matter coupled to ``Liouville gravity"

    CERN Document Server

    Bilal, Adel


    We describe the (chiral) BRST-cohomology of matter with central charge $10$) and ghost-numbers 0 or $-1$ (for $r<0$). The (chiral) ground ring is isomorphic to a subring of the $c_M =1$ theory which is $(xy)^n,\\ n=0,1,2,\\ldots$, and there are {\\it no} non-trivial currents acting on the ground ring. In case b) there is no non-trivial relative cohomology for non-zero ghost numbers and, for zero ghost number, the cohomology groups are isomorphic to a $(D-1)$-dimensional on-shell ``transverse" Fock space. The only exceptions are at level 1 for vanishing matter momentum and $p_L=Q_L(1+r)$ with $r=\\pm 1$, where one has one more ghost-number zero and a ghost-number $r$ cohomology state. All these results follow quite easily from the existing literature.

  2. Line intensity measurements for acetylene between 8980 and 9420 cm-1 (United States)

    Béguier, S.; Lyulin, O. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Campargue, A.


    The absorption spectrum of acetylene is studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FTS) between 8980 and 9420 cm-1. Positions and intensities of 432 12C2H2 absorption lines are retrieved from a spectrum recorded at room temperature (298.5 K) with a pressure of 87.6 hPa and a 105 m path length. The measured lines belong to 11 bands including three bands observed for the first time. The obtained intensity dataset constitutes the first intensity information in the region. The Herman-Wallis coefficients are derived from a fit of the measured intensity values. The reported results will be valuable to complete the spectroscopic databases of acetylene.

  3. Line Parameters Of CH3CN From 305 To 415 cm-1 (United States)

    Brown, Linda R.; Kamadjeu, D. A.; Kleiner, I.; Orphal, J.; Sams, R. L.


    Mapping important compounds, such as hydrocarbons and nitriles, is needed in order to understand the photochemical cycle of Titan and how it couples with the dynamics to produce organic aerosols. For this, the CIRS spectrometer (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) on board Cassini is currently recording rotation and vibration-rotation spectra of Titan between 10 and 1400 cm-1. To support analysis of these data, high resolution laboratory spectra of CH3CN have been recorded using Fourier transform spectrometers at PNL and LISA. This paper presents a prediction of line positions and intensities of CH3 CN for the ν&8 fundamental and the 2ν8 -ν8 hot band (located near 360 cm&-1). Analyses of the two fundamentals near 10 microns are in progress. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with The National Aeronautics and Space Administration. I.K, J. O and A. D. also want to thank the Programme National de Planétologie for funding part of this research. This research was supported, in part, by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division and the experimental part was performed at the W. R, Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the United States Department of Energy by Battelle under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. We wish to thank Drs R. Antilla and S. Alanko for kindly making available supplemental data in electronic and paper forms. #

  4. ARTICLES: Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectrum of CoS Between 15200 and 19000 cm-1 (United States)

    Zhen, Jun-feng; Wang, Li; Qin, Cheng-bing; Zhang, Qun; Chen, Yang


    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled CoS molecules have been recorded in the energy range of 15200-19000 cm-1. Five transition progressions have been reported for the first time, the assignments of these progressions have been derived from a rotational analysis of vibronic bands and they are determined to be [15.58]4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2, [16.02]4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2, [16.50]4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2, [17.80]4Π5/2-X4Δ7/2, and [18.00]4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2 transitions. In addition, under the supersonic jet condition the fluorescent lifetimes of these vibronic states were measured by exponentially fitting the fluorescence decay. Based on the observed spectra and the measured lifetimes of the vibronic states, the newly identified electronic states are discussed.

  5. Line Shape Parameters of Water Vapor Transitions in the 3645-3975 cm^{-1} Region (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Vispoel, Bastien; Renaud, Candice L.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.


    A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington was used to record a series of spectra in the regions of the ν_1 and ν_3 bands of H_2O. The samples included low pressures of pure H_2O as well as H_2O broadened by air at different pressures, temperatures and volume mixing ratios. We fit simultaneously 16 high-resolution (0.008 cm^{-1}), high S/N ratio absorption spectra recorded at 268, 296 and 353 K (L=19.95 cm), employing a multispectrum fitting technique to retrieve accurate line positions, relative intensities, Lorentz air-broadened half-width and pressure-shift coefficients and their temperature dependences for more than 220 H_2O transitions. Self-broadened half-width and self-shift coefficients were measured for over 100 transitions. For select sets of transition pairs for the H_2O-air system we determined collisional line mixing coefficients via the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism, and we also measured speed dependence parameters for 85 transitions. Modified Complex Robert Bonamy (MCRB) calculations of the half-widths, line shifts, and temperature dependences were made for self-, N_2-, O_2-, and air-broadening. The measurements and calculations are compared with each other and with similar parameters reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.

  6. A spectroscopic database for water vapor between 5850 and 8340 cm-1 (United States)

    Mikhailenko, S. N.; Kassi, S.; Mondelain, D.; Gamache, R. R.; Campargue, A.


    An accurate and complete empirical spectroscopic database is constructed for natural water in the 5850-8340 cm-1 near infrared region (1.71-1.20 μm). The global list includes more than 46,500 transitions of the six most abundant isotopologues (H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O, HD17O, HD18O) in natural isotopic abundance with intensity greater than 1×10-29 cm/molecule. All line positions were obtained by difference of empirically determined energy values. These empirical determinations are mostly based on extensive investigations of water vapor spectra by high-sensitivity CRDS complemented with literature data. In particular, the sets of energy levels of the minor isotopologues have been significantly enlarged from very recent analysis of CRDS spectra of D, 18O and 17O enriched water samples. The empirical line positions were associated to experimental intensity values from the literature obtained by FTS for the strong lines and CRDS for weaker lines. The list is made mostly complete by including a large number of weak transitions not yet detected, with empirical positions calculated from empirical levels associated with variational intensities. Air- and self-broadening coefficients and air-induced line shifts have been added to each transition using the most recent version of the algorithm used for the HITRAN and GEISA databases. Examples of comparison of CRDS spectra to simulations based on the HITRAN2012 list illustrate the advantages of our database. The relative merit of experimental and variational line intensities is discussed. A separate line list combining empirical line positions and variational intensities is provided. Future improvements from combination of experimental and variational intensities are suggested.

  7. Lithological Uncertainty Expressed by Normalized Compression Distance (United States)

    Jatnieks, J.; Saks, T.; Delina, A.; Popovs, K.


    Lithological composition and structure of the Quaternary deposits is highly complex and heterogeneous in nature, especially as described in borehole log data. This work aims to develop a universal solution for quantifying uncertainty based on mutual information shared between the borehole logs. This approach presents tangible information directly useful in generalization of the geometry and lithology of the Quaternary sediments for use in regional groundwater flow models as a qualitative estimate of lithological uncertainty involving thousands of borehole logs would be humanly impossible due to the amount of raw data involved. Our aim is to improve parametrization of recharge in the Quaternary strata. This research however holds appeal for other areas of reservoir modelling, as demonstrated in the 2011 paper by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb. For our experiments we used extracts of the Quaternary strata from general-purpose geological borehole log database maintained by the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, spanning the territory of Latvia. Lithological codes were generalised into 2 aggregation levels consisting of 5 and 20 rock types respectively. Our calculation of borehole log similarity relies on the concept of information distance proposed by Bennet et al. in 1998. This was developed into a practical data mining application by Cilibrasi in the 2007 dissertation. The resulting implementation called CompLearn utilities provide a calculation of the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric. It relies on the universal data compression algorithms for estimating mutual information content in the data. This approach has proven to be universally successful for parameter free data mining in disciplines from molecular biology to network intrusion monitoring. To improve this approach for use in geology it is beneficial to apply several transformations as pre-processing steps to the borehole log data. Efficiency of text stream compressors, such as

  8. By lithology Zbruch deposits (Lower Sarmatian Nikopol manganese ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich V.V.


    Full Text Available Based on lithologic-paleogeographic study Zbruch layers of Nikopol manganese ore Basin sediments described lithological and genetic types of rocks and facies conditions of formation of deposits.

  9. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 850 and 1020 cm-1 (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.; Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.


    Using spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron radiation facility, a previously unobserved out-of-plane vibration of trans-acrolein (propenal) is reliably assigned for the first time. Its origin is at 1002.01 cm-1, which is about 20 cm-1 higher than usually quoted in the past. This mode is thus labelled as v14, leaving the label v15 for the known vibration at 992.66 cm-1. Weak combination bands 171182 ← 182, 171131 ← 131, 121182 ← 181, and 171182 ← 181 are studied for the first time, and assignments in the known v11, v16, and v15 fundamental bands are also extended. The seven excited vibrations involved in these bands are analyzed, together with five more unobserved vibrations in the same region (850-1020 cm-1), in a large 12-state simultaneous fit which accounts for most of the many observed perturbations in the spectra.

  10. Argon FTIR spectra between 800 and 2000 cm-1: h- and i-levels and transition probabilities (United States)

    Kubelík, P.; Zanozina, E. M.; Pastorek, A.; Ferus, M.; Juha, L.; Chernov, V. E.; Naskidashvili, A. V.; Civiš, S.


    The new emission spectrum of atomic argon is measured using the time-resolved Fourier transform technique. Seventy-seven new Ar I lines in the 800 - 2000cm-1 range with a resolution of 0.02cm-1 are observed. The energies of 12 previously unknown 7 i and 6 h energy levels are extracted from the measured spectra. The probabilities of the transitions between the observed levels are calculated.

  11. Spectroscopy of AlAr and AlKr from 31 000 cm-1 to the ionization limit (United States)

    Heidecke, Scott A.; Fu, Zhenwen; Colt, John R.; Morse, Michael D.


    Spectra of jet-cooled AlAr and AlKr have been collected over the range from 31 000 cm-1 to the ionization limit, using the technique of resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy with mass spectrometric detection. Adiabatic ionization potentials have been accurately measured for both molecules, and have been estimated for AlAr2 and AlAr3. The spin-orbit splittings in the X 2Π ground state have been determined for both AlAr and AlKr, and ground-state bond strengths have been accurately measured as D0[AlAr, X1 2Π1/2(3p)] =122.4±4 cm-1 and D0[27Al 84Kr, X1 2Π1/2(3p)] =194.7±0.8 cm-1. These values have also been combined with the measured ionization potentials to derive D0(Al+-Ar)=982.3± 5 cm-1 and D0(Al+-Kr)=1528.5±2 cm-1.

  12. Can we identify source lithology of basalt? (United States)

    Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong


    The nature of source rocks of basaltic magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of basalts remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived basalts. The continental oceanic island basalt-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of basalts based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered.

  13. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 700 and 820 cm-1 (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.


    The weak combination bands ν12 + ν18 and ν17 + ν18 of trans-acrolein in the 700-760 cm-1 region are observed at high resolution (facility. A detailed rotational analysis of the 121181 and 171181 upper states is made which includes the nearby perturbing states 185, 132181, and 131183. Taking the results of this 5-state fit, together with earlier results on lower lying vibrations, we now have experimental characterization for all 15 excited vibrational states of acrolein lying below 820 cm-1.

  14. Analysis of the LIF Spectroscopy of Nickel Hydride in 19000-21400 cm-1%NiH分子在15000~21400cm-1的激光诱导荧光光谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静茹; 王婷婷; 张朝霞; 陈从香; 陈旸


    采用放电溅射出的镍原子与甲醇气体存超声射流条件下产生NiH分子,获得了NiH分子在15000~21400 cm-1的激光诱导荧光激发谱.首次报道了NiH分了存19000~21400 cm-1的光谱.将观测到的24个谱带归属到7个不同的电了跃迁,并对每个谱带进行了转动分析.观测到了A、B、D、E、F和G态念的高振动能级,得到了这些电了态的振动频率、非谐性常数、转动常数和平衡键长等较完整的光谱常数.并重新标识了一些谱带.%The laser-induced fluorescence(LIF)excitation spectrum of NiH was recorded in the spectral reglon from 15000 cm-1 to 21400 cm~1,with the NiH molecules produced by the reaction of sputtered nickel atoms with methanol under supersonic jet conditions.The 19000-21400 cm-1 portion of the spectrum of NiH is reported for the first time.Twenty-four bands were observed and classified into seven electronic transitions.Every band Was rotationally analyzed.Higher vibrational levels of many excited states,A,B,D,E,F,and G,were observed and the complete set of spectroscopic parameters,vibrational frequency, unharmonic constant,rotational constant.and equilibrium length of these states were obtained.Some bands were reassigned.

  15. High resolution analysis of C2D4 in the region of 600-1150 cm-1 (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, Fangce; Sydow, C.; Maul, C.; Bauerecker, S.


    High-accurate Fourier-transform infrared spectra of C2D4 were recorded and analyzed in the region of 600-1150 cm-1 where the bands ν7(B1u), ν10(B2u), ν12(B3u) are located as well as the ν4(Au) band which is forbidden by the symmetry of the molecule. The ground state rotational structure was re-analyzed by the use of ground state combination differences obtained on the basis of infrared transitions of the ν12 and ν7 absorption bands. This gave us the possibility to considerably improve the rotational and centrifugal parameters of the ground vibrational state. The analysis of the experimental data and the subsequent weighted-fit procedure of the Hamiltonian parameters allowed us to reproduce the initial 4405 "experimental" ro-vibrational energy values with the drms = 2.1 ×10-4cm-1.

  16. Absorptions between 3000 and 5500 cm(-1) of cyclic O4+ and O4- trapped in solid neon. (United States)

    Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E


    Recently, gas-phase absorptions in the 3000-4300 cm(-1) spectral region have been assigned to combination bands built on (ν1 + ν5) of ground-state cyc-O4(+). Other gas-phase experiments identified an electronic transition of cyc-O4(-) complexed with an argon atom between 4000 and 5300 cm(-1). Absorptions that correspond closely to these two groups of bands have been observed in neon-matrix experiments in which both cyc-O4(+) and cyc-O4(-) are trapped at 4.3 K in solid neon. The results are compared with the gas-phase data, and the proposed assignments are considered by taking into account the results of isotopic substitution.

  17. N_2O weak lines observed between 3900 and 4050 cm^-1 from long path absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Herbin, H; Guelachvili, G; Sorokin, E; Sorokina, I T; Herbin, Herv\\'{e}; Picqu\\'{e}, Nathalie; Guelachvili, Guy; Sorokin, Evgeni; Sorokina, Irina T.


    Previously unobserved nitrous oxide transitions around 2.5 $\\mu$m are measured by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS) analyzed by time-resolved Fourier transform (TRFT) spectrometer. With an accuracy of the order of 10^-3 cm^-1, measured positions of 1637 assigned weak transitions are provided. They belong to 42 vibrational transitions, among which 33 are observed for the first time. These data are believed to be useful in particular to monitoring atmosphere purposes.

  18. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  19. Prediction of tectonically deformed coal based on lithologic seismic information (United States)

    Li, Juanjuan; Pan, Dongming; Cui, Ruofei; Ding, Enjie; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Mingshun


    Owing to the differences in physical properties between tectonically deformed coal (TDC) and primary coal, lithologic seismic inversion methods were adopted to identify the coal structure type, including probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion, elastic impedance (EI) inversion and simultaneous inversion methods. Based on poststack and prestack gathers, the inversion methods were applied to calculate lithologic seismic information, which included porosity, acoustic impedance, elastic impedance, λ × ρ and μ × ρ data. The inversion results were then analysed to evaluate the development potential of TDC. The research showed that the lithology inversion results, which indicated the potential zone of development areas of the coal, were all basically identical and a comprehensive prediction factor (the linear lithologic information combination) was proposed to effectively predict the development potential. Therefore, the prediction of TDC by lithologic seismic information could provide a scientific basis for both coal mining safety and the development potential of large-scale coalbed methane resources.

  20. Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Redistribution (ivr) in Selected S_{1} Levels above 1000 cm^{-1} in Para-Fluorotoluene (United States)

    Whalley, Laura E.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Davies, Julia A.; Reid, Katharine L.; Wright, Timothy G.


    With increasing vibrational wavenumber, the density of states of a molecule is expected to rise dramatically, especially so when low wavenumber torsions (internal rotations) are present, as in the case of para-fluorotoluene (pFT). This in turn is expected to lead to more opportunities for coupling between vibrational modes, which is the driving force for intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR). Previous studies at higher energies have focussed on the two close lying vibrational levels at 1200 cm^{-1} in the S_{1} electronic state of pFT which were assigned to two zero-order bright states (ZOBSs), whose characters predominantly involve C-CH_{3} and C-F stretching modes. A surprising result of these studies was that the photoelectron spectra showed evidence that IVR is more extensive following excitation of the C-F mode than it is following excitation of the C-CH_{3} mode, despite these levels being separated by only 35 cm^{-1}. This observation provides evidence that the IVR dynamics are mode-specific, which in turn may be a consequence of the IVR route being dependent on couplings to nearby states that are only available to the C-F mode. In this work, in order to further investigate this behaviour, we have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to probe S_{1} levels above 1000 cm^{-1} in pFT. Such ZEKE spectra have been recorded via a number of S_{1} intermediate levels allowing the character and coupling between vibrations to be unravelled; the consequence of this coupling will be discussed with a view to understanding any IVR dynamics seen. C. J. Hammond, V. L. Ayles, D. E. Bergeron, K. L. Reid and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 125, 124308 (2006) J. A. Davies, A. M. Green, A. M. Gardner, C. D. Withers, T. G. Wright and K. L. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 430 (2014)

  1. Theoretical NH{_3} Spectra in 5800-7000 CM-1 Region and CO{_2} IR Intensity: Updates (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Tashkun, Sergey A.


    Recently we have successfully applied the "Best Theory + High-resolution Experimental Data" strategy to NH{_3} and CO{_2}. The essential strategy is to refine a high quality, purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) with reliable high resolution experimental data, so the IR line lists computed on the refined PES and dipole moment surface (DMS) can go beyond simple data reproduction. The goal is to make reliable predictions for higher J/K/energy rovibrational transitions with similar accuracies, i.e. 0.01-0.03 cm-1. The reliability and accuracy of data included in the refinement largely determines the quality of predictions and the ultimate merit of our work. With recent 14NH{_3} experiments in 5800 - 7000 cm-1, the effective coverage (with 0.01-0.03 cm-1 accuracy) of our NH{_3} PES has extended to this complex spectral region. Excellent agreement between current experiment analysis and our primitive HSL-3 PES refinement will be presented, and source of discrepancies will be discussed. The synergy between the experiments and theory is of great value. For CO{_2}, we have updated the theoretical IR intensity of the 12C16O{_2} line list with a more reliable DMS, then carried out very detailed comparisons with both pure experimental data and HITRAN/CDSD models. Results suggest that our line lists should be useful for the astronomical or earth-based detection of CO{_2} isotopologues. X. Huang, D.W. Schwenke, and T.J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 214304 (2008); J. Chem. Phys. 134, 044320/044321 (2011). X. Huang, D.W. Schwenke, S.A. Tashkun, and T.J. Lee J. Chem. Phys. 136, submitted (2012).

  2. One year of downwelling spectral radiance measurements from 100 to 1400 cm-1 at Dome Concordia: Results in clear conditions (United States)

    Rizzi, R.; Arosio, C.; Maestri, T.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Del Guasta, M.


    The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization lidar is also deployed at same site, and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. First, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed-Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected microwindows except for the negative residuals found for all microwindows in the range 200 to 400 cm-1, with largest values around 295.1 cm-1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm-1.

  3. New assignments and a rare peculiarity in the high sensitivity CRDS spectrum of acetylene near 8000 cm-1 (United States)

    Kassi, S.; Lyulin, O. M.; Béguier, S.; Campargue, A.


    The absorption spectrum of acetylene has been recorded at room temperature (296 K) using high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the 7914 and 8252 cm-1 interval. The noise equivalent absorption of the spectra is αmin ∼ 5×10-11 cm-1. A list of about 5600 absorption features was constructed. The smallest intensities are on the order of 10-29 cm/molecule. A total of 1325 rovibrational lines of 12C2H2 were assigned by comparison with accurate predictions provided by a global effective operator model. In addition, 132 rovibrational lines of 12C13CH2 present in natural isotopic abundance were assigned on the basis of their published positions. The assigned 12C2H2 lines belong to 12 new and 6 already known bands, for which additional J-lines were assigned. The line intensities of the three cold bands of 12C13CH2 are reported for the first time. The new data will be valuable to refine the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moments of 12C2H2 in the region. Spectroscopic parameters of the 12C2H2 and 12C13CH2 upper vibrational levels were derived from a band-by-band fit of the line positions (typical rms values are on the order of 0.001 cm-1). A few of the analyzed bands were found to be affected by rovibrational perturbations, which are discussed. In particular, the rotational structure of the 2ν1 + (ν4 + ν5)0 Σu+-Σg+ band near 7994 cm-1 exhibits a particularly surprising intensity distribution: while the P(19) and R(17) transitions share the same J = 18 upper level, the R(17) line has an intensity about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than the P(19) line. This unusual situation is quantitatively interpreted as resulting from a Coriolis interaction between the ν1 + 2ν2 + ν51 and 2ν1 + (ν4 + ν5)0 bands with a energy crossing at J = 18. The accidental nearly perfect cancelation of the two terms contributing to the line strength of the R(17) line leads to the near disappearance of this line.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Ionic Autoionization Spectra of Lanthanum in the Energy Region of 90650-91500 cm-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新峰; 彭永伦; 钟志萍; 屈一至; 孙玮; 夏丹; 薛平; 许祥源


    Eigenquantum defects μα and transformation matrix Uiα of La+ are calculated from the first principles by relativistic multichannel theory, and dipole matrix elements Dα axe obtained by fitting the experimental spectra.With these parameters, ionic autoionization spectra of lanthanum via an intermediate state (Xe)5d6d 1P1 of La+in the energy region of 90650-91500 cm -1 are calculated within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory. Our calculated spectra are in general agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Measurements and modeling of cold 13CH4 spectra in the 3750-4700 cm-1 region (United States)

    Brown, L. R.; Nikitin, A. V.; Sung, K.; Rey, M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Crawford, T. J.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.


    A new study of 13CH4 line intensities and positions was performed in the Octad region between 3750 and 4700 cm-1. Using 13C-enriched samples, spectra were recorded with both the McMath-Pierce FTS at Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona and the Bruker IFS-125HR at JPL. Sample temperatures ranged between 80 and 296 K. Line positions and intensities of ~15,000 features were retrieved at different temperatures by non-linear least squares curve-fitting procedures. Intensities were used to estimate the lower state energies for 60% of the features in order to determine quantum assignments up to J=10. A preliminary analysis was performed using the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole transition moment expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators adapted to spherical top molecules. Selected assignments were made up to J=10 for all 24 sub-vibrational states of the Octad; these were modeled for 4752 experimental line positions and 3301 selected line intensities fitted with RMS standard deviations of 0.004 cm-1 and 6.9%, respectively. Integrated intensities of the eight Octad bands are compared to ab initio variational calculations. A prediction of the 13CH4 is given, but further analysis to improve the calculation will be reported in the future.

  6. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  7. ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy in the region of 500-230 cm -1 for identification of inorganic red pigments (United States)

    Vahur, Signe; Knuutinen, Ulla; Leito, Ivo


    It is demonstrated that micro-ATR-FT-IR in the low wave number range (500-230 cm -1) can be well used for identification of pigments in paint samples thereby markedly extending the possibilities of pigment identification by ATR-IR spectroscopy into the realm of pigments having no absorptions in the mid-IR region. Reference spectra of pigments can be conveniently obtained by mixing them with linseed oil in approximately 1:1 mass ratio. Vermilion (or cinnabar), read lead, different red iron oxide pigments and cadmium red can be identified. In some cases the method can be used alone for pigment identification and in many cases it provides useful additional evidence for pigment identification using other instrumental techniques (electron microprobe analysis, XRF, optical microscopy).

  8. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the CO2-Ar complex in the 2376 cm - 1 combination band region: The intermolecular bend (United States)

    Sharpe, S. W.; Reifschneider, D.; Wittig, C.; Beaudet, R. A.


    The rovibrational absorption spectrum of CO2-Ar has been recorded in the 2376 cm-1 region by using a pulsed, slit nozzle expansion and tunable IR diode laser. The spectrum is ascribed to the 410510 combination band, where ν4 corresponds to the asymmetric stretch of the CO2 moiety and ν5 is the intermolecular bend. This combination band is ˜102 times less intense and 27.82 cm-1 higher in energy than the 410 fundamental. Effective upper-state rotational constants were determined for this nearly prolate rotor, and the ν4+ν5 moments of inertia show a large inertial defect, Δ=9.48 amu Å2. In planar molecules, this indicates large vibrational amplitude, and reflects inadequacy of the rotational Hamiltonian. From the moments of inertia derived using a Watson Hamiltonian, geometric properties of ν4+ν5 can be calculated. The average O-C-Ar angle is 76.9°, while the center-of-mass separation between CO2 and Ar is 3.60 Å. These values differ from those of the ground state (83.1° and 3.51 Å) and ν4=1 (83.0° and 3.50 Å). Results are compared with previous work, which used different models and approximations to obtain intermolecular frequencies. In addition, inertial defects were calculated for the ground and vibrationally excited states using a simple normal mode model developed by Herschbach and Laurie, and Oka and Morino. With harmonic force fields, it accounts for most of the inertial defect in the ground and excited states, and yields reasonable R and θ values. However, we conclude that the good agreement between experimental and calculated inertial defects may be fortuitous, since several positive and negative contributions cancel.

  9. Antibody ligation of CM1 on cisplatin-exposed HeLa cells induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-dependent Fas ligand expression. (United States)

    Park, Ga Bin; Kim, Daejin; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Kim, Yeong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Ki Tae; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Hur, Dae Young


    Centrocyte/centroblast marker 1 (CM1) has been identified as a pro-apoptosis molecule on B-cell lymphoma cells as well as several types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its signaling mechanism in HeLa cells after treatment with cisplatin in order to potentially identify a new therapeutic target. The CM1 molecule was induced on the surface of cisplatin-exposed HeLa cells. In these cells, ligation of CM1 with anti-CM1 monoclonal antibodies inhibited cell proliferation and produced reactive oxygen species. Fas ligand (FasL) expression was upregulated without upregulating Fas in cisplatin-exposed HeLa cells after CM1 stimulation. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a pan-capase inhibitor, and ZB4, an antagonistic anti-Fas antibody, effectively inhibited the apoptotic effect triggered by CM1. CM1 ligation induced apoptosis through disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2 and phosphorylated ERK expression. These findings identify CM1 as a potential new therapeutic target related to cisplatin-exposed cervical cancer.

  10. ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy in the region of 550-230 cm -1 for identification of inorganic pigments (United States)

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Leito, Ivo


    A comprehensive study of ATR-FT-IR spectra of 40 inorganic pigments of different colours widely used in historical paintings has been carried out in the low wave number spectral range (550-230 cm -1). The infrared spectra were recorded from mixtures of pigment and linseed oil. It is demonstrated that this spectral range - essentially devoid of absorption peaks of the common binder materials - can be well used for identification of inorganic pigments in paint samples thereby markedly extending the possibilities of pigment identification/confirmation by ATR-IR spectroscopy into the realm of pigments having no absorptions in the mid-IR region. In some cases the method can be used alone for pigment identification and in many cases it provides useful additional evidence for pigment identification using other instrumental techniques (electron microprobe analysis, XRF, optical microscopy). Together with earlier work this study provides a comprehensive overview of the pigment identification possibilities using ATR-FT-IR as well as a collection of reference spectra and is expected to be a useful reference for conservation practitioners.

  11. Enhancement of ammonia gas detection by integrating wavelength-modulated spectra across the line 992.69 cm-1 (United States)

    Dallah, Mohammad; Salloum, Akil


    A rapid tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensor was developed for real-time measurements of ammonia concentration by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) at 992.698 cm-1 of the ν2 vibrational band. This line has patterns free from interference with other species in the atmosphere, and can be used for open-path detection. The 1f signal was used to normalize the 2f signal thereby eliminating the need for calibration and explaining the laser transmission variations. Using WMS with a large modulation depth and integrating the absolute value of the resulting spectra increased the limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor by a factor of seven, compared with the LOD achieved by using the maximum value of the WMS 2f signal. Furthermore, an increase by a factor of 25 compared with the direct absorption spectroscopy was achieved, which allowed obtaining LOD ∼ 1 ppb with a resolution time of <2 s for the detection of NH3 in the atmosphere using a short-path cell (a 60-cm absorption cell with four passes).

  12. Spectroscopic line parameters of 12CH4 for atmospheric composition retrievals in the 4300-4500 cm-1 region (United States)

    Hashemi, R.; Predoi-Cross, A.; Nikitin, A. V.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Malathy Devi, V.


    Due to the importance of methane as a trace atmospheric gas and a greenhouse gas, we have carried out a precise line-shape study to obtain the CH4-CH4 and CH4-air half-width coefficients, CH4-CH4 and CH4-air shift coefficients and off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients for methane transitions in the spectral range known as the "methane Octad". In addition, the associated temperature dependences of these coefficients have been measured in the 4300-4500 cm-1 region of the Octad. The high signal to noise ratio spectra of pure methane and of dilute mixtures of methane in dry air with high resolution have been recorded at temperatures from 148 K to room temperature using the Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. The analysis of spectra was done using a multispectrum non-linear least-squares curve fitting technique. Theoretical calculations have been performed and the results are compared with the previously published line positions, intensities and with the line parameters available in the GEISA and HITRAN2012 databases.

  13. Wide bandgap BaSnO3 films with room temperature conductivity exceeding 104 S cm-1 (United States)

    Prakash, Abhinav; Xu, Peng; Faghaninia, Alireza; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Ager, Joel W.; Lo, Cynthia S.; Jalan, Bharat


    Wide bandgap perovskite oxides with high room temperature conductivities and structural compatibility with a diverse family of organic/inorganic perovskite materials are of significant interest as transparent conductors and as active components in power electronics. Such materials must also possess high room temperature mobility to minimize power consumption and to enable high-frequency applications. Here, we report n-type BaSnO3 films grown using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy with room temperature conductivity exceeding 104 S cm-1. Significantly, these films show room temperature mobilities up to 120 cm2 V-1 s-1 even at carrier concentrations above 3 × 1020 cm-3 together with a wide bandgap (3 eV). We examine the mobility-limiting scattering mechanisms by calculating temperature-dependent mobility, and Seebeck coefficient using the Boltzmann transport framework and ab-initio calculations. These results place perovskite oxide semiconductors for the first time on par with the highly successful III-N system, thereby bringing all-transparent, high-power oxide electronics operating at room temperature a step closer to reality.

  14. Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm-1) (United States)

    García, O. E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.; González, Y.


    This study examines the possibility of ground-based remote-sensing ozone total column amounts (OTC) from spectral signatures at 3040 and 4030 cm-1. These spectral regions are routinely measured by the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infraRed) experiments. In addition, they are potentially detectable by the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) FTIR instruments. The ozone retrieval strategy presented here estimates the OTC from NDACC FTIR high-resolution spectra with a theoretical precision of about 2 and 5% in the 3040 and 4030 cm-1 regions, respectively. Empirically, these OTC products are validated by inter-comparison to FTIR OTC reference retrievals in the 1000 cm-1 spectral region (standard reference for NDACC ozone products), using an 8-year FTIR time series (2005-2012) taken at the subtropical ozone supersite of the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Associated with the weaker ozone signatures at the higher wave number regions, the 3040 and 4030 cm-1 retrievals show lower vertical sensitivity than the 1000 cm-1 retrievals. Nevertheless, we observe that the rather consistent variations are detected: the variances of the 3040 cm-1 and the 4030 cm-1 retrievals agree within 90 and 75%, respectively, with the variance of the 1000 cm-1 standard retrieval. Furthermore, all three retrievals show very similar annual cycles. However, we observe a large systematic difference of about 7% between the OTC obtained at 1000 and 3040 cm-1, indicating a significant inconsistency between the spectroscopic ozone parameters (HITRAN, 2012) of both regions. Between the 1000 cm and the 4030 cm-1 retrieval the systematic difference is only 2-3%. Finally, the long-term stability of the OTC retrievals has also been examined, observing that both near-infrared retrievals can monitor the long-term OTC evolution, consistent with the 1000 cm-1 reference data. These findings demonstrate that

  15. Additional Sr Isotopic Heterogeneity in Zagami Olivine-Rich Lithology (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Niihara, T.; Shih, C.-Y; Reese, Y. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Yoneda, S.; Yamashita, H.


    Prior isotopic analyses of Zagami have established differing initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (ISr) ratios of among Zagami lithologies, fine-grained (FG), coarse-grained (CG), and dark mottled lithologies (DML)]. The Zagami sample (KPM-NLH000057) newly allocated from the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History contained DML and the Ol-rich lithology which included more ferroan olivines (Ol-rich: Fa(sub 97- 99) vs late-stage melt pockets: Fa(sub 90-97)]). We have combined mineralogy-petrology and Rb-Sr isotopic studies on the Kanagawa Zagami sample, which will provide additional clues to the genesis of enriched shergottites and to the evolution of Martian crust and mantle

  16. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1 (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Jeys, T. H.


    Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1. A relatively compact (Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm-1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm-1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10-32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10-36 m2/sr), 1.37 ± 0.10x10-30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10-34 m2/sr), 3.25 ± 0.23x10-31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10-35 m2/sr), 1.63 ± 0.14x10-30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10-34 m2/sr), and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-34 m2/sr) were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm-1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm-1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm-1 mode of H2S, 570 cm-1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10-31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10-35 m2/sr) for the 1285 cm-1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  17. Lithological responses to sea erosion along selected coastlines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabel Anim

    This study examined how the lithological makeup of the ... Coastal environments are continuously changing due to pressure exerted on them ... the fluid overcoming the gravitational and cohesive force of the particle ... particles are set in motion more than larger ones as they offer less resistance to ..... Reinhold Company, vii.

  18. An IR study of (CO2)(+)n (n=3-8) cluster ions in the 1000-3800 cm-1 region. (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Muraoka, Azusa; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki


    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of carbon dioxide cluster ions, (CO(2))(n) (+) with n=3-8, are measured in the 1000-3800 cm(-1) region. IR bands assignable to solvent CO(2) molecules are observed at positions close to the vibrational frequencies of neutral CO(2) [1290 and 1400 cm(-1) (nu(1) and 2nu(2)), 2350 cm(-1) (nu(3)), and 3610 and 3713 cm(-1) (nu(1)+nu(3) and 2nu(2)+nu(3))]. The ion core in (CO(2))(n) (+) shows several IR bands in the 1200-1350, 2100-2200, and 3250-3500 cm(-1) regions. On the basis of previous IR studies in solid Ne and quantum chemical calculations, these bands are ascribed to the C(2)O(4) (+) ion, which has a semicovalent bond between the CO(2) components. The number of the bands and the bandwidth of the IRPD spectra drastically change with an increase in the cluster size up to n=6, which is ascribed to the symmetry change of (CO(2))(n) (+) by the solvation of CO(2) molecules and a full occupation of the first solvation shell at n=6.

  19. An IR study of (CO2)n+ (n=3-8) cluster ions in the 1000-3800 cm-1 region (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Muraoka, Azusa; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki


    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of carbon dioxide cluster ions, (CO2)n+ with n=3-8, are measured in the 1000-3800 cm-1 region. IR bands assignable to solvent CO2 molecules are observed at positions close to the vibrational frequencies of neutral CO2 [1290 and 1400 cm-1 (ν1 and 2ν2), 2350 cm-1 (ν3), and 3610 and 3713 cm-1 (ν1+ν3 and 2ν2+ν3)]. The ion core in (CO2)n+ shows several IR bands in the 1200-1350, 2100-2200, and 3250-3500 cm-1 regions. On the basis of previous IR studies in solid Ne and quantum chemical calculations, these bands are ascribed to the C2O4+ ion, which has a semicovalent bond between the CO2 components. The number of the bands and the bandwidth of the IRPD spectra drastically change with an increase in the cluster size up to n=6, which is ascribed to the symmetry change of (CO2)n+ by the solvation of CO2 molecules and a full occupation of the first solvation shell at n=6.

  20. Structural model and functional characterization of the Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ, a cytochrome P450 associated with high levels of imidacloprid resistance. (United States)

    Karunker, Iris; Morou, Evangelia; Nikou, Dimitra; Nauen, Ralf; Sertchook, Rotem; Stevenson, Bradley J; Paine, Mark J I; Morin, Shai; Vontas, John


    The neonicotinoid imidacloprid is one of the most important insecticides worldwide. It is used extensively against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an insect pest of eminent importance globally, which was also the first pest to develop high levels of resistance against imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids in the field. Recent reports indicated that in both the B and Q biotypes of B. tabaci, the resistant phenotype is associated with over-expression of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6CM1. In this study, molecular docking and dynamic simulations were used to analyze interactions of imidacloprid with the biotype Q variant of the CYP6CM1 enzyme (CYP6CM1vQ). The binding mode with the lowest energy in the enzyme active site, the key amino acids involved (i.e. Phe-130 and Phe-226), and the putative hydroxylation site (lowest distance to carbon 5 of the imidazolidine ring system of imidacloprid) were predicted. Heterologous expression of the CYP6CM1vQ confirmed the accuracy of our predictions and demonstrated that the enzyme catalyses the hydroxylation of imidacloprid to its less toxic 5-hydroxy form (K(cat) = 3.2 pmol/min/pmol P450, K(m) = 36 microM). The data identify CYP6CM1vQ as a principle target for inhibitor design, aimed at inactivating insecticide-metabolizing P450s in natural insect pest populations.

  1. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency. (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John


    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides.

  2. Distinguishing volcanic lithology using Self-Organizing Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Self-Organizing Map is an unsupervised learning algorithm. It has the ability of self-organization,self-learning and side associative thinking. Based on the principle it can identified the complex volcanic lithology. According to the logging data of the volcanic rock samples, the SOM will be trained, The SOM training results were analyzed in order to choose optimally parameters of the network. Through identifying the logging data of volcanic formations, the result shows that the map can achieve good application effects.

  3. Lithological structure of the Galápagos Plume (United States)

    Vidito, Christopher; Herzberg, Claude; Gazel, Esteban; Geist, Dennis; Harpp, Karen


    We have measured Ni, Ca, and Mn in olivine phenocrysts from volcanoes in the Galápagos Archipelago to infer the mantle source lithologies. Results show that peridotite is the dominant source lithology for Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Wolf Island, and Darwin Island. These volcanoes largely characterize the PLUME, WD, FLO, and DUM Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic endmembers of Harpp and White (2001). Volcan Wolf, Alcedo, Marchena, and Cerro Azul, also produced from the melting of peridotite sources, have isotopic compositions that can be defined by mixing of the four isotopic endmembers. Our analysis suggests that peridotite was present in the sources of the volcanoes covered in this study and therefore is the dominant source lithology of the Galápagos plume. Pyroxenite melting is generally focused in two isotopically distinct domains: Roca Redonda, Volcan Ecuador, and Sierra Negra in the enriched western part of the archipelago and Santiago, Santa Cruz, and Santa Fe in the depleted east. One implication of this finding is that the Western and Eastern Pyroxenite Domains represent two separate bodies of recycled crust within the Galápagos mantle plume. Furthermore, both isotopically enriched and depleted domains of the archipelago were generated from mixtures of peridotite and pyroxenite. This suggests that there is no relationship between the source lithology of the Galápagos plume and its isotopic characteristics. The identification of peridotite-source melting in volcanoes with isotopic characteristics that have been attributed to recycled crust points to the importance of mixing in OIB genesis, consistent with studies in the Canary Islands.

  4. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation (United States)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.


    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  5. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies (United States)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.


    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  6. High-Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Vinyl Alcohol: Rotational Analysis of the nu(13) CH(2) Wagging Fundamental at 817 cm(-1). (United States)

    Joo; Merer; Clouthier


    The first high-resolution infrared spectra of the unstable molecule vinyl alcohol are reported. The spectra have been obtained using a new precursor, 2-chloroethanol, which when pyrolyzed at 1050 degrees C gives strong infrared spectra of vinyl alcohol free of interfering hydrocarbon absorption bands. In this work, we have analyzed the strong nu(13) fundamental at 817 cm(-1) and substantially improved the ground state rotational constants by a simultaneous fitting of previous microwave data and a large number of infrared combination differences. The 13(1) upper state was found to be perturbed by the 15(2) "dark" state at 775.7 cm(-1), and a complete analysis of the perturbed rotational structure has been achieved using an interacting two-state model. Further small perturbations at high K(a) and J have been identified as interactions with the nu(10) and nu(12) fundamentals at 948 and 960 cm(-1), respectively. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose a secondary set of deterministic geologic features on the overall stratigraphic framework provided by the indictor models.

  8. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose stratigraphic framework provided by the indicator models.

  9. Nationwide lithological interpretation of cone penetration tests using neural networks (United States)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Schokker, Jeroen; Harting, Ronald; de Bruijn, Renée


    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) systematically produces 3D stochastic geological models of the Dutch subsurface. These voxel models are regarded essential in answering subsurface-related questions on, for example, aggregate resource potential, groundwater flow, land subsidence hazard and the planning and realization of large-scale infrastructural works. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of 3D voxel models. This model describes 3D stratigraphical and lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100 × 100 × 0.5 m. Currently, visually described borehole samples are the primary input of these large-scale 3D geological models, both when modeling architecture and composition. Although tens of thousands of cone penetration tests (CPTs) are performed each year, mainly in the reconnaissance phase of construction activities, these data are hardly used as geological model input. There are many reasons why it is of interest to utilize CPT data for geological and lithological modeling of the Dutch subsurface, such as: 1) CPTs are more abundant than borehole descriptions, 2) CPTs are cheaper and easier to gather, and 3) CPT data are more quantitative and uniform than visual sample descriptions. This study uses CPTs and the lithological descriptions of associated nearby undisturbed drilling cores collected by the GSN to establish a nationwide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties of the shallow subsurface. The 167 CPT-core pairs were collected at 160 locations situated in the North, West and South of the Netherlands. These locations were chosen to cover the full extent of geological units and lithological composition in the upper 30 to 40 m of the subsurface in these areas. The distance between the CPT location and associated borehole is small, varying between 0 and 30 m, with an average of 6 m. For each 2 cm CPT interval the data was automatically annotated with the lithoclass from the associated core using a

  10. Changes in Binding Motif of Protonated Heterodimers Containing Valine and Amines Investigated Using IRMPD Spectroscopy between 800 and 3700 cm(-1) and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O' Brien, J. T.; Prell, J. S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; Williams, E. R.


    Proton-bound dimers consisting of valine and basic primary and secondary amines of varying gas-phase basicity (GB) were investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy between 800 and 3700 cm(-1), collisionally activated dissociation, and theory. The low-energy dissocia

  11. Lacunarity Measures of Potential Fields in Covered Lithology Identification (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.


    Measure distributions, both multifractal and other kinds, are not unique, so spatial patterns with the same measure may have different appearances. Lacunarity analysis is a method of description of dispersion in spatial patterns across a range of scales, and is one way of descriminating clustering of similar values. Lacunarity of an image was calculated using a moving window across a range of scales as the ratio of the second moment divided by the square of the first moment for values within the window. This gives a curve of lacunarity versus resolution (scale); the curve is concave for highly clustered data, pseudolinear or convex for data with clusters at many scales such as multifractal simulations, and constant for uniformly spaced data. Breaks in slope of the curve indicate scales that are important in the structure of the spatial pattern. Gravity and magnetic field anomaly data are well known to be multifractal and thus calculated lacunarities of gridded datasets have been investigated to determine if the resulting curves are a useful measure of texture of the potential field data and helpful in identifying likely lithologies at depth beneath cover. Lacunarity is often calculated on binary data, but it can also be calculated using quantitative data. The quantitative data case lacunarity measure was computed for grids using a 25 by 25 km window moving over the grid, each window overlapping the previous one by 12.5 km. The data were the aeromagnetic and isostatic gravity anomaly grids for the state of Arizona at 0.5 km grid-interval, resulting in a lacunarity curves for gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly for each of approximately 2500 windows. The open-source software R was used for plotting a map of window center locations and lacunarity curves, and the map was loaded into Google Earth, together with maps of the gravity and magnetic field anomaly, porphyry copper deposit locations, and the geological map of Arizona. Windows were selected to compare lacunarity

  12. A lithology effect on the TEX86 palaeotemperature proxy (United States)

    Littler, K.; Robinson, S. A.; Bown, P. R.


    The TEX86 organic palaeothermometer proxy has been widely used to reconstruct temperature records and infer changes in past climates from the recent to the Cretaceous. While there is doubtless a strong positive relationship between the TEX86 ratio preserved in marine sediments and the contemporaneous sea surface temperature (SST), both primary oceanographic and secondary diagenetic controls are also likely to be important in modulating this ratio. Sediments of Early Cretaceous age from two sites in the western North Atlantic have been analysed for their glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) composition, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. This dataset represents one of the oldest uses of this biomarker technique thus far applied to the geological record. The TEX86 ratios of paired samples from DSDP Sites 603 and 534, spanning over 8 myr of time from the Berriasian to the Hauterivian, (~132 -140 Ma), have been determined in this study. These samples consist of pale grey laminated marls, representing deposition in an open-marine pelagic environment, paired with adjacent dark grey homogenous mudstone samples of probable turbiditic origin. A persistent offset in TEX86 values of ~0.01 to 0.05, corresponding to ~0.3°C to 1.6°C, is observed between these two lithologies at both Sites, where the mudstone samples consistently yield more negative and therefore “cooler” TEX86 values than the adjacent laminated marls. The total concentration of GDGTs in these mudstone turbidites is also generally substantially lower than in their pelagic counterparts, suggesting a dilution or degradation of their GDGT content. While a genuine difference in SSTs recorded by the GDGTs in the two lithologies cannot be excluded, a post-depositional diagenetic origin for the offset would appear more plausible and be consistent with previous work. Oxic degradation of GDGTs in sediments has been shown to skew the TEX86 ratio in Neogene turbidites, and may also

  13. The near infrared spectrum of ozone by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy between 5850 and 7000 cm(-1): new observations and exhaustive review. (United States)

    Campargue, A; Barbe, A; De Backer-Barilly, M-R; Tyuterev, Vl G; Kassi, S


    Weak vibrational bands of (16)O(3) could be detected in the 5850-7030 cm(-1) spectral region by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy using a set of fibered DFB diode lasers. As a result of the high sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption alpha(min) approximately 3 x 10(-10) cm(-1)), bands reaching a total of 16 upper vibrational states have been previously reported in selected spectral regions. In the present report, the analysis of the whole investigated region is completed by new recordings in three spectral regions which have allowed: (i) a refined analysis of the nu(1) + 3nu(2) + 3nu(3) band from new spectra in the 5850-5900 cm(-1) region; (ii) an important extension of the assignments of the 2nu(1)+5nu(3) and 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) bands in the 6500-6600 cm(-1) region, previously recorded by frequency modulation diode laser spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignments of the weak 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) band were fully confirmed by the new observation of the 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3)- nu(2) hot band near 5866.9 cm(-1) reaching the same upper state; (iii) the observation and modelling of three A-type bands at 6895.51, 6981.87 and 6990.07 cm(-1) corresponding to the highest excited vibrational bands of ozone detected so far at high resolution. The upper vibrational states were assigned by comparison of their energy values with calculated values obtained from the ground state potential energy surface of (16)O(3). The vibrational mixing and consequently the ambiguities in the vibrational labelling are discussed. For each band or set of interacting bands, the spectroscopic parameters were determined from a fit of the corresponding line positions in the frame of the effective Hamiltonian (EH) model. A set of selected absolute line intensities was measured and used to derive the parameters of the effective transition moment operator. The exhaustive review of the previous observations gathered with the present results is presented and discussed. It leads to a total number

  14. Experimental Investigations into the Effects of Lithology on Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Tian


    Full Text Available In order to study how lithology affects acoustic emissions (AE, a series of tunnel rock burst simulation experiments, monitored by acoustic emission instruments, were conducted on granite, marble and basalt. By analyzing the characteristic parameters, this study found that AE events occur more frequently during the rock burst process on granite and basalt. Marble remains dormant until 75% of the loading time before the peak, at which point, cracks develop rapidly and AE events dramatically increase. During the rock burst process, the AE energy release demonstrates that low energy is released in the incubation phase and robust energy is released during the later phase. Before the rock burst occurs, increased in the heterogeneity index Cv values of the AE event are subject to lithology. The Cv values of granite and basalt have an increase of about 0.2-0.4, while marble shows an increase of 1.0-1.2. The heterogeneity index Cv value of an AE event is in line with the rock burst process.

  15. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.


    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  16. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira


    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  17. High net modal gain (>100 cm(-1)) in 19-stacked InGaAs quantum dot laser diodes at 1000 nm wavelength band. (United States)

    Tanoue, Fumihiko; Sugawara, Hiroharu; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu


    An InGaAs quantum dot (QD) laser diode with 19-stacked QDs separated by 20 nm-thick GaAs spacers was fabricated using an ultrahigh-rate molecular beam epitaxial growth technique, and the laser characteristics were evaluated. A 19-stacked simple broad area QD laser diode was lased at the 1000 nm waveband. A net modal gain of 103 cm(-1) was obtained at 2.25 kA/cm(2), and the saturated modal gain was 145.6 cm(-1); these are the highest values obtained to our knowledge. These results indicate that using this technique to highly stack QDs is effective for improving the net modal gain of QD lasers.

  18. CM-1型充磁机电路的SPICE仿真及充磁回路性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. Two-channel opto-acoustic diode laser spectrometer and fine structure of methane absorption spectra in 6070-6180 cm-1 region. (United States)

    Kapitanov, V A; Ponomarev, Yu N; Tyryshkin, I S; Rostov, A P


    We describe the hardware and software of the high-sensitive two-channel opto-acoustic spectrometer with a near infrared diode laser. A semiconductor TEC-100 laser with outer resonator generates a continuous single-frequency radiation in the range of 6040-6300 cm-1 with spectral resolution better that 10 MHz. The newly designed model of photo-acoustic cells in the form of a ring type resonator was used in the spectrometer, and the system allows the measurement of a weak absorption coefficient equal to 1.4x10(-7) cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a laser radiation power of 0.003 W. The methane absorption spectra within a range of 6080-6180 cm-1 were measured with a spectral resolution of 10 MHz and the signal to noise ratio more than 10(3). Six hundred absorption lines were recorded, which is twice as many as in HITRAN-2004. The accurate measurements of the half-width and shift of methane unresolved triplet R3 of 2nu3 band permit us to determine values of the broadening and shift coefficients for CH4-air, CH4-N2, and CH4-SF6 mixtures.

  20. Lithological and structural investigations of the Finero back thrust (United States)

    Palzer, M.; Österle, J.; Klötzli, U.


    The Ivrea-Verbano-Zone (IVZ, Southern Alps, NW Italy) constitutes a renowned cross-section through the continental crust. It is one of the few places in the world where a complete crustal transect from the palaeo-surface to granulite facies lower crustal conditions and accompanying mantle melt intrusions can be studied directly. It has thus gained an enormous amount of interest and generated a wealth of literature. But the litho-tectonic evolution of the IVZ is still only partly understood and numerous problems remain unsolved. The IVZ is tectonically confined by the Insubric Line to the north and west and by the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago Line (CMB) as well as by the Pogallo Line to the east. The outcropping rocks are interpreted as a part of the Adriatic continental crust emplaced during the Alpine orogeny. Lithologies comprise a stratigraphically upper amphibolite facies "kinzigite series" and a lower granulite facies "stronalite series" (both with metapelites, basites, calcsilicate rocks), numerous ultrabasic mantle tectonites and a widespread suite of Permian mantle melt intrusions, the so-called "mafic complex". The largest mantle tectonite of the IVZ is the peridotite body of Finero. This comprises three main lithologies: phlogopite peridotite, "internal gabbro", hornblende peridotite (and minor amounts of pyroxenites, gabbroic dikes, ect.). In spite of many studies, the answers to numerous questions concerning the structure and history of the ultrabasic and basic rocks are still unsatisfying and need to be questioned. Peridotites, gabbros, stronalites and kinzigites can be found from north to south, interpreted as an extensionally thinned intersection through the lower crust. Problems arise from the difficult distinction between the "internal gabbro" within the peridotite body and the "external gabbro", as part of the "mafic complex", the unsatisfying structural interpretations concerning the peridotite body and the relationship between peridotite and "mafic

  1. Pressure measurement using the R fluorescence peaks and 417 cm-1 Raman peak of an anvil in a sapphire-anvil cell (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Li, Heping


    In this study, synthetic sapphire crystals were used as anvils, coupled with a metal gasket, in a Merrill-Bassett-type pressure cell (sapphire-anvil cell (SAC)). Quartz and ruby chips were compressed in the cell and used as pressure calibrators for the SAC. In the sample-anvil interface, the relationship of the frequency shifts of the R1, R2 and 417 cm-1 peaks with pressure was studied. They were constructed as new pressure calibrators. To test the applicability of the newly calibrated SAC, the Raman spectra of dolomite and calcite were measured in situ at room temperature.

  2. Quantum analysis of experimental anisotropic and isotropic CILS spectra from Ar diatoms in the frequency band 0-400 cm-1 (United States)

    Chrysos, Michael; Gaye, Omar; Le Duff, Yves


    Absolute experimental intensities of the isotropic collision-induced light scattering binary spectrum of (Ar)2 are for the first time measured over a very broad domain of Raman shifts (up to ω=400 cm-1). Motivated by these measurements as well as by those for the anisotropic spectrum, a fully quantum analysis of spectral intensities is performed, from bound, metastable, and free Ar diatoms. A novel methodology is developed for this purpose combining the advantages of both basis-set methods and propagative techniques. Different anisotropy and trace models are used and compared, while suggestions, when necessary, for new optimal models are made.

  3. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle


    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Identification of microplastics by FTIR and Raman microscopy: a novel silicon filter substrate opens the important spectral range below 1300 cm(-1) for FTIR transmission measurements. (United States)

    Käppler, Andrea; Windrich, Frank; Löder, Martin G J; Malanin, Mikhail; Fischer, Dieter; Labrenz, Matthias; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Voit, Brigitte


    The presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems is a topical problem and leads to the need of appropriate and reliable analytical methods to distinctly identify and to quantify these particles in environmental samples. As an example transmission, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging can be used to analyze samples directly on filters without any visual presorting, when the environmental sample was afore extracted, purified, and filtered. However, this analytical approach is strongly restricted by the limited IR transparency of conventional filter materials. Within this study, we describe a novel silicon (Si) filter substrate produced by photolithographic microstructuring, which guarantees sufficient transparency for the broad mid-infrared region of 4000-600 cm(-1). This filter type features holes with a diameter of 10 μm and exhibits adequate mechanical stability. Furthermore, it will be shown that our Si filter substrate allows a distinct identification of the most common microplastics, polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP), in the characteristic fingerprint region (1400-600 cm(-1)). Moreover, using the Si filter substrate, a differentiation of microparticles of polyesters having quite similar chemical structure, like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), is now possible, which facilitates a visualization of their distribution within a microplastic sample by FTIR imaging. Finally, this Si filter can also be used as substrate for Raman microscopy-a second complementary spectroscopic technique-to identify microplastic samples.

  5. The Chicxulub event - sulfur-bearing minerals and lithologies (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Deutsch, A.


    Evaporates form a major target lithology at the Chicxulub impact site. One of the postulated effects of the impact event at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is the impact-induced dissociation of anhydrite to form sulfur-oxides and a solid residue; large isotope fractionation effects in sulfur should accompany this process. We have analyzed the sulfur isotope composition of (i) annealed anhydrite clasts in impact melt breccias of PEMEX core Yucatan-6 N 19, (ii) unshocked anhydrite from the CSDP well Yaxcopoil-1, which belong to the megabreccia below the suevite layer (YAX-1 1369, and 1376 m depth), and (iii) sulfide grains of hydrothermal origin in a finest-grained breccia, which transects a large limestone block of this megabreccia at a depth of 1369 m. Samples of groups (i) and (ii) yielded δ34S values between 18.0 and 19.8 ppm CDT (unweighted mean is 18.3 ppm, n=7), with one slightly lower value of 15.3 ppm for an anhydrite clast in Y-6 N19/Part 6. These data are in agreement with the δ34S value for the Late Cretaceous seawater (Strauss 1999). The δ34S obviously remained unchanged despite the fact that textural features indicate a severe annealing of the clasts in the impact melt. Sulfides of group (iii) show δ34S values around 41 ppm CDT (n=7), which are quite unusual values if these minerals are of non-biogenic origin. In contrast, δ34S for the yellow glass from the K/T boundary at Haiti range from 1.5 to 13.2 ppm (Chaussidon et al. 1996). Using this preliminary evidence, we conclude that only distant ejecta lithologies, and probably secondary material inside the crater, may display impact-related fractionation of sulfur isotopes. This observation is consistent with petrologic data, modeling results as well as of shock recovery and annealing experiments: anhydrite obviously is quite resistant to shock-related dissociation.

  6. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 1.25 μm atmospheric window (7911-8337 cm-1) (United States)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Lohan, Benoit Guillo; Karlovets, E. V.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.


    The absorption spectrum of water vapor in "natural" isotopic abundance has been recorded at room temperature by high sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) between 7911 and 8337 cm-1. The investigated region covers most of the 1.25 μm transparency window of importance for atmospheric applications. The recordings were performed with sensitivity on the order of αmin 2×10-11 cm-1, more than two orders of magnitude better than previous investigations by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS). Measured line intensities cover a range of seven orders of magnitude (3×10-30-2×10-23 cm/molecule at room temperature). The experimental line list provided as Supplementary Material includes more than 5000 transitions. As a result of the achieved sensitivity, more than 1150 lines of the experimental list were identified as being due to ammonia present as an impurity at the 5 ppm concentration level in the water sample. Although incomplete, the obtained ammonia line list seems to be the first one in the region. More than 3193 water lines were assigned to 3560 transitions of five water isotopologues (H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O and HD18O). The assignments were performed using known experimental energy levels and calculated spectra based on variational calculations by Schwenke and Partridge. The obtained results are compared to the most relevant previous studies by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in the region and to the exhaustive review of rovibrational line positions and levels performed recently by an IUPAC sponsored task group. Two-hundred and sixty-six levels are newly determined and 46 are corrected by more than 0.015 cm-1 compared to those recommended by the water IUPAC task group. The overall agreement between variational and measured intensities is satisfactory. A complete empirical list of 4473 transitions incorporating all the experimental information at disposal was constructed for water in the studied region. The intensity cut-off was fixed

  7. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ... (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  8. Ultrabroadband single-cycle terahertz pulses with peak fields of 300 kV cm-1 from a metallic spintronic emitter (United States)

    Seifert, T.; Jaiswal, S.; Sajadi, M.; Jakob, G.; Winnerl, S.; Wolf, M.; Kläui, M.; Kampfrath, T.


    We explore the capabilities of metallic spintronic thin-film stacks as a source of intense and broadband terahertz electromagnetic fields. For this purpose, we excite a W/CoFeB/Pt trilayer (thickness of 5.6 nm) on a large-area glass substrate (diameter of 7.5 cm) by a femtosecond laser pulse (energy 5.5 mJ, duration 40 fs, and wavelength 800 nm). After focusing, the emitted terahertz pulse is measured to have a duration of 230 fs, a peak field of 300 kV cm-1, and an energy of 5 nJ. In particular, the waveform exhibits a gapless spectrum extending from 1 to 10 THz at 10% of its amplitude maximum, thereby facilitating nonlinear control over matter in this difficult-to-reach frequency range on the sub-picosecond time scale.

  9. 天然与合成紫晶的3 543 cm-1红外吸收谱带及其鉴定价值%The 3 543 cm-1 Infrared Absorption Band in Natural and Synthetic Amethyst and Its Value in Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir S. Balitsky; Denis V. Balitsky; Galina V. Bondarenko; Olga V. Balitskaya


    重点对3 800~3 000 cm-1范围的红外吸收光谱在鉴别天然与合成紫晶中的适用性和局限性进行了研究.3 680, 3 664, 3 630 cm-1处吸收带的存在可以确认紫晶为人工合成的, 但仅指那些在近中性NH4F溶液中合成的紫晶.相反, 商业上大量的合成紫晶是在碱性K2CO3溶液中合成的, 这些紫晶的红外吸收光谱并无明显的鉴定特征.前人的研究发现了在近3 595, 3 543 cm-1处吸收带的潜在鉴定价值.3 595 cm-1吸收带在合成紫晶的红外吸收光谱中并未出现, 在一些天然紫晶中也常常缺失.3 543 cm-1吸收带出现在绝大多数碱性溶液中合成紫晶的红外吸收光谱中, 但有时也在天然紫晶中出现.因此, 它只是鉴别合成紫晶的临时性证据.3 543 cm-1吸收带在有些类型的合成紫晶中缺失.要准确地鉴定天然与合成紫晶一定要根据其红外光谱、内部生长结构(包括双晶)和包裹体特征综合判断.

  10. Transparency of the 2 μm (5000 cm-1) methane window in Titan's atmosphere and impact on retrieved surface reflectivity (United States)

    Rannou, Pascal; Seignovert, Benoit; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe


    The study of Titan properties with remote sensing relies on a good knowledge of the atmosphere properties. The in-situ observations made by Huygens combined with recent advances in the definition of methane properties enable to model and interpret observations with a very good accuracy. Thanks to these progresses, we can analyze in this work the observations made at the limb of Titan in order to retrieve information on the haze properties as its vertical profiles and its spectral behaviour along the VIMS/Cassini range (from 0.88 to 5.1 μm). However, for applications to real atmospheres, one need to account for the widening of the spectroscopic lines (e.g., Voigt profile) and apply an empirical cut-off of the far wings. In general, this is a multiplying function of the wavenumber, f(ν), applied to the Voigt profile that allows a faster decay of the wing profile beyond a given distance from the center of the line ν0 : f(ν)=1 if |ν- ν0| ≤ Δν, and f(ν)=exp(-|ν- ν0|/ σ) if |ν- ν0| > Δν. Although the 2-μm window is apparently straitforward to model, it appears that the standard cut-off parameters (that is Δν ~ 26 cm-1 and σ ~ 120 cm-1) which is used for other windows in Titan's atmosphere is not adequat for this window. Other sets of parameter must be used to reproduce Titan spectrum at 2 μm. However, there is no convergence of the results between these works and a large variety of cut-off parameters are used. Alternatively, it was found that some gas absorptions (ethane and another unknown gas) leave a signature around 2-μm and also affect the transparency in this window. In our study we make an exhaustive investigation on the cut-off parameters to determine which are the best couples of parameters to fit the 2-μm window. We also evaluated how gaseous absorptions can allow to reach a satisfactory agreement and, especially, if it allows to match observations with the standard cut-off. Finally, we investigate the impact of the different solutions

  11. Contribution des différentes fonctions chimiques dans les bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes situées à 1710, 1630 et 3430 cm -1 Contribution of Different Chemical Functions in the 1710, 1630 and 3430 Cm -1 Infrared Absoption Bands of Kerogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin P. L.


    Full Text Available Afin d'estimer la contribution de divers groupes fonctionnels dans certaines bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes, on a mesuré les variations de coefficient d'absorption que provoquent des traitements chimiques affectant spécifiquement les groupements concernés. Les traitements visant à transformer les hydroxyles, responsables de labande à 3 430 cm-I, se sont révélés peu efficaces; par contre l'étude portant sur deux autres bandes a été plus fructueuse. On peut déterminer la contribution des groupements carbonyles, acides et esters dans la bande à 1710 cm-1. On peut également estimer la contribution de l'eau moléculaire, des carbonyles quinoniques, des insaturations oléfiniques et des vibrations de noyaux aromatiques dans la bande à 1630 cm-1. On dispose ainsi d'une méthode de caractérisation des kérogènes qui peut être mise en oeuvre pour affiner leur analyse chimique et fournir une sorte d'analyse fonctionnelle. La méthode présentée ne consomme que peu de produit; elle est directe, assez rapide et se prête bien à une étude comparative de séries d'échantillons. In order to estimate the contribution of various functional groups to certain infrared absorption bands of kerogen, measurements were made of the absorption coefficient variations, resulting from chemical treatments that specifically affect the groups concerned. The treatments used for transforming the hydroxyl groups, responsible for the band at 3 430 cm-1, were not very effective; however the study of two other bands was more successful. The respective contribution of carbonyl groups, acids and esters to the band at 1 710 cm-1 can be determined. It is also possible to estimate the contribution of molecular water, quinone carbonyl groups, olefin type unsaturations and vibrations of aromatic rings to the band at 1 630 cm-1. Kerogens can thus be characterized by a method that is complementary to elemental analysis by providing a sort of functional

  12. Vibration and vibration-torsion levels of the S1 state of para-fluorotoluene in the 580-830 cm-1 range: Interactions and coincidences (United States)

    Tuttle, William D.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.


    A study of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels of para-fluorotoluene in the 580-830 cm-1 region is presented, where a number of features are located whose identity is complicated by interactions and overlap. We examine this region with a view to ascertaining the assignments of the bands; in particular, identifying those that arise from interactions involving various zero-order states (ZOSs) involving both vibrations and torsions. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is employed to identify the wavenumbers of the relevant transitions, and subsequently zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectra are recorded to assign the various eigenstates. In some cases, a set of ZEKE spectra are recorded across the wavenumber range of a REMPI feature, and we construct what we term a two-dimensional ZEKE (2D-ZEKE) spectrum, which allows the changing ZOS contributions to the eigenstates to be ascertained. Assignment of the observed bands is aided by quantum chemical calculations and all b1 and a2 symmetry vibrational wavenumbers are now determined in the S1 state and cation, as well as those of the D10 vibration. We also compare to the activity seen in the corresponding S1 ← S0 spectrum of para-difluorobenzene.

  13. Reflectance spectra of Titan tholin between 7000 and 10 cm-1. Interpretation of Cassini/CIRS observation of Saturn's satellite Phoebe (United States)

    Brucato, J. R.; Migliorini, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Dotto, E.; Mennella, V.


    Context. Laboratory experiments provide a great support to astronomical studies in that they are the most suited technique to reproduce, model and interpret the observational data. Aims: We investigate the spectroscopic properties of particulate and flat slab of tholin samples in a wide MIR and FIR spectral range at cryogenic temperature to contribute to the interpretation of the observation of Saturn satellite Phoebe obtained with the Cassini CIRS instrument. Methods: Reflectance spectra of Titan tholin were obtained in the 7000-10 cm-1 spectral region by a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in vacuum. Several optical setups were used to cover this wide spectral range. Specular and diffuse reflectance spectra were obtained. A cryostat was interfaced to the spectrometer for reflectance measurements at low temperatures. It was cooled by a continuum flux of cryogenic fluid from about 300 to 72 K. Results: It is shown that powder and slab tholin have a different reflectance that depends on geometrical factors and wavelength ranges. The emissivity of Phoebe is reproduced by flat slab tholin covered by a thin layer of water ice. Conclusions: A considerable amount of compact smooth millimeter-size carbonaceous compounds are present on the Phoebe satellite covered with water ice and tholin regolith. This confirms a surface highly processed by small object impacts and a peculiar nature of Phoebe with respect to other Saturn satellites. It could be a primitive Kuiper belt object captured by Saturn that contains an high amount of HCN-like polymers active in prebiotic chemistry.

  14. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.


    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal

  15. Interpretations from resistivity and lithologic logs in selected wells in the Williston basin (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the interpretations from borehole electric (resistivity) logs from oil and gas wells and lithologic logs from nearby water wells. These...

  16. Regolith lithology mapping in sedimentary environment using airborne gamma-ray, morphology and borehole data


    Lacquement, Frederic; Tourliere, Bruno; Martelet, Guillaume; Prognon, François; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre


    International audience; Knowledge of the regolith, i.e. surface geology, is increasingly demanded to serve societal needs. As a response to this demand, the reference information published worldwide in soil and regolith maps is the lithology. However, acquisition of this information in the field (and at the laboratory) is expensive and time consuming. Natural gamma-ray signals are influenced by lithological as well as physico-chemical properties of the first meter of the ground. In order to a...

  17. Evaluating the Use of an Object-Based Approach to Lithological Mapping in Vegetated Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grebby


    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based approaches to lithological mapping are traditionally pixel-oriented, with classification performed on either a per-pixel or sub-pixel basis with complete disregard for contextual information about neighbouring pixels. However, intra-class variability due to heterogeneous surface cover (i.e., vegetation and soil or regional variations in mineralogy and chemical composition can result in the generation of unrealistic, generalised lithological maps that exhibit the “salt-and-pepper” artefact of spurious pixel classifications, as well as poorly defined contacts. In this study, an object-based image analysis (OBIA approach to lithological mapping is evaluated with respect to its ability to overcome these issues by instead classifying groups of contiguous pixels (i.e., objects. Due to significant vegetation cover in the study area, the OBIA approach incorporates airborne multispectral and LiDAR data to indirectly map lithologies by exploiting associations with both topography and vegetation type. The resulting lithological maps were assessed both in terms of their thematic accuracy and ability to accurately delineate lithological contacts. The OBIA approach is found to be capable of generating maps with an overall accuracy of 73.5% through integrating spectral and topographic input variables. When compared to equivalent per-pixel classifications, the OBIA approach achieved thematic accuracy increases of up to 13.1%, whilst also reducing the “salt-and-pepper” artefact to produce more realistic maps. Furthermore, the OBIA approach was also generally capable of mapping lithological contacts more accurately. The importance of optimising the segmentation stage of the OBIA approach is also highlighted. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the potential of OBIA for lithological mapping applications, particularly in significantly vegetated and heterogeneous terrain.

  18. Prediction of lithological traps in the mezozoic of South Emba oil-bearing province. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proshlyakov, B.K.; Gal' yanova, T.I.; Pimenov, Yu.G.; Lyapunov, Yu.V.


    Using concrete data, the possibility of discovering lithological traps of oil and gas in Mezozoic rocks is substantiated and the directions of prospecting are indicated. A vast amount of core and oil well data have been collected and analyzed with this purpose in view. A series of maps characterizing the lithological composition of rocks and their distribution has been drawn up. A number of promising areas have been identified.

  19. Assessment of the Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ transcript and protein levels in laboratory and field-derived imidacloprid-resistant insects and cross-metabolism potential of the recombinant enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Roditakis; Evangelia Morou; Anastasia Tsagkarakou; Maria Riga; Ralf Nauen; Mark Paine; Shai Morin; John Vontas


    Over-expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1 gene has been associated with imidacloprid resistance in a number of Q and B biotype Bemisia tabaci laboratory strains from distinct geographical origins worldwide.We recently demonstrated that the Q biotype version of the CYP6CM1 protein(CYP6CM1vQ)is capable of metabolizing imidacloprid.Here,we show that the levels of BtCYP6CM1vQ were also elevated in laboratoryresistant strains and field-derived populations,with variable imidacloprid resistance levels,collected in Crete.High levels of CYP6CM1vQ transcripts were also determined in survivors of a heterogeneous field population,after exposure to discriminating imidacloprid dosage.Using peptide antibody-based detection assays,we demonstrated that in line with transcriptional data,the YP6CM1vQ protein levels were higher in imidacloprid-resistant insects,which further implicates the gene as the causal factor of resistance.Finally,assessment of the cross-metabolism potential of CYP6CM1vQ against additional neonicotinoid olecules used for B.tabaci control revealed that clothianidin and thiacloprid,but not acetamiprid or thiamethoxam,are metabolized by the recombinant enzyme in vitro.

  20. Effect of lithological data of different scales on modelling landslide susceptibility maps (United States)

    Gassner, C.; Petschko, H.; Bell, R.; Glade, T.


    In landslide susceptibility modelling, lithology is often only available at rather coarse scales. The effects of this course resolution on the final map are often unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how different lithological data affect the results of landslide susceptibility modelling and to analyse spatial differences in the resulting maps in Scheibbs, a district of Lower Austria. Within this study logistic regression is used to model landslide susceptibility, focusing on the consequences deriving from the use of two different lithological datasets (mapping scale 1:200,000 and 1:50,000). Here, the dependent variable is the landslide inventory and the independent variables are derivates of the digital elevation model (DEM) at a 10m resolution (slope, aspect, and curvature), the land cover map (10m x 10m) and lithological maps. Nominal data (land cover and lithology) were transformed to metric data by frequency ratios. Three different techniques are applied to evaluate model performance to allow for a comparison of the models/maps using lithological data with varying scales. The first approach uses AUROC curves of the test and training datasets, which were generated by random sampling. Secondly, the resulting susceptibility maps were classified into four classes with equal intervals. Then, the performance was evaluated from the percentages of terrain units that each model correctly classifies and the number of landslides falling within the area classified as unstable (true positives). In a third evaluation step the geomorphological quality of the resulting susceptibility maps was visually interpreted. Different classification methods (e.g. quartiles, jenks) were tested. The results show that the lithological data (1:50,000) have slightly better AUROC values. Surprisingly, the statistical validation of the true positives does not allow a definite preference in terms of best accuracy for either dataset. Test results on geomorphological value show

  1. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.


    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  2. Support vector machine as an alternative method for lithology classification of crystalline rocks (United States)

    Deng, Chengxiang; Pan, Heping; Fang, Sinan; Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Qin, Ruidong


    With the expansion of machine learning algorithms, automatic lithology classification that uses well logging data is becoming significant in formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. In fact, the complicated composition and structural variations of metamorphic rocks result in more nonlinear features in well logging data and elevate requirements to algorithms. Herein, the application of the support vector machine (SVM) in classifying crystalline rocks from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Main Hole (CCSD-MH) data was reported. We found that the SVM performs poorly on the lithology classification of crystalline rocks when training samples are imbalanced. The fact is that training samples are generally limited and imbalanced as cores cannot be obtained balanced and at 100 percent. In this paper, we introduced the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and Borderline-SMOTE to deal with imbalanced data. After experiments generating different quantities of training samples by SMOTE and Borderline-SMOTE, the most suitable classifier was selected to overcome the disadvantage of the SVM. Then, the popular supervised classifier back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), which has been proved competent for lithology classification of crystalline rocks in previous studies, was compared to evaluate the performance of the SVM. Results show that Borderline-SMOTE can improve the SVM with substantially increased accuracy even for minority classes in a reasonable manner, while the SVM outperforms BPNN in aspects of lithology prediction and CCSD-MH data generalization. We demonstrate the potential of the SVM as an alternative to current methods for lithology identification of crystalline rocks.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for a Field Instrument: Patterns of Lithologic Provences (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Keaten, R.


    Future exploration of Mars will attempt to shed light on the mineralogy of surface materials. Instruments deployed from remote platforms should have the capability to conduct both intensive analyses as well as rapid, reconnaissance surveys while they function in the martian environment as surrogate geologists. In order to accommodate the reconnaissance mode of analysis and to compensate for analytical limitations imposed by the space-flight conditions, data analysis methods are being developed that will permit interpretation of data by recognition of signatures or "fingerprints". Specifically, we are developing a technique which will allow interpretation of diffraction patterns by recognition of characteristic signatures of different lithologic provences. This technique allows a remote vehicle to function in a rapid-scan mode using the lithologic signature to determine where a more thorough analysis is needed. An x-ray diffraction pattern is characterized by the angular positions of diffracted x-rays, x-ray intensity levels and background radiation levels. These elements may be used to identify a generalized x-ray signature. Lithologic signatures are being developed in two ways. A signature is composed using the ideal powder diffraction indices from the mineral assembledge common to a specific lithologic provence. This is then confirmed using a laboratory diffraction pattern of a whole rock powder. Preliminary results comparing the diffraction signatures of the major mineral assembledges common to basalt, carbonate, and evaporite basin deposits indicate that lithologies are differentiable as a "fingerprint". Statistical analyses are being performed to establish the confidence levels of this technique.

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for a Field Instrument: Patterns of Lithologic Provences (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Keaten, R.


    Future exploration of Mars will attempt to shed light on the mineralogy of surface materials. Instruments deployed from remote platforms should have the capability to conduct both intensive analyses as well as rapid, reconnaissance surveys while they function in the martian environment as surrogate geologists. In order to accommodate the reconnaissance mode of analysis and to compensate for analytical limitations imposed by the space-flight conditions, data analysis methods are being developed that will permit interpretation of data by recognition of signatures or "fingerprints". Specifically, we are developing a technique which will allow interpretation of diffraction patterns by recognition of characteristic signatures of different lithologic provences. This technique allows a remote vehicle to function in a rapid-scan mode using the lithologic signature to determine where a more thorough analysis is needed. An x-ray diffraction pattern is characterized by the angular positions of diffracted x-rays, x-ray intensity levels and background radiation levels. These elements may be used to identify a generalized x-ray signature. Lithologic signatures are being developed in two ways. A signature is composed using the ideal powder diffraction indices from the mineral assembledge common to a specific lithologic provence. This is then confirmed using a laboratory diffraction pattern of a whole rock powder. Preliminary results comparing the diffraction signatures of the major mineral assembledges common to basalt, carbonate, and evaporite basin deposits indicate that lithologies are differentiable as a "fingerprint". Statistical analyses are being performed to establish the confidence levels of this technique.

  5. Examination of Multiple Lithologies Within the Primitive Ordinary Chondrite NWA 5717 (United States)

    Cato, M. J.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Morris, R. V.


    Northwest Africa 5717 is a primitive (subtype 3.05) ungrouped ordinary chondrite which contains two apparently distinct lithologies. In large cut meteorite slabs, the darker of these, lithology A, looks to host the second, much lighter in color, lithology B (upper left, Fig. 1). The nature of the boundary between the two is uncertain, ranging from abrupt to gradational and not always following particle boundaries. The distinction between the lithologies, beyond the obvious color differences, has been supported by a discrepancy in oxygen isotopes and an incongruity in the magnesium contents of chondrule olivine. Here, quantitative textural analysis and mineralogical methods have been used to investigate the two apparent lithologies within NWA 5717. Olivine grains contained in a thin section from NWA 7402, thought to be paired to 5717, were also measured to re-examine the distinct compositional range among the light and dark areas. Procedure: Particles from a high-resolution mosaic image of a roughly 13x15cm slice of NWA 5717 were traced in Adobe Photoshop. Due to the large size of the sample, visually representative regions of each lithology were chosen to be analyzed. The resulting layers of digitized particles were imported into ImageJ, which was used to measure their area, along with the axes, the angle from horizontal, and the centroid coordinates of ellipses fitted to each particle following the approach. Resulting 2D pixel areas were converted to spherical diameters employing the unfolding algorithm, which outputs a 3D particle size distribution based on digitized 2D size frequency data. Spatstat was used to create kernel density plots of the centroid coordinates for each region. X-ray compositional maps, microprobe analyses, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was conducted on a thin section of NWA 7402, tentatively paired to NWA 5717.

  6. Predicting formation lithology from Iog data by using a neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin


    In order to increase drilling speed in deep complicated formations in Kela-2 gas field,Tarim Basin,Xinjiang,west China,it is important to predict the formation lithology for drilling bit optimization.Based on the conventional back propagation(BP)model,an improved BP model was proposed,with main modifications of back propagation of error,self-adapting algorithm,and activation function,also a prediction program was developed.The improved BP model was successfully applied to predicting the lithology of formations to be drilled in the Kela-2 gas field.

  7. An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian A.S.; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Møller, Ingelise


    We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne skyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the resistivity structure of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys and to ensure a high standard for groundwater quality. Borehole ...

  8. Lithologically inherited variation in Pb isotope ratios in sedimentary soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Knowledge on the lithologically inherited variation in present day Pb isotope ratios in soils is remarkably limited. Such information is essential to determine the anthropogenic Pb fraction and anthropogenic Pb sources in Pb-polluted soils. This study presents results of a survey of subsoil samples

  9. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between airborne electromagnetic data and borehole lithological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    We present a large-scale study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data contains information about subsurface geology and hydrologic properties; however extracting this information is not trivial....

  10. Pattern recognition in lithology classification: modeling using neural networks, self-organizing maps and genetic algorithms (United States)

    Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.


    Effective characterization of lithology is vital for the conceptualization of complex aquifer systems, which is a prerequisite for the development of reliable groundwater-flow and contaminant-transport models. However, such information is often limited for most groundwater basins. This study explores the usefulness and potential of a hybrid soft-computing framework; a traditional artificial neural network with gradient descent-momentum training (ANN-GDM) and a traditional genetic algorithm (GA) based ANN (ANN-GA) approach were developed and compared with a novel hybrid self-organizing map (SOM) based ANN (SOM-ANN-GA) method for the prediction of lithology at a basin scale. This framework is demonstrated through a case study involving a complex multi-layered aquifer system in India, where well-log sites were clustered on the basis of sand-layer frequencies; within each cluster, subsurface layers were reclassified into four depth classes based on the maximum drilling depth. ANN models for each depth class were developed using each of the three approaches. Of the three, the hybrid SOM-ANN-GA models were able to recognize incomplete geologic pattern more reasonably, followed by ANN-GA and ANN-GDM models. It is concluded that the hybrid soft-computing framework can serve as a promising tool for characterizing lithology in groundwater basins with missing lithologic patterns.

  11. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.


    alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM) data valuable for the structural input to large...

  12. Joint Inversion of Geochemical Data and Geophysical Logs for Lithology Identification in CCSD Main Hole (United States)

    Deng, Chengxiang; Pan, Heping; Luo, Miao


    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main hole is located in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt, providing significant opportunities for studying the metamorphic strata structure, kinetics process and tectonic evolution. Lithology identification is the primary and crucial stage for above geoscientific researches. To release the burden of log analyst and improve the efficiency of lithology interpretation, many algorithms have been developed to automate the process of lithology prediction. While traditional statistical techniques, such as discriminant analysis and K-nearest neighbors classifier, are incompetent in extracting nonlinear features of metamorphic rocks from complex geophysical log data; artificial intelligence algorithms are capable of solving nonlinear problems, but most of the algorithms suffer from tuning parameters to be global optimum to establish model rather than local optimum, and also encounter challenges in making the balance between training accuracy and generalization ability. Optimization methods have been applied extensively in the inversion of reservoir parameters of sedimentary formations using well logs. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate solution from the logging response equations of optimization method because of the strong overlapping of nonstationary log signals when applied in metamorphic formations. As oxide contents of each kinds of metamorphic rocks are relatively less overlapping, this study explores an approach, set in a metamorphic formation model and using the Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno (BFGS) optimization algorithm to identify lithology from oxide data. We first incorporate 11 geophysical logs and lab-collected geochemical data of 47 core samples to construct oxide profile of CCSD main hole by using backwards stepwise multiple regression method, which eliminates irrelevant input logs step by step for higher statistical significance and accuracy. Then we establish oxide response

  13. [High Precision Identification of Igneous Rock Lithology by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wei-gang; Yan, Zhi-quan


    In the field of petroleum exploration, lithology identification of finely cuttings sample, especially high precision identification of igneous rock with similar property, has become one of the geological problems. In order to solve this problem, a new method is proposed based on element analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Total Alkali versus Silica (TAS) diagram. Using independent LIBS system, factors influencing spectral signal, such as pulse energy, acquisition time delay, spectrum acquisition method and pre-ablation are researched through contrast experiments systematically. The best analysis conditions of igneous rock are determined: pulse energy is 50 mJ, acquisition time delay is 2 μs, the analysis result is integral average of 20 different points of sample's surface, and pre-ablation has been proved not suitable for igneous rock sample by experiment. The repeatability of spectral data is improved effectively. Characteristic lines of 7 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) commonly used for lithology identification of igneous rock are determined, and igneous rock samples of different lithology are analyzed and compared. Calibration curves of Na, K, Si are generated by using national standard series of rock samples, and all the linearly dependent coefficients are greater than 0.9. The accuracy of quantitative analysis is investigated by national standard samples. Element content of igneous rock is analyzed quantitatively by calibration curve, and its lithology is identified accurately by the method of TAS diagram, whose accuracy rate is 90.7%. The study indicates that LIBS can effectively achieve the high precision identification of the lithology of igneous rock.

  14. Iron-chelating and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one(CM1)in longterm iron loading β-thalassemic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanokwan; Kulprachakarn; Nittaya; Chansiw; Kanjana; Pangjit; Chada; Phisalaphong; Suthat; Fucharoen; Robert; C.Hider; Sineenart; Santitherakul; Somdet; Srichairatanakool


    Objective:To evaluate the iron—chelating properties and free—radical scavenging activities of1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methyIpyridin—4-one(CM1) treatment in chronic iron-loaded β-thalassemic(BKO) mice.Methods:The BKO mice were fed with a ferrocene-rich diet and were orally administered with CM1|50 mg/(kg·day)| for 6 months.Blood levels of non-transferrin hound iron,labile plasma iron.ferritin(Ft) and malondialdehyde were determined.Results:The BKO mice were fed with an iron diet for 8 months which resulted in iron overload.Interestingly,the mice showed a decrease in the non—transferrin bound iron,labile plasma iron and malondialdehyde levels,but not the Ft levels after continuous CM1 treatment.Conclusions:CM1 could be an effective oral iron chelator that can reduce iron overload and lipid peroxidation in chronic iron overload β—thalassemic mice.

  15. Plankton from Early Cambrian black shale series on the Yangtze Platform, and its influences on lithologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas BRAUN; CHEN Junyuan


    Black shales, cherts, and associated lithologies in the Early Cambrian of the Yangtze Platform yielded abundant phytoplankton, the earliest well preserved skeletons of zooplankton (radiolarians) and abundant phosphatic ovoid bodies, probably representing fecal pellets, produced by Mesozooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. The oceanic food chain in surface waters is therefore considered to be more complete than known up to now with respect to primary and secondary consumers in the Early Cambrian plankton ecosystem. On the basis of primary sedimentary compositions preserved in phosphorite concretions and chert layers it is shown that biosiliceous sedimentation mixed with organic substance played a significant role within the black shale sequence of the Hetang and Niutitang formations. The resulting lithology corresponds closely in character to the bituminous Alum-shale and Lydite-sequences of Lower Silurian (Llandoverian) age along northern Gondwana (e.g. Thuringia, Bohemia).

  16. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.


    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  17. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Sacremento Valley (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A preliminary analysis of the HCMM imagery of the project area indicated that locally some differentiation of lithologic units within the Northern Coast Range may be possible. Of significance, however, was a thermally cool linear area that appeared on the 30 May 1978 Nite-IR. This linear feature seemed to coincide with the Bear Mt. Fault and with the axis of the Chico Monocline along the eastern margin of the Sacramento Valley.

  18. The Relationship Between Lithology and Slope Morphology in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Khanchoul


    Full Text Available The relationship between lithology and slope morphology is investigated at eight sites on granitic, andesitic, andsedimentary hillslopes in the Tucson Mountains, Arizona. Several methods are used in the study. Topographic profi lesare constructed. Skewness indices, slope length, and mean slope angles of the different slope profi les are computed andcompared with each other. Debris size analysis has permitted for some profi les, the determination of hillfront/piedmontjunctions. The nature and structural characteristics of the bedrock are the ones that determine the hillslope morphologyin this semi-arid region. There are, as a matter of fact, variations in profi les on the same bedrock nature but differentlyexposed. More precise morphologic studies have been also done in comparing the different lithologic pairs. They havepermitted to show some similarities in shapes. The granitic-andesitic slopes and andesiic-sedimentary slopes are thebest comparisons which show the relationship between lithology and slope morphology. The granitic-sedimentary sloperelationship is shown in the hillfront concavities, mountain front and piedmont mean slope angles.

  19. Landsat-TM-Based Discrimination of Lithological Units Associated with the Purtuniq Ophiolite, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooil M. Moon


    Full Text Available In order to better constrain the utility of multispectral datasets in the characterization of surface materials, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM data were evaluated in the discrimination of geological classes in the Cape Smith Belt of Quebec, a greenstone belt that hosts Early Proterozoic units including those of the Purtuniq ophiolite. Ground-based measurements collected for the study area highlight the importance of chemical alteration in controlling the reflectance properties of key geological classes. The spatial distribution of exposed lithologies in the study area was determined through (1 image classification using a feedforward backpropagation neural network classifier; and (2 generation of fraction images for spectral end members using a linear unmixing algorithm and ground reflectance data. Despite some shortcomings, the database of surface cover generated by the neural network classifier is a useful representation of the spatial distribution of exposed geological materials in the study area, with an overall agreement with ground truth of 87.7%. In contrast, the fraction images generated through unmixing are poor representations of ground truth for several key lithological classes. These results underscore both the considerable utility and marked limitations of Landsat TM data in the mapping of igneous and metamorphic lithologies.

  20. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Marker


    Full Text Available Large-scale integrated hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM data valuable for the structural input to large-scale groundwater models. We present a novel method to automatically integrate large AEM data-sets and lithological information into large-scale hydrological models. Clay-fraction maps are produced by translating geophysical resistivity into clay-fraction values using lithological borehole information. Voxel models of electrical resistivity and clay fraction are classified into hydrostratigraphic zones using k-means clustering. Hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are estimated by hydrological calibration using hydraulic head and stream discharge observations. The method is applied to a Danish case study. Benchmarking hydrological performance by comparison of simulated hydrological state variables, the cluster model performed competitively. Calibrations of 11 hydrostratigraphic cluster models with 1–11 hydraulic conductivity zones showed improved hydrological performance with increasing number of clusters. Beyond the 5-cluster model hydrological performance did not improve. Due to reproducibility and possibility of method standardization and automation, we believe that hydrostratigraphic model generation with the proposed method has important prospects for groundwater models used in water resources management.

  1. An interactive image segmentation method for lithological boundary detection: A rapid mapping tool for geologists (United States)

    Vasuki, Yathunanthan; Holden, Eun-Jung; Kovesi, Peter; Micklethwaite, Steven


    Large volumes of images are collected by geoscientists using remote sensing platforms. Manual analysis of these images is a time consuming task and there is a need for fast and robust image interpretation tools. In particular the reliable mapping of lithological boundaries is a critical step for geological interpretation. In this contribution we developed an interactive image segmentation algorithm that harnesses the geologist's input and exploits automated image analysis to provide a practical tool for lithology boundary detection, using photographic images of rock surfaces. In the proposed method, the user is expected to draw rough markings to indicate the locations of different geological units in the image. Image segmentation is performed by segmenting regions based on their homogeneity in colour. This results in a high density of segmented regions which are then iteratively merged based on the colour of different geological units and the user input. Finally, a post-processing step allows the user to edit the boundaries. An experiment was conducted using photographic rock surface images collected by a UAV and a handheld digital camera. The proposed technique was applied to detect lithology boundaries. It was found that the proposed method reduced the interpretation time by a factor of four relative to manual segmentation, while achieving more than 96% similarity in boundary detection. As a result the proposed method has the potential to provide practical support for interpreting large volume of complex geological images.

  2. Lithological Conditions at the Box Canyon Site: Results of Drilling, Coring and Open Borehole Measurements 1995-1997 Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Holland, P.; Knutson, C.; Mesa, M.; Sisson, B.


    DOE faces the remediation of several contaminated sites in unsaturated fractured basalt where organic and radioactive wastes have migrated downward through fracture pathways that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect. Perched water zones located above zones of low permeability (massive basalt) create a complicated system of hydraulic baffles. Because of these large scale heterogeneities, the characterization of the lithology of the rock and the geometry of the subsurface fracture pattern is a crucial step in the development of a conceptual model of fluid flow and chemical transport, and eventually the design of a remediation system. The purpose of this data report is to compile and document the results of drilling and lithological studies conducted in open boreholes at the Box Canyon site. Lithological templates are included for each well and contain data such as drilling date, drilling method, logging method, well coordinates, Lithological log, gamma measurements, caliper measurements, core run and recovery depth, vesicular intervals, single fracture depths and descriptions, fracture zone depth and descriptions, and general comments about the borehole lithology. The lithological features were mapped for each borehole. The gamma and caliper measurements are presented as separate plots using greater resolution. Color core photos and core descriptions are also included. TV logging was used to map the lithology of the boreholes that were not cored (E, R, and T wells). This information will be further used to create a comprehensive lithological model of the subsurface. The TV logging of cored wells was viewed to compare the resolution and accuracy of TV logging to core logging. The TV logging method accurately showed large scale features such as zones of vesicularity, large fractures, fracture zones, rubble zones, and massive basalt zones, but it was difficult to detect hairline fractures, fracture orientation, and mineralization of fractures. Also, all depth

  3. Toward a Global Model of Low-Lying Vibrational States of CH_3CN: the v_4 = 1 State at 920 cm-1 and its Interactions with Nearby States (United States)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Drouin, B. J.; Pearson, J. C.; Brown, L. R.; Kleiner, I.; Sams, R. L.


    Methyl cyanide, CH_3CN, is an important interstellar molecule, in particular in hot and dense molecular cores, and it may play a role in the atmospheres of planets or of Titan. Therefore, we have recorded extensive rotational and rovibrational spectra up to ˜ 1.6 THz and ˜ 1500 cm-1, respectively. The present investigation extends our analysis of states with v_8 ≤ 2 at vibrational energies below 740 cm-1 and takes into consideration findings from an analysis of the ν _4 band and the higher-lying ν _7 (at ˜1042 cm-1) and 3ν _8 ^1 (at ˜1078 cm-1) bands. The rotational data extend to J = 87 and K = 15, infrared assignments currently extend to 55 and 12, respectively. Parameters affecting only v_7 = 1 or v_8 = 3 as well as some additional interaction parameters were kept fixed to values from (b). The largest perturbations of v_4 = 1 are caused by a Δ k = 0, Δ l = 3 interaction with v_8 = 3 at K = 8. Despite the inclusion of the interaction parameter and a centrifugal distortion correction, residuals amount to more than 200 MHz very close to the resonance. Removal of these residuals probably requires explicit inclusion of v_8 = 3 data. Several additional perturbations exist at lower as well as higher K with v_8 = 2, v_7 = 1 and v_8 = 3. Higher values of K are difficult to reproduce in spite of an extensive set of distortion parameters which, at highest orders, have rather large magnitudes, possibly indicating unaccounted interactions which would probably occur with states even higher than v_8 = 3. H. S. P. Müller et al., contribution WG03, presented at the 62nd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 18-22, 2007, Columbus, Ohio, USA. A.-M. Tolonen et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160 (1993) 554-565.

  4. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun


    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  5. LED-based Fourier transform spectroscopy of 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 in the 11,260-11,430 cm-1 range (United States)

    Serdyukov, V. I.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Lugovskoi, A. A.; Borkov, Yu. G.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.


    The absorption spectrum of the 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 carbon dioxide isotopologues has been recorded in the 11,260- 11,430 cm-1 spectral range using Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer with resolution 0.05 cm-1 at temperature 297 K and path length 24 m. The 18O enriched sample of carbon dioxide at total pressure 96.5 mbar was used for these purposes. The spectrometer used LED emitter as a light source. This gave possibility to reach the minimal detectable absorption coefficient αmin~1.4×10-7 cm-1 using 23,328 scans. In the recorded spectrum we have assigned the 00051-00001 band for both 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 isotopologues using the predictions performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. The line positions and intensities of the observed bands are found. The comparison of the observed and predicted line positions and intensities is performed confirming good accuracy of the predictions. The spectroscopic parameters for the observed bands are determined.

  6. Towards automatic lithological classification from remote sensing data using support vector machines (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael


    Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14

  7. Relationship between landslides and lithology in the Three Gorges Reservoir area based on GIS and information value model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyan WU; Jianping QIAO


    Development of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is related to many factors. Lithology is one of the indispensable internal factors, besides relative height differences, slope gradients and slope profiles. We used an information value model with geographical information system (GIS) technology to study how lithology contributes to the development of landslides from the Yunyang to Wushan segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area and we quantify the relationship between lithology and development of landslides. Via an investigation of 205 examples of past landslides, we found that the lithology of J3s, J3p and T2b contributes most. Our research results can provide a valid basis for future construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  8. Lithological influences on contemporary and long-term regolith weathering at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (United States)

    Buss, Heather L.; Lara, Maria Chapela; Moore, Oliver; Kurtz, Andrew C.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; White, Arthur F.


    Lithologic differences give rise to the differential weatherability of the Earth’s surface and globally variable silicate weathering fluxes, which provide an important negative feedback on climate over geologic timescales. To isolate the influence of lithology on weathering rates and mechanisms, we compare two nearby catchments in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in Puerto Rico, which have similar climate history, relief and vegetation, but differ in bedrock lithology. Regolith and pore water samples with depth were collected from two ridgetops and at three sites along a slope transect in the volcaniclastic Bisley catchment and compared to existing data from the granitic Río Icacos catchment. The depth variations of solid-state and pore water chemistry and quantitative mineralogy were used to calculate mass transfer (tau) and weathering solute profiles, which in turn were used to determine weathering mechanisms and to estimate weathering rates.Regolith formed on both lithologies is highly leached of most labile elements, although Mg and K are less depleted in the granitic than in the volcaniclastic profiles, reflecting residual biotite in the granitic regolith not present in the volcaniclastics. Profiles of both lithologies that terminate at bedrock corestones are less weathered at depth, near the rock-regolith interfaces. Mg fluxes in the volcaniclastics derive primarily from dissolution of chlorite near the rock-regolith interface and from dissolution of illite and secondary phases in the upper regolith, whereas in the granitic profile, Mg and K fluxes derive from biotite dissolution. Long-term mineral dissolution rates and weathering fluxes were determined by integrating mass losses over the thickness of solid-state weathering fronts, and are therefore averages over the timescale of regolith development. Resulting long-term dissolution rates for minerals in the volcaniclastic regolith include chlorite: 8.9 × 10−14 mol m−2 s−1, illite: 2.1

  9. Lithological and Surface Geometry Joint Inversions Using Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Bijani, Rodrigo; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based minimum-structure geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy may be to consider two fundamentally different types of inversions: lithological and surface geometry inversions. A major advantage of these two inversion approaches is that joint inversion of multiple types of geophysical data is greatly simplified. In a lithological inversion, the subsurface is discretized into a mesh and each cell contains a particular rock type. A lithological model must be translated to a physical property model before geophysical data simulation. Each lithology may map to discrete property values or there may be some a priori probability density function associated with the mapping. Through this mapping, lithological inverse problems limit the parameter domain and consequently reduce the non-uniqueness from that presented by standard mesh-based inversions that allow physical property values on continuous ranges. Furthermore, joint inversion is greatly simplified because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function to link multiple physical property models. In a surface geometry inversion, the model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units. This parameterization is then fully consistent with Earth models built by geologists, which in 3D typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles. As for the lithological case, the physical properties of the units lying between the contact

  10. Lithological influences on contemporary and long-term regolith weathering at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (United States)

    Buss, Heather L.; Chapela Lara, María; Moore, Oliver W.; Kurtz, Andrew C.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; White, Art F.


    Lithologic differences give rise to the differential weatherability of the Earth's surface and globally variable silicate weathering fluxes, which provide an important negative feedback on climate over geologic timescales. To isolate the influence of lithology on weathering rates and mechanisms, we compare two nearby catchments in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in Puerto Rico, which have similar climate history, relief and vegetation, but differ in bedrock lithology. Regolith and pore water samples with depth were collected from two ridgetops and at three sites along a slope transect in the volcaniclastic Bisley catchment and compared to existing data from the granitic Río Icacos catchment. The depth variations of solid-state and pore water chemistry and quantitative mineralogy were used to calculate mass transfer (tau) and weathering solute profiles, which in turn were used to determine weathering mechanisms and to estimate weathering rates. Regolith formed on both lithologies is highly leached of most labile elements, although Mg and K are less depleted in the granitic than in the volcaniclastic profiles, reflecting residual biotite in the granitic regolith not present in the volcaniclastics. Profiles of both lithologies that terminate at bedrock corestones are less weathered at depth, near the rock-regolith interfaces. Mg fluxes in the volcaniclastics derive primarily from dissolution of chlorite near the rock-regolith interface and from dissolution of illite and secondary phases in the upper regolith, whereas in the granitic profile, Mg and K fluxes derive from biotite dissolution. Long-term mineral dissolution rates and weathering fluxes were determined by integrating mass losses over the thickness of solid-state weathering fronts, and are therefore averages over the timescale of regolith development. Resulting long-term dissolution rates for minerals in the volcaniclastic regolith include chlorite: 8.9 × 10-14 mol m-2 s-1, illite: 2.1 × 10-14 mol m

  11. Igneous lithologies on asteroid (4) Vesta mapped using gamma-ray and neutron data (United States)

    Beck, Andrew W.; Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.; Prettyman, Thomas H.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Yamashita, Naoyuki


    We use data collected by the Dawn Gamma-Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) at Vesta to map compositions corresponding to nearly pure igneous lithologies in the howardite, eucrite, diogenite (HED) meteorite clan (samples likely from Vesta). At the ∼300-km spatial scale of GRaND measurements, basaltic eucrite occurs on only 3% of the surface, whereas cumulate eucrite and orthopyroxenitic diogenite are not detected. The basaltic eucrite region is generally coincident with an area of the surface with thick regolith, elevated H, and moderate crater density, and may represent the best compositional sample of primordial vestan crust. We observe an absence of pure orthopyroxenitic diogenite terrains in the Rheasilvia basin and its ejecta, an observation corroborated by VIR (0.1%), which suggests the south-polar crust was a polymict mixture of igneous lithologies (howardite) at the time of the Rheasilvia impact, or was a thick basaltic eucrite crust with heterogeneously distributed orthopyroxenitic diogenite plutons. The most dominant igneous composition detected (11% of the surface) corresponds to one of the least-abundant igneous lithologies in the HED meteorite collection, the Yamato Type B diogenites (plagioclase-bearing pyroxenites). The distribution of Type B diogenite is spatially correlated with post-Rheasilvia craters in the north-polar region that are in close proximity to the Rheasilvia basin antipode. This suggests that north-polar Type B plutonism may have been associated with the Rheasilvia impact event. We propose that this was either through 1) uplift of pre-existing plutons at the antipode through focusing of Rheasilvia impact stress, or 2) Rheasilvia impact antipodal crustal melting, creating magmas that underwent fractionation to produce Type B plutons.

  12. Shallow lithological structure across the Dead Sea Transform derived from geophysical experiments (United States)

    Stankiewicz, J.; Munoz, G.; Ritter, O.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Ryberg, T.; Weckmann, U.; Weber, M.


    In the framework of the DEad SEa Rift Transect (DESERT) project a 150 km magnetotelluric profile consisting of 154 sites was carried out across the Dead Sea Transform. The resistivity model presented shows conductive structures in the western section of the study area terminating abruptly at the Arava Fault. For a more detailed analysis we performed a joint interpretation of the resistivity model with a P wave velocity model from a partially coincident seismic experiment. The technique used is a statistical correlation of resistivity and velocity values in parameter space. Regions of high probability of a coexisting pair of values for the two parameters are mapped back into the spatial domain, illustrating the geographical location of lithological classes. In this study, four regions of enhanced probability have been identified, and are remapped as four lithological classes. This technique confirms the Arava Fault marks the boundary of a highly conductive lithological class down to a depth of ???3 km. That the fault acts as an impermeable barrier to fluid flow is unusual for large fault zone, which often exhibit a fault zone characterized by high conductivity and low seismic velocity. At greater depths it is possible to resolve the Precambrian basement into two classes characterized by vastly different resistivity values but similar seismic velocities. The boundary between these classes is approximately coincident with the Al Quweira Fault, with higher resistivities observed east of the fault. This is interpreted as evidence for the original deformation along the DST originally taking place at the Al Quweira Fault, before being shifted to the Arava Fault. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. New insights into lithology and hydrogeology of the northern Newark Rift Basin (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D. S.; Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Morgan, S.; Yang, Q.; Stute, M.; Matter, J. M.


    The marginal facies of the Triassic rift basins in the eastern United States are poorly documented, particularly on the hinge or hanging wall margins. This study presents a lithological description and multiscale petrophysical analysis of basement rocks, overlying marginal facies of the early synrift strata, and the basal contact of the Palisade Sill that were drilled and cored in the northeastern part of the Newark Basin, near its terminus. The expression of the Stockton Formation differs from that in the central basin in having thinner layers, with uncertain temporal relationship to the type area. The bottom 50 m is lithologically distinct with brick-red to dark-purple mudstones and sandstones, abundant gypsum-filled fractures, and a thin zone with anomalously high uranium concentration, not associated with organic-rich mudstones as other occurrences in the basin. The crystalline basement is apparently Fordham gneiss, overlain by a thin sandstone layer and a dark-purple hydrophilic mudstone. Despite the abundance of coarse-grained strata and multiple sets of tectonic fractures, hydraulically transmissive zones are sparse, and do not uniquely correlate to fracture and/or matrix characteristics. Enhanced transmissivity may exist along intrusion boundaries due to enhanced thermal fracturing, but more hydraulic data are needed to verify it. Comparison of petrophysical data in two boreholes ˜210 m apart shows no direct correlation of individual lithological units and their hydraulic properties, although the overall formation characteristics are similar. The results highlight challenges for outcrop correlation at the marginal edges of the rift basins and estimating reservoir properties of these heterogeneous formations.

  14. Investigation of new band parameters with temperature dependence for self-broadened methane gas in the range 9000 to 14,000 cm-1 (0.71 to 1.1 μm) (United States)

    Bowles, Neil; Passmore, R.; Smith, K.; Williams, G.; Calcutt, S.; Irwin, P. G. J.


    This paper describes new measurements and modelling of the absorption of methane gas, one of the most important gases observed in the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, between 9000 and 14,000 cm-1 (0.7 to 1.1 μm) and compares them with current best available spectral models.A series of methane spectra were measured at the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Molecular Spectroscopy Facility (based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK) using a Brüker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer. To approximate the conditions found in outer planet atmospheres, the spectra were measured over a wide range of pressures (5 bar to 38 mbar) and temperatures (290-100 K) with path lengths of 19.3, 17.6, 16.0 and 14.4 m. The spectra were recorded at a moderate resolution of 0.12 cm-1 and then averaged to 10 cm-1 resolution prior to fitting a series of increasingly complex band-models including temperature dependence. Using the most complex model, a Goody line distribution with a Voigt line shape and two lower energy state levels, the typical rms residual error in the fit is between 0.01 and 0.02 in the wings of the main absorption bands.The new spectral parameters were then compared with the measured spectra and spectra calculated using existing data and shown to be able to accurately reproduce the measured absorption. The improvement in the temperature dependence included in the model is demonstrated by comparison with existing cold methane spectral data for a typical Jovian path.

  15. Far-infrared spectroscopy of CH3OD in highly excited torsional states and the atlas of the Fourier transform spectra in the range 200-350 cm(-1). (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, I; Mellau, G C; Klee, S


    The high resolution Fourier transform far-infrared (FIR) spectrum of the torsion rotation band of CH3OD has been analyzed for the highly excited torsion states (n > or = 2) in the vibrational ground state. The spectrum shows splitting of the lines due to strong torsional-rotational-vibrational interactions in the molecule. Assignments were possible for rotational sub-bands in the torsional state as high as n = 4 and for K values up to 8 and J values of up to approximately 30 in most cases, for all the symmetry species. For the third excited torsional state n = 3 assignments were possible to K = 10. The data were analyzed with the help of the energy expansion model, which has been proven very successful in methanol. The state dependent expansion parameters are presented. These molecular parameters were able to reproduce the observed wavenumbers almost to within experimental accuracy of 0.0002 cm(-1) for clean unblended lines. These expansion coefficients should prove valuable in the calculation of precise energy values for excited torsional states up to n = 4, which is way above the torsional barrier. The detailed high-resolution spectral atlas of CH3OD has been presented in the range 200-350 cm(-1). This atlas is an extension of our earlier atlas in the range 20-205 cm(-1). The availability of this atlas in the journal will be very valuable for spectroscopists and astrophysicists seeking information in the infrared (IR) region in the laboratory and in outer space.

  16. Lithology and Stratigraphy of Holes Drilled in LANL-Use Areas of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance B. Prothro; Sigmund L. Drellack, Jr.; Brian M. Allen


    Geologic data for ten holes drilled in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Nevada Test Site are presented in this report. The holes include emplacement holes, instrumentation holes, and Underground Test Area wells drilled during calendar years 1991 through 1995. For each hole a stratigraphic log, a detailed lithologic log, and one or two geologic cross sections are presented, along with a supplemental data sheet containing information about the drilling operations, geology, or references. For three of the holes, graphic data summary sheets with geologic and geophysical data are provided as plates.

  17. Heterogeneity of lithologically-screened hydrocarbon formations governed by carbonate concretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.N.; Lyudofun, F.N.; Sidorenkov, A.I.


    The complex structure of sections of thinning of bed-collectors governed by the constant presence of a lens of carbonate-terrigenous rocks is examined. It is indicated that the thinning traps have higher concretion carbonate content than the bed arc. The closer to the lateral lithological screen in the thinning traps, the more the concretion coefficient has a directed changing gradient of increase. The conclusion is drawn that this empirical law can be used at the stage of exploring hydrocarbon formations or for tracing the thinning line of the bed collector.

  18. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T


    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  19. LP-HT anatectic processes and lithological heterogeneity in the Mindelo Migmatite Complex (NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areias, M.


    Full Text Available The Mindelo Migmatitic Complex crops out in the coastal zone north of Porto (Portugal and consists of a set of migmatitic and granitic lithologies. Field relationships, petrography, geochemistry and isotopic signature of the various lithologies allow inferring the sequence of anatectic processes that resulted in their characteristic lithological heterogeneity. The metasedimentary sequences (Schist-Greywacke Complex show chemical composition and isotopic signature identical to the metatexites. So is suggested to be the protolith of Mindelo Migmatite Complex lithologies. The melting has occurred in several structural levels and thus at different pressure and temperature conditions, resulting in rocks with specific characteristics. In shallow levels ( 3. The several pulses of different fluids that affected the Mindelo Migmatitic Complex probably are related to the emplacement of the syn and late- D3 variscan granites. The Mindelo Migmatite Complex represents an example of migmatites formed in low pressure conditions and illustrates some of the reactions involving melting in high grade pelitic rocks and subsequent mineral alterations due to infiltration of late different fluids.El Complejo Migmatítico de Mindelo aflora en la zona costera de Portugal al norte de Oporto y se compone de un conjunto de litologías migmatíticas y graníticas. Las relaciones de campo, petrografía, geoquímica y las características isotópicas de las diferentes litologías permiten inferir la secuencia de procesos anatécticos que dio lugar a su típica heterogeneidad litológica. La composición química e isotópica de la secuencia metasedimentaria del Complejo Esquisto-Grauváquico es idéntica a la de las metatexitas, lo que sugiere que sea el protolito de las litologías del Complejo de Mindelo. La fusión se ha producido en varios niveles estructurales y por lo tanto en diferentes condiciones de presión y temperatura, dando lugar a rocas con caracter

  20. Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida (United States)

    Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.


    To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

  1. Thermal regime of active layer at two lithologically contrasting sites on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil


    Antarctic Peninsula region (AP) represents one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet in the last 50 years. Despite increasing research activities along both western and eastern sides of AP in last decades, there is still a lot of gaps in our knowledge relating to permafrost, active layer and its thermal and physical properties. This study brings new results of active layer monitoring on James Ross Island, which is the largest island in northern AP. Its northern part, Ulu Peninsula, is the largest ice-free area (more than 200 km2) in the region. Due its large area, we focused this study on sites located in different lithologies, which would affect local thermal regime of active layer. Study site (1) at Abernethy Flats area (41 m a.s.l.) lies ~7 km from northern coast. Lithologically is formed by disintegrated Cretaceous calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Santa Marta Formation. Study site (2) is located at the northern slopes of Berry Hill (56 m a.s.l.), about 0.4 km from northern coastline. Lithology is composed of muddy to intermediate diamictites, tuffaceous siltstones to fine grained sandstones of the Mendel Formation. Data of air temperature at 2 meters above ground and the active layer temperatures at 75 cm deep profiles were obtained from both sites in period 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014. Small differences were found when comparing mean air temperatures and active temperatures at 5 and 75 cm depth in the period 2012-2014. While the mean air temperatures varied between -7.7 °C and -7.0 °C, the mean ground temperatures fluctuated between -6.6 °C and -6.1 °C at 5 cm and -6.9 °C and -6.0 °C at 75 cm at Abernethy Flats and Berry Hill slopes respectively. Even though ground temperature differences along the profiles weren't pronounced during thawing seasons, the maximum active layer thickness was significantly larger at Berry Hill slopes (80 to 82 cm) than at Abernethy Flats (52 to 64 cm). We assume this differences are affected by

  2. Peritidal lithologies of Cambrian carbonate islands, Carrara Formation, southern Great Basin (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.


    The Carrara Formation is a heterogeneous sequence of quartzites, siltstones, shales, limestones, dolostones, and mixed terrigenous-carbonate rocks. It is Early and Middle Cambrian in age (Stewart, 1970; Palmer, 1971). Figure 32-1 illustrates the general distribution of Carrara lithologies along a transect approximately normal to depositional strike (Fig. 32-2). The formation contains three “grand cycles” (Aitken, 1966; Palmer, 1971), which terminate at the top of massive limestone members. A fourth cycle begins with the uppermost shale of section 9 and is not illustrated in sections 3 through 8. This fourth cycle grades into the overlying Bonanza King Formation.

  3. Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data (United States)

    Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.


    The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

  4. Lanthanides in the study of lithologic discontinuity in soils from the Piracicaba river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Martins Bacchi, F.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura


    This study was designed with the objective of using lanthanides to confirm the occurrence of lithologic discontinuities, formerly highlighted by morphological and mineralogical studies and recognized by field evidence, in three soil profiles from the Piracicaba river basin, Brazil. Comparison of lanthanide concentrations in the horizons and underlying rocks indicated the presence of allochthonous soils. Application of principal component analysis to the measured elements yielded well-defined segregation into groups with cumulative variances higher than 90% for the first two components. Lanthanides were confirmed as versatile indicators to corroborate parent material discontinuities for the soil profiles studied. (orig.) 12 refs.

  5. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    Some HCMM images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depends chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semi-arid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images were limited value, except in semi-arid regions.

  6. Evolved-Lithology Clasts in Lunar Breccias: Relating Petrogenetic Diversity to Measured Water Content (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. J.; Ross, D. K.


    Studies of the inventory and distribution of water in lunar rocks have recently begun to focus on alkali suite samples as possible water repositories, particularly the most highly evolved granitoid lithologies. Although H analyses of feldspars in these rocks have so far pointed to 'low' (less than 20 ppm) H2O contents, there is sufficient variability in the dataset (e.g., 2-20 ppm) to warrant consideration of the petrogenetic factors that may have caused some granitoid-to-intermediate rocks to be dryer or wetter than others. Given that all examples of these rocks occur as clasts in complex impact breccias, the role of impact and other factors in altering water contents established by primary igneous processes becomes a major factor. We are supporting our ongoing SIMS studies of water in evolved lunar lithologies with systematic SEM and EPMA observations. Here we report a synthesis of the observations as part of developing discriminating factors for reconstructing the thermal, crystallization and shock history of these samples as compared with their water contents.

  7. Lithologic identification and characterization using ETM+ (Landsat 7. Study case of the Upsala glacier basin, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lo Vecchio


    Full Text Available The object of this study aims to evaluate and analyze digital image processing techniques applied to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, in order to demark and characterize the outcropping lithologies on the Upsala Glacier basin, Santa Cruz, Argentine Republic. The prolific technological and spatial development experienced in the last decades has given place to the generation, without precedents, of multiple remote sensors capable of capturing information of the terrestrial surface and also the improvement of digital image processing techniques and software; amongst them, the amazing possibilities in the detection and differentiation of diverse covers present on the terrestrial surface can be highlighted, such as glaciers, volcanoes, vegetation, soils, water, types of rock outcrops, etc. This situation improves mapping and monitoring of natural phenomenon in the Earth Sciences field. The proposed methodology includes radiometric corrections, elimination of unwanted covers, statistical evaluation in the combination of the most appropriate bands, application of the Z index, discretization of the statistical series, entailing tasks of spectral classification with field samples and a later validation. Valuable results were obtained by means of digital processing of images, that were validated yielding a 82% of accuracy in the proposed classification, which are good results taking into account the diversity of covers present and the lithological heterogeneity that makes up each pixel (30m. These results were also validated with existing geological maps, obtaining a good agreement.

  8. The role of rheology, crustal structures and lithology in the seismicity distribution of the northern Apennines (United States)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Barchi, M. R.; Carannante, S.; Collettini, C.; Mirabella, F.; Pauselli, C.; Valoroso, L.


    The Northern Apennines of Italy is a unique area to study active crustal processes due to the availability of high-resolution subsurface geology (deep borehole and seismic profiles) and seismicity (back-ground and seismic sequences) data. In this work we have investigated the relationship between crustal structures and lithologies, rheological profiles and seismicity cut-off by constructing three integrated profiles across the Umbria-Marche Apennines. At first approximation we observe a good correspondence between the background seismicity cut-off and the modelled brittle ductile transition (BDT): 90% of the seismic activity is located above the transition. In the area characterized by active extension, where the majority of the seismicity is occurring, most of the crustal earthquakes are confined within the brittle layer at depth rheology and therefore the position of the brittle ductile transition exerts a role at regional scale for the occurrence of crustal seismicity, however crustal structures and lithology play the major role at a more local scale and therefore they need to be considered for a better understanding of earthquake distribution within the seismogenic layer.

  9. Lithological and rheological constraints on fault rupture scenarios for ground motion hazard prediction. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.


    This paper tests a new approach to predict a range of ground motion hazard at specific sites generated by earthquakes on specific faults. The approach utilizes geodynamics to link structural, lithological and Theological descriptions of the fault zones to development of fault rupture scenarios and computation of synthetic seismograms. Faults are placed within a regional geomechanical model that is used to calculate stress conditions along the fault. The approach is based upon three hypothesis: (1) An exact solution of the representation relation that u@s empirical. Green`s functions enables very accurate computation of ground motions generated by a given rupture scenario; (2) a general description of the rupture is sufficient; and (3) the structural, lithological and Theological characteristics of a fault can be used to constrain, in advance, possible future rupture histories. Ground motion hazard here refers to three-component, full wave train descriptions of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over the frequency band 0.01 to 25 Hz. Corollaries to these hypotheses are that the range of possible fault rupture histories is narrow enough to functionally constrain the range of strong ground motion predictions, and that a discreet set of rupture histories is sufficient to span the infinite combinations possible from a given range of rupture parameters.

  10. Quantifying the impact of lithology upon the mechanical properties of rock (United States)

    Weatherley, Dion


    The physical characteristics of rock, its lithology, undoubtedly influences its deformation under natural or engineering loads. Mineral texture, micro-damage, joints, bedding planes, inclusions, unconformities and faults are all postulated to alter the mechanical response of rock on different scales and under different stressing conditions. Whilst laboratory studies have elucidated some aspects of the relationship between lithology and mechanical properties, these small-scale results are difficult to extrapolate to lithospheric scales. To augment laboratory-derived knowledge, physics-based numerical modelling is a promising avenue [3]. Bonded particle models implemented using the Discrete Element Method (DEM [1]) are a practical numerical laboratory to investigate the interplay between lithology and the mechanical response of rock specimens [4]. Numerical rock specimens are represented as an assembly of indivisible spherical particles connected to nearest neighbours via brittle-elastic beams which impart forces and moments upon one-another as particles move relative to each other. By applying boundary forces and solving Newton's Laws for each particle, elastic deformation and brittle failure may be simulated [2]. Each beam interaction is defined by four model parameters: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, cohesive strength and internal friction angle. Beam interactions in different subvolumes of the specimen are assigned different parameters to model different rock types or mineral assemblages. Micro-cracks, joints, unconformities and faults are geometrically incorporated by fitting particles to either side of triangulated surfaces [5]. The utility of this modelling approach is verified by reproducing analytical results from fracture mechanics (Griffith crack propagation and wing-crack formation) and results of controlled laboratory investigations. To quantify the impact of particular lithologic structures on mechanical response, a range of control experiments are

  11. Lithological properties of sedimentary environments in the shallow subsurface of the Northern Netherlands (United States)

    Harting, Ronald; Bosch, Aleid; Gunnink, Jan


    Society has an increasing demand from the subsurface, which in the Dutch shallow subsurface (upper 30 to 40 meters) mainly focuses on natural aggregate resources, groundwater, infrastructure and dike safety. This stimulates the demand for knowledge about the composition and heterogeneity of the subsurface and its physical and chemical properties, including the uncertainties involved. Physical and chemical properties of sediments in the subsurface have been under investigation for decades; however, the usefulness of this data for applied research and the understanding of these properties is limited. This is due to several factors: studies consist mainly of separately collected datasets, targeted at a limited amount of parameters, focused on a small number of geological units, distributed unevenly with depth and usually collected from clustered drillings with limited spatial extent or are analysed with different techniques and methods, often on disturbed samples. These factors result in a heterogeneous and biased dataset not suitable to function as a reference dataset or to statistically determine regional characteristics of geological units. To overcome these shortcomings, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands is establishing a nation-wide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties. In 2006, a drilling campaign was started using cone penetration tests, cored drillings and geophysical well logs, choosing the sites for a good geographical distribution. The lithological properties of the undisturbed cores are visually described and interpreted for lithostratigraphy and inferred sedimentary environment based on lithofacies. The location of the samples in the cores are chosen based on this description and interpretation, resulting in an evenly distributed dataset of in situ samples with respect to geological units as well as an adequate number of samples suitable for statistical analysis. Analyses are uniformly performed for grain size distribution

  12. Remote sensing studies of anorthosite and other highland lithologies of Earth's Moon (United States)

    Peterson, Chris Allan

    Ground-based and spacecraft remote sensing data were used to investigate the lithology of various highlands regions of Earth's Moon and the stratigraphic relationships among lithologic types. Telescopic near-infrared reflection spectra of high spectral resolution were used to determine lithologies exposed at numerous locations on the lunar nearside. Multispectral imagery obtained by the Galileo and Clementine, spacecraft was compared with the results of interpretation of ground-based telescopic reflectance spectra. An iron mapping technique utilizing the spacecraft data was used to identify anorthosite on the lunar farside. Chapter 2 focuses on the Humorum basin region of the nearside. Anorthosite was identified in parts of the mare-bounding ring of Humorum, excavated by fresh craters from beneath the slightly more mafic material that dominates the surface of the highlands in this region. A region to the northwest appears anomalous in optical and radar data sets. Principal components analyses of ground-based spectra and multispectral imagery of this area suggests that mare basalt was excavated by Letronne crater and that at least some cryptomare is present in the region as well. Chapter 3 reports the results of analyses of numerous spectra of the Grimaldi basin region. Noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite are the most common highland rock types present in the material emplaced there by both the Grimaldi and Orientale basin-forming impacts. Some outcrops of pure anorthosite have been exposed from beneath this more mafic material by craters on or near the inner rings of Grimaldi. Chapter 4 considers the distribution and modes of occurrence of anorthosite throughout the lunar surface. Anorthosite is associate with the inner rings of other nearside basins, including Orientale and Nectaris. On the farside, the distribution of anorthosite appears to be controlled in large part by the giant South Pole-Aitken basin. Areas near the rim of the basin were covered by

  13. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia (United States)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.


    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  14. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961 (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan


    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  15. Modelling of diffusion-limited retardation of contaminants in hydraulically and lithologically nonuniform media (United States)

    Liedl, Rudolf; Ptak, Thomas


    A new reactive transport modelling approach and examples of its application are presented, dealing with the impact of sorption/desorption kinetics on the spreading of solutes, e.g. organic contaminants, in groundwater. Slow sorption/desorption is known from the literature to be strongly responsible for the retardation of organic contaminants. The modelling concept applied in this paper quantifies sorption/desorption kinetics by an intra-particle diffusion approach. According to this idea, solute uptake by or release from the aquifer material is modelled at small scale by a "slow" diffusion process where the diffusion coefficient is reduced as compared to the aqueous diffusion coefficient due to (i) the size and shape of intra-particle pores and (ii) retarded transport of solutes within intra-particle pores governed by a nonlinear sorption isotherm. This process-based concept has the advantage of requiring only measurable model parameters, thus avoiding fitting parameters like first-order rate coefficients. In addition, the approach presented here allows for modelling of slow sorption/desorption in lithologically nonuniform media. Therefore, it accounts for well-known experimental findings indicating that sorptive properties depend on (i) the grain size distribution of the aquifer material and (ii) the lithological composition (e.g. percentage of quartz, sandstone, limestone, etc.) of each grain size fraction. The small-scale physico-chemical model describing sorption/desorption is coupled to a large-scale model of groundwater flow and solute transport. Consequently, hydraulic heterogeneities may also be considered by the overall model. This coupling is regarded as an essential prerequisite for simulating field-scale scenarios which will be addressed by a forthcoming publication. This paper focuses on mathematical model formulation, implementation of the numerical code and lab-scale model applications highlighting the sorption and desorption behavior of an organic

  16. Adaptive Identification of Logging Lithology Based on VPSO-ENN Hybrid Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian; WANG Yuan-han; LI Yin-ping


    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was modified by variation method of particle velocity, and a variation PSO (VPSO) algorithm was proposed to overcome the shortcomings of PSO, such as premature convergence and local optimization. The VPSO algorithm is combined with Elman neural network (ENN) to form a VPSO-ENN hybrid algorithm. Compared with the hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm (GA) and BP neural network (GA-BP), VPSO-ENN has less adjustable parameters, faster convergence speed and higher identification precision in the numerical experiment. A system for identifying logging parameters was established based on VPSO-ENN. The results of an engineering case indicate that the intelligent identification system is effective in the lithology identification.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Dong-hong; ZHOU Hong-yi; YANG Zhong; ZHANG Xin-bao


    The dry-hot valley of the Jinsha River is one of the typical eco-fragile areas in Southwest China, as well as a focus ofrevegetation study in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River. Due to its extremely dry and hot climate, severely degraded vegetation and the intense soil and water loss, there are extreme difficulties in vegetation restoration in this area and no great breakthrough has ever been achieved on studies of revegetation over the last several decades. Through over ten years' research conducted in the typical areas-the Yuanmou dry-hot valley, the authors found that the lithologic property is one of the crucial factors determining soil moisture conditions and vegetation types in the dry-hot valley, and the rainfall infiltration capability is also one of the key factors affecting the tree growth. Then the revegetation zoning based on different slopes was conducted and revegetation patterns for different zones were proposed.

  18. Lithologic Mapping of HED Terrains on Vesta using Dawn Framing Camera Color Data

    CERN Document Server

    Thangjam, Guneshwar Singh; Corre, Lucille Le; Nathues, Andreas; Sierks, Holger; Hiesinger, Harald; Li, Jian-Yang; Sanchez, Juan A; Russell, Christopher T; Gaskell, Robert; Raymond, Carol


    The surface composition of Vesta, the most massive intact basaltic object in the asteroid belt, is interesting because it provides us with an insight into magmatic differentiation of planetesimals that eventually coalesced to form the terrestrial planets. The distribution of lithologic and compositional units on the surface of Vesta provides important constraints on its petrologic evolution, impact history and its relationship with Vestoids and howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites. Using color parameters (band tilt and band curvature) originally developed for analyzing lunar data, we have identified and mapped HED terrains on Vesta in Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. The average color spectrum of Vesta is identical to that of howardite regions, suggesting an extensive mixing of surface regolith due to impact gardening over the course of solar system history. Our results confirm the hemispherical dichotomy (east-west and north-south) in albedo/color/composition that has been observed by earlier stu...

  19. Lithology- versus base level-dependent morphogenesis of the Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range (United States)

    Baumann, Sebastian; Robl, Jörg; Salcher, Bernhard; Prasicek, Günther; Keil, Melanie


    The Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range has the highest relief in the Northern Molasse Basin in front of the Eastern Alps. The highest peaks of the range exceed an elevation of 800 m and are characterized by a local relief of about 400 m relative to the adjacent lowlands. The Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range has never been glaciated and erosion is solely driven by fluvial incision and corresponding hillslope processes since the inversion of the Molasse Basin. Landslides are frequently observed at hillslopes in the Hausruck domain in the west but are completely missing in the Kobernaußerwald domain in the east. Recent tectonic activity like faulting has not been reported for that region and the stratigraphic record shows no evidence for tectonically induced discontinuities. The morphological expression of the western Kobernaußerwald and the eastern Hausruck apparently differ in their degree of erosional landscape decay with a gently incised western and deeply incised eastern domain. These domains correspond with two different lithological units of the Upper Freshwater Molasse: The simultaneously deposited western Kobernaußerwald Formation (Kobernaußerwald domain) and the eastern Ampfelwang Formation (Hausruck domain) are interpreted as sedimentary deposits of a fluvial fan in proximal and distal position, respectively, and show fining of the sedimentary record from west to east. The stratigraphic highest unit of the study region, the Hausruck Fm., consists of well consolidated fluvial gravels uniformly covering the hill tops of both domains. We used a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model and performed a series of morphometric analyses to investigate the effects of different base levels and contrasting lithology on the topographic evolution of the Hausruck - Kobernaußerwald range. The analysis of longitudinal river profiles reveals that all channels independent from base level, bed rock and overall morphological expression are well graded with steep

  20. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels (United States)

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.


    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  1. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration. (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan


    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  2. Lithological and petrophysical evaluation of the caprock keybeds, Asmari Reservoir of Pazanan Oil Field, Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Soleimani


    Full Text Available The Pazanan oil field is located 150 km SE of ahvaz city in SW of Iran and measures 60 km long, 4-6 km wide. The caprock of this oil field were evaluated using well logs (gamma-ray and sonic logs SEM and petrographical microscopy data. The cap rock consist of mudstone, interlayers of anhydrite and bitumens shale. Therefore, it can be classified as mudstone type. On the basis of our investigations, the Caprock can be divided in to 6 keybeds: A(Anhydrite, B(Bitumenshale & some times bitumen marls, C (mudstone with interlayers of shale & anhydrite, D (mudstone & anhydrite, E (mudstone& F(mudstone & packstone, almost all of these units coverd by salt. Anhydrite beds show the following textures: microlitic, spherolite, porphyroblast, and granular. Anhydrite crystals indicate the occurrence of processes such as emplacement and calcitization. Sonic and gamma-ray well logs were used to determine lithological changes. The highest peak is correlated with mudstone units. Caprock depth varies from 2580m(min-2717m(max [northern part], 1704(min. - 2444(max. [central part],And 2050 (min.- 2490 (max. [southern part] using well drilling data. It seems that that the thickness in the southern part is less than is other part. Comparing the thicknesses of different keybeds. The maximum occurs in the c-keybeds. The sedimentar : sequence of Caprock started by mudstone, packstone and interlayers of anhydrite, followed by mudstone, anhydrite, shale-marl, as well as bitumen shale, mudstone and anhydrite and finally was overlaid by salt. Lithological variation indicate a sabkha-lacustrine environment. Therefore, the hot-wet and hot-dry climate was dominated. In some cases, Caprock thickness decreases to 6m without any gap. This thinning is related to structural deformation. Unfavorable lithologyconditions resulted is well collaps.

  3. Preliminary correlations of lithology and seismic reflectors in prograding Neogene carbonate of Great Bahama Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberli, G.P. (Geological Inst., Zurich (Switzerland)); Ginsburg, R.N.; Swart, P.K.; McNeill, D.F.; Kenter, J.A.M. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))


    Excellent overall recovery of 80% in two continuous core borings provides the data on lithology necessary to calibrate prograding late Cenozoic sequences and their seismic signatures. Hole UNDA, 10 km inside the modern platform edge of Great Bahama Bank (GBB), penetrated onlapping and topset reflectors and a buried platform rim. The 500 m core revealed two platform sequences alternating with fine grainstone units with internal hardground surfaces. At hole CLINO, 5.5 km farther basinward, 657 m of core document the progradation of GBB with 150 m of shallow platform deposits and reefal sequences over mostly fine-grained, foraminifera-rich periplatform slope sediments with intercalations of coarser beds, some of which contain platform lithoclasts. Within these slope deposits, there is significant variation in the degree of cementation; friable, porous limestones alternate with well cemented beds. Preliminary correlations between lithofacies and seismic signatures suggest a strong influence of both the sedimentologic and diagenetic facies on the seismic signal. Major lithologic changes, such as from mudstone to coral-bearing packstone or from skeletal sand to reefal limestone, produce strong reflectors. These latter transitions also coincide with seismic sequence boundaries. Within the more homogeneous slope sections, where seismic reflection horizons are not characterized by a facies change, differential cementation seems to be responsible for the seismic signal. Nevertheless, three reflectors identified as sequence boundaries are overlain by units containing coarse-grained beds with platform lithoclasts and blackened grains, indicating that these deposits were shed during low sea level and represent parts of the lowstand systems tract.

  4. Lithological control on gas hydrate saturation as revealed by signal classification of NMR logging data (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Henninges, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik


    In this paper, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) downhole logging data are analyzed with a new strategy to study gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). In NMR logging, transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves are usually used to determine single-valued parameters such as apparent total porosity or hydrocarbon saturation. Our approach analyzes the entire T2 distribution curves as quasi-continuous signals to characterize the rock formation. We apply self-organizing maps, a neural network clustering technique, to subdivide the data set of NMR curves into classes with a similar and distinctive signal shape. The method includes (1) preparation of data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning, (3) cluster definition, and (4) classification and depth mapping of all NMR signals. Each signal class thus represents a specific pore size distribution which can be interpreted in terms of distinct lithologies and reservoir types. A key step in the interpretation strategy is to reconcile the NMR classes with other log data not considered in the clustering analysis, such as gamma ray, hydrate saturation, and other logs. Our results defined six main lithologies within the target zone. Gas hydrate layers were recognized by their low signal amplitudes for all relaxation times. Most importantly, two subtypes of hydrate-bearing shaly sands were identified. They show distinct NMR signals and differ in hydrate saturation and gamma ray values. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate saturation and clay content was concluded. Finally, we infer that the gas hydrate is not grain coating, but rather, pore filling with matrix support is the preferred growth habit model for the studied formation.

  5. Developing a thermal characteristic index for lithology identification using thermal infrared remote sensing data (United States)

    Wei, Jiali; Liu, Xiangnan; Ding, Chao; Liu, Meiling; Jin, Ming; Li, Dongdong


    In remote sensing petrology fields, studies have mainly concentrated on spectroscopy remote sensing research, and methods to identify minerals and rocks are mainly based on the analysis and enhancement of spectral features. Few studies have reported the application of thermodynamics for lithology identification. This paper aims to establish a thermal characteristic index (TCI) to explore rock thermal behavior responding to defined environmental systems. The study area is located in the northern Qinghai Province, China, on the northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where mafic-ultramafic rock, quartz-rich rock, alkali granite rock and carbonate rock are well exposed; the pixel samples of these rocks and vegetation were obtained based on relevant indices and geological maps. The scatter plots of TCI indicate that mafic-ultramafic rock and quartz-rich rock can be well extracted from other surface objects when interference from vegetation is lower. On account of the complexity of environmental systems, three periods of TCI were used to construct a three-dimensional scatter plot, named the multi-temporal thermal feature space (MTTFS) model. Then, the Bayes discriminant analysis algorithm was applied to the MTTFS model to extract rocks quantitatively. The classification accuracy of mafic-ultramafic rock is more than 75% in both training data and test data, which suggests TCI can act as a sensitive indicator to distinguish rocks and the MTTFS model can accurately extract mafic-ultramafic rock from other surface objects. We deduce that the use of thermodynamics is promising in lithology identification when an effective index is constructed and an appropriated model is selected.

  6. Solid-State Chemistry as a Formation Mechanism for C 4N 2 Ice and Possibly the Haystack (220 cm -1 ice emission feature) in Titan's Stratosphere as Observed by Cassini CIRS (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; McLain, Jason L.; Nna Mvondo, Delphine; Romani, Paul; Flasar, F. Michael


    A profusion of organic ices containing hydrocarbons, nitriles, and combinations of their mixtures comprise Titan's complex stratospheric cloud systems, and are typically formed via vapor condensation. These ice particles are then distributed throughout the mid-to-lower stratosphere, with an increased abundance near the winter poles (see Anderson et al., 2016). The cold temperatures and the associated strong circumpolar winds that isolate polar air act in much the same way as on Earth, giving rise to compositional anomalies and stratospheric clouds that provide heterogeneous chemistry sites.Titan's C4N2 ice emission feature at 478 cm-1 and "the Haystack," a strong unidentified stratospheric ice emission feature centered at 220 cm-1, share a common characteristic. Even though both are distinctive ice emission features evident in Cassini Composite InfraRed (CIRS) far-IR spectra, no associated vapor emission features can be found in Titan's atmosphere. Without a vapor phase, solid-state chemistry provides an alternate mechanism beside vapor condensation for producing these observed stratospheric ices.Anderson et al., (2016) postulated that C4N2 ice formed in Titan's stratosphere via the solid-state photochemical reaction HCN + HC3N → C4N2 + H2 can occur within extant HCN-HC3N composite ice particles. Such a reaction, and potentially similar reactions that may produce the Haystack ice, are specific examples of solid-state chemistry in solar system atmospheres. This is in addition to the reaction HCl + ClONO2 → HNO3 + Cl2, which is known to produce HNO3 coatings on terrestrial water ice particles, a byproduct of the catalytic chlorine chemistry that produces ozone holes in Earth's polar stratosphere (see for example, Molina et al., 1987 Soloman, 1999).A combination of radiative transfer modeling of CIRS far-IR spectra, coupled with optical constants derived from thin film transmittance spectra of organic ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes

  7. Oil/Gas Accumulation Characteristics and Exploration Methods of the Deltaic Lithologic Reservoirs in Northern Shaanxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangHua; FuJinhua; YuJian; DuJinliang; MuJingkui


    There are large deltaic systems in the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the northern Shaanxi area of the Ordos Basin, and developed two sets of good source-reservoir-caprock assemblages and many sets of oil-beating beds. Exploration experience demonstrates that the formation and distribution of the reservoir were controlled by the generative depression of the Yanchang Formation, and deltaic reservoir sand body is the material basis for large-scale oilfields. In addition, secondary laumontite in a low permeable area was dissolved and then a high permeable area was formed. The updip lithologic variety of reservoir sand bodies is favorable to the formation of subtle lithologic traps, and the deltaic reservoirs are characterized by large multi-beds of oil-generation and abundant hydrocarbon resources. In this paper, the petroleum geologic settings of the studied area are analyzed, and the accumulation characteristics and exploration methods of lithologic reservoirs are summarized. It is of theoretical significance for the study of the exploration theories of lithologic reservoirs, and also expedites the exploration steps of deltaic reservoirs in the northern Shaanxi area.

  8. Associating fuzzy logic, neural networks and multivariable statistic methodologies in the automatic identification of oil reservoir lithologies through well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasquilla, Abel [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo]. E-mail:; Silva, Jadir da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Flexa, Roosevelt [Baker Hughes do Brasil Ltda, Macae, RJ (Brazil)


    In this article, we present a new approach to the automatic identification of lithologies using only well log data, which associates fuzzy logic, neural networks and multivariable statistic methods. Firstly, we chose well log data that represents lithological types, as gamma rays (GR) and density (RHOB), and, immediately, we applied a fuzzy logic algorithm to determine optimal number of clusters. In the following step, a competitive neural network is developed, based on Kohonen's learning rule, where the input layer is composed of two neurons, which represent the same number of used logs. On the other hand, the competitive layer is composed by several neurons, which have the same number of clusters as determined by the fuzzy logic algorithm. Finally, some data bank elements of the lithological types are selected at random to be the discriminate variables, which correspond to the input data of the multigroup discriminate analysis program. In this form, with the application of this methodology, the lithological types were automatically identified throughout the a well of the Namorado Oil Field, Campos Basin, which presented some difficulty in the results, mainly because of geological complexity of this field. (author)

  9. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.


    -silicate metasomatism, between 3075 and 2961 Ma. The trace element systematics of the least altered rocks are consistent with a subduction zone geodynamic setting. On the basis of lithological similarities between the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt and Phanerozoic forearc/backarc ophiolites, and intra-oceanic island arcs...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Rusu


    Full Text Available The geological composition is essential for the pedogenetical processes. The Oas Mountains have a special complexity, caused by the subsequent magmatism. From a lithological point of view, we can mention the rhyolites and volcanic agglomerates followed by dacites, pyroxenic hyalodacites, porphyric, pyroxenic microgranodiorites, sands and clays with gravels intercalations, sandy clays and clays with coal lenses.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Determination of Lithologies from Well Log Data: Application to the KTB Project Data set (Germany) (United States)

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar


    Fuzzy logic has been used for lithology prediction with remarkable success. Several techniques such as fuzzy clustering or linguistic reasoning have proven to be useful for lithofacies determination. In this paper, a fuzzy inference methodology has been implemented as a MATLAB routine and applied for the first time to well log data from the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). The training of the fuzzy inference system is based on the analysis of the multi-class Matthews correlation coefficient computed for the classification matrix. For this particular data set, we have found that the best suited membership function type is the piecewise linear interpolation of the normalized histograms; that the best combination operator for obtaining the final lithology degrees of membership is the fuzzy gamma operator; and that all the available properties are relevant in the classification process. Results show that this fuzzy logic-based method is suited for rapidly and reasonably suggesting a lithology column from well log data, neatly identifying the main units and in some cases refining the classification, which can lead to a better interpretation. We have tested the trained system with synthetic data generated from property value distributions of the training data set to find that the differences in data distributions between both wells are significant enough to misdirect the inference process. However, a cross-validation analysis has revealed that, even with differences between data distributions and missing lithologies in the training data set, this fuzzy logic inference system is able to output a coherent classification.

  12. Sedimentological correlation of heterogeneous reservoir rocks: effects of lithology, differential compaction and diagenetic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erik


    Correlation of reservoir rocks is a challenge in many types of reservoirs around the world today. In a time where the focus has slowly shifted away from the giant fields, towards development of smaller, more marginal fields, the importance of addressing these challenges is increasing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the effects of lithology, diagenesis and differential compaction on correlation of reservoir architecture in a fluviodeltaic reservoir. To be able to address these issues several types of data, including seismic, core sections and petrophysical wireline logs, have been subjected to measurements, calculations and interpretations to be able to construct a sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic framework based on a reservoir reconstruction work flow. First, the regional and local (field wide) geological evolution for the Aare Formation in the Heidrun Field, offshore Mid-Norway, is elucidated, including evolution of the palaeodepositional environment and the prevailing depositional controlling factors. These studies included a facies description of studied wells based on core and wireline log data, and description/ interpretation of the reservoir sequence stratigraphy. From these studies eight facies associations have been identified and described, indicating a fluvial-deltaic depositional environment. A sequence stratigraphic model based on these facies associations is suggested for the studied well data and includes five candidate sequence boundaries and eight flooding surfaces, including a marine flooding surface. Four of these surfaces are interpreted as allogeneic, suggesting regional base level change, whereas the remaining nine surfaces are suggested as resulting from local, autogenic factors. Next, the compact ability of the identified facies associations was quantified in a diagenesis study using optical microscopy, SEM micro-probe measurements and XRD analyses. The para genetic sequence proposed suggests that abundant early

  13. The SOLEIL view on sulfur rich oxides: The S2O bending mode ν2 at 380 cm-1 and its analysis using an Automated Spectral Assignment Procedure (ASAP) (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Endres, C. P.; Zingsheim, O.; Salomon, T.; van Wijngaarden, J.; Pirali, O.; Gruet, S.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.; McCarthy, M. C.; Thorwirth, S.


    The fundamental vibrational bending mode ν2 of disulfur monoxide, S2O, and the associated hot band 2ν2 -ν2 have been observed at high spectral resolution for the first time at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility using Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy. This transient species has been produced in a radio-frequency discharge by flowing SO2 over elemental sulfur. The spectroscopic analysis has been performed using the newly developed Automated Spectral Assignment Procedure (ASAP) which has enabled the accurate determination of more than 3500 energy levels of the v2 = 1and 2 vibrational states. The procedure provides a fast and convenient way to analyze large data sets in a straightforward manner, if one of the two vibrational states involved in the transition is accurately known from prior work. In addition to the high-resolution synchrotron study, pure rotational spectra of S2O in the v2 = 1 and 2 vibrational states were observed in the frequency range 250-500 GHz by absorption spectroscopy in a long-path absorption cell. From these combined measurements, extensive molecular parameter sets have been determined, including full sets of sextic and two octic centrifugal distortion terms. Highly accurate band centers (to better than 10-5 cm-1) have been derived for both vibrational bands.

  14. FTIR spectra of CH2F2 in the 1000-1300 cm-1 region: Rovibrational analysis and modeling of the Coriolis and anharmonic resonances in the ν3, ν5, ν7, ν9 and 2ν4 polyad (United States)

    Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Baldacci, Agostino; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Giorgianni, Santi; Tamassia, Filippo; Cané, Elisabetta; Villa, Mattia


    The FTIR spectra of CH2F2 have been investigated in a region of atmospheric interest (1000-1300 cm-1) where four fundamentals ν3, ν5, ν7 and ν9 occur. These vibrations perturb each other by different Coriolis interactions and the forbidden ν5 borrows intensity from the neighboring levels. Furthermore, the v4=2 state has been found to interact with the v3=1 and v9=1 states by anharmonic and c-type Coriolis resonances, respectively. The spectral analysis resulted in the assignment of about 7500 rovibrational transitions which have been simultaneously fitted, together with microwave data available in literature (Hirota E. J Mol Spectrosc 1978; 69: 409-420) [15] using the Watson's A-reduction Hamiltonian in the Ir representation and the relevant perturbation operators. The model employed includes eight types of resonances within the pentad ν3/ν5/ν7/ν9/2ν4. A set of spectroscopic constants for the four fundamentals as well as parameters for the v4=2 state and eighteen coupling terms have been determined. The simulations performed in different spectral regions well reproduce the experimental data.

  15. Influence of lithology on tracer movement in the vadose zone of the Calcaire de Beauce aquifer (France). (United States)

    Viel, Emélie; Coquet, Yves; Dedewanou, Myriam; Binet, Stéphane


    The "Calcaire de Beauce" aquifer is contaminated by nitrate and pesticides mostly coming from agricultural activities. In this region the saturated part of the aquifer is relatively well known compared to the unsaturated (vadose) zone. This unsaturated zone can extend to more than 20 m in depth, and may play a significant role in the retention and/or release of pollutants or in the rate of nitrate transfer to wells. In order to improve knowledge on the dispersion of contaminants in the vadose zone, a tracer experiment took place at the Lycée de la Saussaye near Chartres. A pit, 4 meter in width, 1.60 meter deep and 1 meter large was excavated in a Beauce limestone, giving access to the vadose zone. The surface organic soil layer (40 cm) was excavated. Thirty Liters of brilliant blue (FCF) at a concentration of 6 g/L have been applied to the surface at a rate of 0.14 L/h/m² with automatic sprinklers during 66 h. The pit has then cut successively in four vertical profiles at 0, 33, 66, 100 cm from the edge. A RGB-photo and a lithological description was taken for each vertical profile. Image processing (ratio red canal /green canal) was applied to picture the plume of brilliant blue (BB). Areas filled with BB were converted into polygons using ArcGIS and compared with the lithological description. The proportion of tracer filled area at a given depth was used to evaluate the dispersion of the tracer with depth. The lithology present within the 4 profiles was very heterogeneous from fine ocher limestone to clay. Some profils are structured with tilt around 120° to the right in the (x,z) plane. Dye maps showed irregular plume dispersion with fast flows. A "fingered" front of BB was observed and was oriented according a tilt of 110-120° in the (x,z) plane. This distribution appears to be controlled by the lithology, with tracer moving around the low permeable lithologies. Fast flow distribution and lithological observation showed the same tilt, indicating a link

  16. Tectonic, lithologic and climatic controls on knickpoint retreat rates and landscape response times (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexander; Boulton, Sarah; Kent, Emiko; Alçiçek, Cihat


    The plan-view and vertical rates at which transient knickpoints propagate through a landscape fundamentally controls geomorphic response times to tectonic and climatic perturbations. Here we present knickpoint retreat rates upstream of active faults for bedrock catchments in the Gediz graben of Turkey where past climate is well documented but where the history of faulting is not fully constrained. The rivers upstream of the normal fault-bounded graben each contain a non-lithologic knickpoint, including those that drain through inferred fault segment boundaries. Knickpoint heights measured vertically from the fault scale with footwall relief and documented fault throw (vertical displacement). Consequently, we deduce these knickpoints were initiated by an increase in slip rate on the basin-bounding fault, driven by linkage of the three main fault segments of the high-angle graben-bounding fault array. Fault interaction theory and ratios of channel steepness suggest that the slip rate enhancement factor on linkage was a factor of 3. We combine this information with geomorphic and structural constraints to estimate that linkage took place between 0.6 Ma and 1 Ma. Calculated pre- and post- linkage throw rates are 0.6 and 2 mm/yr respectively. Maximum plan-view knickpoint retreat rates upstream of the faults range from 4.5 to 28 mm/yr, and when normalised by drainage area, they are 2-7 times faster than for similar catchments upstream of normal faults in the Central Apennines of Italy and the Hatay Graben of Turkey. These knickpoint retreat rates imply a fluvial response time to fault growth and interaction of 1.6 to 2.7 My. However, marked along-strike disparities in retreat rates exist. We demonstrate that climate differences may explain the variation in rates between these study areas, but not within the Gediz graben itself. Consequently, we evaluate the extent to which measureable differences in bedrock lithology and erodibility modulate the propagation of

  17. Lithological controls on gas hydrate saturation: Insights from signal classification of NMR downhole data (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Henninges, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) downhole data are analyzed with a new strategy to study gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). NMR logging is a powerful tool to study geological reservoir formations. The measurements are based on interactions between the magnetic moments of protons in geological formation water and an external magnetic field. Inversion of the measured raw data provides so-called transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves or spectra. Different parts of the T2 curve are related with distinct pore radii and corresponding fluid components. A common practice in the analysis of T2 distribution curves is to extract single-valued parameters such as apparent total porosity. Moreover, the derived total NMR apparent porosity and the gamma-gamma density log apparent porosity can be combined to estimate gas hydrate saturation in hydrate-bearing sediments. To avoid potential loss of information, in our new approach we analyze the entire T2 distribution curves as quasi-continuous signals to characterize the rock formation. The approach is applied to NMR data measured in gas hydrate research well Mallik 5L-38. We use self-organizing maps, a neural network clustering technique, to subdivide the data set of NMR T2 distribution curves into classes with a similar and distinctive signal shape. The method includes (1) preparation of data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning, (3) cluster definition, and (4) classification and depth mapping of all NMR signals. Each signal class thus represents a specific pore size distribution which can be interpreted in terms of distinct lithologies and reservoir types. A key step in the interpretation strategy is to reconcile the NMR classes with other log data not considered in the clustering analysis, such as gamma ray, photo-electric factor, hydrate saturation, and other logs. Our results defined six main lithologies within the target zone. Gas hydrate layers were recognized by their low signal

  18. The Messinian evaporites in the Levant Basin: lithology, deformation and its evolution (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Steinberg, Josh; Reshef, Moshe


    The lithological composition of the Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin remains controversial and salt deformation mechanisms are still not fully understood, due to the lack of high resolution 3D depth seismic data and well logs that record the entire evaporite sequence. We demonstrate how 3D Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) and intra-salt tomography can lead to improved salt imaging. Using 3D PSDM seismic data with great coverage and deepwater well log data from recently drilled boreholes, we reveal intra-salt reflective units associated with thin clastic layers and a seismic transparent background consisting of uniform pure halite. Structural maps of all internal reflectors are generated for stratigraphy and attributes analysis. High amplitude fan structures in the lowermost intra-salt reflector are observed, which may indicate the source of the clastic formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin comprises six units; the uppermost unit thickens towards the northwest, whereas the other units are uniform in thickness. The top of salt (TS) horizon is relatively horizontal, while all other intra-salt reflectors and base of salt (BS) dip towards the northwest. Different seismic attributes are used for identification of intra-salt deformation patterns. Maximum curvature maps show NW-striking thrust faults on the TS and upper intra-salt units, and dip azimuth maps are used to show different fold orientations between the TS and intra-salt units, which indicate a two-phase deformation mechanism: basin NW tilting as syn-depositional phase and NNE spreading of Plio-Pleistocene overburden as post-depositional phase. RMS amplitude maps are used to identify a channelized system on the TS. An evaporite evolution model during the MSC of the Levant Basin is therefore established based on all the observations. Finally the mechanical properties of the salts will be utilized to explore salt deformation in the Levant Basin

  19. Organic Geochemistry of the Hamersley Province: Relationships Among Organic Carbon Isotopes, Molecular Fossils, and Lithology (United States)

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.


    Molecular fossils are particularly valuable ancient biosignatures that can provide key insight about microbial sources and ecology in early Earth studies. In particular, hopanes carrying 2-methyl or 3-methyl substituents are proposed to be derived from cyanobacteria and oxygen-respiring methanotrophs, respectively, based on both their modem occurrences and their Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary distributions. Steranes are likely from ancestral eukaryotes. The distribution of methylhopanes, steranes, and other biomarkers in 2.72-2.56 billion-year-old rocks from the Hamersley Province, Western Australia show relationships to lithology, facies, and isotopes of macromolecular carbon, and other biomarkers. These observations support biomarker syngenicity and thermal maturity. Moreover, ecological signatures are revealed, including a surprising relationship between isotopic values for bulk macromolecular carbon and the biomarker for methanotrophs. The record suggests that cyanobacteria were likely key organisms of shallow-water microbial ecosystems providing molecular oxygen, fixed carbon, and possibly fixed nitrogen, and methanotrophs were not alone in recycling methane and other C-13-depleted substrates.

  20. Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Baasch, Benjamin; Hanebuth, Till J. J.


    Widespread bottom trawling on the NW Iberian shelf causes chronic sediment and habitat disturbance. The few studies that have investigated vessel-modified sedimentary-structure and texture of the seabed have typically classified their results as being either impacted by trawling or not. This study indicates that bottom trawling can result in a sequence of vastly different effects to the lithology of seabed sediment, which have in turn different ecological consequences. Here, we combined very high-resolution spatial bottom-trawling data with sedimentological (grain size, porosity) and geochemical datasets (excess 210Pb, 3D petroleum fingerprinting) to study sediment disturbance, including sorting and mixing. Our results were used to develop five conceptual disturbance scenarios: minimal seabed effects, sediment overturning, complete sediment mixing, sediment grading and layering, and loss of sediment. Considering that bottom trawling is a widespread and growing global fishing technique, such impacts need to be considered in the management of habitat conservation as well as in the reconstruction of late Holocene climate history from shallow-water deposits, not just on the NW Iberian shelf, but also globally.

  1. Impacts of lithological discontinuities on the vertical distribution of dissolved trace elements in stratified soils (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Chifflard, Peter


    Runoff generation processes in low mountain ranges in middle Europe are strongly influenced by lateral fluxes of soil water caused by periglacial cover beds. Less attention has been paid to the stratification of soils in hydrologic research as a major trigger of lateral slope water paths (REISS & CHIFFLARD 2014) although especially in the low mountain ranges in Middle Europe subsurface stormflow generation is strongly influenced by the periglacial cover beds (MOLDENHAUER et al. 2013) which are a typical example for stratified soils and almost widespread everywhere in the low mountain ranges. By contrast in soil science the Substrate-Oriented-Soil-Evolution-Model (LORZ et al. 2011) underlines the importance of stratified soils and lithological discontinuities (LD) as a key element controlling ecological processes and depth functions of soil properties. Whereas depth distributions of e.g. trace elements in the soil matrix at the point scale have been already detected, investigations of dissolved trace metal concentrations in the soil pore water and their depth distribution depending on soil stratification are scarce. Based on a typical depth distribution of trace metal concentrations in soil pore water depending on lithological discontinuities these depth functions may indicate zones of preferential transport. Additionally, there is still a missing link of investigations at different scales regarding the impacts of the geochemical barriers and the pronounced depth distributions on the chemical composition of the subsurface stormflow and consequently the hillslope runoff. Therefore, we validated the hypotheses that LDs act as geochemical barriers for their vertical distribution at the point and hillslope scale and that this typical depth functions of trace elements can be used to identify sources of subsurface stormflow at the catchment scale. To address these objectives, our research and sampling design is based on a multi-scale approach combining experimental

  2. Influence of Lithological Characters of Coal Bearing Formation on Stability of Roof of Coal Seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟召平; 彭苏萍; 李国庆; 黄为; 芦俊; 雷志勇


    Lithology is one of the important factors influencing the stability of roof of coal seams. In order to investigate this, the phenomenon of underground pressure and distribution of pressure were studied by using the local observation and simulation test with similar materials. The observation results show that the distance of initial weighting and periodic weighting of the mudstone roof is shorter than that of sandstone roofs. The sandstone roof with a high strength has a longer distance of initial weighting and periodic weighting, the abutment stress on the working face is big and the height of caving and fracture zone is high. The peak point of abutment stress in the sandstone roof is near to the working face and the pressure bump is inclined to occur. The result is contrary to that in case of the mudstone roof with a low strength. While in the transition zone of nipped sandstone, roof rock-mass is broken and is poor in stability, therefore, it is difficult to hold the roof.

  3. Milankovitch-scale correlations between deeply buried microbial populations and biogenic ooze lithology (United States)

    Aiello, I.W.; Bekins, B.A.


    The recent discoveries of large, active populations of microbes in the subseafloor of the world's oceans supports the impact of the deep biosphere biota on global biogeochemical cycles and raises important questions concerning the functioning of these extreme environments for life. These investigations demonstrated that subseafloor microbes are unevenly distributed and that cell abundances and metabolic activities are often independent from sediment depths, with increased prokaryotic activity at geochemical and/or sedimentary interfaces. In this study we demonstrate that microbial populations vary at the scale of individual beds in the biogenic oozes of a drill site in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1226). We relate bedding-scale changes in biogenic ooze sediment composition to organic carbon (OC) and microbial cell concentrations using high-resolution color reflectance data as proxy for lithology. Our analyses demonstrate that microbial concentrations are an order of magnitude higher in the more organic-rich diatom oozes than in the nannofossil oozes. The variations mimic small-scale variations in diatom abundance and OC, indicating that the modern distribution of microbial biomass is ultimately controlled by Milankovitch-frequency variations in past oceanographic conditions. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. Noble Gases in Two Fragments of Different Lithologies from the Almahata Sitta Meteorite (United States)

    Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Zolensky, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.


    The Almahata Sitta meteorite, whose preat-mospheric body was the asteroid 2008 TC3, fell on October 7, 2008 in the Nubian Desert in northern Sudan [e.g., 1, 2]. Numer-ous fragments have been recovered during several expeditions organized from December 2008 [2]. The meteorite was classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite with several different kinds of chondritic fragments [e.g., 3-5]. Noble gas studies performed on several fragments from the meteorite showed cosmic-ray expo-sure ages of about 20 My [e.g., 6-8], although slightly shorter ages were also reported in [9, 10]. Concentrations of trapped heavy noble gases are variable among the fragments of different lithologies [9, 10]. We report noble gas data on two samples from the #1 and #47 fragments [2], which were the same as those re-ported by Ott et al. [9]. Experimental Procedure: Weights of bulk samples #1 and #47 used in this work were 16.1 mg and 17.6 mg, respectively. Noble gases were extracted by stepwise heating at the tempera-tures of 800, 1200 and 1800°C for #1 and 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800°C for #47. Concentrations and isotopic ra-tios of noble gases were measured with a modified-VG5400/MS-III at the Geochemical Research Center, University of Tokyo. Results and Discussion: Cosmogenic He and Ne are domi-nant in both #1 and #47, but trapped Ar, Kr and Xe concentra-tions are much higher in #47 than in #1, showing that noble gas compositions in #47 are similar to those of ureilites. 3He/21Ne and 22Ne/21Ne of cosmogenic He and Ne are 4.8 and 1.12 for #1 and 3.6 and 1.06 for #47, respectively, both of which plot on a Bern line [11]. This indicates negligible loss of cosmogenic 3He from #1 in our sample, unlike the low 3He/21Ne of 3.1 for #1 by Ott et al. [9]. Concentrations of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne (10-8 cc/g) are 30 and 6.3 for #1 and 32 and 9.0 for #47, respectively, which are higher than those in [9] and give cosmic-ray exposure ages of ca. 20 My depending on assumed production

  5. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson


    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  6. Lithologic combinations in Romanesque churches of Álava, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Torres, L. M.


    Full Text Available Certain windows and doorways on twenty five Romanesque churches of Álava (XII–XIII centuries were built using six types of rock in nine different combinations. These compositions were intended to highlight the contrast in colour between different rocks, from which it can be deduced that the openings were not hewn to be painted. After almost seven centuries during which the use of stone was anecdotal, Romanesque artists burst in with colourful blends, demonstrating a broad knowledge of the characteristics of each rock and its availability. The uniqueness of these openings is represented on lithologic maps which, in addition to facilitating its analysis and dissemination, serve as a reference in its restoration.Algunas ventanas y portadas de veinticinco iglesias románicas de Álava (siglos XII-XIII fueron construidas con hasta seis tipos de rocas en nueve combinaciones diferentes. Estas composiciones pretendían resaltar el contraste cromático entre rocas distintas, de lo que se deduce que los vanos no fueron tallados para ser policromados. Después de casi siete siglos en los que el uso de la piedra fuera anecdótico, los artistas románicos irrumpen con mezclas coloristas, mostrando un amplio conocimiento de las características de cada roca y su disponibilidad. La singularidad de estos vanos está representada en mapas litológicos que, además de facilitar su análisis y divulgación, servirán de referencia en su restauración

  7. Structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt near Lake Gaston, Virginia and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, P.E.; Horton, J.W. Jr. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))


    Preliminary results of mapping along the NC-VA State line eastward from the Buggs Is. granite about 35 km to the Hollister fault zone yield new information about structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt. The layered rocks are predominantly two-mica schist and sillimanite-mica schist interlayered with lesser amounts of muscovite-biotite-quartz-plagioclase paragneiss and hornblende-biotite gneiss. The overall rock assemblage here differs from those along strike near Goochland, VA, and near Raleigh, NC, and is reminiscent of an accretionary complex. Bodies of foliated to massive two-mica granite are abundant and commonly contain garnet. One body, the Wise pluton, contains a N--NW-striking, steeply dipping foliation, but the intrusive contact of the granite with the metamorphic rocks is discordant. The most prominent regional foliation, parallel to transposed compositional layering, is axial planar to relict, reclined, isoclinal outcrop-scale folds. This foliation is folded at both outcrop and map scale by open folds plunging NW and SW. Some foliated, two-mica granite sheets are warped by the open folds; other bodies of similar granite cut across these folds. Sillimanite needles are locally aligned with the hinges of some of the open folds, an indication that sillimanite-muscovite-grade metamorphism was associated with this folding event. The two-mica granites resemble other late Paleozoic granites in the region. If these granites prove to be late Paleozoic (Alleghanian), then the deformation and metamorphism that produced sillimanite along the hingelines also must be Alleghanian. Relatively younger, NW- and SE-plunging crenulations and chevron folds are associated with a crenulation cleavage that dips steeply NE or SW. Sillimanite needles are folded by these crenulations. Crenulation cleavage and related folds may have developed in response to transpression of these rocks between the dextral Lake Gordon and Hollister mylonite zones.

  8. Lithologic Coring in the Lower Anacostia Tidal Watershed, Washington, D.C., July 2002 (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.


    Little is known about the volumetric flux of ground water to the lower tidal Anacostia River, or whether ground-water flow is an important component of the contaminant load in this part of the Anacostia River. The watershed is in the eastern part of Washington, D.C., and has been subjected to over 200 years of urbanization and modifications of the river channel and nearby land areas. These anthropogenic factors, along with tidal fluctuations in the river, make ground-water data collection and interpretations difficult. The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the District of Columbia Department of Health, Environmental Health Administration, Bureau of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, in a study to assess nonpoint-source pollution from ground water into the lower tidal Anacostia River. Lithologic cores from drilling activities conducted during July 2002 in the study area have been interpreted in the context of geologic and hydrogeologic information from previous studies in the lower Anacostia tidal watershed. These interpretations can help achieve the overall project goals of characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant load in the study area. Hydrostratigraphic units encountered during drilling generally consisted of late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial deposits overlying Cretaceous fluvial/deltaic deposits. Cores collected in Beaverdam Creek and the Anacostia River indicated high- and low-energy environments of deposition, respectively. Two cores collected near the river showed different types of anthropogenic fill underlain by low-energy deposits, which were in turn underlain by sand and gravel. A third core collected near the river consisted primarily of sand and gravel with no artificial fill.

  9. Lithological and Petrographic Analyses of Carbonates and Sandstones From the Southern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Garcia-Avendaño, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    We present results of sedimentological and petrological studies of drill cores from the Bay of Campeche in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Based on reports on drill cores obtained from oil exploratory wells in the Cantarell Complex located 80 kilometres offshore in the Bay of Campeche and studies related to regional geology composite simplified stratigraphic columns for offshore Campeche region have been constructed up to depths of approximately 5000 m. The stratigraphic column is formed by a thick sediment sequence of Middle Jurassic age (evaporites, Callovian), Late Jurassic (terrigenous, calcareous clays and calcareous layers), Lower Cretaceous (carbonates), Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene (calcareous breccias), Paleogene-Neogene (terrigenous-carbonates intercalations) and Quaternary (terrigenous). The core samples studied come from wells in the Sihil and Akal fields in Cantarell. Analysis of reports on lithological descriptions indicates that these wells sample dolomitized sedimentary breccias from the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene and fine-grained sandstones from the Late Jurassic Tithonian, respectively. Based on results of petrographic studies, the texture, cementing material and porosity of the units have been documented. The thin sections for carbonates were classified based on their texture according to Dunham (1962) for carbonate rocks, classified according to their components using the ternary diagrams of Folk (1974). Percentages refer to the data presented in tables, which were obtained by point-counting technique (with a total 250). Photomicrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) provide magnification for easy documentation of crystalline arrangements and description of micro-porous for different types of carbonates such as dolomite, in addition to the morphology of authigenic clays. Results of these studies and previous works in the area permit characterization of diagenetic processes of the carbonate sediments in the Campeche Bay, and provide

  10. Complex Exploration Techniques for the Low-permeability Lithologic Gas Pool in the Upper Paleozoic of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuJinhua; XiShengli; LiuXinshe; SunLiuyi


    The Ordos basin is a stable craton whose late Paleozoic undergoes two sedimentary stages: from the middlelate Carboniferous offshore plain to the Permian continental river and lake delta. Sandstones in delta plain channels, delta-front river mouth bars and tidal channels are well developed. The sandstones are distributed on or between the genetic source rocks, forming good gas source conditions with widespread subtle lithologic gas pools of low porosity, low permeability, low pressure and low abundance. In recent years, a series of experiments has been done, aimed at overcoming difficulties in the exploration of lithologic gas pools. A set of exploration techniques, focusing on geological appraisal, seismic exploration, accurate logging evaluation and interpretation, well testing fracturing, has been developed to guide the exploration into the upper Paleozoic in the basin, leading to the discoveries of four large gas fields: Sulige, Yulin, Wushenqi and Mizhi.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Baoqing; JIANG Shufang; LIAO Chimei; HUANG Qiuyan; ZHOU Dequan


    Du'an Yao Autonomous County is a typical area for the distribution of karst rocky desertification in Guangxi.The indices for the grades of rocky desertification are selected according to the scientific meaning of karst rocky desertification and after the interpretative symbol system of rocky desertification. RS images are established by the landscape characteristics of Du'an karst and its TM image. Relying on RS & GIS means and taking land use map as base map, this paper conducts synthetic analysis on the 1999a TM image (126-043) and the correlation data involving landform, soil, geological map and GPS-database and photo on the spot, and brings forth a map showing the Du'an rocky desertification grades and a digital lithology map. As can be viewed from spatial correlation, the inherent connection is also illuminated between the various levels of rocky desertification and the carbonate lithology.

  12. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  13. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria (United States)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.


    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  14. Study of Channel Morphology and Infill Lithology in the Wilcox Group Central Louisiana Using Seismic Attribute Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Feng

    The fluvial and deltaic Wilcox Group is a major target for hydrocarbon and coal exploration in northern and central Louisiana. However, the characterization and delineation of fluvial systems is a difficult task due to the variability and complexity of fluvial systems and their internal heterogeneities. Seismic geomorphology is studied by recognizing paleogeographic features in seismic stratal slices, which are seismic images of paleo-depositional surfaces. Seismic attributes, which are extracted along seismic stratal slices, can reveal information that is not readily apparent in raw seismic data. The existence and distribution of fluvial channels are recognized by the channel geomorphology in seismic attributes displayed on stratal slices. The lithologies in the channels are indicated by those seismic attributes that are directly related to the physical properties of rocks. Selected attributes utilized herein include similarity, spectral decomposition, sweetness, relative acoustic impedance, root mean square (RMS) amplitude, and curvature. Co-rendering and Red/Green/Blue (RGB) display techniques are also included to better illuminate the channel geometry and lithology distribution. Hydrocarbons may exist in the channel sand-bodies, but are not explicitly identified herein. Future drilling plans for oil and gas exploration may benefit from the identification of the channels and the lithologies that fill them.

  15. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.


    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  16. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico (United States)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.


    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  17. Lithological and structural bedrock model of the Haestholmen study site, Loviisa, SE Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Front, K.; Paulamaeki, S.; Ahokas, H.; Anttila, P


    The Haestholmen study site is located within the anorogenic Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith, 1640 1630 Ma in age. The bedrock consists of various rapakivi granites, which can be divided into three groups or lithological units: (1) wiborgite and pyterlite, (2) porphyritic rapakivi granite, and (3) even-grained or weakly porphyritic rapakivi granite, pyterlite being the dominant rock type. The evengrained and weakly porphyritic rapakivi granite has been interpreted to form a younger intrusive unit with a thickness of ca. 500 m, dipping approx. 20 deg to the NNW-NNE. Surface fractures form a distinct orthogonal system, with three perpendicular fracture directions: fractures dipping steeply (dip >75 deg) to the NE-SW and NW-SE plus subhorizontal (dip <30 deg) fractures. The fracturing in the outcrops is sparse,the average fracture frequency being 0.6 fractures/m. The majority of the fractures in the drill cores are horizontal or very gently dipping and there is no difference in fracture orientations in regard to rock type or depth. Core samples are usually slightly fractured (1 - 3 fractures/m), even-grained rapakivi granites being in places abundantly fractured (3 10 fractures/m. The broken sections in Haestholmen core samples represent about 4.6 % of the total length of the samples. Calcite, dolomite, Fe- hydroxides and clay minerals (illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) form the most typical fracture mineral phases throughout the drill cores. Core discing is locally seen as repeated fracture-like subparallel cracks in core with spacing of about some millimetres to tens of millimetres. The structural model contains 27 structures (denoted by the term R+number), more than half of which have been verified by direct observations from boreholes or from the VLJ repository. The remaining structures are mainly based on the geophysical interpretation, and have been classified as probable or possible fracture zones. In addition, local structures with uncertain orientation

  18. Lithology of the long sediment record recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Brauer, Achim; Schwab, Markus J.; Waldmann, Nicolas D.; Enzel, Yehouda; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Torfstein, Adi; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Agnon, Amotz; Ariztegui, Daniel; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Stein, Mordechai


    The sedimentary sections that were deposited from the Holocene Dead Sea and its Pleistocene precursors are excellent archives of the climatic, environmental and seismic history of the Levant region. Yet, most of the previous work has been carried out on sequences of lacustrine sediments exposed at the margins of the present-day Dead Sea, which were deposited only when the lake surface level rose above these terraces (e.g. during the Last Glacial period) and typically are discontinuous due to major lake level variations in the past. Continuous sedimentation can only be expected in the deepest part of the basin and, therefore, a deep drilling has been accomplished in the northern basin of the Dead Sea during winter of 2010-2011 within the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) in the framework of the ICDP program. Approximately 720 m of sediment cores have been retrieved from two deep and several short boreholes. The longest profile (5017-1), revealed at a water depth of ˜300 m, reaches 455 m below the lake floor (blf, i.e. to ˜1175 m below global mean sea level) and comprises approximately the last 220-240 ka. The record covers the upper part of the Amora (penultimate glacial), the Last Interglacial Samra, the Last Glacial Lisan and the Holocene Ze'elim Formations and, therewith, two entire glacial-interglacial cycles. Thereby, for the first time, consecutive sediments deposited during the MIS 6/5, 5/4 and 2/1 transitions were recovered from the Dead Sea basin, which are not represented in sediments outcropping on the present-day lake shores. In this paper, we present essential lithological data including continuous magnetic susceptibility and geochemical scanning data and the basic stratigraphy including first chronological data of the long profile (5017-1) from the deep basin. The results presented here (a) focus on the correlation of the deep basin deposits with main on-shore stratigraphic units, thus providing a unique comprehensive stratigraphic framework for


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge O. Parra; C.L. Hackert; L. Wilson; H.A. Collier; J. Todd Thomas


    The goal of this project was to develop a method to exploit viscoelastic rock and fluid properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic measurements to the presence of hydrocarbon saturation. To reach the objective, Southwest Research Institute scientists used well log, lithology, production, and 3D seismic data from an oil reservoir located on the Waggoner Ranch in north central Texas. The project was organized in three phases. In the first phase, we applied modeling techniques to investigate seismic- and acoustic-frequency wave attenuation and its effect on observable wave attributes. We also gathered existing data and acquired new data from the Waggoner Ranch field, so that all needed information was in place for the second phase. During the second phase, we developed methods to extract attenuation from borehole acoustic and surface seismic data. These methods were tested on synthetic data constructed from realistic models and real data. In the third and final phase of the project, we applied this technology to a full data set from the Waggoner site. The results presented in this Final Report show that geological conditions at the site did not allow us to obtain interpretable results from the Q processing algorithm for 3D seismic data. However, the Q-log processing algorithm was successfully applied to full waveform sonic data from the Waggoner site. A significant part of this project was technology transfer. We have published several papers and conducted presentations at professional conferences. In particular, we presented the Q-log algorithm and applications at the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Development and Production Forum in Austin, Texas, in May 2005. The presentation attracted significant interest from the attendees and, at the request of the SEG delegates, it was placed on the Southwest Research Institute Internet site. The presentation can be obtained from the following link:

  20. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift (United States)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.


    rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The fluoride levels in surface and groundwater for the dry season range from 0.019 - 50.14 mg/L, on average above the WHO permissible limit. The high fluoride occurs both in the lake and groundwater. Preliminary petrographic studies show considerable fluoride in micas. The study is on-going and plans to present the relative abundances of fluoride in the lithology as the sources and the fluoride enrichment pathways of the groundwater within the Central Kenya rift.

  1. Influence of lithologic variability on the rheology of granitic rock deformed near the brittle-ductile transition (Invited) (United States)

    Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.; Warren, J. M.


    Examining fault-related deformation under brittle-ductile conditions and across different lithologies has implications for seismic hazard analysis, since earthquakes are thought to nucleate near the brittle-ductile transition and fault slip distributions are influenced by lithologic variations. This presentation focuses on two outcrops containing lithologic heterogeneities - the Seven Gables (SG) outcrop and the Sheared Schlieren (SS) outcrop - to investigate the relationship between lithology and deformation. This is accomplished through a combination of field observations, micro-structural/-chemical analyses, and mechanics-based finite element models. The SG and SS outcrops are located in the Bear Creek field area (central Sierra Nevada, CA), which consists of a medium- to fine-grained biotite-hornblende granodiorite with a weak regional foliation trending approximately northwest. The field area contains abundant faults, which microstructural observations suggest were active near the brittle-ductile transition. Furthermore, leucocratic dikes, volcanic xenoliths, and schlieren are abundant throughout the granodiorite, making it lithologically heterogeneous at the decimeter- to meter-scale. The SG outcrop allows comparison of granodiorite rheology to that of a leucocratic dike, both of which are ductilely deformed within a contractional fault step. Both lithologies contain plagioclase, K-feldspar, and quartz, with the granodiorite also containing biotite, hornblende, and sphene. The 10 cm wide right step occurs between two left-lateral faults, measuring 1 and 2 m in length, respectively. A 4 cm thick leucocratic dike runs directly through the center of the step at an angle of 70° to the faults, as measured in the plane of the outcrop. Microstructural analysis indicates that the dominant quartz slip system within the center of the step is basal . The SS outcrop contains a schlieren that is ductilely sheared in the near-tip region of a left-lateral fault. The

  2. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Surficial Lithology in Watershed (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the density of 18 USGS lithology classes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds(see Data Sources...

  3. Along-Strike Variation in Dip-Slip Rate on the Alpine Fault is a Consequence of Lithologic Variation? (United States)

    Toy, V. G.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Norris, R. J.; Cooper, A. F.


    New Zealand's dextral reverse Alpine Fault is the primary structure forming the Pacific-Australian plate boundary for a strike distance of >300 km. The oblique relative plate motion vector varies little along strike of the fault, and strike-slip rates are also generally uniform. However, dip slip rates determined from offset geomorphic and Quaternary features are significantly larger over 200 km in the centre of the fault (6 -12 mm/yr; as opposed to 2-3 mm/yr elsewhere). Little et al. (2005) also found hangingwall rock has been most rapidly uplifted from temperatures exceeding the closure temperature of Ar in hornblende (~500°C) during modern convergence over 20 km of strike length between the Karangarua and Wanganui Rivers in this central section. The hangingwall lithology is not uniform, comprising psammitic, pelitic, and metabasic layers, from a variety of different lithostratigraphic terranes (e.g. Torlesse Terrane, Aspiring Lithologic Subdivision, Caples Terrane). These lithologies have been exhumed by dextral reverse fault slip in sections along the fault. In the central Alpine Fault zone, psammite-derived lithologies are most common in such outcrops north of the Waikukupa River, while to the south aluminous metapelitic protoliths dominate. Further south, in a section extending 40 km along fault strike from Havelock Creek, metabasite (amphibolite) comprises ~40% of the mylonite sequence. Simple crustal strength models, comparing a pure quartz rheology, a polyphase quartz-feldspar-mica rheology, and a mixed amphibolite rheology indicate only minor variation in behaviour between psammite and pelite, but at least a doubling of peak strength and deepening of the brittle-ductile transition in sections of the fault zone containing amphibolite. Consequently, the rheological behaviour of the mylonitic fault rocks varies along strike, coincident with the lithological variations. Furthermore, both amphibolites and quartz veins or layers that they host display

  4. Lithology and minerageny of black shale of the Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya region (United States)

    Mozoleva, Irina


    In the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, black shale deposits are widespread - subaqueous fine-grained, often thin-bedded, dark-coloured rocks of clayey, carbonate, silica or mixed composition, significantly enriched (1-18%) with organic matter (OM). Two large age intervals of accumulation are distinguished: Riphean and Early-Middle Paleozoic (with maxima in the Ordovician and Silurian). Black shale Riphean complexes are spread in the northern part of the Taimyr Peninsula, where they build up a strip 100-150 km wide along the coast from the Gulf of Minin to the Gulf of Thaddeus and on Bolshevik Isl. Two types of black shale deposits are distinguished (Zabiyaka, 1972; Kabankov, 1980). The first type - predominantly siliciclastic deposits. Represented by cyclical alternation of flyschoid and turbidite types of terrigenous deposits with carbonaceous shale members. Deposits are unevenly enriched in OM in the form of filamentous, lenticular, lumpy accumulations and are often accompanied by pyrite. OM content to 2.5%, rarely to 6%. The second type - carbonate-terrigenous-clayey deposits. Represented by intensely displaced metamorphosed sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone interbedded with marble and limestone. Carbonaceous deposits are intensively. OM content 0.66-2.3%. OM is distributed unevenly, often localized along fractures. Black shale complexes of Middle-Lower Paleozoic age include deposits from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Carboniferous (Sobolevskaya et al., 1979; Lazarenko, 1980). On October Revolution Isl., the Lower Cambrian-Lower Ordovician deposits are spread. In Taimyr, black shale complexes build up a relatively narrow, about 75-100 km, strip stretching in sublatitudinal direction, limited by regional faults (Main Taimyr in the north, Pyasina-Faddey in the south). Deposits are represented by a wide range of lithological genetic rock types. Carbonate-argillaceous rocks with terrigenous material admixture and siliceous-terrigenous with a small

  5. Ca isotopes in the Ebro River Basin: mixing and lithological tracer (United States)

    Guerrot, C.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.


    A large investigation of the Ebro River catchment was done in the past years regarding hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron, sulphur and oxygen from SO4 and strontium isotope measurements together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain (Millot et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-2062, 2012). The Ebro River (928 km long, 85,530 km2 drainage basin) located in North-Eastern Spain rises near the Atlantic coast in the Cantabrian Mountains and flows into the western Mediterranean Sea through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The river is one of the largest contributors of freshwater in the Mediterranean Sea and ends in the Ebro delta, one of the most important wetlands in Europe. Bedrocks of the Ebro River Basin are mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006 and secondly, the Ebro River along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The behaviour of Ca and its isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies will be investigated in addition with Sr, S (SO4) and O (SO4) isotopes. One objective is to characterize the processes controlling the isotope signatures of a large river draining predominantly sedimentary bedrocks. The δ44Ca ratio (δ44/40 normalised to Seawater) ranged between -0.87 and -1.09‰ along the Ebro main stream, increasing towards the delta as the Ca content increase. In Amposta, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.66 and -1.04‰ and tends to decrease with the increasing discharge. These variations are very similar to those given by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr contents. For the tributaries, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.43 and -1.04‰ whereas the anhydrite-gypsum bedrock

  6. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.


    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  7. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe. (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos


    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  8. Geobiologic Relations Between Lithologies of the Churuvitas Formation with Native Bacterium on the Quadrant of Villa de Leyva (United States)

    Corzo, J.; Tchegliakova, N.


    Geological and microbiological information was gathered in order to identify the potential relationships between minerals and/or chemical elements contents in the sparse biomicrite, a sandstone and a mudstone with bacterial communities that were cultivated from a "scrapped off" made on each of these lithologies which were sampled on the Cretaceous sedimentary sequence of the Churuvita Formation (Road Tunja-Villa de Leyva). Three types of evaluations were made on each of these sample rocks: quantitative mineralogy was obtained through rock petrography, X-ray fluorescence analysis of the major element composition (weight percent) of the rocks and quantitative bacterial count per gram in order to know the amounts of communities that would be able to grow in each type of rock. Analogous amounts of bacterial communities grew up in the three lithology types: 144 bacterial morphotypes grew up in total; 43 of them corresponding with the sparse biomicrite, 49 with the fine grain sandstone and while 52 with the mudstone. No significant differences in the growth of bacterial populations were found between the three rocks types. The reason for this could come be because the communities which developed over the biomicrite obtained their basic necessities from calcium carbonate (87.3 percent) while those ones which rose over the sandstone and siltstone obtained there necessities from the silica (82 quartz and 58 percent, respectively). High Al2O3 and SiO2 concentrations in the siltstone (JY-3 sample) could have facilitated the development of most important bacterial populations. The preliminary findings show the need to carry out new systematic samplings on the rocks to establish the influence level the lithologies over the bacterial communities' growth.

  9. Aquifer geometry, lithology, and water levels in the Anza–Terwilliger area—2013, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.


    The population of the Anza–Terwilliger area relies solely on groundwater pumped from the alluvial deposits and surrounding bedrock formations for water supply. The size, characteristics, and current conditions of the aquifer system in the Anza–Terwilliger area are poorly understood, however. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the High Country Conservancy and Rancho California Water District, undertook a study to (1) improve mapping of groundwater basin geometry and lithology and (2) to resume groundwater-level monitoring last done during 2004–07 in the Anza–Terwilliger area. 

  10. Study on the application of seismic sedimentology in a stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir in central Junggar Basin (United States)

    Yu, Yixin; Xia, Zhongmou


    This paper discusses the research idea of description for stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir based on seismic sedimentology methods. The sandstone reservoir of Jurrassic XiShanyao Formation in Junggar Basin is studied according to the theory and approaches of seismic sedimentology. By making full use of borehole data, the technologies of layer correlation based on the stratigraphic sequence framework, the forward seismic modeling, the stratal slicing and lithologic inversion are applied. It describes the range of denudation line, the distribution characteristics of sedimentary facies of the strata, the vertical and horizontal distribution of sand bodies and the favourable oil-gas bearing prospective area. The results shows that study area are dominated braided delta deposition including underwater distributary channel and distributary bay microfacies, the nip-out lines of the formation are northeast to southwest from north to south, the second Middle Jurassic sand body is the most widely distributed one among three sand bodies, the prospective oil-gas bearing area located in the south part and around the YG2 well area. The study result is effective on the practice of exploration in study area.

  11. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological boundaries via wavelet analysis: An example from KTB borehole data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Singh; Saumen Maiti; R K Tiwar


    Identification of sharp and discontinuous lithological boundaries from well log signal stemming fromheterogeneous subsurface structures assumes a special significance in geo-exploration studies. Well logdata acquired from various geological settings generally display nonstationary/nonlinear characteristicswith varying wavelengths and frequencies. Modelling of such complex well-log signals using the conventionalsignal processing techniques either fails to catch-up abrupt boundaries or at the best, do notprovide precise information on insidious lithological discontinuities. In this paper, we have proposed anew wavelet transform-based algorithm to model the abrupt discontinuous changes from well log databy taking care of nonstationary characteristics of the signal. Prior to applying the algorithm on thegeophysical well data, we analyzed the distribution of wavelet coefficients using synthetic signal generatedby the first order nonstationary auto-regressive model and then applied the method on actual welllog dataset obtained from the KTB bore hole, Germany. Besides identifying the formation of layeredboundaries, the underlying method also maps some additional formation boundaries, which were hithertoundetected at the KTB site. The results match well with known geological lithostratigraphy andwill be useful for constraining the future model of KTB bore hole data.

  12. Ar-40/Ar-39 Ages for Maskelynites and K-Rich Melt from Olivine-Rich Lithology in (Kanagawa) Zagami (United States)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Nyquist, L. E.; Lindsay, F.; Turrin, B.; Swisher, C. C., III; Delaney, J. S.; Shih, C.-Y.; Niihara, T.; Misawa, K.


    We report Ar/Ar release patterns for small maskelynite grains and samples of a K-rich phase separated from the basaltic shergottite Zagami. The purpose of the work is to investigate the well-known discrepancy between published Ar/Ar ages of Zagami, >200 Ma, and its age of approx. 170 Ma as determined by other methods [1-6]. Niihara et al. [7] divide less abundant darker material present in Zagami into an olivine-rich lithology (ORL), from which most of our samples came, and a pyroxene-rich one (Dark Mottled-Lithology: DML) [8, 9]. ORL consists of vermicular fayalitic olivine, coarse-grained pyroxene, maskelynite, and a glassy phase exceptionally rich in K (up to 8.5 wt%), Al, and Si, but poor in Fe and Mg. The elemental composition suggests a late-stage melt, i.e., residual material that solidified late in a fractional crystallization sequence. Below we refer to it as "K-rich melt." The K-rich melt contains laths of captured olivine, Ca-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, and opaques. It seemed to offer an especially promising target for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating.

  13. Lithology Identification for the Bedrock of Buried Hill in Lishu Fault Depression%梨树断陷基岩潜山岩性识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玥; 曹开芳; 李万才


    基岩储层测井评价过程中,岩性识别是首先要解决的问题。梨树断陷基岩潜山地层的岩性十分复杂,既有变质岩,也有后期侵入的岩浆岩,又有碳酸盐岩,不同区块岩性分布不同,纵向上岩性变化大。利用录井、岩心分析、测井等多种资料,对岩石矿物成分、测井响应特征等进行分析,获知基岩岩石学特征、建立不同岩性与其测井响应特征关系、建立岩性识别图版,从而实现基岩岩性识别。%The lithology identification is the first important prob-lem in the process of the logging evaluation for the bedrock reservoir. The lithology of the bedrock in Lishu Fault Depression is complex, there are metamorphic rocks,magmatic rocks,and carbonate rocks. The lithology distribution is different in different blocks, the change of the lithology is big on the longitudinal.Using many datas of the logging, core analysis and well logging to analyze the rock mineral composition and the logging response characteristics, learning the petrological characteristics of the bedrock, building the relationships of different lithology and logging response, establishing the lithology identification chart, so as to realize the bedrock lithology identification.

  14. 3.1 Ga crystallization age for magnesian and ferroan gabbro lithologies in the Northwest Africa 773 clan of lunar meteorites (United States)

    Shaulis, B. J.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Irving, A. J.


    The Northwest Africa (NWA) 773 clan of meteorites is a group of paired and/or petrogenetically related stones that contain at least six different lithologies: magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, olivine phyric basalt, regolith breccia, and polymict breccia. Uranium-lead dates of baddeleyite in the magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, and components within breccia lithologies of paired lunar meteorites NWA 773, NWA 3170, NWA 6950, and NWA 7007 indicate a chronologic link among the meteorites and their components. A total of 50 baddeleyite grains were analyzed and yielded weighted average 207Pb-206Pb dates of 3119.4 ± 9.4 (n = 27), 3108 ± 20 (n = 13), and 3113 ± 15 (n = 10) Ma for the magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, and polymict breccia lithologies, respectively. A weighted average date of 3115.6 ± 6.8 Ma (n = 47/50) was calculated from the baddeleyite dates for all lithologies. A single large zircon grain found in a lithic clast in the polymict breccia of NWA 773 yielded a U-Pb concordia date of 3953 ± 18 Ma, indicating a much more ancient source for some of the components within the breccia. A U-Pb concordia date of apatite and merrillite grains from the magnesian gabbro and polymict breccia lithologies in NWA 773 is 3112 ± 33 Ma, identical to the baddeleyite dates. Magnesian and ferroan gabbros, as well as the dated baddeleyite and Ca-phosphate-bearing detritus in the breccia lithologies, formed during the same igneous event at about 3115 Ma. These data also strengthen proposed petrogenetic connections between magnesian and ferroan gabbro lithologies, which represent some of the youngest igneous rocks known from the Moon.

  15. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard


    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  16. Vibrational and vibrational-torsional interactions in the 0-600 cm-1 region of the S1 ← S0 spectrum of p-xylene investigated with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy (United States)

    Tuttle, William D.; Gardner, Adrian M.; O'Regan, Kieran B.; Malewicz, William; Wright, Timothy G.


    We assign the 0-600 cm-1 region of the S1 ← S0 transition in p-xylene (p-dimethylbenzene) using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. In the 0-350 cm-1 range as well as the intense origin band, there are a number of torsional and vibration-torsion (vibtor) features. The latter are discussed in more detail in Paper I [A. M. Gardner et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 124308 (2017)]. Here we focus on the origin and the 300-600 cm-1 region, where vibrational bands and some vibtor activity are observed. From the origin ZEKE spectrum, we derive the ionization energy of p-xylene as 68200 ± 5 cm-1. The assignment of the REMPI spectrum is based on the activity observed in the ZEKE spectra coupled with knowledge of the vibrational wavenumbers obtained from quantum chemical calculations. We assign several isolated vibrations and a complex Fermi resonance that is found to comprise contributions from both vibrations and vibtor levels, and we examine this via a two-dimensional ZEKE spectrum. A number of the vibrational features in the REMPI and ZEKE spectra of p-xylene that have been reported previously are reassigned and now largely consist of totally symmetric contributions. We briefly discuss the appearance of non-Franck-Condon allowed transitions. Finally, we find remarkably similar spectral activity to that in the related disubstituted benzenes, para-difluorobenzene, and para-fluorotoluene.

  17. Lithological, Chemical and Chronological Constraints on Melt Extraction from the Mantle Section of the ~492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland (United States)

    O'Driscoll, B.; Walker, R. J.; Clay, P. L.; Day, J. M.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.


    The mantle sections of ophiolites offer a means of studying the composition and structure of the oceanic mantle. In particular, the relations between different lithologies can be established in the field, permitting an assessment of the relative timing of processes such as melt extraction and melt-rock reaction. The Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC) contains a well-preserved mantle section that is dominated by harzburgite (≥70 vol.%), with dominantly chondritic present-day 187Os/188Os compositions1. Melt extraction and melt-rock reaction is evident in the form of dunite and chromitite layers and lenses, with thicknesses ranging from millimetres-to-metres. These lithologies are characteristic of supra-subduction zone processing and are considered to relate to closure of the Iapetus Ocean at ~492 Ma1. However, evidence of much earlier melt extraction has been suggested for some SOC harzburgites, which have relatively unradiogenic 187Os/188Os compositions that yield TRD model ages as old as ~1.4 Ga1. In order to assess the scales at which such compositional heterogeneities are preserved in the mantle, a small (45 m2) area of the SOC mantle section was selected for detailed lithological mapping and sampling. A selection of harzburgites (n=8), dunites (n=6) and pyroxenites (n=2) from this area has been analysed for their Os isotope and highly-siderophile element (HSE) compositions. Six of the harzburgites and four of the dunites have relative HSE abundances and gOs values that are approximately chondritic, with gOs ranging only from -0.6 to +2.7 (n=10). Two dunites have more radiogenic gOs (up to +7.5), that is correlated with enhanced concentrations of accessory base-metal sulphides, suggesting formation via melt percolation and melt-rock reaction. The two remaining harzburgites have less radiogenic gOs (-3.5 and -4), yielding Mesoproterozoic TRD ages. The new data indicate that a comparable range of Os isotope compositions to that previously measured across the

  18. Rainfall infiltration on hilly slopes under various lithology and its effect on tree growth in the dry-hot valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Zhong; XIONG; Donghong; ZHOU; Hongyi; ZHANG; Xinbao


    Revegetation is very difficult in dry-hot valleys in China. Rainfall infiltration capability on hilly slopes is one of the key factors determining soil moisture conditions and tree growth in the dry-hot valley. Low rainfall infiltration often results in soil drought on slopes under the dry-hot valleys climate. Rainfall infiltration capability varies greatly with the difference of slope lithologic porosity. The infiltration rates of five lithologic slope-types, Schist Slope, Grit Slope, Gravel Slope, the slightly eroded Mudstone Slope and the intensively eroded Mudstone Slope, are 1.40-8.67, 6.33, 0.69-2.20, 0.6-1.3 and 0.03-0.63 mm/min, respectively. With its viscid compact soil body and low infiltration capability which causes little infiltrating rainfall, mudstone slope can afford little effective supply to soil water and leads to serious drought of soil in dry seasons, resulting in cessation of growth or even wide-spread death of trees due to physiological damage for the excessive deficit of water in dry season and also the low productivity of stands. Hence, it is extremely difficult to restore vegetation on this type of slope. The other four lithologic slope-types, however, with well-developed soil crevice, high infiltration capability and thus more infiltrating rainfall, can afford more available soil water supply and the trees on them can obtain better growth and relatively higher productivity, compared with those on Mudstone Slope. Revegetation in dry-hot valleys is controlled by the soil moisture conditions of different slope-types, and it can be implemented by relying on the dominative life-form plant species, the suitable spatial arrangement of different life-forms of arbor-shrub-herb species, and the establishment of ecological community relationship between vegetation and soil moisture in habits. On the other hand, ground making measures for forestation and the runoff-collecting engineering measures to increase the rainfall infiltration are the major

  19. Distinguishing between tectonic and lithologic controls on bedrock channel longitudinal profiles using cosmogenic 10Be erosion rates and channel steepness index (United States)

    Cyr, Andrew J.; Granger, Darryl E.; Olivetti, Valerio; Molin, Paola


    Knickpoints in fluvial channel longitudinal profiles and channel steepness index values derived from digital elevation data can be used to detect tectonic structures and infer spatial patterns of uplift. However, changes in lithologic resistance to channel incision can also influence the morphology of longitudinal profiles. We compare the spatial patterns of both channel steepness index and cosmogenic 10Be-determined erosion rates from four landscapes in Italy, where the geology and tectonics are well constrained, to four theoretical predictions of channel morphologies, which can be interpreted as the result of primarily tectonic or lithologic controls. These data indicate that longitudinal profile forms controlled by unsteady or nonuniform tectonics can be distinguished from those controlled by nonuniform lithologic resistance. In each landscape the distribution of channel steepness index and erosion rates is consistent with model predictions and demonstrates that cosmogenic nuclide methods can be applied to distinguish between these two controlling factors.

  20. An analysis on the effect of mining height and floor lithology on pressure relief of upper protective layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-chao HUANG; Dong-ling SUN; Kang-wu FENG


    In order to understand the effect of mining height and floor lithology at the upper protective layer face on the pressure relief of protected coal seams,this paper uses a numerical simulation method to model the pressure changes at protected coal seam during mining upper protective layer.The results show that the taller the mining height at the upper protective layer face,the greater the protection on protected coal seam due to the higher level of pressure release; the upper protective layer face with hard rock floor impedes the pressure release at the protected coal seam,which affects the overall effect of the pressure release at protected coal seam using the protective layer mining method.

  1. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico (United States)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich


    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  2. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a {sup 137}Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  3. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico (United States)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich


    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  4. Spatial variations in fault friction related to lithology from rupture and afterslip of the 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake (United States)

    Michael Floyd,; Richard Walters,; John Elliot,; Gareth Funning,; Svarc, Jerry L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Andy Hooper,; Yngvar Larsen,; Petar Marinkovic,; Roland Burgmann,; Johanson, Ingrid; Tim Wright,


    Following earthquakes, faults are often observed to continue slipping aseismically. It has been proposed that this afterslip occurs on parts of the fault with rate-strengthening friction that are stressed by the mainshock, but our understanding has been limited by a lack of immediate, high-resolution observations. Here we show that the behavior of afterslip following the 2014 South Napa earthquake varied over distances of only a few kilometers. This variability cannot be explained by coseismic stress changes alone. We present daily positions from continuous and survey GPS sites that we re-measured within 12 hours of the mainshock, and surface displacements from the new Sentinel-1 radar mission. This unique geodetic data set constrains the distribution and evolution of coseismic and postseismic fault slip with exceptional resolution in space and time. We suggest that the observed heterogeneity in behavior is caused by lithological controls on the frictional properties of the fault plane.

  5. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008 (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew P.


    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  6. Lithologic Framework Modeling of the Fruitvale Oil Field Investigating Interaction Between Wastewater Injection Wells and Usable Groundwater (United States)

    Treguboff, E. W.; Crandall-Bear, A. T.


    The Fruitvale Oil Field lies in a populated area where oil production, water disposal injection wells, and drinking water wells lie in close proximity. The purpose of this project is to build a lithological framework of the area that can then be used to determine if water disposal from petroleum production has a chance of reaching usable groundwater aquifers. Using the DOGGR database, data were collected from well logs. Lithologic data from drilling logs and cores were coded and entered into a relational database, where it was combined with the surface elevation and location coordinates of each well. Elevation data was acquired through ArcGIS using a USGS 24k 10 m DEM. Drillers logs that started at the surface, and were continuous, were sorted by the density of intervals recorded, in order to select high quality drillers logs for use in creating a model. About 900 wells were coded and approximately 150 wells were used in the model. These wells were entered into the modeling program (Rockworks), which allowed the wells to be visualized as strip logs and also as cross sections, and 2D fence models were created to represent subsurface conditions. The data were interpolated into 3D models of the subsurface. Water disposal wells, with the depths of the perforation intervals as well as injection volume, were added to the model, and analyzed. Techniques of interpolation used in this project included kriging, which requires statistical analysis of the data collected. This allowed correlation between widely-spaced wells. Up scaling the data to a coarse or fine texture was also been found to be effective with the kriging technique. The methods developed on this field can be used to build framework models of other fields in the Central Valley to explore the relationship between water disposal injection and usable groundwater.

  7. Physical-property-, lithology- and surface-geometry-based joint inversion using Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization (United States)

    Bijani, Rodrigo; Lelièvre, Peter G.; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Farquharson, Colin G.


    This paper is concerned with the applicability of Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization (PMOGO) algorithms for solving different types of geophysical inverse problems. The standard deterministic approach is to combine the multiple objective functions (i.e. data misfit, regularization and joint coupling terms) in a weighted-sum aggregate objective function and minimize using local (decent-based) smooth optimization methods. This approach has some disadvantages: (1) appropriate weights must be determined for the aggregate, (2) the objective functions must be differentiable and (3) local minima entrapment may occur. PMOGO algorithms can overcome these drawbacks but introduce increased computational effort. Previous work has demonstrated how PMOGO algorithms can overcome the first issue for single data set geophysical inversion, that is, the trade-off between data misfit and model regularization. However, joint inversion, which can involve many weights in the aggregate, has seen little study. The advantage of PMOGO algorithms for the other two issues has yet to be addressed in the context of geophysical inversion. In this paper, we implement a PMOGO genetic algorithm and apply it to physical-property-, lithology- and surface-geometry-based inverse problems to demonstrate the advantages of using a global optimization strategy. Lithological inversions work on a mesh but use integer model parameters representing rock unit identifiers instead of continuous physical properties. Surface geometry inversions change the geometry of wireframe surfaces that represent the contacts between discrete rock units. Despite the potentially high computational requirements of global optimization algorithms (compared to local), their application to realistically sized 2-D geophysical inverse problems is within reach of current capacity of standard computers. Furthermore, they open the door to geophysical inverse problems that could not otherwise be considered through traditional

  8. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya


    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  9. Physical property-, lithology- and surface geometry-based joint inversion using Pareto multi-objective global optimization (United States)

    Bijani, Rodrigo; Lelièvre, Peter G.; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Farquharson, Colin G.


    This paper is concerned with the applicability of Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization (PMOGO) algorithms for solving different types of geophysical inverse problems. The standard deterministic approach is to combine the multiple objective functions (i.e. data misfit, regularization and joint coupling terms) in a weighted-sum aggregate objective function and minimize using local (decent-based) smooth optimization methods. This approach has some disadvantages: 1) appropriate weights must be determined for the aggregate, 2) the objective functions must be differentiable, and 3) local minima entrapment may occur. PMOGO algorithms can overcome these drawbacks but introduce increased computational effort. Previous work has demonstrated how PMOGO algorithms can overcome the first issue for single data set geophysical inversion, i.e. the tradeoff between data misfit and model regularization. However, joint inversion, which can involve many weights in the aggregate, has seen little study. The advantage of PMOGO algorithms for the other two issues has yet to be addressed in the context of geophysical inversion. In this paper, we implement a PMOGO genetic algorithm and apply it to physical property-, lithology- and surface geometry-based inverse problems to demonstrate the advantages of using a global optimization strategy. Lithological inversions work on a mesh but use integer model parameters representing rock unit identifiers instead of continuous physical properties. Surface geometry inversions change the geometry of wireframe surfaces that represent the contacts between discrete rock units. Despite the potentially high computational requirements of global optimization algorithms (compared to local), their application to realistically-sized 2D geophysical inverse problems is within reach of current capacity of standard computers. Furthermore, they open the door to geophysical inverse problems that could not otherwise be considered through traditional optimization

  10. Sensitivity of the hypsometric integral (HI and its connections with lithology and neotectonics in the Rodna Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study investigates the sensitivity of the hypsometric integral (HI and its connections with lithology and neotectonics from northern Romanian Carpathians, Rodna Mountains. Two types of DEM was used in analysis (a 30m DEM resolution with specific grid size and a non-gridded 30m DEM resolution. Several methods have been applied in order to calculate HI as: the CalHypso GIS extension was used to automatically extract multiple hypsometric curves from digital elevation model (DEM and to calculate the main statistics related to the HI by applying polynomial fits; local indices of spatial autocorrelation were applied using Anselin Local Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi* in order to see if HI distribution has spatial patterns values and selection of valid squares (500m2 grid using 30m DEM using ArcMap 10.1 for the lithological analysis. The values of the hypsometric kurtosis density, kurtosis, skew and density skew are increasing eastwards. Values of hypsometric skewness for the northern slope are in range between 0.290 – 0.816 and sowthern part between 0.414 – 0.507. The results show that HI values are higher than 0.5 in the areas with recent tectonic influences especially in northern part near Dragoş Vodă fault system. The formations with a Oligocene, Miocene, Pleistocene and Holocene age have low values (<0.5 wile the other ones from Precambrian, Cambrian, Silurian, Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene age have higher values (>0.5. Comparing HI values from these two analysis (500m grid size DEM and the DEM without grid size of the DEM we find some slightly differences in HI values specially in the northern part of the range on Repedea, Negoiescu Mare, Fântâna and Lala basins

  11. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: effects of lithology and well characteristics. (United States)

    Harris, Shelley A; Billmeyer, Ernest R; Robinson, Michael A


    Radon (222Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482 +/- 1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750 +/- 5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R2) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  12. Spatial patterns of vegetation, soils, and microtopography from terrestrial laser scanning on two semiarid hillslopes of contrasting lithology (United States)

    Harman, Ciaran J.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Troch, Peter A.; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    Shrublands in semiarid regions are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of infertile bare areas separated by nutrient rich vegetated areas known as resource islands. Spatial patterns in these landscapes are structured by feedbacks driven by the transport of water and nutrient resources from the intershrub space to areas below shrubs, and the retention of these resources to locally drive productivity and tight biogeochemical cycles. Most understanding of plant-soil feedbacks is based predominantly on studies of low topographic gradient landscapes, and it is unclear whether the patterns of association between soils and vegetation, and the autogenic processes that create them, also occur on more steeply sloping terrain. Here we analyze the spatial patterns of soils, vegetation, and microtopography on hillslopes of contrasting lithology (one granite at 16°, one schist at 27°) in the Sonoran desert foothills of the Catalina Mountains. We also describe a method of extracting vegetation density from terrestrial laser scanning point cloud data at 5 cm × 5 cm scales and find that it correlates well with soil organic carbon measurements. Vegetation was associated with microtopographic mounds (relative to the mean slope) extending 0.3 m downslope and 1.8 m (schist) and 0.9 m (granite) upslope on the study hillslopes. Soils below the shrub canopies exhibited 2-3 times more soil organic matter and 2-4 times higher hydraulic conductivity than the interspaces. Soils enriched with organic matter were found to extend at least two canopy radii downslope of woody shrubs, but not upslope. These plumes were clearest in the lower gradient granite site where vegetation mounds created distinct patterns of microtopographic convergence and divergence. At the steeper schist site, microtopography appeared to have a weaker control on topographic flow accumulation. Collectively, our findings suggest that the spatial structure of association between soils and microtopography and vegetation on

  13. Correction of terrestrial LiDAR intensity channel using Oren-Nayar reflectance model: An application to lithological differentiation (United States)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellan, Antonio; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Ground-based LiDAR has been traditionally used for surveying purposes via 3D point clouds. In addition to XYZ coordinates, an intensity value is also recorded by LiDAR devices. The intensity of the backscattered signal can be a significant source of information for various applications in geosciences. Previous attempts to account for the scattering of the laser signal are usually modelled using a perfect diffuse reflection. Nevertheless, experience on natural outcrops shows that rock surfaces do not behave as perfect diffuse reflectors. The geometry (or relief) of the scanned surfaces plays a major role in the recorded intensity values. Our study proposes a new terrestrial LiDAR intensity correction, which takes into consideration the range, the incidence angle and the geometry of the scanned surfaces. The proposed correction equation combines the classical radar equation for LiDAR with the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the Oren-Nayar model. It is based on the idea that the surface geometry can be modelled by a relief of multiple micro-facets. This model is constrained by only one tuning parameter: the standard deviation of the slope angle distribution (σslope) of micro-facets. Firstly, a series of tests have been carried out in laboratory conditions on a 2 m2 board covered by black/white matte paper (perfect diffuse reflector) and scanned at different ranges and incidence angles. Secondly, other tests were carried out on rock blocks of different lithologies and surface conditions. Those tests demonstrated that the non-perfect diffuse reflectance of rock surfaces can be practically handled by the proposed correction method. Finally, the intensity correction method was applied to a real case study, with two scans of the carbonate rock outcrop of the Dents-du-Midi (Swiss Alps), to improve the lithological identification for geological mapping purposes. After correction, the intensity values are proportional to the intrinsic material reflectance

  14. Lithology rules badland distribution and typology in a montane Mediterranean environment (upper Llobregat basin, Catalan Pre-Pyrenees) (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc


    Badlands (i.e. highly dissected areas carved in soft bedrock with little or no vegetation) are pervasive in a wide range of environmental conditions across the Mediterranean region, including semiarid, sub-humid and humid environments, and represent hotspots of erosion and sediment production at the regional scale. On montane (cold sub-humid and humid) Mediterranean landscapes, harsh thermal conditions on north-facing slopes favors intense bedrock weathering and impose serious constraints for plant colonization, which has generally been argued to explain preferential distribution of badlands on shady aspects. We study the distribution and typology of badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (500 km2, 700-2400 m.a.s.l. elevation, 700-900 mm annual rainfall, 8-11°C mean temp.). We mapped regional badlands by manually digitizing affected areas on recent (2012) high resolution (50 cm pixel) ortophotos. Badlands extend over about 200 ha in the upper Llobregat basin and are developed on Paleocene continental lutites (Garumnian Facies, Tremp Formation) and Eocene marine marls (Sagnari, Armancies and Vallfogona Formations). While badlands on Eocene marls showed a preferential distribution on north-facing shady slopes, badland occurrence on the highly unstable smectite-rich Garumnian lutites did not reveal clear aspect trends. In addition, elevation, which broadly controls winter temperatures in the region, did not show a clear influence on badland distribution. A principal component analysis was applied to study badland type using general geomorphological and vegetation metrics (i.e. badland size, slope, aspect, elevation gradient, connection to the regional drainage network, vegetation greenness) derived from a high resolution digital elevation model (5 m pixel) and pan-sharpened Landsat 8 MSAVI imagery (15 m pixel). Lithology was found to largely impact badland type, with Garumnian lutite badlands showing lower slope gradients (20°-30° average slope) than badlands on

  15. Fractures system within Qusaiba shale outcrop and its relationship to the lithological properties, Qasim area, Central Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed I. M.; Hariri, Mustafa M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Elzain, Hussam


    The basal Qusaiba hot shale member of Qalibah Formation is considered to be an important source rock in the Paleozoic petroleum system of Saudi Arabia and an exploration target for tight shale as one of the Unconventional resources of petroleum. This work has been carried out to understand the fractures network of Qusaiba shale member in outcrops located to the west of Qusayba' village in Al-Qasim area, Central Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to understand the distribution of natural fractures over different lithological units. Description data sheets were used for the detailed lithological description of Qusaiba shale member on two outcrops. Spot-7 and Landsat ETM+ satellite images were used for lineament mapping and analyses on a regional scale in a GIS environment. Fractures characterization in outcrop-scale was conducted by using linear scanline method. Qusaiba shale member in the study area consists of 5 main lithofacies, divided based on their sedimentary structures and petrographical properties, from base to top in the outcrops, the lithofacies are; fissile shale, very fine-grained micaceous siltstone, bioturbated mudstone, very fine to fine-grained hummocky cross-stratified sandstone, and fine to medium-grained low/high angle cross-stratified sandstone lithofacies. Lineaments interpretation of the Spot-7 and Landsat ETM+ satellite images showed two major directions in the study area; 320° that could be related to Najd fault system and 20° that could be related to the extensional activities which took place after Amar collision. Fractures are much denser in the fissile shale and mudstone lithofacies than sandstones lithofacies, and average spacing is smaller in the fissile shale and mudstone lithofacies than sandstones lithofacies. Lineaments and large-scale fractures are Non-Stratabound fractures and they deal with the area as one big mechanical unit, but small-scale fractures are Stratabound fractures that propose different mechanical

  16. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA (United States)

    Miao, Xiaodong; Lindsey, David A.; Lai, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaodong


    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2 Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ≤ 0.15 Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology.

  17. Microbial abundance in the deep subsurface of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater: Relationship to lithology and impact processes (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Finster, Kai; Sanford, Ward E.; Glamoclija, Mihaela; Gohn, Gregroy S.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright


    Asteroid and comet impact events are known to cause profound disruption to surface ecosystems. The aseptic collection of samples throughout a 1.76-km-deep set of cores recovered from the deep subsurface of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure has allowed the study of the subsurface biosphere in a region disrupted by an impactor. Microbiological enumerations suggest the presence of three major microbiological zones. The upper zone (127–867 m) is characterized by a logarithmic decline in microbial abundance from the surface through the postimpact section of Miocene to Upper Eocene marine sediments and across the transition into the upper layers of the impact tsunami resurge sediments and sediment megablocks. In the middle zone (867–1397 m) microbial abundances are below detection. This zone is predominantly quartz sand, primarily composed of boulders and blocks, and it may have been mostly sterilized by the thermal pulse delivered during impact. No samples were collected from the large granite block (1096–1371 m). The lowest zone (below 1397 m) of increasing microbial abundance coincides with a region of heavily impact-fractured, hydraulically conductive suevite and fractured schist. These zones correspond to lithologies influenced by impact processes. Our results yield insights into the influence of impacts on the deep subsurface biosphere.

  18. Geomorphic and lithologic characteristics of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt, using remote sensing and field investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayman A Ahmed; Mohamed Abdelkareem; Asran M Asran; Tawfig M Mahran


    Wadi Feiran is an important drainage basin in southern Sinai Peninsula covering an area of about 1785 km2, its streams drain into the Gulf of Suez crossing variety of rocks and sedimentary units varied in age from Precambrian to Quaternary. Field investigations, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing studies including Landsat-7 ETM+, Radarsat-1, and SRTM DEM were integrated to reveal its lithologic, geologic and geomorphic features. Besides the field investigations, rock units including basement and pre- and syn-rift sedimentary units were discriminated using band ratios and principal component analysis techniques (PCA). Such techniques revealed that the crystalline rocks covering W. Feiran are unaltered rocks lacking OH-bearing minerals. Radar data successfully displayed the structures and geomorphic features related to topography. Moreover, the techniques allowed the extraction of the dyke-like structures along faults and shear zones. This also characterized the topographic variations through analysis of the shaded terrain and the altitudinal profiles. The results of data integration, lineament analysis and lineament density maps revealed that the structural grain in the present study has four different trends: N20–45E, N30–45W, N–S and E–W. Based on analysis of radar data and geomorphic indices, W. Feiran is an asymmetrical basin, its left side occupies ∼34% of the total area that leads to a supposedly massive tilt towards the south which caused the southwestward slope.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine lithological conditions of the water table in the area of Haćki village located in the Bielska Plain. The study involved the measurements of water level in dug wells, hand drill probing to a depth of 5 m, acquiring the samples of water-bearing deposits and analysing their granulation. The results of analyses allowed to calculate the permeability coefficient. The geological structure of the area is dominated by dusty deposits of various origins. Such deposits’ formation directly affects the conditions of filtration and depth of the water table. Groundwater logging near Haćki village in the Bielska Plain appears at a depth of several tens of centimeters to 2 meters in the depressions field and up a little over 5 meters in the case of higher ground surfaces. The presence of perched water was revealed on the hills, periodic leachates at the foot of the hills and scarps and one periodic spring. Water-bearing deposits are medium sands, fine sands and loamy fine sands or fine sands with silt. Consequently, the permeability coefficient is low or even very low. Its values range from 0,001 m·d-1 to 3,8 m·d-1 (d – 24 hours. The widespread presence of dusty deposits in the area affects the limited efficiency of the water table.

  20. Lithological and mineralogical survey of the Oyu Tolgoi region, Southeastern Gobi, Mongolia using ASTER reflectance and emissivity data (United States)

    Son, Young-Sun; Kang, Moon-Kyung; Yoon, Wang-Jung


    The Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au deposits, Southeastern Gobi, Mongolia, are estimated to be among the world's largest reserves. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) reflectance and emissivity data were used to map distribution patterns of hydrothermal alteration and igneous rocks, and to locate areas with potential mineral deposit in the Oyu Tolgoi region. To obtain more accurate information for the detection and classification of minerals, pre-processing such as crosstalk correction and additional radiometric correction was performed. The shortwave infrared band ratio logical operator (SWIR-BRLO) models and matched filtering were used to map alteration zone and minerals in the Oyu Tolgoi region. These results were fairly consistent with mineralogical information of previous researches. In addition, we identified mineral potential areas with characteristics similar to the Oyu Tolgoi Cu-Au deposits. In particular, in the northwestern part of the OT North Pluton, an extensive area predicted to be an argillic zone was newly detected. ASTER Level 2B surface emissivity data was effectively used for lithological mapping of the Oyu Tolgoi region. The new thermal infrared band ratio logical operator (TIR-BRLO) models could detect areas showing emissivity features of quartzose and alkalic rocks. These results indicate that despite some limitations, ASTER data can provide basic information in the initial steps of ore deposit exploration, or when mapping the distribution of altered, quartzose and igneous rocks, especially in areas where direct field survey is difficult.

  1. Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Mars, J.C.


    Evaluation of an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of the Mountain Pass, California area indicates that several important lithologic groups can be mapped in areas with good exposure by using spectral-matching techniques. The three visible and six near-infrared bands, which have 15-m and 30-m resolution, respectively, were calibrated by using in situ measurements of spectral reflectance. Calcitic rocks were distinguished from dolomitic rocks by using matched-filter processing in which image spectra were used as references for selected spectral categories. Skarn deposits and associated bright coarse marble were mapped in contact metamorphic zones related to intrusion of Mesozoic and Tertiary granodioritic rocks. Fe-muscovite, which is common in these intrusive rocks, was distinguished from Al-muscovite present in granitic gneisses and Mesozoic granite. Quartzose rocks were readily discriminated, and carbonate rocks were mapped as a single broad unit through analysis of the 90-m resolution, five-band surface emissivity data, which is produced as a standard product at the EROS Data Center. Three additional classes resulting from spectral-angle mapper processing ranged from (1) a broad granitic rock class (2) to predominately granodioritic rocks and (3) a more mafic class consisting mainly of mafic gneiss, amphibolite and variable mixtures of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decoding the role of tectonics, incision and lithology on drainage divide migration in the Mt. Alpi region, southern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Buscher, J. T.; Ascione, A.; Valente, E.


    The proclivity of river networks to progressively carve mountain surfaces and preserve markers of landscape adjustments has made analyses of fluvial systems fundamental for understanding the topographic development of orogens. However, the transient nature of uplift and erosion has posed a challenge for inferring the roles that tectonics and/or climate have played on generating topographic relief. The Mt. Alpi region in the southern Apennines has a heterogeneous distribution of elevated topography, erosionally-resistant lithology and uplift, making the area optimal for conducting topographic and river analyses to better understand the landscape development of a transient orogen. Stream length-gradient, normalized channel steepness, stream convexity and first-order channel gradient indices from 10 m digital elevation data from the region exhibit stream profile inconsistencies along the current drainage divide and a dominance of high values subparallel but inboard of the primary chain axis irrespective of known transient landscape factors, suggesting that the current river network may be in a state of transition. The location of these stream profile anomalies both near the modern drainage divide and subparallel to an isolated swath of high topography away from catchment boundaries is thought to be the topographic expression of an imminent drainage divide migration driven primarily by the northeast-vergent extension of the western chain axis.

  3. spMC: an R-package for 3D lithological reconstructions based on spatial Markov chains (United States)

    Sartore, Luca; Fabbri, Paolo; Gaetan, Carlo


    The paper presents the spatial Markov Chains (spMC) R-package and a case study of subsoil simulation/prediction located in a plain site of Northeastern Italy. spMC is a quite complete collection of advanced methods for data inspection, besides spMC implements Markov Chain models to estimate experimental transition probabilities of categorical lithological data. Furthermore, simulation methods based on most known prediction methods (as indicator Kriging and CoKriging) were implemented in spMC package. Moreover, other more advanced methods are available for simulations, e.g. path methods and Bayesian procedures, that exploit the maximum entropy. Since the spMC package was developed for intensive geostatistical computations, part of the code is implemented for parallel computations via the OpenMP constructs. A final analysis of this computational efficiency compares the simulation/prediction algorithms by using different numbers of CPU cores, and considering the example data set of the case study included in the package.

  4. Evidence for Milankovitch periodicities in Cenomanian-Turonian lithologic and geochemical cycles, western interior U.S.A. (United States)

    Sageman, B.B.; Rich, J.; Arthur, M.A.; Birchfield, G.E.; Dean, W.E.


    The limestone/marlstone bedding couplets of the Bridge Creek Limestone Member, Cenomanian-Turonian Greenhorn Formation, were analyzed by applying spectral techniques to high-resolution lithologic and geochemical data from a core. The results suggest that the Bridge Creek contains a complex record of orbital cyclicity. The dominant signal appears to be obliquity, but signals corresponding to precession and eccentricity were also observed. The development of the bedding couplets is interpreted to have resulted from a combination of factors, including insolation-controlled changes in higher-latitude precipitation leading to dilution/redox cycles, and in lower-latitude evaporation, leading to changes in surface water conditions and productivity cycles in the calcareous plankton. The data interpreted to reflect redox cycles appear to be more strongly influenced by obliquity, and show a weak precessional signal. In contrast, trends in the carbonate record show the opposite response. The complex bedding pattern observed in the Bridge Creek Limestone is interpreted to result from the competing influences of different orbital cycles expressed through different pathways of the depositional system, and was also affected by changes in sedimentation rates related to relative sea level fluctuations, aperiodic dilution by volcanic ash, and changes in organic-matter production and redox conditions related to a global "oceanic anoxic event". These factors complicate cycle analysis in the lower part of the member but leave a relatively undisturbed record in the upper Bridge Creek Limestone. Copyright ?? 1997, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  5. Geomorphic and lithologic characteristics of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt, using remote sensing and field investigations (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Asran, Asran M.; Mahran, Tawfig M.


    Wadi Feiran is an important drainage basin in southern Sinai Peninsula covering an area of about 1785 km2, its streams drain into the Gulf of Suez crossing variety of rocks and sedimentary units varied in age from Precambrian to Quaternary. Field investigations, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing studies including Landsat-7 ETM+, Radarsat-1, and SRTM DEM were integrated to reveal its lithologic, geologic and geomorphic features. Besides the field investigations, rock units including basement and pre- and syn-rift sedimentary units were discriminated using band ratios and principal component analysis techniques (PCA). Such techniques revealed that the crystalline rocks covering W. Feiran are unaltered rocks lacking OH-bearing minerals. Radar data successfully displayed the structures and geomorphic features related to topography. Moreover, the techniques allowed the extraction of the dyke-like structures along faults and shear zones. This also characterized the topographic variations through analysis of the shaded terrain and the altitudinal profiles. The results of data integration, lineament analysis and lineament density maps revealed that the structural grain in the present study has four different trends: N20-45E, N30-45W, N-S and E-W. Based on analysis of radar data and geomorphic indices, W. Feiran is an asymmetrical basin, its left side occupies ˜ 34% of the total area that leads to a supposedly massive tilt towards the south which caused the southwestward slope.

  6. Organic geochemistry and hydrocarbon potential contrasts among lithologically different source rocks in the Qingxi Sag, Jiuquan Basin, Northwest China (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Zhilong; Gao, Gang; Yin, Yue; Li, Tianjun


    Jiuquan Basin, located in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor, is a medium- to small-sized superimposed basin in northwest China. Situated in the southwest of the basin is the Qingxi sag, in which the development of large sets of argillaceous dolomite dominate (lithological assemblage named as LSA) and dolomitic mudstone (LSB), partially being mudstone. From electronical and seismic profile features, the Lower Cretaceous can be divided into the Chijinpu Formation, Xiagou Formation, and Zhonggou Formation in the Qingxi Sag. Moreover, the Xiagou Formation can be divided into four members, represented as K1g0, K1g1, K1g2, and K1g3. The given lithological assemblages and occurrence of particular mineralogical combinations indicate that it is the product of hydrothermal deposition. Lithologically, the argillaceous dolomite and dolomitic mudstone are diametrically different in both mineral contents and types. The integration of field outcrop observation and sampling with laboratory analyses, including solvent extract, Rock-Eval (S1, S2, and Tmax), organic petrography (lithological identification, cement, grain, mineral, and maceral observation), and laboratory modeling of hydrocarbon generation, show that both LSA and LSB contains good hydrocarbon potentials but rather different mineralogical compositions. The concurrence of LSA and LSB indicates the alternate interaction between the hydrothermal deposition and normal lacustrine deposits. The LSA mainly contains Type I kerogen and much lower Pr/Ph ratio, indicating parental material sourced from lacustrine algae and bacteria and much stronger reduction depostional environment. However, the LSB mainly contains Type III kerogen, containing parental material mainly sourced from terrestrial higher plant. And in the mudstone, there is almost no Type I kerogen, indicating no substantial input of lacustrine phytoplankton. The LSA contains TOC value of 1.2-3.2% (wt), averaging 2.1% (wt); while the LSB contains 0.8-2.4% (wt) with

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of lithologies of the Tabuaço W-prospect area (Northern Portugal) (United States)

    Cerejo, Tiago; Francisco Santos, Jose; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Castanho, Nuno; Sergio, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Sara


    This work is focussed on lithologies occurring at Quinta de São Pedro das Águias, which is located in the Tabuaço prospect (an area of 45 km2 where exploration for W-skarn deposits is taking place, in northern Portugal, close to the Douro valley). At Quinta de São Pedro das Águias several lithologies are recognized: "normal" phyllites, black phyllites (graphite-bearing), marbles, calcsilicate (s.s.) rocks and skarns (sometimes, scheelite-bearing), belonging to the Bateiras Formation, of the Douro Group (one of the two major subdivisions of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Dúrico-Beirão Supergroup); Paredes da Beira-Tabuaço granite; several aplitic and pegmatitic bodies. The studied area belongs to the Central Iberian Zone, a geotectonic unit of the Iberian Variscan Chain. Rb-Sr isotope analyses done in the scope of this work, provided a 316 ± 7 Ma whole-rock isochron (MSWD = 1.7; initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7146) for the granitoids, using the 87Rb decay constant recently recommended by IUPAC-IUGS (Villa et al., 2015). This date is interpreted here as the emplacement age of those rocks, during a late stage of the Variscan D3. The granite revealed a S-type nature, namely because it is a muscovite granite, it shows a peraluminous composition (average A/CNK = 1.28), and the Sr and Nd isotope fingerprints (-8.9 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -7.8; +0.7105 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7182) fit into the composition of metasedimentary crust. The analysed phyllites show the following isotopic compositions: -9.7 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -8.2; +0.7148 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7188. Therefore, the isotope signatures, at 316 Ma, of the granite and of the studied metapelites overlap, suggesting that the parental magma was generated by anatexis of Grupo do Douro metasediments. According to their petrographic, geochemical and isotopic features, aplites and pegmatites are viewed as extreme differentiates from the granite. São Pedro das Águias metapelites show biotite zone parageneses

  8. First Kinetic Reactive-Flow and Melting Calculations for Entropy Budget and Major Elements in Heterogeneous Mantle Lithologies (Invited) (United States)

    Asimow, P. D.


    The consequences of source heterogeneity and reactive flow during melt transport in the mantle can be classified by scale. At the smallest spatial and longest temporal scales, we can assume complete equilibrium and use batch melting of homogenized sources or equilibrium porous flow treatments. At large enough spatial scale or short enough temporal scale to prevent any thermal or chemical interaction between heterogeneities or between melt and matrix, we can assume perfectly fractional melting and transport and apply simple melt-mixing calculations. At a somewhat smaller spatial or longer temporal scale, thermal but not chemical interactions are significant and various lithologies and channel/matrix systems must follow common pressure-temperature paths, with energy flows between them. All these cases are tractable to model with current tools, whether we are interested in the energy budget, major elements, trace elements, or isotopes. There remains, however, the very important range of scales where none of these simple theories applies because of partial chemical interaction among lithologies or along the flow path. Such disequilibrium or kinetic cases have only been modeled, in the case of mantle minerals and melts, for trace elements and isotopes, with fixed melting rates instead of complete energy budgets. In order to interpret volumes of magma production and major element basalt and residue compositions that might emerge from a heterogeneous mantle in this last range of scales, we must develop tools that can combine a kinetic formulation with a major element and energy-constrained thermodynamic calculation. The kinetics can be handled either with a chemical kinetic approach with rate constants for various net transfer and exchange reactions, or with a physical diffusion-limited approach. A physical diffusion-limited approach can be built with the following elements. At grain scale, spherical grains of an arbitrary number of solid phases can evolve zoning profiles

  9. The variogram and the simple kriging estimator: Useful tools to complement lithologic correlation in a complex fluvial depositional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J. [IT Corp., Martinez, CA (United States)


    Three dimensional grid estimation has been combined with an interpretive model of fluvial deposition for correlating low permeability zones in the shallow subsurface. Improvement in correlation reliability was realized by combining hand drawn interpretive cross-sections (spotting local trends in grain size, CPT log signature, etc.) with cross-section maps of the geostatistical grid model. The site is a military installation where soil contamination is being mapped and quantified using three dimensional modeling techniques. The subsurface is a complex fluvial depositional environment with intermittent bedrock highs and more frequent calcite and Calcium/Iron related cementation. Hence, the problem of lithologic correlation occurred where the drillhole spacing became wider than the channel belt width or cemented materials prevented detailed sampling. The goals of the sampling and analysis plan called for sampling within the first continuous silt or clay unit in order to quantify the zone of greatest contaminant retention on its downward migratory path. This paper will describe a three dimensional correlation technique which employs geostatistical analysis of CPT hole data specifically coded by permeability indicator thresholds. The process yielded variogram ranges applied to a simple kriging estimator on a 3-dimensional grid block. Estimates of clay probability are then provided as output and overlaid with the geologists cross section interpretation. The marriage of these two tools was invaluable in that geostatistical estimates sometimes behaved contrary to the channel depositional process, while on the other hand, the geologists interpretation often failed to recognize data in the third dimension (i.e. off section CPT data).

  10. A Noachian source region for the "Black Beauty" meteorite, and a source lithology for Mars surface hydrated dust? (United States)

    Beck, P.; Pommerol, A.; Zanda, B.; Remusat, L.; Lorand, J. P.; Göpel, C.; Hewins, R.; Pont, S.; Lewin, E.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Garenne, A.; Bonal, L.; Proux, O.; Hazemann, J. L.; Chevrier, V. F.


    The Martian surface is covered by a fine-layer of oxidized dust responsible for its red color in the visible spectral range (Bibring et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006). In the near infrared, the strongest spectral feature is located between 2.6 and 3.6 μm and is ubiquitously observed on the planet (Jouglet et al., 2007; Milliken et al., 2007). Although this absorption has been studied for many decades, its exact attribution and its geological and climatic implications remain debated. We present new lines of evidence from laboratory experiments, orbital and landed missions data, and characterization of the unique Martian meteorite NWA 7533, all converging toward the prominent role of hydroxylated ferric minerals. Martian breccias (so-called "Black Beauty" meteorite NWA7034 and its paired stones NWA7533 and NWA 7455) are unique pieces of the Martian surface that display abundant evidence of aqueous alteration that occurred on their parent planet (Agee et al., 2013). These dark stones are also unique in the fact that they arose from a near surface level in the Noachian southern hemisphere (Humayun et al., 2013). We used IR spectroscopy, Fe-XANES and petrography to identify the mineral hosts of hydrogen in NWA 7533 and compare them with observations of the Martian surface and results of laboratory experiments. The spectrum of NWA 7533 does not show mafic mineral absorptions, making its definite identification difficult through NIR remote sensing mapping. However, its spectra are virtually consistent with a large fraction of the Martian highlands. Abundant NWA 7034/7533 (and paired samples) lithologies might abound on Mars and might play a role in the dust production mechanism.

  11. Geologic history of Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034: Evidence for hydrothermal activity and lithologic diversity in the Martian crust (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Novák-Szabó, Tímea; Santos, Alison R.; Tartèse, Romain; Muttik, Nele; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge; Keller, Lindsay P.; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Steele, Andrew; Elardo, Stephen M.; Rahman, Zia; Anand, Mahesh; Delhaye, Thomas; Agee, Carl B.


    The timing and mode of deposition for Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 were determined by combining petrography, shape analysis, and thermochronology. NWA 7034 is composed of igneous, impact, and brecciated clasts within a thermally annealed submicron matrix of pulverized crustal rocks and devitrified impact/volcanic glass. The brecciated clasts are likely lithified portions of Martian regolith with some evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Represented lithologies are primarily ancient crustal materials with crystallization ages as old as 4.4 Ga. One ancient zircon was hosted by an alkali-rich basalt clast, confirming that alkalic volcanism occurred on Mars very early. NWA 7034 is composed of fragmented particles that do not exhibit evidence of having undergone bed load transport by wind or water. The clast size distribution is similar to terrestrial pyroclastic deposits. We infer that the clasts were deposited by atmospheric rainout subsequent to a pyroclastic eruption(s) and/or impact event(s), although the ancient ages of igneous components favor mobilization by impact(s). Despite ancient components, the breccia has undergone a single pervasive thermal event at 500-800°C, evident by groundmass texture and concordance of 1.5 Ga dates for bulk rock K-Ar, U-Pb in apatite, and U-Pb in metamict zircons. The 1.5 Ga age is likely a thermal event that coincides with rainout/breccia lithification. We infer that the episodic process of regolith lithification dominated sedimentary processes during the Amazonian Epoch. The absence of pre-Amazonian high-temperature metamorphic events recorded in ancient zircons indicates source domains of static southern highland crust punctuated by episodic impact modification.

  12. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration. [lithology and geological structure of Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas (United States)

    Collins, R. J. (Principal Investigator); Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G. J.; Everett, J. R.


    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data give exploration geologists a new perspective for looking at the earth. The data are excellent for interpreting regional lithologic and structural relationships and quickly directing attention to areas of greatest exploration interest. Information derived from ERTS data useful for petroleum exploration include: linear features, general lithologic distribution, identification of various anomalous features, some details of structures controlling hydrocarbon accumulation, overall structural relationships, and the regional context of the exploration province. Many anomalies (particularly geomorphic anomalies) correlate with known features of petroleum exploration interest. Linears interpreted from the imagery that were checked in the field correlate with fractures. Bands 5 and 7 and color composite imagery acquired during the periods of maximum and minimum vegetation vigor are best for geologic interpretation. Preliminary analysis indicates that use of ERTS imagery can substantially reduce the cost of petroleum exploration in relatively unexplored areas.

  13. High-resolution stratigraphy of the Changhsingian (Late Permian) successions of NW Iran and the Transcaucasus based on lithological features, conodonts and ammonoids


    Ghaderi, A.; Leda, L.; Schobben, M.; Korn, D.; Ashouri, A. R.


    The Permian–Triassic boundary sections in north-western Iran belong to the most complete successions, in which the largest mass extinction event in the history of the Earth can be studied. We investigated the Changhsingian stage in six sections in the area of Julfa (Aras Valley) for their lithology, conodonts and ammonoids. Revision of the biostratigraphy led to the separation of 10 conodont zones (from bottom to top Clarkina orientalis–C. subcarinata interval zone, C. subca...

  14. The effect of lithology on valley width, terrace distribution, and coarse sediment provenance in a tectonically stable catchment with flat-lying stratigraphy (United States)

    Amanda Keen-Zebert,; Hudson, Mark R.; Stephanie L. Shepherd,; Evan A. Thaler,


    How rock resistance or erodibility affects fluvial landforms and processes is an outstanding question in geomorphology that has recently garnered attention owing to the recognition that the erosion rates of bedrock channels largely set the pace of landscape evolution. In this work, we evaluate valley width, terrace distribution, and sediment provenance in terms of reach scale variation in lithology in the study reach and discuss the implications for landscape evolution in a catchment with relatively flat2


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    总结油气藏发现的历史及油气藏分类方法发现,经典油气藏概念是定义构造油藏的充分必要条件,缺少定义复杂油藏和岩性油气藏的充分条件.因此,采用油气藏的聚集原理对岩性油气藏研究中的理论问题进行了探讨,认为油气成藏的构造因素是浮力因素,岩性因素是储层孔隙结构因素;油气藏的形成过程是圈闭储集层中含油饱和度不断增加的过程;任何岩性油气藏的形成都不同程度地受到构造因素的影响,油气藏基本是随着构造的定型而定型.%Through the summary of discover history and classification methods of hydrocarbon reservoirs, it is found that the classic concept of hydrocarbon reservoirs is the necessary and sufficient condition to define the structural reservoirs, but it lacks the sufficient condition to define the complex and lithologic reservoirs. Therefore, this paper discusses the theoretical problems about the study of lithologic reservoirs through the application of hydrocarbon reservoir accumulation principle. It is considered that the structural factor of reservoir-forming is the buoyancy factor.The lithology factor is the one that influences reservoir pore structures. The forming process of hydrocarbon reservoirs is a continuous process of oil saturation increase in the volumetric reservoirs. The formation of any lithologic reservoirs is influenced by the structural factors to different extent. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are basically decided by the final formation of structures.

  16. Searching for nonlocal lithologies in the Apollo 12 regolith: a geochemical and petrological study of basaltic coarse fines from the Apollo lunar soil sample 12023,155


    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Crawford, Ian; Joy, K. H.; Downes, Hilary


    New data from a petrological and geochemical examination of 12 coarse basaltic fines from the Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155 provide evidence of additional geochemical diversity at the landing site. In addition to the bulk chemical composition, major, minor, and trace element analyses of mineral phases are employed to ascertain how these samples relate to the Apollo 12 lithological basalt groups, thereby overcoming the problems of representativeness of small samples. All of the samples studi...

  17. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: Bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial-bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize development of alluvial bankfull indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate

  18. In Search of Relationships Between Seismic Properties and Lihologic Units; Shifting the Focus from Boundaries to the Intervals Between Seismic & Lithologic Transitions (United States)

    Carlson, R. L.


    Efforts to relate the seismic structure to lithologic sequences in Holes 504B and 1256D, or to tectonic exposures at Hess Deep, Pito Deep, and the Blanco Fracture Zone with a focus on the boundaries, i.e. between layers 2A and 2B, or 2 & 3, or between lavas and dikes, or dikes and gabbros, are confounded by large uncertainties in the depths to lithologic boundaries and seismic transitions: 1) In boreholes the lava/dike transition occurs over a transition zone that extends from the first dike to the last lava sample, but because of low core recovery transition zones may be even wider. Further, in tectonic exposures the lava/dike transition has high relief, while the dike/gabbro transition is less variable. 2) Even sonic logs do not show sharp boundaries in the upper crust, and the approach to velocities typical of layer 3 is essentially asymptotic. 3) Seismic velocities represent averages over tens or hundreds of meters, horizontal resolution is limited to 500 to 700 meters at least, while the vertical resolution in the upper crust is not better than 25 to 70 meters. In light of these uncertainties, the most that can be said, even where the seismic structure and the lithologic sequence are known in Holes 504B and 1256D, is that the 2A/2B transition occurs within the lava pile, the 2B/2C transition occurs near the top of the dikes, and the layer 2/3 boundary occurs near the dike/gabbro transition. However, relationships between the seismic velocities and rock types are less ambiguous in the intervals between the seismic and lithologic transitions: 1) Velocities 6.5 km/s and gradients 0.1/s are likely to indicate plutonic gabbros.

  19. Spectres infrarouge et Raman de l'acide stéarique et d'une série d'acides gras forme C: modes de squelette, couplage des modes longitudinaux acoustiques (LAM1, LAM3) avec les modes dans le plan de la liaison hydrogène du dimère en dessous de 700 cm -1 (United States)

    Vogel-Weill, C.; Corset, J.


    A vibrational study of the skeletal modes of stearic acid ( n = 18) in the C form is interpreted on the basis of the calculated dispersion curves for the aliphatic chain C n H n + 2 . The Raman spectra below 200 cm -1, obtained at 90 K, display one very intense band at 70 cm -1 that is assigned to the longitudinal acoustic mode LAM1. The observed frequencies, together with those of LAM3, follow accurately the selection rules of those expected for a C 36 alkane chain of structure C2h. This led us to consider the overall dimer as a molecular entity located on a Ci, site of the crystal. The result, in agreement with the calculations of Zerbi, can be extended to the entire set of acids studied ( n = 26, 23, 16, 14, 12). The observed coupling between the vibrational skeletal modes of the two chains and the in-plane modes of the hydrogen bonded dimer δ(OH⋯O) and ν(O⋯O) is responsible for the behaviour of the C form. Finally, we present the description of the vibrational modes and their classification in the different symmetry classes for polymethylene and paraffins ( neven) accounting for the conventions used in this work and in the literature.

  20. Application of cluster and discriminant analyses to diagnose lithological heterogeneity of the parent material according to its particle-size distribution (United States)

    Giniyatullin, K. G.; Valeeva, A. A.; Smirnova, E. V.


    Particle-size distribution in soddy-podzolic and light gray forest soils of the Botanical Garden of Kazan Federal University has been studied. The cluster analysis of data on the samples from genetic soil horizons attests to the lithological heterogeneity of the profiles of all the studied soils. It is probable that they are developed from the two-layered sediments with the upper colluvial layer underlain by the alluvial layer. According to the discriminant analysis, the major contribution to the discrimination of colluvial and alluvial layers is that of the fraction >0.25 mm. The results of canonical analysis show that there is only one significant discriminant function that separates alluvial and colluvial sediments on the investigated territory. The discriminant function correlates with the contents of fractions 0.05-0.01, 0.25-0.05, and >0.25 mm. Classification functions making it possible to distinguish between alluvial and colluvial sediments have been calculated. Statistical assessment of particle-size distribution data obtained for the plow horizons on ten plowed fields within the garden indicates that this horizon is formed from colluvial sediments. We conclude that the contents of separate fractions and their ratios cannot be used as a universal criterion of the lithological heterogeneity. However, adequate combination of the cluster and discriminant analyses makes it possible to give a comprehensive assessment of the lithology of soil samples from data on the contents of sand and silt fractions, which considerably increases the information value and reliability of the results.

  1. The effect of permafrost, vegetation, and lithology on Mg and Si isotope composition of the Yenisey River and its tributaries at the end of the spring flood (United States)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Rinder, Thomas; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Korets, Mikhail A.; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Oelkers, Eric H.


    This work focuses on the behavior of the stable Mg and Si isotope compositions of the largest Arctic river, the Yenisey River and 28 of its major and minor tributaries during the spring flood period. Samples were collected along a 1500 km latitudinal profile covering a wide range of permafrost, lithology, and vegetation. Despite significant contrasts in the main physico-geographical, climate, and lithological parameters of the watersheds, the isotope composition of both dissolved Mg and Si was found to be only weakly influenced by the degree of the permafrost coverage, type of vegetation (forest vs. tundra), and lithology (granites, basalts, carbonates or terrigenous rocks). This observation is generally consistent with the lack of chemical uptake of Mg and Si by soil mineral formation and vegetation during the early spring. The radiogenic Sr isotope composition of the Yenisey and its tributaries varied within a narrow range (0.708 ⩽ 87Sr/86Sr ⩽ 0.711) reflecting the dominance of Phanerozoic rock weathering and/or atmospheric deposition on these compositions. The Mg and Si isotopic compositions of riverine samples reflect two main processes with distinct isotopic signatures. First, isotopically heavier Mg (δ26Mg = -1.0 ± 0.2‰) and isotopically lighter Si (δ30Si = 1.0 ± 0.25‰) are added to the waters by river suspended matter dissolution and leaching from vegetation biomass/topsoil litter. Second, isotopically lighter Mg (δ26Mg = -1.5 to -1.75‰) and isotopically heavier Si (δ30Si = 1.75-2.0‰) are delivered to the Yenisey's tributaries from deep underground water feeding the rivers via taliks. This lighter Mg and heavier Si isotopic composition is interpreted to originate from Precambrian dolomite dissolution and aluminosilicate dissolution coupled with authigenic mineral precipitation, respectively, in deep underground water reservoirs. Taking account of the isotopic composition evolution over the course of the year established earlier on mono-lithological

  2. Lithological and age structure of the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton: Xenolith evidence (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Zheng, Jianping; Su, Yuping; Ma, Qiang; Griffin, William L.


    Deep-seated xenoliths in volcanic rocks offer direct glimpses into the nature and evolution of the lower continental crust. In this contribution, new data on the U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons in six felsic granulite xenoliths and one pyroxenite xenolith from the Hannuoba Cenozoic basalts, combined with published data from mafic to felsic xenoliths, are used to constrain the lithological and age structure of the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton. Two newly-reported felsic granulites contain Precambrian zircons with positive (+ 7.5-+ 10.6) and negative εHf values (- 10.1 to - 3.7) corresponding to upper intercept ages of 2449 ± 62 Ma and 1880 ± 54 Ma, respectively, indicating crustal accretion in the late Archean and reworking in Paleoproterozoic time. Zircons in another four felsic xenoliths give Phanerozoic ages from 142 Ma to 73 Ma and zircons from one pyroxenite xenolith give a concordant age of 158 Ma. The zircon εHf values of these four felsic xenoliths range between - 23.3 and - 19.1, reflecting re-melting of the pre-existing lower crust. Integration of geothermobarometric, and geochronological data on the Hannuoba xenoliths with seismic refraction studies shows that the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton is temporally and compositionally zoned: the upper lower crust (24-33 km) consists dominantly of Archean (~ 2.5 Ga with minor 2.7 Ga) felsic granulites with subordinate felsic granulites that reworked at 140-120 Ma; both Precambrian and late Mesozoic mafic granulites are important constituents of the middle lower crust (33-38 km); major late Mesozoic (140-120 Ma) and less Cenozoic (45-47 Ma) granulites and pyroxenites are presented in the lowermost crust (38-42 km). The zoned architecture of the lower crust beneath Hannuoba suggests a complex evolution beneath the northern margin of the craton, including late Neoarchean (~ 2.5 Ga) accretion and subsequent episodic accretion and/or reworking

  3. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karri Damodararao


    Full Text Available Sediments deposited on the Northern and Eastern Andaman Shelf along with a few sediments from the Irrawaddy and the Salween Rivers are studied for their elemental, Sr and Nd concentrations and their isotope composition to identify their sources, constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology such as ophiolites and ultrabasic rocks in the Irrawaddy drainage and over Indo – Burman – Arakan (IBA ranges as their dominant source. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in sediments of the Northern and Eastern Andaman Shelf range between 0.712245 and 0.742183 whereas, εNd varies from -6.29 to -17.25. Sediments around Mergui have the highest 87Sr/86Sr and the lowest εNd values. Sr and Nd isotope composition of these sediments along with that in the potential sources suggest four major sources of these sediments to the Andaman Shelf, (i the Irrawaddy River, (ii the Salween River, (iii Rivers draining the IBA ranges and (vi Rivers draining the Western/Central granitic ranges of the Southern Myanmar and Western Thailand such as the Tavoy and the Tanintharyi Rivers. Erosion in the catchment is controlled by the precipitation and topography. Intensely focused precipitation over the higher relief of the western slopes of the IBA and western/central granitic ranges causes higher erosion over this mountainous region, supplying huge sediments through the Kaladan, Irrawaddy, Salween, and the Tanintharyi Rivers to the western Myanmar Shelf, Northern, and Eastern Andaman Shelves respectively. The majority of the sediments produced in the drainage are delivered to the shelf during the south-west monsoon which is dispersed eastward by sea-surface circulation from the mouth of the Irrawaddy Rivers towards the Gulf of Martaban and further southward. The Andaman Shelf receives very little

  4. Lithology, kinematics and geochronology related to Late Mesozoic basin-mountain evolution in the Nanxiong-Zhuguang area, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Liangshu; DENG; Ping; WANG; Bin; TAN; Zhengzhong; YU


    The Nanxiong red-bed basin and its adjacent Zhuguang granite form a distinctive basin-mountain landform in the Nanling region, South China. Research results suggest that the Zhuguang granite is a polyphase composite pluton developed on the metamorphic basement of the paleo-Tethys-paleo-Asian tectonic regime and possesses geometrical and kinematic features of hot-doming extensional tectonics at the middle-upper crustal level, which is considered as a magmatic complex that resulted from the collision-orogeny during the Indosinian Period, the subduction-consuming during the Early Yanshanian Period and the intra-continental basaltic underplating and deep-seated geodynamics during the Late Yanshanian Period. The Nanxiong basin is a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene asymmetric faulted basin that is characterized by a fault boundary on the northern side and an uncomformable boundary on the southern side, its deposit center was migrated gradually from south to north. Structural kinematic results on the basin-mountain coupled zone demonstrate that the ductile and the brittle rheological layers show a quite coincident sense of shear, implying that it is a continuous process from the ductile extensional deformation followed by locally sinistral strike-slip shear at a middle-crustal level to the brittle tensional deformation at a upper-crustal level during formation of granitic doming extensional tectonics. The Zhuguang granite and the Nanxiong faulted basin constructed a semi-graben tectonic system. Lithological and geochemical results suggest that the Late Triassic to Jurassic granitic bodies in the Zhuguang have some similar features: high SiO2, Al2O3, K2O contents, alkalinity index > 2.8, ANKC value > 1.1, LREE-enriched pattern with high REE contents, marked negative Eu anomalies, enrichment in Rb and Th, depletion in Ba and Nb, showing a K-rich and Al-rich calc-alkaline affinity, which suggest a continuous magmatic evolution from Late Triassic to Jurassic. Formation of

  5. Tectonic and lithological controls on fluvial landscape development in central-eastern Portugal: Insights from long profile tributary stream analyses (United States)

    Martins, António A.; Cabral, João; Cunha, Pedro P.; Stokes, Martin; Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Martins, A. Cardoso


    This study examines the long profiles of tributaries of the Tagus and Zêzere rivers in Portugal (West Iberia) in order to provide new insights into patterns, timing, and controls on drainage development during the Quaternary incision stage. The studied streams are incised into a relict culminant fluvial surface, abandoned at the beginning of the incision stage. The streams flow through a landscape with bedrock variations in lithology (mainly granites and metasediments) and faulted blocks with distinct uplift rates. The long profiles of the analyzed streams record an older transitory knickpoint/knickzone separating (1) an upstream relict graded profile, with lower steepness and higher concavity, that reflects a long period of quasi-equilibrium conditions reached after the beginning of the incision stage, and (2) a downstream rejuvenated long profile, with steeper gradient and lower concavity, particularly for the final reach, which is often convex. The rejuvenated reaches testify to the upstream propagation of several incision waves, interpreted as the response of each stream to increasing crustal uplift and prolonged periods of base-level lowering by the trunk drainages, coeval with low sea level conditions. The morphological configurations of the long profiles enabled spatial and relative temporal patterns of incisions to be quantified. The incision values of streams flowing on the Portuguese Central Range (PCR; ca. 380-150 m) are variable but generally higher than the incision values of streams flowing on the adjacent South Portugal Planation Surface (SPPS; ca. 220-110 m), corroborating differential uplift of the PCR relative to the SPPS. Owing to the fact that the relict graded profiles can be correlated with the Tagus River T1 terrace (1.1-0.9 My) present in the study area, incision rates can be estimated (1) for the streams located in the PCR, 0.38-0.15 m/ky and (2) for the streams flowing on the SPPS, 0.22-0.12 m/ky. The differential uplift inferred in the

  6. Lithological and geochemical constraints on the magma conduit systems of the Huangshan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, NW China (United States)

    Deng, Yu-Feng; Song, Xie-Yan; Hollings, Pete; Chen, Lie-Meng; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Dayu; Zhao, Bingbing


    Magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang, China, are associated with small mafic-ultramafic complexes, with the sulfide ores generally occurring in ultramafic rocks. The Huangshan deposit (up to 65 Mt of ore at 0.49% Ni and 0.31% Cu), one of the largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, is composed of a layered sequence of lower websterite, lower lherzolite, websterite, norite-gabbro, gabbro, diorite, and gabbronorite, with sulfide mineralization mainly found in the lower lherzolite, lower websterite, and websterite. Systematic variations of the major oxides and trace elements suggest that the rocks of the Huangshan deposit are fractionated from the same parental magma, with the sharp contact and discontinuous trends of major oxide contents between different lithologies implying intrusion of four distinct stages of magma from a single deep-seated staging chamber. The reversals in olivine Fo contents and major oxides in the lower lherzolite were the result of inhomogeneity in olivine within the lower chamber. The Se/S ratios (63.1˜150 × 10-6) and the negative correlation between Se/S and δ34S (0.63˜2.42‰) of the sulfide ores suggest that a large contribution of crustal S caused the sulfide segregation. The sulfides in the lower lherzolite have lower Cu contents (1386-2200 ppm) and Cu/Pd ratios (2.31 × 105-1.36 × 106) relative to those in the mineralized lower websterite (Cu = 2300 to 18,700 ppm, and Cu/Pd = 6.65 × 105 to 2.73 × 106). A positive correlation between Pd/Ir and Ni/Ir for the vein-textured sulfides in the lower websterite likely reflects fractionated sulfides picked up by a new pulse of magma. In contrast, the restricted range of Pd/Ir ratios indicates that the PGE contents of the disseminated sulfides in the lower lherzolite resulted from reaction between the sulfides and new pulses of S-undersaturated magma.

  7. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R, J.M.


    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  8. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.


    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  9. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland. (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga


    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  10. Effects of tectonics and lithology on long profiles of 16 rivers of the southern Central Massif border between the Aude and the Orb (France) (United States)

    Larue, Jean-Pierre


    The analysis of longitudinal profiles of river channels and terraces in the southern Central Massif border, between the Aude and the Orb, allows the detection of anomalies caused by lithology and/or tectonic distortions. The rivers which have abnormally high slope and non-lithological knickzones indicate the main uplifted zones: the Montagne Noire and the Saint-Chinian ridge. A geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of detrital deposits was carried out as a basis for correlating the different formations, reconstructing the palaeodrainage and finding the main uplift and fluvial incision stages. During the Miocene, uplift remains limited as it is shown by the correlative fine deposits in the Languedocian piedmont. The Messinian incision (5.7-5.3 Ma) does not cross the Saint-Chinian ridge. On the other hand, fluvial incision becomes widespread in the Montagne Noire during the Upper Pliocene (3.4-2 Ma) when coarse deposits overlie either the Pliocene clay in the Orb palaeovalley or the Messinian conglomerates at the Cesse outlet. An Upper Pliocene uplift of the Montagne Noire and of the Saint-Chinian ridge is the cause of this incision and also of the diversion of the Cesse towards the Aude. Where the uplift rate was higher than incision rate, knickzones have developed like in the Avant-Monts south-side. The knickzones of lithological origin maintain a strong vertical stability during all the river incision stages. On the other hand, those of tectonic origin or base level lowering record upstream migration and their rate of retreat is controlled by the river discharge. As incision occurs only during the cold/temperate transition periods during the Quaternary, upward erosion slowly migrates (15 km since the Upper Pliocene, on the Orb) and so does not reach the riverheads.

  11. Preservation of benthic foraminifera and reliability of deep-sea temperature records: Importance of sedimentation rates, lithology, and the need to examine test wall structure (United States)

    Sexton, Philip F.; Wilson, Paul A.


    Preservation of planktic foraminiferal calcite has received widespread attention in recent years, but the taphonomy of benthic foraminiferal calcite and its influence on the deep-sea palaeotemperature record have gone comparatively unreported. Numerical modeling indicates that the carbonate recrystallization histories of deep-sea sections are dominated by events in their early burial history, meaning that the degree of exchange between sediments and pore fluids during the early postburial phase holds the key to determining the palaeotemperature significance of diagenetic alteration of benthic foraminifera. Postburial sedimentation rate and lithology are likely to be important determinants of the paleoceanographic significance of this sediment-pore fluid interaction. Here we report an investigation of the impact of extreme change in sedimentation rate (a prolonged and widespread Upper Cretaceous hiatus in the North Atlantic Ocean) on the preservation and δ18O of benthic foraminifera of Middle Cretaceous age (nannofossil zone NC10, uppermost Albian/lowermost Cenomanian, ˜99 Ma ago) from multiple drill sites. At sites where this hiatus immediately overlies NC10, benthic foraminifera appear to display at least moderate preservation of the whole test. However, on closer inspection, these tests are shown to be extremely poorly preserved internally and yield δ18O values substantially higher than those from contemporaneous better preserved benthic foraminifera at sites without an immediately overlying hiatus. These high δ18O values are interpreted to indicate alteration close to the seafloor in cooler waters during the Late Cretaceous hiatus. Intersite differences in lithology modulate the diagenetic impact of this extreme change in sedimentation rate. Our results highlight the importance of thorough examination of benthic foraminiferal wall structures and lend support to the view that sedimentation rate and lithology are key factors controlling the paleoceanographic

  12. Outlook for prospecting for lithological traps of nonanticlinal type of hydrocarbons in the lower-middle Jurassic deposits of central West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasovich, G.S.; Myasnikova, G.P.; Sidorenkov, A.I.; Zmanovskaya, O.I.


    A study is made of the laws governing the arrangement and conditions of the formation of large and regional zones of formation of lithological traps of hydrocarbons. It made it possible to reveal four basic types of genetic roots of these tasks developed within the examined region. An analysis is made from these viewpoints of the features of the lower-middle Jurassic sedimentation and the potentialities for forming traps of the nonanyiclinal type on the territory of the main structural elements of the region. Considerations are expressed for the possible development of nonanticlinal traps of a certain type within the boundaries of these structural elements.

  13. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize

  14. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  15. Detection of Mg spinel lithologies on central peak of crater Theophilus using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Lal; P Chauhan; R D Shah; S Bhattacharya; Ajai; A S Kiran Kumar


    Spectral reflectance data derived from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 has revealed Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich lithology on central peaks of the crater Theophilus. These newly identified Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-m absorption and lack of 1-m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. Such lithology has been reported previously along the inner ring of Moscoviense Basin on the lunar far side. The Modified Gaussian Modeling (MGM) analysis of the Fe bearing Mg-spinel reflectance spectra has been done and the results of the analysis clearly bring out a strong spectral absorption at 1872 nm with no significant absortion around 1000 nm. The presence of spinel group of minerals in the Theophilus central peak and the fact that central peaks mostly represent uplifted mass of deep crustal material confirm that central peaks can be used as a window to study the deep crustal and/or upper mantle composition and may lead to a fresh perspective about the crustal composition of Moon.

  16. Water retention and availability in soils of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil: effect of textural classes, soil classes and lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa


    Full Text Available The retention and availability of water in the soil vary according to the soil characteristics and determine plant growth. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate water retention and availability in the soils of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, according to the textural class, soil class and lithology. The surface and subsurface horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in different regions of the State and different cover crops to determine field capacity, permanent wilting point, available water content, particle size, and organic matter content. Water retention and availability between the horizons were compared in a mixed model, considering the textural classes, the soil classes and lithology as fixed factors and profiles as random factors. It may be concluded that water retention is greater in silty or clayey soils and that the organic matter content is higher, especially in Humic Cambisols, Nitisols and Ferralsol developed from igneous or sedimentary rocks. Water availability is greater in loam-textured soils, with high organic matter content, especially in soils of humic character. It is lower in the sandy texture class, especially in Arenosols formed from recent alluvial deposits or in gravelly soils derived from granite. The greater water availability in the surface horizons, with more organic matter than in the subsurface layers, illustrates the importance of organic matter for water retention and availability.

  17. The rare earth element geochemistry on surface sediments, shallow cores and lithological units of Lake Acıgöl basin, Denizli, Turkey (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa


    The sediments in Lake Acıgöl, located in SW Anatolia, Turkey, were formed under tectono-sedimentary events. REE geochemical investigations of the Lake Acıgöl sediments, from surface and shallow core sediments at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) are presented to clarify the characteristics of REE and the nature of source rocks in the lake sediments' and to deduce their paleoenvironmental proxies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these sediments are shown as light enrichment in LREE and flat HREE with a negative Eu anomaly that is close to the continental collision basin (CCB) in its profile; this is not comparable with PAAS and UCC. Inorganic detrital materials control the REE characteristics of the Lake Acıgöl sediments and these sediments were accumulated in oxic and dysoxic depositional conditions and/or at passive margins derived from oceanic island arc rocks. They were affected by low chemical weathering, either at the original source or during transport, before deposition under arid or subtropical humid climatic conditions. In addition, we used GIS techniques (such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) to investigate the spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the REEs from the lake surface sediments in Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units. GIS techniques showed that the lithological units (e.g., Hayrettin Formation) north of Lake Acıgöl have high REE contents; however, Eu/Eu∗ values were higher in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units, and that refers to a negative Eu-anomaly. Therefore, Lake Acıgöl sediments are derived from the weathered products, mainly from local, highly basic bedrock around the lake from the Archean crust. The chronology of Lake Acıgöl sediment was conducted using the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Using the CRS methods for the calculation of sedimentation rate, we obtained a 0.012 g/cm2/year value which is an

  18. High spatial resolution geochemistry and textural characteristics of 'microtektite' glass spherules in proximal Cretaceous-Paleogene sections: Insights into glass alteration patterns and precursor melt lithologies (United States)

    Belza, Joke; Goderis, Steven; Smit, Jan; Vanhaecke, Frank; Baert, Kitty; Terryn, Herman; Claeys, Philippe


    Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we have conducted spatially resolved trace element analysis on fresh, unaltered microtektite glasses linked to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary Chicxulub crater and on their surrounding alteration phases. This unique approach offers the opportunity to study in situ and at high spatial resolution both the mixing of different target lithologies and the variation of the major and trace element budget during the alteration process. In addition, two-dimensional element distribution maps reveal important geochemical information beyond the capabilities of single spot laser drilling. Glasses from two localities in opposite quadrants from the source crater were studied. At the Beloc locality (Haiti), the glass population is dominated by the presence of yellow high-Ca glass and black andesitic glass formed by admixture of carbonate/dolomite/anhydrite platform lithologies with crystalline basement. These glasses alter according to the well-established hydration-palagonitization model postulated for mafic volcanic glasses. REEs become progressively leached from the glass to below the detection limit for the applied spot size, while immobile Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta passively accumulate in the process exhibiting both inter-element ratios and absolute concentrations similar to those for the original glass. In contrast, The Arroyo El Mimbral locality (NE Mexico) is characterized by abundant green glass fragments high in Si, Al and alkalis, and low in Mg, Ca, Fe. Low Si black glass is less abundant though similar in composition to the black glass variety at Beloc. The alteration pattern of high-Si, Al green glass at the Mimbral locality is more complex, including numerous competing reaction processes (ion-exchange, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral precipitation) generally controlled by the pH and composition of the surrounding fluid. All green, high-Si, Al glasses are hydrated and

  19. How Rich is Rich? Placing Constraints on the Abundance of Spinel in the Pink Spinel Anorthosite Lithology on the Moon Through Space Weathering (United States)

    Gross, J.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Isaacson, P. J.; Le, L.


    previously unknown lunar rock was recently recognized in the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra. The rock type is rich in Mg-Al spinel (approximately 30%) and plagioclase and contains less than 5% mafic silicate minerals (olivine and pyroxene). The identification of this pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) at the Moscoviense basin has sparked new interest in lunar spinel. Pieters et al. suggested that these PSA deposits might be an important component of the lunar crust. However, Mg-Al spinel is rare in the Apollo and meteorite sample collections (only up to a few wt%), and occurs mostly in troctolites and troctolitic cataclastites. In this study, we are conducting a series of experiments (petrologic and space weathering) to investigate whether deposits of spinel identified by remote sensing are in high concentration (e.g. 30%) or whether the concentrations of spinel in these deposits are more like lunar samples, which contain only a few wt%. To examine the possibility of an impact-melt origin for PSA, conducted 1-bar crystallization experiments on rock compositions similar to pink spinel troctolite 65785. The VNIR spectral reflectance analyses of the low-temperature experiments yield absorption features similar to those of the PSA lithology detected at Moscoviense Basin. The experimental run products at these temperatures contain approximately 5 wt% spinel, which suggests that the spinel-rich deposits detected by M(sup 3) might not be as spinel-rich as previously thought. However, the effect of space weathering on spinel is unknown and could significantly alter its spectral properties including potential weakening of its diagnostic 2-micrometers absorption feature. Thus, weathered lunar rocks could contain more spinel than a comparison with the unweathered experimental charges would suggest. In this study, we have initiated space weathering experiments on 1) pure pink spinel, 2) spinel-anorthite mixtures, and 3) the low

  20. 利用成像测井自动判别礁滩储层沉积相和岩性%Automatic discrimination of sedimentary facies and lithologies in reef-bank reservoirs using borehole image logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴华; 李宁; 肖承文; 刘兴礼; 李多丽; 王才志; 吴大成


    Reef-bank reservoirs are an important target for petroleum exploration in marine carbonates and also an essential supplemental area for oil and gas production in China. Due to the diversity of reservoirs and the extreme heterogeneity of reef-banks, it is very difficult to discriminate the sedimentary facies and lithologies in reef-bank reservoirs using conventional well logs. The borehole image log provides clear identification of sedimentary structures and textures and is an ideal tool for discriminating sedimentary facies and lithologies. After examining a large number of borehole images and cores, we propose nine typical patterns for borehole image interpretation and a method that uses these patterns to discriminate sedimentary facies and lithologies in reef-bank reservoirs automatically. We also develop software with user-friendly interface. The results of applications in reef-bank reservoirs in the middle Tarim Basin and northeast Sichuan have proved that the proposed method and the corresponding software are quite effective.

  1. Fractal theory modeling for interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data and establishing lithological cross section in basaltic environment (case study from Southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The concentration- Number (C-N) fractal modeling technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells with much well logging data with a high number of variables are required to be interpreted.

  2. Using Pyroxene and Amphibole Compositions to Determine Protolith of Banded Quartz- Amphibole-Pyroxene Rocks on Akilia, Southwest Greenland: a Lithology Suitable for Hosting Earth's Oldest Life? (United States)

    Hage, M. M.; Usui, T.; Fedo, C. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    At ˜ 3.8 Ga in age, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks are exposed in SW Greenland and are comprised dominantly of mafic igneous rocks with less common sedimentary units, included banded iron formation (BIF). The great antiquity of the supracrustal rocks and repeated claims for a fossil record makes Greenland one of the prime astrobiological destinations on Earth, however, many primary characteristics of these rocks have been overprinted during multiple high-grade metamorphic events, which results in complex field relationships (e.g., Myers and Crowley, 2000; Whitehouse and Fedo, 2003). One example of this concerns an ˜ 5 m thick lithology dominated by bands of quartz, amphibole, pyroxene interpreted by some as BIF (Mojzsis et al., 1996; Nutman et al., 1997; Dauphas et al., 2004) on Akilia, SW Greenland. Correct identification of these rocks is of the utmost importance because they are reported to contain grains of apatite with 13C- depleted graphite inclusions that have been claimed as evidence for the oldest (> 3800 Mya) life on Earth (Mojzsis et al., 1996; Nutman et al., 1997; McKeegan et al., 2007). We analyzed mafic mineral compositions by electron microprobe from samples collected from a detailed measured section and from sample 92-197, the rock originally claimed to host Earth's oldest chemofossil. Ultramafic rocks from outside the quartz-amphibole-pyroxene (QAP) lithology are dominated by enstatite, anthophyllite, and hornblende and possess bulk trace-element signatures indicative of an igneous origin. Sample AK 38, a band of mixed pyroxene and amphibole that occurs within the QAP unit also has a bulk trace- element composition consistent with an ultramafic protolith, but contains Fe-rich clinopyroxene (Mg# = ˜ 50). AK 38 amphiboles are dominated by actinolite, although a few analyses of anthophyllite point towards an original Mg-rich protolith. Other QAP samples contain Fe-rich clino- and orthopyroxenes, actinolite and hornblende. Magnetite is

  3. Hydrologic, lithologic, and chemical data for sediment in the shallow alluvial aquifer at two sites near Fallon, Churchill County, Nevada, 1984-85 (United States)

    Lico, M.S.; Welch, A.H.; Hughes, J.L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collected an extensive amount of hydrogeologic data from the shallow alluvial aquifer at two study sites near Fallon, Nevada, from 1984 though 1985. These data were collected as part of a study to determine the geochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic and other trace elements in shallow groundwater systems. The main study area is approximately 7 miles south of Fallon. A subsidiary study area is about 8 miles east of Fallon. The data collected include lithologic logs and water level altitudes for the augered sampling wells and piezometers, and determinations of arsenic and selenium content, grain size, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and mineralogy for sediment samples from cores. (USGS)

  4. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, Michael I., E-mail:; Semionkin, Vladimir A. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation and Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ura (Russian Federation)


    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mössbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  5. Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie


    This report summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from ten U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) boreholes completed between 1999 nd 2006 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134. Nine boreholes were continuously cored; USGS 126b had 5 ft of core. Completion depths range from 472 to 1,238 ft. Geophysical data were collected for each borehole, and those data are summarized in this report. Cores were photographed and digitally logged using commercially available software. Digital core logs are in appendixes A through J. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered. This report was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma (United States)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.


    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological

  7. Geophysically inferred structural and lithologic map of the precambrian basement in the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Cordell, Lindrith E.


    This report is an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data that was carried out as part of a Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) study of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri. It is one in a series of reports representing a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas Geological Survey, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey. The work presented here is part of a larger project whose goal is to assess the mineral resource potential of the Paleozoic sedimentary section and crystalline basement within the quadrangle. Reports discussing geochemical, geological, and various other aspects of the study area are included in this Miscellaneous Field Studies Map series as MF-2125-A through MF-2125-E. Geophysical interpretation of Precambrian crystalline basement lithology and structure is the focus of this report. The study of the crystalline basement is complicated by the lack of exposures due to the presence of a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary cover. In areas where there are no outcrops, the geologist must turn to other indirect methods to assist in an understanding of the basement. Previous investigations of the buried basement in this region used available drill hole data, isotope age information, and regional geophysical data (Sims, 1990; Denison and others, 1984; Bickford and others, 1986). These studies were regional in scope and were presented at state and multistate scales. The work documented here used recently collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data to enhance the regional geologic knowledge of the area. Terrace-density and terrace-magnetization maps were calculated from the gravity and aeromagnetic data, leading directly to inferred physical-property (density and magnetization) maps. Once these maps were produced, the known geology and drill-hole data were reconciled with the physical-property maps to form a refined structural and

  8. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia) (United States)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.


    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  9. Interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey in southern Paris Basin: towards a lithological cartography, key tool for the management of shrinking/swelling clay problems (United States)

    Prognon, F.; Tourliere, B.; Perrin, J.; Lacquement, F.; Martelet, G.; Deparis, J.; Gourdier, S.; Drufin, S.


    Regolith formations support a full spectrum of human activities. Among others, they provide a source of extractable materials and form the substratum of soils. As such, they should be considered as a capital to be managed and protected. Moreover, one of the main challenges for present and future land settlement is to prevent house building programs from being planned inside shrink-swell risky areas which is only possible thanks to an complete lithological mapping of the french regolith. We illustrate here the results of the geological interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin, in France. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to quickly provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic...). Spectral radiometry data were collected with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. On the radiometric data we applied the HAC (Hierarchical Ascendant Classification) computation procedure: taking into account several variables, the statistical HAC method groups individuals based on their resemblance. Also in this study, calibrated Total Count channel (TCm) is compared to an estimated dose rate (TCe) computed from the measured radioelement abundances: TCe = 13.078 * K + 5.675 * U + 2.494 * Th. Our results show that the ratio TCe/TCm came out to be a good indicator of ground property changes within Sologne mixed sandy-clay environment. Processed geophysical data are cross-checked with geological data (from field observations) and field or laboratory measurements of mineralogical data


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 潘保芝


    针对火山岩储层,从岩石化学成分分类和岩石结构分类两个角度出发,提出了一种利用测井资料识别火山岩岩性的方法.基于取芯薄片鉴定资料获得对应井段的常规测井数据,利用统计学习理论中的支持向量机方法对其处理,得到地质上按岩石化学成分分类的火山岩岩性类别.建立地层微电阻率成像测井图像与不同结构火山岩岩性之间的对应关系,归纳出典型的微电阻率图像模式,从而得到地质上按岩石结构分类的火山岩岩性类别,结合上述两者结论确定最终岩性,实现了运用支持向量机算法处理常规测井资料与微电阻率图像模式相结合的火山岩岩性测井识别新方法.%From the viewpoint of chemical composition categorization and structure classification of rocks, an effective method was proposed to identify the lithology of volcanic rocks by using logging data. On the one hand, the conventional logging data could be obtained by core wafer identification. Thus, after processing the data with Support Vector Machines (SVM) method of statistical theory, we could get the lithologic type of the volcanic rocks, which are classified according to the chemical composition of rocks. On the other hand, the volcanic rocks can be classified as volcanic lava, pyroclastic lava and pyroclastic rock according to the rock structure. Typical formation micro-resistivity imaging logging (FMI) image mode can be concluded by establishing the corresponding relationship between FMI images and lithology of volcanic rocks with different structures. As a result, the lithologic type of the volcanic rock classified by rock structure can be determined. Finally, by combining these two kinds of lithology, the ultimate rock lithology can be determined, too. In this paper, the authors presented a novel method to identify the lithology of volcanic rocks by combining SVM processed logging data and FMI image mode.

  11. Lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected using Hoverprobe drilling techniques at the West Branch Canal Creek wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, April-May 2000 (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Senus, Michael P.; Olsen, Lisa D.


    This report presents lithologic and groundwater- quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and groundwater sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India). (United States)

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C


    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  13. Formation of abnormal high pressure and its application in the study of oil-bearing property of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShanWen; ZHANG LinYe; ZHANG ShouChun; LIU Qing; ZHU RiFang; BAO YouShu


    The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denu-dation are the main factors influencing oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative re-lations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.

  14. Extensometer, water-level, and lithologic data from Bacon and Bethel Islands in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, September 1987 to August 1993 (United States)

    Kerr, Barry D.; Leighton, David A.


    Compaction, water-level, and lithologic data were collected at extensometer sites on Bacon and Bethel Islands, anchored at 436 and 536 feet below land surface, respectively. The data reported here are part of a study of the processes causing subsidence in the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. The depths were selected to ensure that they were well below the peat layer and the primary aquifer, which minimized the effects of peat loss and shallow ground-water withdrawal. Compaction and depth to ground water were measured monthly at Bacon Island from September 1987 through August 1993 and at Bethel Island from August 1988 through August 1993. After automatic digital data loggers were installed at Bacon Island in December 1988 and at Bethel Island in September 1989, hourly readings also were made. Calculated rates of compaction were 0.0015 and 0.0016 feet per year at Bacon and Bethel Islands, respectively. Cumulative compaction at the Bacon Island site from September 1987 to August 1993 was about 0.009 feet. Cumulative compaction at the Bethel Island site from August 1988 to August 1993 was about 0.008 feet.

  15. Porosity Development in a Coastal Setting: A Reactive Transport Model to Assess the Influence of Heterogeneity of Hydrological, Geochemical and Lithological Conditions (United States)

    Maqueda, A.; Renard, P.; Cornaton, F. J.


    Coastal karst networks are formed by mineral dissolution, mainly calcite, in the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone. The problem has been approached first by studying the kinetics of calcite dissolution and then coupling ion-pairing software with flow and mass transport models. Porosity development models require high computational power. A workaround to reduce computational complexity is to assume the calcite dissolution reaction is relatively fast, thus equilibrium chemistry can be used to model it (Sanford & Konikow, 1989). Later developments allowed the full coupling of kinetics and transport in a model. However kinetics effects of calcite dissolution were found negligible under the single set of assumed hydrological and geochemical boundary conditions. A model is implemented with the coupling of FeFlow software as the flow & transport module and PHREEQC4FEFLOW (Wissmeier, 2013) ion-pairing module. The model is used to assess the influence of heterogeneities in hydrological, geochemical and lithological boundary conditions on porosity evolution. The hydrologic conditions present in the karst aquifer of Quintana Roo coast in Mexico are used as a guide for generating inputs for simulations.

  16. Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.


    In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers` responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  17. Integration of spectral, spatial and morphometric data into lithological mapping: A comparison of different Machine Learning Algorithms in the Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan A.; Gloaguen, Richard


    Lithological mapping in mountainous regions is often impeded by limited accessibility due to relief. This study aims to evaluate (1) the performance of different supervised classification approaches using remote sensing data and (2) the use of additional information such as geomorphology. We exemplify the methodology in the Bardi-Zard area in NE Iraq, a part of the Zagros Fold - Thrust Belt, known for its chromite deposits. We highlighted the improvement of remote sensing geological classification by integrating geomorphic features and spatial information in the classification scheme. We performed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification method besides two Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA): Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) to allow the joint use of geomorphic features, Band Ratio (BR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), spatial information (spatial coordinates) and multispectral data of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The RF algorithm showed reliable results and discriminated serpentinite, talus and terrace deposits, red argillites with conglomerates and limestone, limy conglomerates and limestone conglomerates, tuffites interbedded with basic lavas, limestone and Metamorphosed limestone and reddish green shales. The best overall accuracy (∼80%) was achieved by Random Forest (RF) algorithms in the majority of the sixteen tested combination datasets.

  18. Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.


    Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

  19. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study. (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper


    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD.

  20. Rapid incision of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon - insights from channel profiles, local incision rates, and modeling of lithologic controls (United States)

    Cook, K.L.; Whipple, K.X.; Heimsath, A.M.; Hanks, T.C.


    The Colorado River system in southern Utah and northern Arizona is continuing to adjust to the baselevel fall responsible for the carving of the Grand Canyon. Estimates of bedrock incision rates in this area vary widely, hinting at the transient state of the Colorado and its tributaries. In conjunction with these data, we use longitudinal profiles of the Colorado and tributaries between Marble Canyon and Cataract Canyon to investigate the incision history of the Colorado in this region. We find that almost all of the tributaries in this region steepen as they enter the Colorado River. The consistent presence of oversteepened reaches with similar elevation drops in the lower section of these channels, and their coincidence within a corridor of high local relief along the Colorado, suggest that the tributaries are steepening in response to an episode of increased incision rate on the mainstem. This analysis makes testable predictions about spatial variations in incision rates; these predictions are consistent with existing rate estimates and can be used to guide further studies. We also present cosmogenic nuclide data from the Henry Mountains of southern Utah. We measured in situ 10Be concentrations on four gravel-covered strath surfaces elevated from 1 m to 110 m above Trachyte Creek. The surfaces yield exposure ages that range from approximately 2??5 ka to 267 ka and suggest incision rates that vary between 350 and 600 m/my. These incision rates are similar to other rates determined within the high-relief corridor. Available data thus support the interpretation that tributaries of the Colorado River upstream of the Grand Canyon are responding to a recent pulse of rapid incision on the Colorado. Numerical modeling of detachment-limited bedrock incision suggests that this incision pulse is likely related to the upstream-dipping lithologic boundary at the northern edge of the Kaibab upwarp. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan


    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal field developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone → interbedded fine-grained sandstone/shale → shale → coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the fining upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  2. On the Development of Subdivisions of Lithologic Deposits in Qianjing Formation%潜江组岩性油藏细分层开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper had studied the stratigraphic correlation and sedimentary microfaeies of the Qianjing Formation oil field with high water containing and recovery efficiency in its last phase of development. By introducing sequence stratigraphy theory into thin layer division, this paper had solved the isoehronous problems in stratigraphie correlation and discovered the lithologic deposits once overlooked in the early development based on reservoir development studies. A close look into the remaining oil distribution pattern of the lithologie deposits helped to bring about proposals concerning well development in order to improve output and recovery ratio of the oil field with high water cut and recovery.%对开发后期的潜江组高含水、高采出程度的“双高”油田进行精细地层对比、沉积微相研究,并引入层序地层学的观点,进行精细小层划分,解决地层对比中“等时性”问题,结合油藏开采特征研究,发现了在油田开发早期忽视的岩性油藏。针对发现的岩性油藏进行剩余油分布规律研究,提出挖潜方向及措施意见,从而达到“双高”油田增储上产,提高采收率的目的。

  3. Vp/Vs-ratios from the central Kolbeinsey Ridge to the Jan Mayen Basin, North Atlantic; implications for lithology, porosity and present-day stress field (United States)

    Mjelde, Rolf; Aurvåg, Roar; Kodaira, Shuichi; Shimamura, Hideki; Gunnarsson, Karl; Nakanishi, Ayako; Shiobara, Hajime

    The horizontal components from twenty Ocean Bottom Seismometers deployed along three profiles near the Kolbeinsey Ridge, North Atlantic, have been modelled with regard to S-waves, based on P-wave models obtained earlier. Two profiles were acquired parallel to the ridge, and the third profile extended eastwards across the continental Jan Mayen Basin. The modelling requires a thin (few 100 m) layer with very high Vp/Vs-ratio (3.5-9.5) at the sea-floor in the area lacking sedimentary cover. The obtained Vp/Vs-ratios for the remaining part of layer 2A, 2B, 3 and upper mantle, correspond to the following lithologies: pillow lavas, sheeted dykes, gabbro and peridotite, respectively. All crustal layers exhibit a decreasing trend in Vp/Vs-ratio away-from-the-axis, interpreted as decreasing porosity and/or crack density in that direction. A significant S-wave azimuthal anisotropy is observed within the thin uppermost layer of basalt near the ridge. The anisotropy is interpreted as being caused by fluid-filled microcracks aligned along the direction of present-day maximum compressive stress, and indicates crustal extension at the ridge itself and perpendicular-to-the-ridge compression 12 km off axis. Spreading along the Kolbeinsey Ridge has most likely been continuous since its initiation ca. 25 Ma: The data do not suggest the presence of an extinct spreading axis between the Kolbeinsey Ridge and the Aegir Ridge as has been proposed earlier. The Vp/Vs-ratios found in the Jan Mayen Basin are compatible with continental crust, overlain by a sedimentary section dominated by shale.

  4. Resrarch on Lithology Identification for Volcanic Rock Based on Logging in Santanghu Basin%三塘湖盆地火山岩岩性测井识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢贝贝; 马世忠


    火山岩岩性的准确识别是火山岩储层描述与评价的基础.通过对三塘湖盆地火山岩测井相应特征进行的分析归纳,建立了火山岩岩性识别流程.首先利用取芯井段标定准确岩性,然后利用交会图法、模糊聚类分析法以及微电阻率成像测井资料对研究区内储层岩性进行综合识别.将研究区岩性划分为火山熔岩、火山碎屑岩、火山碎屑沉积岩和沉积岩4大类、11小类.通过22口井的资料进行处理验证,岩性识别符合率平均达84.7%.%Accurate identification of volcanic rocks in volcanic reservoir description and evaluation is an important basis. Santanghu basin by volcanic rocks of the corresponding log analysis of the characteristics of induction, the establishment of a volcanic lithology identification process. Firstly, accurate calibration of core lithology well section, then use the intersection graph, fuzzy clustering analysis, and micro-resistivity imaging log lithology of the study area, a comprehensive identification, the study area was divided into the volcanic rock lava, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks 4 categories, 11 categories. 22 wells through the processing of data validation, lithology identification consistent with the average rate of 84.7%.

  5. The Bero Volganic Group: New Lithological, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Data of this Extension of the Parana-Etendeka Igneous Province into SW Angola with Implications (United States)

    Marsh, J.; Swart, R.


    The Bero Volcanic Group, an extension of the Etendeka-Paraná Igneous Province into SW Angola, forms the eroded basement to the on-shore Namibe Basin, an Early Cretaceous-Cenozoic terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequence. The igneous suite outcrops between latitudes 14.68o and 15.25o S and comprises quartz latite rheoignimbrites/lavas, tholeiitic basaltic lavas, pyroclastic/volcaniclastic deposits, minor aeolian sandstones, and mafic tholeiitic dykes and gabbroic sheets. Quartz latite lithologies dominate. In the Rio Bero area in the S quartz latites are underlain by several thin flows of basalt interbedded with, and underlain by, thin discontinuous lenses of aeolian sandstone. This sequence is consistent with the general stratigraphic sequence in the northern Etendeka of Namibia. To the N basalts and aeolian sandstones are absent and the quartz latites lie directly on Precambrian basement rocks in places. To date, data for a quartz latite correlated with a Chapecó rhyolites of the Paraná are available from only one locality in Angola. This study's wider sampling and major and trace element and radiogenic isotope analysis reveals the following: (1) all mafic rocks are high-Ti, the lavas being equivalent to the Khumiba/Urubici type; (2) mafic dykes cutting the quartz latites having affinities to the Paranapanema-Ribeira mafic lavas; (3) five quartz latite geochemical types are present, three of which are known from Etendeka/Paraná (Sarusas/Guarapuava, Khoraseb/Ourinhos and Ventura) and their stratigraphic relationships in Angola are consistent with those in the Etendeka and Paraná; (4) their Angolan occurrence significantly extends the area covered by, and potential eruptive volumes of, these silicic types; (5) two other quartz latite types are unknown in the Etendeka and Paraná and are probably products of low-volume, local eruptions. The Chinguau type is geochemically similar to the low-Ti quartz lalites of the southern Etendeka but has lower Epsilon Nd

  6. Pedological Heterogeneity of Soils Developed from Lithologies of the Pirambóia, Sanga-do-Cabral, and Guará Geological Formations in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Grahl dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The source material is one of the factors that most influence soil genesis and the mainly responsible for the nature, composition, and behavior of the soil. Given the geological complexity of the Santa Maria River basin, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the new lithologies described recently may be responsible for a greater variation in soil properties, as well as in the soil taxonomy itself. The study area is located in the municipality of Rosário do Sul, RS, Brazil at 30° 15’ 28” S and 54° 54’ 50” W, with average altitude of 132 m and climate type Cfa. This study was supported by a cartographic base composed of topographic charts, geological maps, satellite images, digital elevation models, and maps of geomorphometric variables, with the support of GPS receivers and GIS. Topolithosequences were defined from soils developed from the Pirambóia, Sanga-do-Cabral, and Guará Formations, and soil profiles were chosen based on types of source materials, variations in relief, and altitude. A classical model of slope compartmentalization was applied for correlation of the geomorphic surfaces with pedogenesis. Soil profiles were described in a general and morphological manner, and soil samples were collected for analysis. The physical and chemical properties determined were particle size, active and potential acidity, organic C content, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Al3+. The sum of bases, CEC, flocculation activity and degree of flocculation of the clay fraction, and base (V, aluminum (m, and sodium saturation were calculated. Soil properties were evaluated through factor analysis and grouping, which allowed profiles to be grouped based on their variables and identification of which variables were preponderant in distinguishing them. Furthermore, multivariate analysis allowed statistical differentiation of the profiles in the same lithostratigraphic unit and in different relief positions, and also differentiation of

  7. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs (United States)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.


    compositions, we conclude the following: (1) North-Massif and South-Massif soil samples differ significantly in types and proportions of ITE-poor highland components and ITE-rich impact-melt-breccia components. These differences reflect crudely layered massifs and known local geology. The greater percentage of impact-melt breccia in the South- Massif light-mantle soil stems from derivation of the light mantle from the top of the massif, which apparently is richer in noritic impact-melt breccia than are lower parts of the massifs. (2) At station 2, the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fraction is enriched in impact-melt breccias compared to the less than 1 mm fraction, suggesting that the <1 mm fraction within the light mantle has a greater proportion of lithologies such as granulitic breccias which are more prevalent lower in the massifs and which we infer to be older (pre-basin) highland components. (3) Soil from station 6, North Massif, contains magnesian troctolitic anorthosite, which is a component that is rare in station-2 South-Massif,contains magnesian troctolitic in impact-melt breccia interpreted by most investigators to be ejecta from the Serenitatis basin.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李密; 李少华; 何火华


    This paper deals wilh optimizing algorithms of lithologic modeling. Firstly, under the guidance of high resolution sequence stratigraphy, geological, outcrop, seismic, logging and other static data are applied to the fullest possible extent. The logging data ad-vantage of high vertical resolution and the seismic data advantage of rich lateral information are exploited to the full to establish the high accuracy isochronous stratigraphic model under the restraint of geological regularity. Then, taking the petrographic data obtained from well log data as the condition data, and using indicator kriging algorithm, truncated Gaussian simulation,object-based simulation and sequential indicator simulation, we can establish the sand body distribution model. Lastly, algorithms are optimized through sampling inspection so as to establish three-dimensional high-precision geological model under the conditions of different well densities and different development stages. It may contribute to establishing 3D geological model in some oilfields with similar geological backgrounds. A comparison shows that the optimized indicator kriging and sequential indicator simulation can better characterize geological features of the target area.%比较岩性模型建立方法.首先,在高分辨率层序地层学的指导下,最大限度地应用地质、露头、三维地震、测井等静态资料,发挥井点资料垂向分辨率高,地震资料横向信息丰富的优势,在地质规律约束下建立不同时间的高精度等时地层格架模型.然后,在精细格架模型的基础上,以测井解释得到的岩相数据作为条件数据,分别采用指示克里格、截断高斯模拟、Object-modeling算法、贯指示模拟建立砂体展布模型.最后,通过抽稀检验评价不同算法对模拟结果的影响,实现算法及其参数的优选,从而指导整个区块不同开发阶段,不同井网密度时全区三维精细地质模型的建立,也可为具有相似地质环

  9. ⁵³Mn-⁵³Cr and ²⁶Al-²⁶Mg ages of a feldspathic lithology in polymict ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne [Planetary Science Institute. Tucson, AZ (United States); Hutcheon, Ian D. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kita, Noriko T. [Dept. of Geoscience. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Huss, Gary R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL (United States); Cohen, Barbara Anne [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Keil, Klaus


    We report 53Mn–53Cr and 26Al–26Mg isotopic data, obtained by in-situ SIMS analysis, for feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites DaG 319 and DaG 165. The analyzed clasts belong to the “albitic lithology,” the most abundant population of indigenous feldspathic materials in polymict ureilites, and are highly fractionated igneous assemblages of albitic plagioclase, Fe-rich pyroxenes, phosphates, ilmenite, silica, and Fe(Mn, K, P, Ti)-enriched glass. Glass in DaG 165 clast 19 has extremely high and variable 55Mn/52Cr ratios (500–58,000) and shows correlated 53Cr excesses up to ~ 1500‰, clearly indicating the presence of live 53Mn at the time of formation. The slope of the well-correlated isochron defined by glass and pyroxenes from this clast corresponds to (53Mn/55Mn) = (2.84 ± 0.10) × 10-6 (2σ). Data for less 55Mn/52Cr-enriched glasses from DaG 319 clast B1, as well as phosphates from several other clasts, are consistent with this isochron. The 53Mn/55Mn ratio obtained from the isochron implies that these clasts are 0.70 ± 0.18 Ma younger than the D'Orbigny angrite, corresponding to the absolute age of 4563.72 ± 0.22 Ma. Plagioclase in DaG 319 clast B1 has a fairly constant 27Al/24Mg ratio of ~ 900 and shows resolvable 26Mg excesses of ~ 2‰. The slope of the isochron defined by pyroxene and plagioclase in this clast is (3.0 ± 1.1) × 10-7 (2σ), corresponding to a time difference of 5.4 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma after CAI (assuming the canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 × 10-5) and an age 0.5 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma younger than D'Orbigny. Its absolute age (relative to D'Orbigny) is 4563.9 (+ 0.4/-0.5) Ma, in agreement with the 53Mn–53Cr age from clast 19. These data provide the first

  10. Optimal Selection Technology of Well Logging Items in Complex Lithology Pattern Indentification%复杂岩性模式识别中测井项目优化选择技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玲; 蔺建华; 曾科; 杨陆


    在利用模式聚类判别方法建立复杂岩性集合判别函数时,需要优选出对岩性集合敏感的测井项目,以有效克服所有测井项目均参与而造成的相互掣肘、矛盾现象.依据构建集合内均匀度参数及集合间距离参数,实现复杂岩性集合判别中测井项目优化选择技术.以海拉尔盆地的4大类岩性集合(一般沉积岩、火山碎屑岩、火山碎屑沉积岩、火山熔岩等)为应用实例,优选后判别符合率明显改善,说明了方法的有效性.%When building the discriminant function of complex lithology set by using the method of pattern cluster discrimination, to select the well logging programs are needed which are sensitive to the lithology sets optimally, and then the impede and contradiction can be overcomed because of the participation of all the well logging programs efficiently. The optimal selection technology of well logging programs in the discrimination of the complex lithology sets is gotten, which based on building the parameter of the evenness and the distance between the sets in the aggregation. Based on the 4 broad headings of Hailaer basin (general sedimentary rock, the volcanoclastic rock, the volcanoclastic sedimentary rock, lava and etc. ) , the discrimination coincidence rate is better apparently, and this confirms that the method is effective.

  11. The application of land morphology and lithology information optimizes remote sensing badland mapping using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 imagery in a heterogeneous regional setting, the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees) (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc


    Badlands are highly erosive landforms carved in soft bedrock (e.g. mudstones, marls and shales) with little or no vegetation. Despite representing, in general, minor catchment fractions, badlands can contribute much of the total sediment transported within the river networks, largely affecting channel and floodplain dynamics, as well as freshwater ecosystems. Basin management in areas affected by these erosion hotspots requires accurate badland identification and mapping on the broad regional scale. Supervised classification of land features using remotely sensed imagery can provide satisfactory results for screening and quantitative analysis of barely covered, eroded areas. However, badland detection applying remote-sensing classification can be affected by the low separability of their spectral signatures in heterogeneous landscapes. We tested the accuracy of badland identification using remote sensing spectral information (from Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 instruments) and complimentary land morphology and bedrock lithology data over the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees, NE Spain), a 500 km2 mountain region spotted by (less than 1% of the terrain) mudstone and marly badlands. Maximum likelihood (supervised) classification of badlands using Sentinel 2 spectral information (10 bands, 10-20 m resolution) improved the results obtained by applying Landsat 8 OLI imagery (7 bands, 15-30 m resolution). The use of spectral information alone, however, resulted in poor results due to the low signature separation for badlands and other barely covered areas. The use of complimentary information on landscape morphology (i.e. slope gradient and surface roughness maps derived from a 2-m LiDAR digital elevation model) increased the separability of badlands, riverbeds and degraded areas without badland morphology, while the use of lithology masks derived from digital information of the regional geological setting optimized the discrimination of badlands and hard rock

  12. Origin of the eclogitic clasts with graphite-bearing and graphite-free lithologies in the Northwest Africa 801 (CR2) chondrite: Possible origin from a Moon-sized planetary body inferred from chemistry, oxygen isotopes and REE abundances (United States)

    Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.; Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Morishita, Y.; Takehana, Y.


    In order to clarify the origin of the eclogitic clasts found in the NWA801 (CR2) chondrite (Kimura et al., 2013), especially, that of the high pressure and temperature (P-T) condition (∼3 GPa and ∼1000 °C), we conducted ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes and rare earth element (REE) abundances in the clasts. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the graphite-bearing lithology (GBL) and graphite-free lithology (GFL) show a slope ∼0.6 correlation slightly below the CR-CH-CB chondrites field in the O three-isotope-diagram, with a large variation for the former and almost homogeneous composition for the latter. The average REE abundances of the two lithologies show almost unfractionated patterns. Based on these newly obtained data, as well as mineralogical observations, bulk chemistry, and considerations about diffusion timescales for various elements, we discuss in detail the formation history of the clasts. Consistency of the geothermobarometers used by Kimura et al. (2013), suggesting equilibration of various elements among different mineral pairs, provides a strong constraint for the duration of the high P-T condition. We suggest that the high P-T condition lasted 102-103 years. This clearly precludes a shock high pressure (HP) model, and hence, strongly supports a static HP model. A static HP model requires a Moon-sized planetary body of ∼1500 km in radius. Furthermore, it implies two successive violent collisions, first at the formation of the large planetary body, when the clasts were placed its deep interior, and second, at the disruption of the large planetary body, when the clasts were expelled out of the parent body and later on transported to the accretion region of the CR chondrites. We also discuss possible origin of O isotopic variations in GBL, and presence/absence of graphite in GBL/GFL, respectively, in relation to smelting possibly occurred during the igneous process(es) which formed the two lithologies. Finally we present a possible

  13. 松辽盆地火山岩岩性识别中测井数据的选择及判别方法%Selection and identification of logging data for lithology recognition of volcanic rocks in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 潘保芝


    依照松辽盆地深层火山岩岩性分类方案中的二级分类类型,对32口有准确岩心薄片定名资料的火山岩井段测井响应特征进行了总结,根据各测井响应区间值建立一个假设随机样本,应用逐步判别分析方法,在多个测井参数中按其对岩性分类判别能力的大小进行筛选,最终选取钾、铀、光电吸收截面指数、中子及自然伽马5个具有显著判别能力的参数,并在Bayers准则下建立判别函数,选择分类效果明显的两个判别函数建立岩性识别图版,克服了测井参数引入过多对岩性识别模型的不利影响.利用上述方法对松辽盆地徐家围子断陷火山岩井段的50个资料点的实测数据进行了处理,其回判数点正确率为88%.%According to the secondary taxonomic type in the lithology classification scheme for deep volcanic rocks in Songliao Basin, we summarized logging response characteristics of volcanic intervals in 32 wells that have exact nomination materials of core thin sections. A hypothetical random sample based on the interval value of logging response of each well was determined, and various logging parameters were screened according to their distinguishability in lithologic classification by using the stepwise discriminant analysis method. Five parameters with significant distinguishability, including potassium, uranium, photoelectric absorption coefficient, neutron and natural gamma ray, were finally chosen and discriminant functions were established with the Bayers criterion. In addition, two discriminant functions with obvious classification effect were adopted to establish a plate for lithology identification in order to diminish the negative impact of employing overmany logging parameters on lithology identification models. Moreover, the above-mentioned approach was applied to process measured data from 50 material points of faulted volcanic intervals in Xujiaweizi of Songliao Basin, and the rate to verify

  14. Fourier Transform and Photoacoustic Absorption Spectra of Ethylene within 6035–6210 cm-1: Comparative Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venedikt A. Kapitanov


    Full Text Available Measurements of ethylene absorption spectra with Fourier Transform (FT and Photoacoustic (PA spectrometers within 6035–6210 cm−1 are described. The methodology used for building the frequency scale for both spectrometers is presented. The methane absorption spectrum, included into the HITRAN database, was used in both cases to calibrate the frequency scale. Ethylene absorption spectra were obtained with the two recording methods; a coincidence of the measured line center positions was obtained with an accuracy of 0.0005 cm−1.

  15. Beauty production cross section measurements at E(cm) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, Monica; /Geneva U.


    The RunII physics program at the Tevatron started in spring 2001 with protons and antiprotons colliding at an energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, and it is carrying on with more than 500 pb{sup -1} of data as collected by both the CDF and D0 experiments. Recent results on beauty production cross section measurements are here reported.

  16. Top Quark Production Cross Section at E^cm=1.96TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Schwienhorst, R; Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Binder, M; Bischoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Bolton, T; Bonamy, P; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystrický, J; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Del Signore, K; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisk, H E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Goldmann, K S; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L S; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Harder, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kouchner, A; Kuznetsov, O; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M I; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Meng, X; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Meyer, A; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N V; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L K; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sabirov, B M; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A; Schwartzman, A; Sen-Gupta, S; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tuchming, B; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhou, Z; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A; Schwienhorst, Reinhard


    Preliminary results on the top pair production cross section measurements by the D0 and CDF experiments in Run II at the Tevatron are presented. The measurements are obtained using various final state signatures.

  17. Investigation of Thermal Acoustic Effects on SRF Cavities within CM1 at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Martinez, Alex [Fermilab; Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab


    Two TESLA-style 8-cavity cryomodules have been operated at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST), formerly the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. Operational instabilities were revealed during Radio Frequency (RF) power studies. These observations were complemented by the characterization of thermal acoustic effects on cavity microphonics manifested by apparent noisy boiling of helium involving vapor bubble and liquid vibration. The thermal acoustic measurements also consider pressure and temperature spikes which drive the phenomenon at low and high frequencies.

  18. Structural and lithological conditioning of the large karst systems of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba; Condicionantes estructurales y litologicas de los grandes sistemas karsticos de la Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Guanche, C.; Ramirez Hernandez, R.; Farfan Gonzalez, H.; Estevez Cruz, E.; Ordaz Hernandez, A.; Aldana Vilas, C.


    he karst, a complex phenomenon, is governed by a number of variables which dictate its genesis and evolution. Among these variables tectonic settings and lithology play the main role. In Cuba, approximately 65% of the territory is occupied by karst. The Sierra de los Organos, part of Cordillera de Guaniguanico, has some of the largest karstic systems in the country. With the aim of demonstrating the relationship between the spatial and morphological development of the underground karstic systems and the geological structure and lithology of the area, several structural and morphological measurements and field observations have been made. These measurements and observations allowing us to conclude that the karstic processes take place mainly in massive, relatively homogeneous and very thick limestone in the Sierra de los Organos. Moreover, these rocks are characterized by both low porosity and a high degree of fracturing. These karstic forms are also conditioned by the existence of various fracturing systems with general NE-SW and NW-SE orientations. Interception of these fracturing systems provides, as expected, areas with the largest volumes of karstic cavities. (Author)

  19. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland (United States)

    Laine, Eevaliisa


    The Outokumpu mining district - a metallogenic province about 100 km long x 60 km wide - hosts a Palaeoproterozoic sulfide deposit characterized by an unusual lithological association. It is located in the North Karelia Schist Belt , which was thrust on the late Archaean gneissic-granitoid basement of the Karelian craton during the early stages of the Svecofennian Orogeny between 1.92 and 1.87 Ga (Koistinen 1981). Two major tectono-stratigraphic units can be distinguished, a lower, parautochthonous 'Lower Kaleva' unit and an upper, allochthonous 'upper Kaleva' unit or 'Outokumpu allochthon'. The latter consists of tightly-folded deep marine turbiditic mica schists and metagraywackes containing intercalations of black schist, and the Outo¬kumpu assemblage, which comprises ca. 1950 Ma old, serpentinized peridotites surrounded by carbonate-calc-silicate ('skarn')-quartz rocks. The ore body is enclosed in the Outokumpu assemblage, which is thought to be part of a disrupted and incomplete ophiolite complex (Vuollo & Piirainen 1989) that can be traced to the Kainuu schist belt further north where the well-preserved Jormua ophiolite is ex¬posed (Kontinen 1987, Peltonen & Kontinen 2004). Outokumpu can be divided into blocks divided by faults and shear zones (Saalmann and Laine, 2014). The aim of this study was to make a 3D lithological model of a small part of the Outokumpu association rocks in the Vuonos area honoring the 3D fault model built by Saalmann and Laine (2014). The Vuonos study area is also a part of the Outokumpu mining camp area (Aatos et al. 2013, 2014). Fault and shear structures was used in geostatistical gridding and simulation of the lithologies. Several possible realizations of the structural grids, conforming the main lithological trends were built. Accordingly, it was possible to build a 3D structural grid containing information of the distribution of the possible lithologies and an estimation the associated uncertainties. References: Aatos, S

  20. 英台-大安地区葡萄花油层岩性油藏特征研究%Research on lithologic reservoir characteristics of Putaohua Formation in Yingtai- Da'an area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在三角洲前缘沉积背景下形成的砂泥岩薄互层,决定了英台-大安地区葡萄花油层具有发育大面积错叠分布岩性油藏的地质条件。本区岩性油藏具有砂体规模小、储层物性差、非均质性强、油水分布复杂、地层水矿化度较高等特征。寻找储层物性好的含油砂体已经成为制约该区评价工作瓶颈问题。在精细地质研究的基础上,选择了反应岩性油藏特征的有效厚度、试油产量、碳酸盐胶结物含量、渗透率、变异系数等参数,运用最大值标准化法对储层进行综合分类评价,优选Ⅰ、Ⅱ类区块作为评价工作的重点。%The geological condition of large area lithology reservoir in Yingtai - Da'an area is decided by the thin sand - shale interbeds formed under the background of the delta front sedimentary. The lithology reservoir has characteristics of small sand scale, poor physical property, obvious heterogeneity, complex oil and water distribution and high formation water salinity. Looking for oil - bearing sand bodies became a bottleneck problem of restricting the evaluation work in this area. On the basis of the fine geologic research, some parameter reflecting lithologic reservoir characteristics were chose which in- clude effective thickness, test oil yield, content of carbonate cement, permeability and coefficient of variation, and the maxi- mum standardization method is applied to optimize Ⅰ and Ⅱ classes of block as the focus of evaluation work.

  1. Example of seismic modelling of the Pp and PS modes from well and lithological profile data; Exemplo de modelagem sismica dos modos PP e PS a partir de dados de poco e perfil litologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiderman, R.; Artola, M.B.C. Silva; Silva, M.B.C.; Fontoura, S.A.B. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Tecnologia em Engenharia de Petroleo]. E-mail:


    In order to evaluate the possibility of the using of the PS converted mode for subsoil imaging, and to help to interpret the seismic section generated by the signal processing of the data obtained during a 2D/4C seismic acquisition, a seismic modeling study of the region in which the acquisition took place was realized. A 10 isotropic layers model was built based on well data and on the lithologic profile of the region. The reflectivity of the Pp and PSV modes of each interface of the model was determined. Synthetic seismograms were generated with the aid of the ray-tracing package NORSAR{sup C}. The synthetic seismograms generated show the potentiality of the converted mode to imaging the reflectors as well as allow the identification, in the temporal domain, of the main seismic horizons of the region and correlate them to geologic structures. (author)

  2. A Distal Record of Large Hawaiian Submarine Landslides: the Lithology of Sediments Obtained From the Deep-sea Floor Adjacent to the Hawaiian Islands, KR01-K12 Cruise. (United States)

    Kanamatsu, T.; Naka, J.; Kubo, Y.; Champion, D.; Coombs, M.; Moore, J. G.; Sugiyama, K.; Muraki, H.; Ishimori, M.


    To understand the timing and emplacement processes of giant Hawaiian submarine landslide, a series of piston coring was performed in the adjacent area of Hawaii islands by R/V KAIREI, JAMSTEC in the summer of 2001. Long-distance volcaniclastic sediment transport generated by Hawaiian submarine landslides has been suggested by several previous studies (e.g. Garcia and Hull, 1994). Stratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochemical studies on the cores obtained by systematic sampling will make to understand for origins and ages of volcaniclastics emplacement to the ocean-floor. Nine cores were collected from the north of Oahu, the southwest and south of Hawaii Island, the south of Oahu. The major lithology is brown pelagic clay with abundant volcanic sand layers. Off Hawaiian Arch of the north of Oahu, pelagic clay with distinct 195cm-thick volcanic sand layer was recovered. The thick sand should be related to Nuuanu landslide, which debris avalanches were derived from Oahu Island. In the north of Haleakala rift, the alternation of brown colored clay and volcanic sand layer were obtained. Haleakala rift and Kohala slump are possible origins for these frequent occurrences of volcanic sand. In the south of Hawaii Island, we recovered alternations of volcanic sand and pelagic clay. The previous study suggested that volcaniclastic material in this area were derived from the Kilauea and older volcanoes of Hawaii Island. The obtained cores will provide stratigraphic information for volcanic history of Hawaii Island. The lower sequence below the alternation consists of radiolarian ooze, suggest the age of Eocene by on-board inspection. Two piston cores were obtained in the front of Waianae Landslide. The lithology of cores shows that the much volcaniclastics are interbeded in the upper sequence, and the massive clay in the lower.

  3. 采动底板岩性及组合结构对破坏深度的制约作用%Restrictive function of lithology and its composite structure on deformation and failure depth of mining coal seam floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱术云; 曹丁涛; 周海洋; 杨朝维; 刘近国


    为了探究底板岩性及组合结构这一因素对采动底板变形破坏深度的影响,通过现场大量实测资料的整理分析,获得了类似均质底板和软硬岩不同组合结构底板在采动矿压作用下差异性变形破坏特征。研究结果表明:1)类似均质底板变形破坏规律相对简单,底板采动变形破坏深度主要受制于底板岩体的抗压破坏强度,总体上这种类型底板变形破坏程度具有自上至下呈由强及弱的渐次性变化特点;2)软硬岩夹层或互层底板采动变形破坏特征比较复杂,这种组合结构对底板采动变形破坏深度和程度均具有明显的控制作用,其中软弱夹层对底板破坏深度具有较强的约束效应,即软岩对上覆硬岩起到了重要的“褥垫效应”,对下伏岩层产生“应力扩散效应”。研究结果揭示了底板岩性及组合结构对变形破坏深度具有重要的制约作用,对巷道支护和底板水防治均具有重要的理论和实际意义。%In order to study the relationship between lithology and its composite structure and defor-mation and failure depth, based on these comprehensive field test data, restricting function of deforma-tion and failure depth to mining coal seam floor by lithology and its composite structure is discussed. The obvious difference characteristics are obtained on homogeneous floor and soft and hard rock com-posite structure floor. The study results show as follows:1) The law of deformation and failure of ho-mogeneous floor is relatively simple;the depth of deformation and failure of mining floor is controlled by the strength of floor, and has a gradual characteristics from strong to weak below floor on the whole;2) The deformation and failure floor of soft and hard rock composite structure is complex. There is an obvious restrictive function to the depth of failure floor and deformation degree by the composite structure, weak intercalation being the main

  4. A fluid inclusion study of blueschist-facies lithologies from the Indus suture zone, Ladakh (India): Implications for the exhumation of the subduction related Sapi-Shergol ophiolitic mélange (United States)

    Sachan, Himanshu Kumar; Kharya, Aditya; Singh, P. Chandra; Rolfo, Franco; Groppo, Chiara; Tiwari, Sameer K.


    The best occurrence of blueschist-facies lithologies in Himalaya is that of the Shergol Ophiolitic Mélange along the Indus suture zone in Ladakh region of north-western India. These lithologies are characterized by well preserved lawsonite-glaucophane-garnet-quartz assemblages. This paper presents for the first time the results of a detailed fluid inclusion study on these lithologies, in order to understand the fluid P-T evolution and its tectonic implications. The blueschist rocks from Shergol Ophiolitic Mélange record metamorphic peak conditions at ∼19 kbar, 470 °C. Several types of fluid inclusions are trapped in quartz and garnet, most of them being two-phase at room temperature. Three types of fluid inclusions have been recognised, basing on microtextures and fluid composition: Type-I are primary two-phase carbonic-aqueous fluid inclusions (VCO2 - LH2O); Type-II are two-phase (LH2O - VH2O) aqueous fluid inclusions, either primary (Type-IIa) or secondary (Type-IIb); Type-III are re-equilibrated fluid inclusions. In the Type-I primary carbonic-aqueous inclusions, H2O is strongly predominant with respect to CO2; the homogenization temperature of CO2 range from -7 to -2 °C. The clathrate melting temperature in such inclusions varies in between +7.1 and +8.6 °C. Type-II two-phase aqueous fluid inclusions show a wide range of salinity, from 7.8-14 wt.% NaCleq (Type-IIa) to 1.65-6.37 wt.% NaCleq (Type-IIb) with accuracy ±0.4 wt.% NaCleq. Type-I and Type-IIa primary fluid inclusions are hosted in peak minerals (garnet and quartz included in garnet), therefore they were likely entrapped at, or near to, peak P-T conditions. The dominantly aqueous fluid of both Type-I and Type-IIa inclusions was most likely produced through metamorphic devolatilization reactions occurring in the subducting slab. Despite their primary nature, the isochores of Type-I and Type-IIa inclusions do not intersect the peak metamorphic conditions of the blueschist mineral assemblage


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余翔宇; 徐义贤; 骆淼


    基于模糊聚类、神经网络等常用测井岩性识别方法,提出应用信息粒(Information Granulation)技术建立测井数据到岩性知识的映射模型.并以中国大陆科学钻探(CCSD)的测井数据为例,详细介绍了这种岩性解释方法的应用过程及其所取得的良好应用效果.%By analyzing some data processing methods which are common used in well-logging as fuzzy clustering, Artificial neural network etc. the paper consequently presents the method based on information granulation (IG) to construct the mapping model from well-logging data to lithol-ogy knowledge. Take the well - logging data from Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) as an instance, the author described how to establish such interpretation model and an excellent results it had achieved.

  6. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, T.L.


    This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

  7. NODC Lithologic Descriptions (DEC41_GOM shapefile) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is an original data file created by the Marine Geology and Geophysics group of NODC from 1970-1975, abstracted from published and unpublished material...

  8. 基于细菌觅食算法的砂砾岩岩性识别方法%Identification Method of Sandy-conglomerate Lithology Based on Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 边会媛; 韩雪; 张意; 张永浩


    Sandy-conglomerate reservoir lithology is complex,composition variation of parent rock is large,pore structure is complex and strong heterogeneity,so that it is difficult to accurately divide lithology and build accurate interpretation model,resulting in low reservoir parameter calculation accuracy.Based on the characteristics of sandy-conglomerate reservoir in Lishu fault of Songliao Basin, a multi-component volume model was established for well logging interpretation,and the stratum was taken as the combination of local homogeneous pore,muddy, quartz, feldspar and rock debris. According to the multi-component volume model, the corresponding log response equation was built,and the bacterial foraging algorithm was taken as the optimal solution of multi-component mineral model,and then the optimized results were compared with the porosity by core analysis and the volume fraction by whole-rock mineral analysis.The results verify that the bacteria foraging algorithm is reliable for the inversion of sandy-conglomerate multi-component mineral model.Based on bacteria foraging algorithm,the result is good for the well logging interpretation of sandy-conglomerate reservoir in Songliao Basin.%砂砾岩储层岩性复杂多变,母岩成分变化大,孔隙结构复杂,难以精确划分岩性并建立准确的解释模型,导致储层参数计算精度不高。针对松辽盆地梨树断陷砂砾岩储层特点,选择多组分体积模型作为该地区的测井解释模型,将该地层看成由局部均匀的孔隙、泥质、石英、长石、岩屑等5部分组成。根据多组分体积模型建立相应的测井响应方程,引入细菌觅食算法作多组分矿物模型的优化算法,将优化结果与岩芯分析孔隙度及全岩矿物分析的体积分数进行对比,结果验证了细菌觅食算法反演砂砾岩储层多组分矿物模型的可靠性。采用该方法对松辽盆地砂砾岩储层测井资料进行处理,取得了较好的结果。

  9. 多波多分量技术在岩性与流体预测中的应用%Application research on lithology and fluid identification with multi-component seismic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周义军; 蒲仁海; 强敏; 游佩林; 古兰军; 冯小敏


    To study the multicomponent seismic technique to enhance seismic prediction. Methods Based on detailed physical property analysis, the sensitive elastic properties for reservoir characterization is selected. The marking of PS data and matching of PP and PS data, the interpretation and joint inversion of PP and PS data is discussed. The PS AVO is thoroughly analyzed based on different types of wells. Results By combining the techniques of multicomponent seismic data, the success ratio has been increased more than 10% compared with P-wave seismic alone. Conclusion The accuracy of lithology and fluids prediction with multi-component seismic is effectively improved because PS data is available.%目的 探索利用多波分量技术提高地震储层测精度.方法 在精细岩石物理分析和岩性、流体敏感因子优选的基础上,通过PS波标定,纵横波精细对齐进行纵横波联合解释、联合反演;利用实测全波列测井数据对PS波AVO响应特征和储层及流体的关系进行定量研究.结果 在研究区进行含气性预测,预测符合率较单一纵波提高10%以上.结论 多波勘探技术因增加了横波信息,有效提高了岩性和流体预测精度.

  10. 岩性油气藏勘探的沉积体系域表征技术——以柴达木盆地为例%Characterization of Depositional System Tract for Exploration of Lithologic Pools-An example of Qaidam basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴因业; 江波; 郭彬程


    System tract, a basic unit of Ⅲ grade sequence, is a combination of the same term depositional systems controlled by water level changes (lacustrine level or sea level). Petroleum tends to being accumulated in the depositional sand bodies of different system tracts. The type and distribution of lithologic pools could be predicted by characterization of system tracts and analysis of depositional systems. In southwestern Qaidam basin, the characterization of system tracts shows that there exist developed transgressive system tract (TST) and various types of reservoirs such as sand body of deltaic front, lacustrine beach and dam as well as local turbidite of semideep lake. Based on synthetically geologic and seismic analyses, using digital seismic processing techniques (Jason's reservoir inversion, etc.), the sand body distribution could be described, hence predicting that in southwestern Qaidam basin mainly developed the lithologic pools of SB, TU, DT and SS types.

  11. Distribution Regularities and Favorable Exploration areas of Lithologic Gas Reservoir in Sanhu Area,Qaidam Basin%柴达木盆地三湖地区岩性气藏分布规律和有利区块预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽清; 刘卫红; 冯刚


    柴达木盆地三湖地区第四系的形成是在第三纪末期新构造运动作用下,盆地沉积中心由西向东整体迁移的产物,在第四系中发现了世界上最大的生物气田。近年来三湖地区发现岩性气藏,将现已发现的岩性气(层)藏分为砂岩上倾尖灭型、砂岩透镜体型和物性侧向变化型3种。并提出岩性气藏分布规律是:分布于北斜坡,依附于构造背景,位于k9标志层以下,赋存于薄层砂体中,限于一定的深度范围内。根据分布规律,提出三湖地区岩性气藏的有利勘探区块,为研究区下一步进行岩性气藏勘探提供了理路依据和现实依据。%The occurrence of the Quaternary in Sanhu area of Qaidam basin, which has trapped the largest biologic gas field,is the product of migration of basin depositional center from west to east under the tectonic movements at the end of Tertiary. In recent years,lithologic gas reservoirs have been found in this area and been divided into three types including sand updip pinch-out, sand lens and sand property change in the lateral direction. The distribution regularities of lithologic gas reservoirs in the Sanhu area are summarized as distribution in the northern slope, development on the tectonic background, location below the marker bed kg,accumulation in thin sandstone and limitation to a certain depth. At last, according to the distribution regularity of lithologic gas reservoir, the authors point out favorable exploration areas of lithologic gas reservoir. This study has important theoretical and practical significances for lithologic gas reservoirs exploration in the Sanhu area of Qaidam basin.

  12. Self- and N2-collisional broadening coefficients of ethylene in the 1800-2350 cm-1 spectral region (United States)

    Hassen, A. Ben; Galalou, S.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.


    Self- and N2-broadening coefficients have been retrieved for 566 lines of C2H4 at room temperature in the 5 μm region including the ν7 + ν8, ν4 + ν8, ν6 + ν10, ν6 + ν7, ν4 + ν6 and ν3 + ν10 vibrational bands. Measurements have been performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The lines were fitted with a single-spectrum non-linear least squares fitting procedure of Voigt profiles which appeared to properly model the observed molecular line shapes within the noise level. The experimental results are compared with theoretical values calculated using the Robert and Bonamy formalism which reproduces the measured broadening coefficients. For the self- and N2-broadening coefficients, the average discrepancy for 566 lines, is (-1.6 ± 7.8)% and (-2.8 ± 9.9)%, respectively. One standard deviation is given after ±. These coefficients show dependence with both rotational quantum numbers J and Ka. Comparisons with previous measurements taken in the ν7 band of C2H4 show difference range between 7% and 15%. These differences not insignificant can come from inconsistency between experimental measurements.

  13. 浙东南地区磨石山群祝村组地层及其区域对比%Lithological Characteristics and Regional Comparison of the Zhucun Formation of the Early Cretaceous Moshishan Group Volcanics in Southeastern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小友; 王加恩; 汪发祥


      早白垩世期间浙东南地区火山岩地层磨石山群的祝村组的建组一直存有争议。近年在浙江宁海地区深入开展的1:50000区域地质调查,发现此套中—酸性火山碎屑岩、凝灰质沉积岩夹酸性或中性熔岩地层,在岩性组合、岩相类型、岩石化学成分、火山活动类型等方面与下伏的九里坪组存在较大差异,并在宁海水车、永嘉大箬岩、丽水祝村等地出露广泛、厚度较大。依火山岩地层划分原则,这套地层可作为一个组级岩石地层单位——祝村组。通过对浙东南地区祝村组地层的区域对比认为:祝村组属早白垩世火山活动产物;岩性组合随当时火山活动强度及所处位置有所不同:分布于火山活动较强的破火山口内的祝村组地层,以火山碎屑流相为主,另有崩落相、火山泥石流相、空落相等岩相类型,岩石化学类型属中—酸性;分布于火山活动时喷时歇的火山洼地内的祝村组,以空落相火山碎屑岩与湖相、冲积扇相沉积岩互层产出为主,并有少量火山碎屑流相与喷溢相岩相类型,岩石化学类型属酸性。%  The Zhucun Formation is a constituent part of the Early Cretaceous-aged Moshishan Group volcanics within southeastern Zhejiang Province, and is of controversial origin. Recent mapping at 1:50,000 scale by the Zhejiang Province regional geological survey has identified a set of acidic pyroclastic rocks and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks associated with acid or mafic lavas. This set of pyroclastics and tuffaceous sediments is lithological y, geochemical y, and volcanological y distinct from the underlying Jiliping Formation, and contains significantly different lithofacies units. These rocks are widely exposed in the study area, with units thickening towards the Shuiche area of Ninghai County, the Daruoyan area of Yongjia County, and the Zhucun area of the city of Lishui. Here, we define

  14. Study of the optimization of shooting lithology and the technology of static correction in the area developed with igneous rock in near surface in XW%XW 表层火成岩发育区激发岩性优选及静校正技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永乐; 朱峰; 谢纯华; 石一青; 晋为真; 张寒松


    The distribution of near surface igneous rock in XW area is so complicated that there always exists the static correction problems.In the field operation,lithology and conformity of shooting were taken into consideration to get better data.Further,the optimized static correction and usage of uphole time are so helpful to improve the onsite processing sec-tion.Through the integrated data acquiring and data procession,such static correction problem has been resolved and the fi-nal data has been comparatively improved.%XW 地区近地表岩性复杂多变,地震资料中存在一定的静校正问题。在地震勘探中,通过优选激发岩性和改善激发的一致性,获得了较好的原始资料,并结合井口时间的应用和静校正方法的优选,改善了现场处理剖面的质量。通过这种采集、处理一体化的方式,在解决该地区静校正问题上,取得了较好的效果。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Обсуждаются возможные изосимметрийные и деформационные модификации детерминистических модулярных структур из фракталов Вичека FV, канторова множества F(CM(1/3 и итерационной последовательности точек F(IC(1/2 в 2D пространстве на квадратной сетке.

  16. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots (United States)

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.


    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  17. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests. (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo


    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  18. Fluid Assisted Compaction and Deformation of Reservoir Lithologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Chester, F.M.; Chester, J.S.; Hajash, A.; He, W.; Karner, S.; Lenz, S.


    The compaction and diagenesis of sandstones that form reservoirs to hydrocarbons depend on mechanical compaction processes, fluid flow at local and regional scales, and chemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and diffusional solution transport. The compaction and distortional deformation of quartz aggregates exposed to reactive aqueous fluids have been investigated experimentally at varying critical and subcritical stress states and time scales. Pore fluid compositions and reaction rates during deformation have been measured and compared with creep rates. Relative contributions of mechanical and chemical processes to deformation and pore structure evolution have been evaluated using acoustic emission (AE) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. At the subcritical conditions investigated, creep rates and acoustic emission rates fit transient logarithmic creep laws. Based on AE and SEM observations, we conclude that intragranular cracking and grain rearrangement are the dominant strain mechanisms. Specimens show little evidence of stress-enhanced solution transfer. At long times under wet conditions, the dominant strain mechanism gradually shifts from critical cracking at grain contacts with high stress concentrations to fluid-assisted sub-critical cracking.

  19. Trace elements as indicators of lithologic discontinuity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Martins Bacchi, F.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)


    Soil is a natural entity having mineral and organic components as well as physical, chemical, and biological properties. It is a reflection of all the different environmental factors that prevailed during its formation from the parent material. Weathering, the basic soil forming process, physically and chemically alters the primary mineral constituents of the parent rocks, with pedogenesis leading to the formation of a soil profile from the weathered rock material. The chemical composition of soils is diverse and influenced by several factors, principally the nature of the parent rocks and climatic conditions. Although the rock material is the primordial source profiles, as well as their partitioning between the soil components, is a result of the predominating pedogenic processes as well as the impact of external factors such as agricultural practices and pollution.

  20. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing (United States)

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  1. Lithological and Structural Controls on the Development of Aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Overall thickness of the rocks as measured from the section is about 200m and they range in ..... and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in this formation reach up to 32.92 m2/day ... The columnar joints cause anisotropy and strong vertical.

  2. A spectral line list for water isotopologues in the 1100-4100 cm-1 region for application to CO2-rich planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Gamache, Robert R.; Farese, Michaella; Renaud, Candice L.


    A line list of transitions for seven isotopologues of water vapor in the 1100-4100 wavenumber range has been constructed for application to atmospheres rich in CO2. The quantum transitions for H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O, HD18O, and HD17O are from the 2012 HITRAN database (Rothman et al., 2013) and those for D216O are from the ab initio line list of Shirin et al. (2008). The database was constructed using the best available measured parameters and augmented with theoretical calculations. The half-width, γ, its temperature dependence, n, and the line shift, δ, are for CO2 as the colliding partner or self-collisions and are determined using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy (MCRB) theory. The resulting line list contains 282 557 transitions and is available, in the HITRAN 2012 format, from the corresponding author or from the supplemental information of the journal.

  3. 准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统火山岩岩性、岩相及其与储层的关系%Early Permian Volcanic Lithology, Lithofacies and Their Relations to Reservoir in Northwestern Margin of the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜本忠; 牛花朋; 朱筱敏; 董国栋; 朱世发; 安思奇


    Early Permian volcanic rocks in northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin have different rock types and lithofacies. In this paper, data from core, thin sections and element chemistry were used to study volcanic lithology and their relations to reservoir quality. The Jiamuhe Formation is characterized by lava and volcanoclastic rocks, which are mainly basaltic andesites, andesites and quartz andesites. The lithology of volcanic rocks in the Fengcheng Formation are different in different areas. Lava including basaltic andesitoid and tephrite was the main type in Kebai area, while welded pyroclastic rock and volcaniclastic lava of rhyolite, pollenite and andesitoid are the main types in Wuxia area. The high-quality reservoir developed in eruptive breccias and lava such as andesite in the Jiamuhe Formation and in the Fengcheng Formation of the Kebai area, and in welded pyroclastic rock and breccias lava with stone bubbles in the Fengcheng Formation of the Wuxia area. Besides, same volcanic rock would have different reservoir quality because of different volcanic environments. In the studied area, although diagenesis was diverse in different parts, high-quality volcanic rock reservoir developed mainly in the upper effusive sub-facies, air fall, and pyroclastic subfacies in explosive facies. Effusive and explosive facies were common in the Jiamuhe Formation, while effusive facies and pyroclastic flow subfacies in explosive facies were the main facies in Fengcheng Formation of Kebai area and of Wuxia area, respectively. Therefore, distinct explorative targets should be chosen in different layers in different areas. Lithofacies was another important controlling factor for volcanic reservoir besides fracturing in fault zones and leaching under the regional unconformable surface.%  与石炭系相比,准噶尔盆地西北缘下二叠统火山岩岩性、岩相类型丰富,研究程度低。本文利用岩心、薄片及元素地球化学资料,开展了火山岩


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兴树; 高海红; 尤建军; 庄升; 苑国胜


    Depression. Profitable lithologic reservoir occurs in the sedimentary sand controlled by Qianjin fault slope zone and in the turbidite sand in shallow-deep lake of Es3 Member in the western slop of Damintun Depresion.

  5. Effect of Lithology on the Efficiency of the Hot Water-Based Extraction for Oil Sand Bitumen:A Case Study on Oil Sands from Houba,Sichuan and Tumuji,Inner Mongolia%岩性因素对油砂热碱水分离效率的影响--以四川厚坝及内蒙古图牧吉油砂为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何嘉健; 耿安松; 吴亮亮


    油砂是一种重要的非常规石油资源,目前较为常用的沥青回收方式是热碱水分离法。本文运用热碱水分离法处理了四川厚坝与内蒙古图牧吉两地的油砂样品,并对上述两地的油砂样品进行了镜下薄片观察、XRD 分析以及比表面积和总孔容测定,对比分析了两者的岩性特征和油砂热碱水分离实验的数据,结果表明,油砂中黏土矿物的含量、油砂岩的胶结程度及胶结方式、油砂的砂颗粒粒径、油砂层遭受风化作用的程度等因素都会影响油砂沥青热碱水分离的效率,在设计油砂开采工艺流程时,应该综合考虑这些因素。%Oil sand is a kind of unconventional fuel resource.The hot water-based extraction is the most common way to recover bitumen from oil sands.In this research,the oil sand samples from Houba,Sichuan,and Tumuji,Inner Mongo-lia,were conducted using the hot water-based extraction method.Microscope observation,XDR analyses,specific surface area and pore volume of oil sands were applied to qualify the lithology of different samples.The bitumen recoveries of the hot water-based extraction were correlated to the lithologic characters of the oil sands.The result shows that factors,such as contents of clay minerals,cementation manner and degree,grain sizes of minerals,and the degree of weathering,may affect the bitumen recovery efficiency from oil sands using the hot water-based extraction.These factors should be taken in-to account in process design for bitumen recovery from oil sands.

  6. Utilización de imágenes de radar (ERS y RADARSAT para la discriminación litológica y la cartografía estructural del sector central del Macizo del Deseado, Provincia de Santa Cruz Radar images (ERS and RADARSAT utilization for lithological discrimination and structural cartography of the central part of the Desaedo Massif, Santa Cruz province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marchionni


    regional observation. The superficial extension of the present units and the outcropping discontinuity, usually hinder the field geological mapping and difficult the field recognition of the structural features, being facilitated their identification at a small scale. The results of an investigation based on the use of radar images (ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR, and RADARSAT-1 SAR for the lithological discrimination and the structural cartography, through the application of different digital processing techniques and visual interpretation, are presented in this contribution. The tone and texture attributes of the radar images and their relationship with the lithological units of the area are analyzed, as well as the radar perception of directional features and the utility of the different digital analysis procedures for the extraction of lineal features and patterns that could be related to structural lineaments.

  7. Evolution of the 128-cm-1 Raman phonon mode with temperature in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x=0.065 and 0.2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦兴; GallaisYann; 方之颢; 石兢; 熊锐


    We report electronic Raman scattering measurements on Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 (x=0.065 and 0.2) single crystals with Raman shifts from 9 cm−1 up to 600 cm−1 in the symmetry of B1g with respect to 1 Fe unit cell. When the crystals are cooled down, the evident quasielastic peaks of Raman spectra occur only in the crystal with x=0.065, which is due to the contribution of orbital ordering between xz and yz Fe 3d orbitals as we reported in another work. Here, we analyze the Eg phonon at 128 cm−1 which has the same function form of its Raman tensors as those of xz and yz Fe 3d orbitals in these two crystals respectively. Unlike their electronic continuums, no anomalies are found in the Eg phonons of these two samples, which simply follows the expressions corresponding to the anharmonic phonon decay into acoustic phonons with the same frequencies and opposite momenta. Our results indicate that the structural and magnetic phase transition might be completely suppressed by chemical doping and there is not any indication of coupling between charge nematicity and Eg phonon mode from our experimental results, which is consistent with the results in our previous work.

  8. Atlas and wavenumber tables for visible part of the rovibronic multiline emission spectrum of the $D_2$ molecule. I. Wavenumber range $23894 \\div 18161$ cm$^{-1}$ measured with moderate resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P


    The visible part ($\\approx 419 \\div 550$ nm) of the multiline electronic-vibro-rotational emission spectrum of the $D_2$ molecule was recorded with moderate resolution (line widths $\\approx 0.013$ nm). The resolution was limited by Doppler broadening of spectral lines. After numerical deconvolution of the recorded intensity distributions and proper calibration of the spectrometer the new set of wavenumber values was obtained. The results are reported in the form of an atlas divided into 36 sections covering about 1.5 nm, containing pictures of images in the focal plane of the spectrometer, intensity distributions in linear and logarithmic scales and the table containing wavenumber and relative intensity values for 6545 spectral lines together with existing line assignments.

  9. Atlas and wavenumber tables for visible part of the rovibronic multiline emission spectrum of the $D_2$ molecule. II. Wavenumber range $18161 \\div 14379$ cm$^{-1}$ measured with moderate resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P


    The visible part ($\\approx 550 \\div 696$ nm) of the multiline electronic-vibro-rotational emission spectrum of the $D_2$ molecule was recorded with moderate resolution (line widths $\\approx 0.013$ nm). The resolution was limited by Doppler broadening of spectral lines. After numerical deconvolution of the recorded intensity distributions and proper calibration of the spectrometer the new set of wavenumber values was obtained. The results are reported in the form of an atlas divided into 43 sections covering about 1.5 nm, containing pictures of images in the focal plane of the spectrometer, intensity distributions in linear and logarithmic scales and the table containing wavenumber and relative intensity values for 5445 spectral lines together with existing line assignments.

  10. Assessment of errors and biases in retrievals of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O from a 0.5 cm-1 resolution solar-viewing spectrometer (United States)

    Hedelius, Jacob K.; Viatte, Camille; Wunch, Debra; Roehl, Coleen M.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Chen, Jia; Jones, Taylor; Wofsy, Steven C.; Franklin, Jonathan E.; Parker, Harrison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Wennberg, Paul O.


    Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, -0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  11. Lithology, Geochemistry and Paleomagnetism of the Table Mountain Formation at the Little Walker Caldera (United States)

    Schubert, R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.; Jones, S. A.


    West of Bridgeport Valley near the Central Sierra Nevada crest, the Little Walker Caldera (LWC) erupted Stanislaus Group lavas and tuffs during the Late Miocene. Remnants of these rocks are now distributed from the western Sierra Nevada foothills across the range and into the Walker Lane. This wide distribution is attributed to the lavas flowing down paleochannels, which provide an excellent marker for deformation over the last 10 Ma. Priest (1978) identified a thick section of these lavas along Flatiron Ridge, the southeast margin of the LWC, which our preliminary data suggests may correlate with lavas in the Sweetwater Mountains to the northeast and at Rancheria Mtn near Hetch Hetchy to the southwest. The oldest unit in the Stanislaus group is the Table Mountain Formation, a trachyandesite. At Priest's measured section it is divided into three members. By our measurements, the Lower Member (Tmtl) is 256 meters thick, has a fine-grained groundmass with plagioclase and augite phenocrysts (<0.5 cm), and the presence of augite phenocrysts distinguishes it from the other members. Some Tmtl flows have chalcedony amigdules. Overlying this, the Large Plagioclase member (Tmtp) is 43.5 meters thick. Distinguished by (~1 cm) plagioclase and occasional small olivine phenocrysts. The Upper Member (Tmtu) is 116 meters thick, very fine-grained and often platy. Tmtl has a distinctive northwest-oriented normal polarity and geochemistry, similar to several localities at Rancheria Mtn. Tmtu has a reversed polarity similar to the polarity of Table Mountain Formation in the Sweetwater Mountains and lavas that directly underlie the ~9.5 Ma Tollhouse Flat member of the Eureka Valley Tuff at Rancheria Mtn. Thus, our preliminary data suggest that the lower member at Priest's Measured Section could correlate to the normal polarity samples at Rancheria Mtn. Also, that the upper Member reversed-polarity samples may correlate with lavas both at the Sweetwater Mountains and Rancheria Mtn. This correlation across about 60 km allows us to assess rotation between sites as well as estimate throw across some faults of the Eastern Sierra range front.

  12. River slopes on basalts: Slope-area trends and lithologic control (United States)

    Lima, Adalto Gonçalves; Flores, Diego Moraes


    River incisions in continental basalts are distinct and heterogeneous. Knickpoints and the predominance of erosion by plucking contribute to that distinction, whereas significant differences in the vesicularity and jointing of basaltic flows are suggested as controls on the heterogeneities of incisions. We investigated 11 small river channels (<80 km long) installed on continental basalts of the Paraná Volcanic Province, South Brazil, using slope-area analysis (S = ksA-θ), to explore the possible relationships of steepness (ks) and concavity (θ) indices with characteristics of flow basalts. Channels were chosen that did not present signs of significant tectonic interference on a longitudinal profile, i.e., convex reaches and prominent knickpoints. The data were extracted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from digital topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000. Basaltic flow zones and morphologies, jointing styles, as well as river bed morphologies and erosion processes were surveyed in the field. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers are stepped, and the lower slope reaches are associated predominantly with vesicular basalts and basaltic breccias. Knickpoints are generated by contrasts in the erodibility of the substrate due to vesicular-massive differences and the partial insertion of channels in tectonically fractured zones (lineaments). The normalized steepness index (ksn) is positively correlated (R2 = 0.8) with the knickzone index (the ratio between the number of knickzones and the channel length). Rivers occurring in simple basaltic flows have distinct upper and lower limits of the steepness index (ks), which are represented by massive and vesicular basalts, respectively. The average concavity index (θ) is 0.56 ± 0.16, and its range is from 0.34 to 0.82. The range in θ is inversely related to the rate of downstream variation in the drainage area (discharge). However, the greatest control is exerted by the proportion of basalts that are more resistant to erosion (massive), with which there is also an inverse relationship (R2 = 0.64). The results indicate that, although basalts have an apparent uniformity in the geomorphological response, differences in jointing and vesicularity may generate different behaviors detectable by slope-area indices.

  13. The end-Triassic negative δ13C excursion : A lithologic test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachan, Aviv; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Payne, Jonathan L.


    The end-Triassic mass extinction is associated with a large negative carbon isotope excursion, which has been interpreted as reflecting the rapid injection of 13C depleted CO2 or methane associated with the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. However, in a number of sections in ce

  14. Exploring Lithologic Controls on Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited) (United States)

    Singha, K.; Kuntz, B. W.; Toran, L.


    The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SHCZO) team has found that soil chemistry does not correlate with variability in pore fluid chemistry, suggesting the presence of macropores. Because of such heterogeneity, it is often difficult to relate short-term event chemistry to what we know about the chemistry of waters in catchments. Additionally, it is not clear what role the shale bedrock has on flow and transport of solutes within the catchment. We have been conducting tracer tests at the laboratory and field-scale to move toward describing short-term flux and solute transport behavior with the goal of integrating behavior over geologic time clarify the relationship between soil chemistry and pore fluid data. In field sites where such high permeability contrasts exist, what roles do flow and transport play in long-term fate of solutes? What is the importance of the interface between the shale bedrock and the regolith above? Is the shale bedrock “impermeable”? To improve characterization of permeability of the consolidated shale, we drilled four 17-m deep bedrock wells at the SHCZO and have collected a suite of borehole logs. From the drilling and data collected within the new wells, we can make the following conclusions: that there is a “slow drilling” zone around 6-7 m below land surface, above which is highly weathered shale that is reddish in color, beneath which is largely unfractured blue-grey shale. The natural gamma data similar indicate a higher percentage of clays with depth than in the top 6 m, which corresponds with data from Jin et al. (submitted, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta) that shows variability in shale bedrock density down about 6 m. Pump and slug test indicate an effective hydraulic conductivity of the Rose Hill Shale in the drilled boreholes on the order of 10-6 m/s, although hydraulic conductivity of the shale bedrock matrix estimated in a triaxial compression chamber is approximately10-15 m/s. In field-scale and lab-scale tracer tests, observed transport behavior appears inconsistent with the standard advective-dispersive model. Results from a conservative NaBr tracer test conducted in 10-cm undisturbed soil columns from the SHCZO include concentration histories that show long tailing behavior and non-Gaussian breakthrough, indicative perhaps of dual-domain solute transport between preferential pathways and a less permeable matrix. A numerical model of the soil column indicates than a mass transfer rate of approximately 1/hr with a mobile-domain porosity of 0.3 and an immobile-domain porosity of 0.35 can explain the data. The total porosity is consistent with previously published estimates of total porosity. At the field scale, a NaBr tracer test conducted within the Rose Hill Shale shows similar behavior, and mass transfer is needed to explain those concentration histories. These data indicate that solutes transfer between the highly permeable macropores and fractures and into the soil/shale matrix, and that diffusion is a transport property of concern in predicting solute transport behavior over the long term at the SHCZO. Both soils and shale material at this site show preferential pathways that may be indicative of dual-domain solute transport behavior.

  15. Chicxulub Impact Melts: Geochemical Signatures of Target Lithology Mixing and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Fluid Processes (United States)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Freidrich; Mertzmann, Stanley A.


    Impact melts within complex impact craters are generally homogeneous, unless they differentiated, contain immiscible melt components, or were hydrothermally altered while cooling. The details of these processes, however, and their chemical consequences, are poorly understood. The best opportunity to unravel them may lie with the Chicxulub impact structure, because it is the world s most pristine (albeit buried) large impact crater. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered approx. 100 meters of impactites in a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole. This dramatically increased the amount of melt available for analyses, which was previously limited to two small samples N17 and N19) recovered from the Yucatan-6 (Y-6) borehole and one sample (N10) recovered from the Chicxulub-1 (C-1) borehole. In this study, we describe the chemical compositions of six melt samples over an approx. 40 m section of the core and compare them to previous melt samples from the Y-6 and C-1 boreholes.

  16. From biological to lithological control of the B geochemical cycle in a forest watershed (Strengbach, Vosges) (United States)

    Cividini, D.; Lemarchand, D.; Chabaux, F.; Boutin, R.; Pierret, M.-C.


    There is a fast growing interest in understanding the coupling between mineralogical and biological processes responsible for the migration of elements through continental ecosystems. This issue has fundamental impacts at the soil/plant scale because it can explain the tight links between soil and plant development and at the watershed scale because it gives a direct access to the water quality. In the present study, we performed an extended investigation of the bio-geochemical cycle of boron, which is an element known to be suitable for investigating water/rock interactions and vegetation cycling. New B data are provided along the hydro-bio-geochemical continuum in a forest ecosystem (Strengbach basin, Vosges, France), from rainwaters down to the outlet of the basin including systematic analyses of throughfalls, soil solutions, springs and brooks scattered in the watershed. At the watershed scale, we evidence a relationship between the B isotopic composition of river waters and the weathering regime outlining a predominant control of the parent rock mineralogy on the B geochemical behavior. At the soil/plant scale, it appears that the B geochemical cycle is controlled by the vegetation cycling, which is characterized by an uncommon, easy to distinguish, B isotopic composition (δ 11B ranging from about +30‰ to +45‰). Each year the amount of B being involved in the vegetation cycle is about four times greater than that of B being exported out of the watershed. At 10 cm depth in soil, where the plant roots are expected to be the most active, we observe a marked seasonal oscillation of the B isotopic values, which is interpreted as resulting from the vegetation activity. A mass balance calculation based on the assumption that that 10B is preferentially accumulated in the biomass tends to indicate that the soil/plant system does not behave at steady state with respect to B. Because of the very distinct B isotopic signature of vegetation and minerals in soil, box modeling allows to quantify the part of the B fluxes involved in the vegetation cycling and the mineral reactions, respectively. This calculation reveals a clear correlation between the amount of B derived from soil weathering and the amount of B absorbed by plant roots. This result clearly supports the idea that a coupling exists between mineral weathering and plant activity, for the study of which B isotopes appear particularly suitable.

  17. Lithology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of sediments: Sedimentary geology of the deformation zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muradmaa, I.O.; Levitan, M.A.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Emelyanov, E.M.; Jafri, S.H.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Memoir_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_177.pdf.txt stream_source_info Memoir_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_177.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. Geological-lithological criteria for predicting oil content of the Cambrian in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepikov, K.R.; Nikishin


    An examination is made of the features of spread of sandy collectors of oil of different types in the middle Cambrain in the water area of the Baltic syneclise because of the modern and paleo-depth of their occurrence. A conclusion is drawn regarding the dependence of the postsedimentation quartz formation of Cambrian sandstones on the duration of their stay at considerable depths. A high evaluation is made of the possible oil content of the Liyepay-More elevation located in the zone of development of good pore collectors. It is suggested that the data of marine geophysics be used to pinpoint the concepts regarding the paleotectonics of productive deposits of the Cambrian and dispersal of different types of collectors on the Baltic water area, as well as rhythm-facial analysis for predicting oil traps of the nonanticlinal types in the Cambrian.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, H.T.; Nalini, H.A. Jr.; Mendes, J.C.


    One hundred samples of granitic rock were collected from granite traders in Belo Horizonte. Autoradiography, optical microscopy, diffractometry, and chemical analysis (X-ray spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation, gravimetry and electron probe microanalysis) were used to determine the mineral assemblages and lithotypes. Autoradiographic results for several samples showed the presence of monazite, allanite and zircon. Chemical analysis revealed concentrations of uranium of {le} 30ppm, and thorium {le} 130ppm. Higher concentrations generally correlated with high concentrations of light rare earths in silica-rich rocks of granitic composition. Calculations were made of radioactive doses for floor tiles in a standard room for samples with total concentration of uranium and thorium greater than 60ppm. On the basis of calculations of {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra from Th, K and U analysis, the doses calculated were between 0.11 and 0.34 mSv/year, which are much lower than the acceptable international exposure standard of 1.0 mSv/year.

  20. Rare earth element patterns of the Central Indian Basin sediments related to their lithology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Roelandts, I.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    Rare earth element (REE) concentration have been determined in terrigenous, siliceous (nodule barren and nodule bearing), calcareous, and red clay from the Central Indian Basin. The bulk distribution of REE, and in particular the relative cerium...

  1. Lithologic controls on mineralization at the Lagunas Norte high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, northern Peru (United States)

    Cerpa, Luis M.; Bissig, Thomas; Kyser, Kurt; McEwan, Craig; Macassi, Arturo; Rios, Hugo W.


    The 13.1-Moz high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit of Lagunas Norte, Alto Chicama District, northern Peru, is hosted in weakly metamorphosed quartzites of the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Chimú Formation and in overlying Miocene volcanic rocks of dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The Dafne and Josefa diatremes crosscut the quartzites and are interpreted to be sources of the pyroclastic volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal activity was centered on the diatremes and four hydrothermal stages have been defined, three of which introduced Au ± Ag mineralization. The first hydrothermal stage is restricted to the quartzites of the Chimú Formation and is characterized by silice parda, a tan-colored aggregate of quartz-auriferous pyrite-rutile ± digenite infilling fractures and faults, partially replacing silty beds and forming cement of small hydraulic breccia bodies. The δ34S values for pyrite (1.7-2.2 ‰) and digenite (2.1 ‰) indicate a magmatic source for the sulfur. The second hydrothermal stage resulted in the emplacement of diatremes and the related volcanic rocks. The Dafne diatreme features a relatively impermeable core dominated by milled slate from the Chicama Formation, whereas the Josefa diatreme only contains Chimú Formation quartzite clasts. The third hydrothermal stage introduced the bulk of the mineralization and affected the volcanic rocks, the diatremes, and the Chimú Formation. In the volcanic rocks, classic high-sulfidation epithermal alteration zonation exhibiting vuggy quartz surrounded by a quartz-alunite and a quartz-alunite-kaolinite zone is observed. Company data suggest that gold is present in solid solution or micro inclusions in pyrite. In the quartzite, the alteration is subtle and is manifested by the presence of pyrophyllite or kaolinite in the silty beds, the former resulting from relatively high silica activities in the fluid. In the quartzite, gold mineralization is hosted in a fracture network filled with coarse alunite, auriferous pyrite, and enargite. Alteration and mineralization in the breccias were controlled by permeability, which depends on the type and composition of the matrix, cement, and clast abundance. Coarse alunite from the main mineralization stage in textural equilibrium with pyrite and enargite has δ34S values of 24.8-29.4 ‰ and {δ^{18 }}{{O}_{{S{{O}_4}}}} values of 6.8-13.9 ‰, consistent with H2S as the dominant sulfur species in the mostly magmatic fluid and constraining the fluid composition to low pH (0-2) and log fO2 of -28 to -30. Alunite-pyrite sulfur isotope thermometry records temperatures of 190-260 °C; the highest temperatures corresponding to samples from near the diatremes. Alunite of the third hydrothermal stage has been dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 17.0 ± 0.22 Ma. The fourth hydrothermal stage introduced only modest amounts of gold and is characterized by the presence of massive alunite-pyrite in fractures, whereas barite, drusy quartz, and native sulfur were deposited in the volcanic rocks. The {δ^{18 }}{{O}_{{S{{O}_4}}}} values of stage IV alunite vary between 11.5 and 11.7 ‰ and indicate that the fluid was magmatic, an interpretation also supported by the isotopic composition of barite (δ34S = 27.1 to 33.8 ‰ and {δ^{18 }}{{O}_{{S{{O}_4}}}} = 8.1 to 12.7 ‰). The Δ34Spy-alu isotope thermometry records temperatures of 210 to 280 °C with the highest values concentrated around the Josefa diatreme. The Lagunas Norte deposit was oxidized to a depth of about 80 m below the current surface making exploitation by heap leach methods viable.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍杨; 李录明; 罗省贤



  3. Lithologic descriptions and temperature profiles of five wells in the southwestern Valles caldera region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Miles, D.; Waibel, A.; Swanberg, C.


    The subsurface stratigraphy and temperature profiles of the southern and western Valles caldera region have been well constrained with the use of data from the VC-1, AET-4, WC 23-4, PC-1 and PC-2 wells. Data from these wells indicate that thermal gradients west of the caldera margin are between 110 and 140)degrees)C/km, with a maximum gradient occurring in the bottom of PC-1 equal to 240)degrees)C/km as a result of thermal fluid flow. Gradients within the caldera reach a maximum of 350)degrees)C/km, while the maximum thermal gradient measured southwest of the caldera in the thermal outflow plume is 140)degrees)C/km. The five wells exhibit high thermal gradients (>60)deghrees)C/km) resulting from high conductive heat flow associated with the Rio Grande rift and volcanism in the Valles caldera, as well as high convective heat flow associated with circulating geothermal fluids. Gamma logs run in four of the five wells appear to be of limited use for stratigraphic correlations in the caldera region. However, stratigraphic and temperature data from the five wells provide information about the structure and thermal regime of the southern and western Valles caldera region. 29 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.

  4. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray


    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  5. Chemostratigraphy and lithological characters of Neoproterozoic cap carbonates from the Kuruktag Mountain, Xinjiang, western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Neoproterozoic Era includes some of the most largest ice ages in the geological history.The exact number of glaciations is unknown,though there were at least two events of global glaciation.Neoproterozoic glacial deposits in the Kurukmg Mountain,Xinjiang,western China have proven that there had occurred three discrete Neoproterozoic glaciations.Diamictite units occurred in the Bassi,Tereeken,and Hankalchough formations,carbonate units were recognized among the diamictites and immediately overlied the Bayisi,Tereeken and Hankalchough diamictites.Carbonates at the top of the Bayisi Formation are characterized by the dolo-sility stones with negative δ13C values ranging from-4.10‰ to-8.17‰(PDB),comparable to the Sturtian cap carbonates that overlie the Sturtian glacial deposits from other Neoproterozoic sequences.Carbonates overlying the Tereeken Formation are characterized by the pinkish cap dolostones fca.10 m thick)with negative δ13C values railging from -2.58‰ to-4.77‰(PDB),comparable to the Marinoan cap carbonates,The cap is alao characterized by tepee-like structures,barite precipitates and pseudomorphous aragonite crystal fan limestones.Carbonates at the top of the Hankalchough Formation are characterized by subaerial exposure crust(vadose pisolite structure,calcareous crust structure)dolostones with negative δ13C values ranging from-4.56‰δto-11.45‰(PDB)and the calcareous crust dolostones,implying that the Hankalchough cap carbonates differ from either the Sturtian or Marinoan cap carbonates in sedimentary environment and carbon isotopic composition.In addition,it is suggested the Hankalchough glaciation belongs to a terrestrial glaciation and it is the third largest glaciation during the Neoproterozoic period on the Tarim platform.

  6. Lithology of the Late Valdaian glacial moraine in the western part of the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevzerov V. Ya.


    Full Text Available A profound study of the moraine has been provided. The results have been grouped according to the basement rocks composition. The basal moraines bedding on disintegration products of crystalline rocks, sandy siltstone sediments in the area of abundant metamorphosed and igneous rocks, and on clays in the sandstones occurrence of the Terskaya Suite have been considered. It has been defined that in the basement of the moraine bed there is a clear dependence of the large detrial material composition and the granular composition of the moraine silt on the basement rocks composition. The dependence considerably weakens upwards the section. The received data testify to the plastic glacier flow having dominated in the region, when layers in the glacier basement shifted slowest and the speed of the glacier movement increased upwards the section. The plastic flow has been associated with shifting along internal splits, which provides the inflow of the detrial material to the upper layers of the glacier. Some faults of the moraine that formed under the Middle Dryas advance of the glacier are considered as erratic mass of sedimentary rocks. Their contemporary appearance formed during the change of the glacier gliding along the bed for its inner shifting along internal splits and by plastic flow. An irregularstructured moraine occurred, when the detrial material in flakes, which lost their plasticity and as a result peeled off the basement of the moving glacier, did not consolidate before each flake peeled off. When the interval between the exfoliation of flakes was longer, the transferred detrial material interacted with the formed moraine. In result of the debris abrasion fine layers enriched by clayey particles occurred. The layers can be observed in a moraine with a bedded structure. The tabular structure was produced under the freezing of the previously deposited moraine. The ablation moraine differs from the basal one in its lower silt content. Along with the Quaternary sediments, the source of the detrial material was the area weathering crust of the hydro-mica type.

  7. Control of favorable lithology on Jinlongshan micro-fine disseminated gold deposits, southern Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Liqing


    [1]Wells, J. D., Mullens, T. E., Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite determined by microprobe analysis, Cortze and Carlin gold mines, Nevada, Econ. Geol., 1973, 68: 187-201.[2]Boyle, R. W., The geochemistry of gold and its deposits, in Geological Survey Bulletin 280, Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, 1979, 307-310.[3]Liu, D., Geng, W., Mineralogy and discussion of metallogenic setting of Carlin-type gold deposits in China, Geochemistry (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1985, (3): 277-282.[4]Liu, D., Geng, W., China's Carlin-type gold deposits: Their geological features, genesis and exploration guides, Geology and Exploration (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1987, 23(12): 1-12.[5]Kuehn, C. A., Rose, A. W., Geology and geochemistry of wall-rock alteration at the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada, Econ. Geol., 1992, 87(7): 1697-1721.[6]Sillitoe, R. H., Bonham, H. F. Jr., Sediment-hosted gold deposits: Distal products of magmatic-hydrothermal systems, Geol., 1990,18: 157-161.[7]Berger, B. R., Bagby, W. C., The geology and origin of Carlin-type gold deposits, in Gold Metallogeny and Exploration (ed. Foster. R. P.), London: Chapman & Hall, 1991, 210-248.[8]Stenger, D. P., Kesler, S. E., Peltonen, D. R. et al., Deposition of gold in Carlin-type deposits: The role of sulfidation and decarbonation at Twin Creeks, Nevada, Econ. Geol., 1998, 93: 201-215.[9]Arehart, G. B., Characteristics and origin of sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits: A review, Ore Geology Reviews, 1996, 11: 383-403.[10]Zhang, F., Ma, J., Wei, K., The relationship between the formation of the micro-disseminated stratabound gold deposits and the structural evolution in Miliang area, Zhen'an County (in Chinese with English abstr.), Mineral Deposits, 1995, 14(1): 26-34.[11]Zhang, G., Meng, Q., Lai, S., Structure of Qinling orogenic zone, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1995, 25(9): 994-1003.[12]Zhang, B., Luo, T., Gai, S. et al., Geochemistry of Tectonics of Lithosphere and Metallogenic Regularity in Qinling-Dabashan Mountains (in Chinese with English abstr.), Wuhan: China University of Geology Press, 1994, 192.[13]Xu, Q., Liu, B., Xu, X. et al., Evolution of Sedimentary Basin of South Belt in Eastern Qinling Mountains and Metallo-genic Conditions of Multiple Metal (in Chinese with English abstr.), Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press, 1994,6.[14]Yang, Z., Tectonic Lithofacies of Margin Transform Basin and Metallogenic Process (in Chinese with English abstr.), Bei-jing: Science Press, 1991, 87-97.[15]Kuang, Y., Zhang, B., Ouyang, J., The regional crustal mobility reflected by the geochemmistry of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in south Qinling, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1995, 11(2): 203-212.[16]Shen, P., The geochemical features of minor elements and rare-earth elements of the Qiuling micro-disseminated gold de-posit in Zhen'an County, Shangxi Province, Geological Exploration (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1996, 11(3): 45-53.[17]Zhang, J., Lu, J., Yang, F., Experiment of bacterial enriching gold and geochemical significance, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1996, 42(5): 434-437.[18]Li, J., Qi, F., Xu, Q., The role of carbon and organic matter during metallogenic process of micro disseminated type (Car-lin-type), Mineral Deposits (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1996, 15(3): 193-205.[19]Hu, K., Zhai, J., Liu, Y., Genesis and organic geochemical characteristics of the carbonaceous rock stratabound gold de-posits, South China, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(5): 507-520.[20]Zeng, Y., Jiang, S., Experiment of mechanism of precipitation of gold on the surface of pyrites, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstr.), 1996, 31(1): 90-95.[21]Presnell, R. D., Parry, W. T., Geology and geochemistry of the Barneys Canyon gold deposits, Utah, Econ. Geol., 1996, 91: 273-288.

  8. Performance evaluation of groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.


    Large-scale hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Du...

  9. Lithological and mineralogical changes observed in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P; Rao, K.M.; Putra, S.V.S.P; Rao, Ch.M.

    foraminiferal skeletal remains. The total calcium carbonate (TCC) varies from 10 to 19% while the total organic carbon (TOC) ranges from 0.04 to 1.40%. Illite is the predominant mineral with concentrations varying from 49 to 60% followed by montmorillonite...

  10. Physical Shrinkage Relationship in Soils of Dissimilar Lithologies in Central Southeastern Nigeria (United States)

    Onweremadu, E. U.; Akamigbo, F. O. R.; Igwe, C. A.

    This study investigated the relationship between volume shrinkage properties of soils derived from different parent materials in Central Southeastern Nigeria as they related to selected soil physical properties. Using a free survey technique and guided by a geological map of the area, field sampling was conducted in the early months of 2005. Routine analyses were done using collected soil samples. Results showed significant (pwaterholding capacity, Atterberg limits and Co-efficient Of Linear Extensibility (COLE) among the 6 studied soil groups. Volume shrinkage results indicated severe shrinkage (20-30%) rating for soils derived from Shale, moderate shrinkage (10-20%) for soils formed over Lower Coal Measures and Falsebedded Sandstones and slight shrinkage (0-10%) ratings for the rest. The COLE, used as an index of VS correlated significantly (pwaterholding capacity (WHC), Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), Plasticity Index (PI) and clay content. A model was generated which expressed good predictive relationship between COLE and selected physical properties (R = 0.87; R2 = 0.75; 1-R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 0.01 and Bias = +0.00001), indicating high accuracy and little over-estimation by the model. More soil and soil related variables may further improve generated model (s), thus should be included in future studies.

  11. Lithological and geochemical typification of surface bottom sediments in the Kara Sea (United States)

    Rusakov, V. Yu.; Kuzhmina, T. G.; Levitan, M. A.; Toropchenova, E. S.; Zhylkina, A. V.


    The Kara Sea is part of the Western Arctic shelf of Eurasia. The deposition of sediments in this shallow sea is largely determined by solid runoff from two great Siberian rivers (the Yenisei and Ob) and the glacial periods when the sea area repeatedly (during the Quaternary) dried up and was covered by continental glaciers. The rise of the World Ocean due to Holocene warming resulted in a significant expansion of the sea area to the south and complete degradation of the ice sheet. In this article, new data on the geochemical composition of the surface (0- to 2-cm) layer of sea-bottom sediments are considered, which reflects the spatial distribution of marine sediments during the maximum sea level. Cluster analysis of the variance for 24 chemical elements reveals sediment chemotypes, and critical analysis of their relationship with lithotypes is performed. The presented data have been collected on cruises of the R/V Akademik Boris Petrov in 2000, 2001, and 2003 and the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2015.

  12. Relative importance of time, land use and lithology on determining aquifer-scale denitrification (United States)

    Kolbe, Tamara; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Marçais, Jean; Babey, Tristan; Thomas, Zahra; Peiffer, Stefan; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Laverman, Anniet; Fleckenstein, Jan; Boulvais, Philippe; Pinay, Gilles


    Unconfined shallow aquifers are commonly contaminated by nitrate in agricultural regions, because of excess fertilizer application over the last decades. Watershed studies have indicated that 1) changes in agricultural practices have caused changes in nitrate input over time, 2) denitrification occurs in localized hotspots within the aquifer, and 3) heterogeneous groundwater flow circulation has led to strong nitrate gradients in aquifers that are not yet well understood. In this study we investigated the respective influence of land use, groundwater transit time distribution, and hotspot distribution on groundwater denitrification with a particular interest on how a detailed understanding of transit time distributions could be used to upscale the point denitrification measurements to the aquifer-scale. We measured CFC-based groundwater age, oxygen, nitrate, and dinitrogen gas excess in 16 agricultural wells of an unconfined crystalline aquifer in Brittany, France. Groundwater age data was used to calibrate a mechanistic groundwater flow model of the study site. Historical nitrate inputs were reconstructed by using measured nitrate concentrations, dinitrogen gas excess and transit time distributions of the wells. Field data showed large differences in denitrification activity among wells, strongly associated with differences in transit time distribution. This suggests that knowing groundwater flow dynamics and consequent transit time distributions at the catchment-scale could be used to estimate the overall denitrification capacity of agricultural aquifers.

  13. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.


    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Control of favorable lithology on Jinlongshan micro-fine disseminated gold deposits, southern Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利青; 冯钟燕


    Jinlongshan gold orebelt, a newly discovered one in sedimentary rock region in southern Qinling Mountains, is mainly located in upper Devonian and lower Carboniferous calcareous siltstone and argillic silty limestone of later Paleozoic era. Typical disseminated gold mineralization occurred in calcareous siltstone, which is major host rock and mainly composed of silt (SiO2 mostly varies from 38% to 73%) and calcite (CaO mostly varies from 10% to 25%). Pyrite created by living beings in Nanyangshan formation may be poor in gold. Faults and favorable layers jointly control disseminated gold mineralization. The significance of this opinion is very great for gold exploration.

  15. Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico (United States)

    Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.


    The characteristics of geophysical well logs are compared against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. It is shown that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

  16. Filling in the Gaps: Xenoliths in Meteorites are Samples of "Missing" Asteroid Lithologies (United States)

    Zolensky, Mike


    We know that the stones that fall to earth as meteorites are not representative of the full diversity of small solar system bodies, because of the peculiarities of the dynamical processes that send material into Earth-crossing paths [1] which result in severe selection biases. Thus, the bulk of the meteorites that fall are insufficient to understand the full range of early solar system processes. However, the situation is different for pebble- and smaller-sized objects that stream past the giant planets and asteroid belts into the inner solar system in a representative manner. Thus, micrometeorites and interplanetary dust particles have been exploited to permit study of objects that do not provide meteorites to earth. However, there is another population of materials that sample a larger range of small solar system bodies, but which have received little attention - pebble-sized foreign clasts in meteorites (also called xenoliths, dark inclusions, clasts, etc.). Unfortunately, most previous studies of these clasts have been misleading, in that these objects have simply been identified as pieces of CM or CI chondrites. In our work we have found this to be generally erroneous, and that CM and especially CI clasts are actually rather rare. We therefore test the hypothesis that these clasts sample the full range of small solar system bodies. We have located and obtained samples of clasts in 81 different meteorites, and have begun a thorough characterization of the bulk compositions, mineralogies, petrographies, and organic compositions of this unique sample set. In addition to the standard e-beam analyses, recent advances in technology now permit us to measure bulk O isotopic compositions, and major- though trace-element compositions of the sub-mm-sized discrete clasts. Detailed characterization of these clasts permit us to explore the full range of mineralogical and petrologic processes in the early solar system, including the nature of fluids in the Kuiper belt and the outer main asteroid belt, as revealed by the mineralogy of secondary phases.

  17. The Relationship Between Cosmic-Ray Exposure Ages And Mixing Of CM Chondrite Lithologies (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Takenouchi, A.; Gregory, T.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.


    Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are primitive materials probably deriving from C, P and D asteroids, and as such potentially include samples and analogues of the target asteroids of the Dawn, Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-Rex missions. Foremost among the C chondrites are the CM chondrites, the most common type, and which have experienced the widest range of early solar system processes including oxidation, hydration, metamorphism, and impact shock deformation, often repeatedly or cyclically [1]. To track the activity of these processes in the early solar system, it is critical to learn how many separate bodies are represented by the CMs. Nishiizumi and Caffee [2] have reported that the CMs are unique in displaying several distinct peaks for cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age groups, and that excavation from significant depth and exposure as small entities in space is the best explanation for the observed radionuclide data. There are either 3 or 4 CRE groups for CMs (Fig.1). We decided to systematically characterize the petrography in each of the CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with these reflecting different parent asteroid geological processing or multiple original bodies. We previously re-ported preliminary results of our work [3], however we have now reexamined these meteorites from the perspective of brecciation, with interesting new results.

  18. Lithologies Making Up CM Carbonaceous Chondrites and Their Link to Space Exposure Ages (United States)

    Gregory, Timothy; Zolensky, Michael E.; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Velbel, Michael A.; Nishiizumi, Kuni


    Chondrite parent bodies are among the first large bodies to have formed in the early Solar System, and have since remained almost chemically unchanged having not grown large enough or quickly enough to undergo differentiation. Their major nonvolatile elements bear a close resemblance to the solar photosphere. Previous work has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct space exposure age groups (0.1 megaannus, 0.2 megaannus, 0.6 megaannus and 2.0 megaannus), but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios.

  19. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Sacramento Valley, California (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Empirical observations on the ground and examination of aerial color IR photographs indicate that in grassland terrain, the vegetation overlying sandstone tends to become less vigorous sooner in the late spring season than does the area overlain by an adjacent shale unit. The reverse relationship obtains in the fall. These relationships are thought to be a reflection of the relative porosity of each of the units and hence of their ability to retain or lose soil moisture. A comparison of the optically enlarged day and nite IR imagery of the Late Mesozoic interbedded sandstone and shale units along the western margin of the Sacramento Valley, California, taken at seasonally critical times of the year (late spring/early summer and late fall/early winter) reveals subtle seasonal variations of graytone which tend to support the empirical observations after consideration of Sun angle and azimuth, and the internal consistency of the data on each set of satellite imagery.

  20. Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Structural features in the Norther California Coast Ranges are clearly discernable on Nite-IR images and some of the structural linears may results in an extension of known faults within the region. The Late Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks along the western margin of the Sacramento Valley are clearly defined on the Nite-IR images and in a gross way individual layers of sandstone can be differentiated from shale. Late Pleistocene alluvial fans are clearly differentiated from second generation Holocene fans on the basis of tonal characteristics. Although the tonal characteristics change with the seasons, the differentiation of the two sets of fans is still possible.

  1. Lacustrine Basin Slope Break — A New Domain of Strata and Lithological Trap Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingmin; LiuHao; XinRenchen; JinWudi; WangYuan; LiWeiguo


    Based on the studies of the Songliao Basin characterized by Cretaceous down-warping, of the Jurassic compressional flexural Junggar basin and of the Bohai Bay Basin characterized by Paleogene rifting, the multiple-grades slope break has developed in lacustrine basins of different origins. Their genetic types can be divided into tectonic slope break, depositional slope break and erodent slope break. The dominant agent of the slope break is tectogenesis, and the scale of slope breaks relates with the size of tectogenesis. The results of the study show that control of mutual grades slope breaks on atectonic traps mainly represent: 1) Atectonic traps develop close to mutual grades slope breaks, with beads-shaped distribution along the slope breaks. 2) In the longitudinal direction, the development of atectonic traps is characterized by the inheritance. 3) Different slope breaks and their different geographical positions can lead to different development types of atectonic traps. 4) A slope break can form different kinds of atectonic traps because of its great lateral variation. 5) The existence of mutual-grade slope breaks leads to different responses of erosion and deposition at different geographical positions in the basin. The oil source bed, reservoir and cap rock combination of atectonic traps is fine. 6) The oil-bearing condition of atectonic traps controlled by slope breaks is very favorable.

  2. Characteristics of the Lithology, Fault-Related Rocks and Fault Zone Structures in TCDP Hole-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rong Song


    Full Text Available The main objective of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP was to conduct an in-depth probe into a fault zone of recent major activity so as to gain a better understanding of and more insight into the physical, mechanical and chemical properties involved. By the end of 2004, with the completion of the drilling of Hole-A, cuttings from 0 to 431.34 m and cores from a 431.34- to 2003.26-m depth had been obtained. Stratigraphically, the Pliocene to Pleistocene Cholan Formation is found from the surface to a 1029-m depth and is predominantly composed of sandstone and sandstone-siltstone alternations with weak to intense bioturbation. The Pliocene Chinshui Formation is observed from a depth of 1029- to 1303-m and predominantly consists of siltstone with weak bioturbation. From 1303- to 1712-m down there is the late Miocene to early Pliocene Kueichulin Formation which is predominantly composed of massive sandstone with minor siltstone. Below 1712 m, the Formation again resembles the younger Cholan Formation with mollusca-rich, thick, layered shale and heavy bioturbated sandstone. Four types of fault-related rocks are identified in the cores. They are the fault breccia, gouges, foliated and non-foliated cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. At least six major fault zones are found in the cores: FZ1111, FZ1153, FZ1220, FZ1580, FZ1712, and FZ1812. Among these, FZ1111 most probably corresponds to the slip surface of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the Chelungpu fault, while FZ1712 very likely represents the Sanyi fault.

  3. The olenekian carbonates of the Bucovinian nappe (the central sector of the Haghimas syncline, Eastern Carpathians. Lithology and microfacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Popescu


    Full Text Available Early Triassic carbonate outcrops were studied in the central sector of the Hăghimaş Syncline with regard to stratigraphy, microfacies and facies interpretation.This is the first microfacies study of these deposits. Early Triassic carbonates in the Hăghimaş Syncline are represented by two stratified successions: limestones and dolomites. The limestones overlie very rarely the detritic basal deposits (Induan which marks the beginning of the alpine transgression. The stratified dolomites underlie frequently the Early Anisian massive dolomites. The contact between the stratified limestones and stratified dolomites is only exposed on Calu brook outcrop (the western flank of the Hăghimaş Syncline. The age of the investigated carbonates is Olenekian, based on the occurrence of Meandrospira pusilla biozone (in limestones. The foraminifera are very scarce in dolomites, represented mostly by Earlandia taxa. Microfacies data indicate the existence of a carbonate platform. The Olenekian carbonates yield a broad spectrum of microfacies types, predominantly micrites and biomicrites with foraminifera associated with echinoderms, ostracods, radiolarians, calcitized gastropods etc. These facies types are also known from the carbonate platforms in other parts of the Tethys.

  4. Late Cretaceous volcanic arc system in Southwest Korea: Occurrence, lithological characteristics, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Koh, Hee Jae; Kwon, Chang Woo


    In the southwest region of the Korean Peninsula, four large volcanoes, the Buan, Seonunsan, Wido, and Beopseongpo, with a maximum diameter of ca 20 km, form a distinct topographic undulation along the NE-SW-trending Hamyeol Fault. These volcanics comprise various types of pyroclastic, sedimentary, and lava/intrusive rocks, and are interpreted as remnants of calderas resulting from various volcanic eruptions, indicating that Hamyeol Fault, together with crustal extension, played an important role in volcano formation in this region. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon isolated from each volcanics are as follows. For Buan Volcanics, Cheonmasan Tuff 87.23 ±0.92 Ma, Udongje Tuff 86.79 ±0.71 Ma, Seokpo Tuff 87.30 ±0.99 Ma and Yujeongje Tuff 86.66 ±0.93 Ma. For Seonunsan Volcanics, Gyeongsusan Tuff 84.9 ±1.1 Ma and Yeongije Tuff 86.61 ±0.67 Ma. These ages indicate that the four volcanics were formed in the Late Cretaceous. The ages are comparable to those of the volcanic rocks of the Aioi and Arima groups in Southwestern Japan, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous volcanic arc systems developed in a NE-SW direction from the Japanese Islands to the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula caused by regional magmatism together with crustal deformation as reflected by occurrence of the volcanic rocks along the Hamyeol Fault.

  5. Initial Assessment of the Excavation and Deposition of Impact Lithologies Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico (United States)

    Kring, David A.; Horz, Friedrich; Zurcher, Lukas


    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project ( recovered a continuous core from a depth of 404 m (in Tertiary cover) to 1511 m (in a megablock of Cretaceous target sediments), penetrating approx. 100 m of melt-bearing impactites between 794 and 895 m. The Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole is approx. 60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, which is approx. 15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx. 50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx. 90 km radius final crater. In general, the impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity, quite unlike melt-bearing impact formations from other terrestrial craters.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆万雨; 黄盛仁; 覃世银


    为通过测井解决岩性识别问题,引入了具有分类准确、算法简练等优点的CP(Counter Propagation)网络.在详细介绍CP网络的网络模型和算法的基础上,结合某油田的实际测井资料, 进行了CP网络岩性识别研究.应用结果表明:CP网络训练周期短、识别准确率高、不存在收敛问题.通过试验研究得出结论:CP网络完全可以用于解决岩性识别等问题,具有广阔的应用前景.

  7. Lithological effects in soil formation and soil slips on weathering-limited slopes underlain by granitic bedrocks in Japan


    Wakatsuki, Tsuyoshi; Matsukura, Yukinori


    Soil slips occur every few years due to heavy rains on biotite granite (Gb) and hornblende biotite granite (Ghb) slopes in the Taga Mountains, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The occurrence density of soil slips per unit area is 2.7 times greater in the Gb slopes than that in Ghb slopes. We examined the chemical, mineral, physical, and mechanical properties of two soil profiles on soil-slip scars in these slopes to study the effect of bedrock mineral composition on the density of soil slips. For a...

  8. Investigating lithological and geophysical relationships with applications to geological uncertainty analysis using Multiple-Point Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian


    and Paper III). A common approach to geological modeling is deterministic modeling. A ‘best’ model is gen-erated manually by a geoscientist using prior knowledge on regional geology, borehole data, and geophysical data. Such models are uncertain, commonly without quantified uncertainty. Alterna...... is used to exhaustively compare the 3D models. The presented comparison techniques use so-called distance measures for comparing the similarity between two models. If two models are similar the distance is small, if they are dis-similar the distance is large. The study revealed the advantages/disadvantages......, and borehole data. The results revealed the importance of the geophysical data for conditioning the MPS simulations. It was also illustrated in practice how a 3D geological model from another area with a similar geological setting could be used as a TI for MPS simulation of the actual survey. The research...

  9. Electroseismic characterization of lithology and fluid type in the shallow subsurface. Final report, January 15, 1995--January 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haartsen, M.W.; Mikhailov, O.V.; Queen, J.H. [and others


    The U.S. Department of Energy funded the M.I.T. Earth Resources Laboratory to investigate electroseismic phenomena. Because electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media provide geophysicists with a unique opportunity to detect a seismic-wave-generated flow of pore fluid with respect to the porous matrix. The term {open_quotes}electroseismic{close_quotes} describes phenomena in which a seismic wave induces an electrical field or causes radiation of an electromagnetic wave. Electroseismic phenomena take place in fluid-saturated porous rocks, because the pore fluid carries an excess electrical charge. When the charged pore fluid is forced to flow through the rock by pressure gradients within a seismic wave, a streaming electrical current is generated. This electrical current results in charge separation, which induces an electrical field. Measuring this seismic-wave-induced electrical field allows detection of the fluid flow generated by the wave in the porous medium. In turn, detecting the fluid flow allows characterization of fluid transport properties of the medium. The major contribution of our research is in the following three areas: (1) Theory. Theoretical models of various electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media were developed. Numerical algorithms were developed for modeling electroseismic measurements in surface (Paper 1 in this report) and VSP (Paper 2) geometries. A closed-form analytical expression was obtained for the logging geometry (Paper 8). The major result is the theoretical models` prediction that porosity, permeability, and fluid chemistry can be characterized using electroseismic measurements; (2) Laboratory Experiments. A number of laboratory experiments were performed in surface (Paper 4), VSP (Paper 4), and logging (Paper 5) geometries. In addition, conversion of electrical energy into seismic energy was investigated (Paper 6), and (3) Field Measurements.

  10. Research Advances and Exploration Significance of Large-area Accumulation of Low and Medium Abundance Lithologic Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; WANG Hongjun; CHEN Mengjin


    In recent years, a series of large low and medium abundance oil and gas fields are discovered through exploration activities onshore China, which are commonly characterized by low porosity-permeability reservoirs, low oil/gas column height, multiple thin hydrocarbon layers, and distribution in overlapping and connection, and so on. The advantageous conditions for large-area accumulation of low-medium abundance hydrocarbon reservoirs include: (1) large (fan) delta sandbodies are developed in the hinterland of large flow-uncontrolled lake basins and they are alternated with source rocks extensively in a structure like "sandwiches"; (2) effective hydrocarbon source kitchens are extensively distributed, offering maximum contact chances with various sandbodies and hydrocarbon source rocks; (3) oil and gas columns are low in height, hydrocarbon layers are mainly of normal-low pressure, and requirements for seal rock are low; (4) reservoirs have strong inheterogeneity and gas reservoirs are badly connected; (5) the hydrocarbon desorption and expulsion under uplifting and unloading environments cause widely distributed hydrocarbon source rocks of coal measures to form large-area reservoirs; (6) deep basin areas and synclinal areas possess reservoir-forming dynamics. The areas with great exploration potential include the Paleozoic and Mesozoic in the Ordos Basin, the Xujiahe Formation in Dachuanzhong in the Sichuan basin, deep basin areas in the Songliao basin etc. The core techniques of improving exploration efficiency consist of the sweetspot prediction technique that focuses on fine characterization of reservoirs, the hydrocarbon layer protecting and high-speed drilling technique, and the rework technique for enhancing productivity.

  11. Sedimentation and lithological structure of the surface sedimentary strata in the shallow estuary of the River Grendalen (Gren-fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov N. I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies of the River Grendalen estuary shallow (Gren-fjord. It is based on materials of the field work carried out in 2014. The waters sonar research, sampling in the intertidal zone, selection of ground shock tube samples, sensing by thermohaline component, determining the amount of particulate matter in the surface water have been produced. The granulometric analysis of samples of loose deposits has been made. According to the sonar data the bathymetric model of the study area has been built. The scheme of distribution of suspended matter in the estuarial area of the River Grendalen and adjacent waters has been made. The factors influenced the movement of sediment and the formation of the modern subaqueous landscape in the region have been analyzed

  12. Lithology and chronology of ice-sheet fluctuations (magnetic susceptibility of cores from the western Ross Sea) (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.


    The goals of the marine geology part of WAIS include reconstructing the chronology and areal extent of ice-sheet fluctuations and understanding the climatic and oceanographic influences on ice-sheet history. As an initial step toward attaining these goals, down-core volume magnetic susceptibility (MS) logs of piston cores from three N-S transects in the western Ross Sea are compared. The core transects are within separate petrographic provinces based on analyses of till composition. The provinces are thought to reflect the previous locations of ice streams on the shelf during the last glaciation. Magnetic susceptibility is a function of magnetic mineral composition, sediment texture, and sediment density. It is applied in the western Ross Sea for two purposes: (1) to determine whether MS data differentiates the three transects (i.e., flow lines), and thus can be used to make paleodrainage reconstructions of the late Wisconsinan ice sheet; and (2) to determine whether the MS data can aid in distinguishing basal till diamictons from diamictons of glacial-marine origin and thus, aid paleoenvironmental interpretations. A comparison of the combined data of cores in each transect is presented.

  13. Preliminary Geophysical Deductions of Lithological and Hydrological Conditions of the North-Eastern Sector of Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Obianwu


    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at evaluating the geophysical parameters of the shallow subsurface for ground water development of the study area. Four profiles of vertical electrical sounding (VES were obtained in the north - eastern sector of Akwa Ibom State to examine the subsurface geology and the associated groundwater potential. The combination of VES data and the borehole data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. Within the western part of the study area covering Obot Akara local government, a sizeable open aquifer was delineated whereas the north eastern part covering Ini local government area has a thick layer of aquitard from the depth of about 10 to 105 m. An isolated resistivity value of the aquitard appear to be extremely high (6130 Ωm in the deeper layer and this indicates the possibility of intrusive from deep seated layers intruding into low resistivity aquitard. The hydrogeological parameters such as transmissivity, longitudinal conductance and transverse resistance in the Western part of the study area are pointers that the aquifers are prolific.

  14. The geometry and lithology of the Cima Sandstone Lentil: a paleoseep-bearing interbed in the Moreno Formation, central California (United States)

    Wheatley, P. V.; Schwartz, H.


    The Cima Sandstone Lentil outcrops over a relatively small area on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in central California. Here this unit can be found in the Panoche Hills in the northern portion of the field area and the Tumey Hills in the southern portion of the field area. The Cima Sandstone resides within the 800m Moreno Formation that spans the Maastrichtian to the Danian. The Moreno Formation comprises four members, which are the Dosados Member, the Tierra Loma Member, the Marca Shale Member, and the Dos Palos Shale Member (of which the Cima Sandstone is an interbed). The Cima Sandstone contains numerous large carbonate mounds, concretions, and pavements, indicating paleoseep activity. The Cima Sandstone has never been studied in detail, but recent interest in sandstone injectites as well as interest in paleoseeps has prompted us to examine this interbed more carefully. The Cima is an immature sandstone composed primarily of quartz along with small amounts of micas and feldspars as well as varying amounts of glauconite. These minerals are generally cemented by carbonate but, occasionally, iron oxide cement is present locally. Much variation exists within the Cima Sandstone Lentil and we seek to characterize and understand this variation. One of the most obvious sources of variability is the thickness of the unit itself. The thickness ranges from near 60m in the northern Panoche Hills to only 9m in the Tumey Hills. Induration also varies noticeably, from well cemented in the north, to unconsolidated in the south. Similarly, the sandstone is grain-supported and houses some depositional structures in the northern outcrops but becomes largely matrix-supported and lacking bedding in the southern outcrops. Preliminary data suggests that proximity to carbonate concretions, fluid conduits, and underlying injectites may have some influence over grain size and sorting.

  15. Report on flow tests Tuscarora, Nevada, 66-5, April 22, 1980, lithologic well and temperature depth data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Enthalpy Inc., of Santa Rose, California, was engaged by Amax Exploration Inc., of Denver, Colorado in April of 1980 to conduct flow tests on a geothermal prospect in Northern Nevada. The well site, Tuscarora 66-5, is located approximately 11 miles northeast of the town of Tuscarora within Independence Valley, Elko County, Nevada. The testing program was set up by Enthalpy Inc. and run by D. Ensrud of Enthalpy Inc. The initial tests included measuring temperature, pressure, total dissolved solids (T.D.S.) and pH of the fluid produced. These parameters were used to examine the well's mass flow and deliverability. The tests were terminated at 7:00 p.m. April 22, 1980 because of low temperatures. Subsurface surveys (pressure temperature) were run on April 21st and again on April 23rd.

  16. Drilling, construction, geophysical log data, and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Schusler, Kyle; Mudge, Christopher


    Starting in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 142 initially was cored to collect rock and sediment core, then re-drilled to complete construction as a screened water-level monitoring well. Borehole USGS 142A was drilled and constructed as a monitoring well after construction problems with borehole USGS 142 prevented access to upper 100 feet (ft) of the aquifer. Boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A are separated by about 30 ft and have similar geology and hydrologic characteristics. Groundwater was first measured near 530 feet below land surface (ft BLS) at both borehole locations. Water levels measured through piezometers, separated by almost 1,200 ft, in borehole USGS 142 indicate upward hydraulic gradients at this location. Following construction and data collection, screened water-level access lines were placed in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A to allow for recurring water level measurements.Borehole USGS 142 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 4.9 ft BLS) to a depth of 1,880 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt, rhyolite, and sediment core at borehole USGS 142 was approximately 89 percent or 1,666 ft of total core recovered. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 4.9 to 1,880 ft BLS in borehole USGS 142 consists of approximately 45 basalt flows, 16 significant sediment and (or) sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite welded tuff. Rhyolite was encountered at approximately 1,396 ft BLS. Sediment layers comprise a large percentage of the borehole between 739 and 1,396 ft BLS with grain sizes ranging from clay and silt to cobble size. Sedimentary rock layers had calcite cement. Basalt flows ranged in thickness from about 2 to 100 ft and varied from highly fractured to dense, and ranged from massive to diktytaxitic to scoriaceous, in texture.Geophysical logs were collected on completion of drilling at boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A. Geophysical logs were examined with available core material to describe basalt, sediment and sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite. Natural gamma logs were used to confirm sediment layer thickness and location; neutron logs were used to examine basalt flow units and changes in hydrogen content; gamma-gamma density logs were used to describe general changes in rock properties; and temperature logs were used to understand hydraulic gradients for deeper sections of borehole USGS 142. Gyroscopic deviation was measured to record deviation from true vertical at all depths in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A.

  17. Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini


    This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 Ωm). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13 mS cm⁻¹, 3236, 2241 and 320 mg L⁻¹, respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination.

  18. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damodararao, K.; Singh, S.K.; Rai, V.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    such as ophiolites and ultrabasic rocks in the Irrawaddy drainage and over Indo � Burman � Arakan (IBA) ranges as their dominant source. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in sediments of the Northern and Eastern Andaman Shelf range between 0.712245 and 0...

  19. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.


    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma, million years ago) ash-flow tuff near its base at Owl Ridge and is interbedded with 29-Ma rhyodacite lava flows and volcanic breccia at Owl Mountain. The formation locally contains vertebrate fossils at least as young as Barstovian age (about 15.9–12.6 Ma) and overlies rocks as young as the White River Formation, which contains vertebrate fossils of Chadronian age (about 37–33.8 Ma) in North Park and a bed of 36.0-Ma volcanic ash in the upper part of the Laramie River valley about 30 km northeast of Walden, Colorado. Based on the ages of the vertebrate fossils, folding of the rocks and sediments in the North Park syncline may be much younger than about 16 Ma.Bedding characteristics of the North Park Formation suggest that (1) some or much of the sand, sandstone, and pebbly sandstone may have been deposited as sheetwash alluvium; (2) much of the siltstone may have been deposited as sheetwash alluvium or ephemeral pond or marsh deposits; (3) beds of sandy limestone probably were deposited as ephemeral pond or marsh deposits; and (4) altered tuff probably was deposited in ephemeral ponds or marshes. Most of the conglomerate and gravel in the North Park Formation are stream-channel deposits that were deposited by high-energy ephemeral or intermittent streams that issued from volcanic terrain rather than debris-flow deposits in relatively near-source fan deposits dominated by sediment gravity flow. Laccolithic doming, uplift, and tilting in the Never Summer Mountains near the Mount Richthofen stock, as well as the formation of volcanic edifices in the Never Summer Mountains and the Rabbit Ears Range during the late Oligocene and Miocene, significantly steepened stream gradients and greatly increased the erosive power and transport capacity of streams that transported large rock fragments and finer sediment eroded from volcanic and sedimentary sources and deposited them in the North Park Formation.Much of the material that makes up the rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation was derived from the erosion of volcanic, intrusive, and sedimentary rocks. Clasts in the North Park Formation were derived chiefly from the erosion of volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks of late Oligocene and Miocene age that range in composition from rhyolite to trachybasalt. These rocks are locally exposed along the west flank of the Never Summer Mountains, the north flank of the Rabbit Ears Range, and the east flank of the Park Range at and near Rabbit Ears Peak. The minor amount of igneous and metamorphic clasts of Proterozoic age in the North Park Formation are commonly composed of durable rock types that are resistant to both physical and chemical weathering. Many of these clasts may have been derived from the erosion of conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone in the Coalmont Formation rather than from basement rocks currently at or near the ground surface in the Never Summer Mountains. Much of the sand and finer grained particles in the North Park Formation probably were derived from the erosion of sandstone, shale, and sandy claystone of the Coalmont Formation. Likewise, much of the abundant sand-sized quartz and feldspar in sand, sandstone, and pebbly sandstone of the North Park Formation probably was derived from the erosion of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and conglomerate of the Coalmont Formation. Some of the fine sand, very fine sand, and silt in very fine grained sandstone and siltstone of the North Park Formation may be derived from the erosion of coeval eolian sand and loess in the Browns Park Formation that was transported across the Park Range by westerly or southwesterly winds.

  20. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral identification: Results from Mamandur Polymetal Deposit, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Ramakrishnan; M Nithya; K D Singh; Rishikesh Bharti


    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their processing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted spectral similarity and effective peak matching techniques were used to draw end-members from library. Constrained linear mixture modelling technique was used to convolve end-member spectra. Linear mixture model was optimized based on root mean square error between field- and modelled-spectra. Estimated minerals and their abundances were subsequently compared with conventional procedures such as petrography, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence for accuracy assessment. The mineralized zone is found to contain azurite, galena, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, marcacite, gahnite, hematite, goethite, anglesite and malachite. The alteration zone contains chlorite, kaolinite, actinolite and mica. These mineral assemblages correlate well with the petrographic measurements (2 = 0.89). Subsequently, the bulk chemistry of field samples was compared with spectroscopically derived cumulative weighted mineral chemistry and found to correlate well (2 = 0.91–0.98) at excellent statistical significance levels (90–99%). From this study, it is evident that field spectroscopy can be effectively used for rapid mineral identification and abundance estimation.

  1. Sediment lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana—March 2012 (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.


    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected a set of 8 sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in March 2012. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological and radiochemical data derived from the sediment cores. The data described in this report are available for download on the data downloads page.

  2. Morphology and lithology of the continental slope north of the Demerara marginal plateau: results from the DRADEM cruise (United States)

    Basile, Christophe; Girault, Igor; Heuret, Arnauld; Loncke, Lies; Poetisi, Ewald; Graindorge, David; Deverchère, Jacques; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Frédéric Lebrun, Jean; Perrot, Julie; Roest, Walter


    The DRADEM scientific cruise was carried out from July 9th to 21th 2016 on board the R/V Pourquoi Pas?, in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Suriname and French Guiana. This cruise is part of a program dedicated to geological investigations of the continental margin, including the Demerara plateau, following the GUYAPLAC (2003) and IGUANES (2013) cruises, and before the MARGATS cruise (2016). The aims of DRADEM were to map the continental slope of the transform margin north of the Demerara plateau, and to dredge the rocks outcropping on the slope. We completed the bathymetric mapping of the continental slope, including part of the edge of the Demerara plateau. These new bathymetric data confirm the segmentation of the transform margin in three parts with very different morphologies. In addition, two circular structures were interpreted as mud volcanoes, one on the northern edge of the plateau, the other one in the distal part of the Orinoco deep sea fan. Twelve dredges were performed between 4700 and 3500 m water depths. Four from these twelve did not recovered rocks. The eight others recovered variable amounts of rocks, often encrusted, but of various nature: sediments (breccia, coarse sandstones, sandstones with plants debris, sandstones with shells, clayey ooze), micro-granular rocks and metamorphic rocks (including mylonite). The nature of the rocks was determined from macroscopic observation of the altered rocks. Of course, these determinations need to be validated and refined by further studies onshore. In any case, most of these rocks were previously unknown in this area, and they will strongly influence our understanding of the structure and evolution of this margin. They provide evidence for large vertical displacements that brought to the surface some of these rocks, that were formed in a deep setting.

  3. Using ground penetrating radar for roof hazard detection in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinda, G.M.; Monaghan, W.P.; Mowrey, G.L.; Persetic, G.F. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being investigated for the potential to determine roof hazards in underground mines. GPR surveys were conducted at four field sites with accompanying ground truth in order to determine the value of GPR for roof hazard detection. The resolution of the current system allows detection of gross roof fractures (>63 cm (>1/4 in) zone) or rider beds in coal measure roof. Data quality is not yet sufficient to detect small bed separations or subtle lithologic changes in the roof. Differences in data quality are discussed, as well as suggestions for collecting improved data.

  4. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett


    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  5. Overview of the Plio-Pleistocene geology of Rhodes, Greece. Lithology, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, and sampling of the Kallithea Bay section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Tine Lander; Hastrup, Annette


    The Kallithea Bay section on the east coast of Rhodes represents an overall transgressive succession ranging from fluviatile and brackish water gravel at the base to deep-water marl at the top. The brackish water and near-shore deposits are assigned to the Kritika Formation, while the deep-water ...

  6. Lithological, grain-size and architectural trends in the holocene Rhine-Meuse delta-insights from 3D voxel models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.S.


    TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands systematically produces 3D voxel models for answering subsurface related questions. The unique combination of vast amounts of borehole data and the voxelbased approach makes the models valuable new sources for exploring the Quaternary fluvial record. The late

  7. Interactions between lithology and biology drive the long-term response of stream chemistry to major hurricanes in a tropical landscape (United States)

    W.H. McDowell; R.L. Brereton; F.N. Scatena; J.B. Shanley; N.V. Brokaw; A.E. Lugo


    Humid tropical forests play a dominant role in many global biogeochemical cycles, yet long-term records of tropical stream chemistry and its response to disturbance events such as severe storms and droughts are rare. Here we document the long-term variability in chemistry of two streams in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico over a period of 27 years. Our two focal...

  8. Lithology, petrography and Cu occurrence of the Neoproterozoic glacial Mwale Formation at the Shanika syncline (Tenke Fungurume, Congo Copperbelt; Democratic Republic of Congo) (United States)

    Mambwe, Pascal; Milan, Luke; Batumike, Jacques; Lavoie, Sébastien; Jébrak, Michel; Kipata, Louis; Chabu, Mumba; Mulongo, Sonya; Lubala, Toto; Delvaux, Damien; Muchez, Philippe


    The Mwale Formation that constitutes the base of the Nguba Group in the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup has recently attracted renewed interest for copper mineral exploration. We present new field observations combined with detailed logging and petrography of MWAS0001 drill hole at Shanika syncline in the Tenke Fungurume Mining District. Our study has enabled us to subdivide the Mwale Formation into 7 distinct sequences. This succession is host to glaciogenic, glaciomarine, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits. Glaciomarine beds are typically a deposit by debris flow in deep water marine environment, induced by basin wide tectonics and glaciation influence. Glaciofluvial beds were deposited in shallow water, fluvial deltaic environment. The glaciolacustrine environment is indicated by dropstones occurring in the laminated mudstone and rhythmites with dispersed clasts observed in the siltstone and conglomerate. These beds are interlayered within the glaciogenic beds, and are characterised by variable clast composition (felsic, mafic and metamorphic). The clasts are very poorly sorted, angular, rounded to moderately rounded, faceted or striated, and supported in a sandy argillaceous or mud matrix. Two main episodes of sulphide mineralisation are distinguished in the Mwale Formation. The diagenetic episode consists of disseminated euhedral and framboidal pyrites. The hydrothermal episode is associated with Mg-metasomatism and characterised by low grade copper mineralisation that occurs (i) in veins filled with carbonate-chlorite and carbonate-quartz-chlorite-Cu sulphides, such as chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite, and (ii) as disseminated sulphides within the host rock. This second episode is late to post-orogenic and can be correlated with late brittle tectonics within the Lufilian arc. The other alteration types include silicification and potassic alteration; however, these alterations are not associated with mineralisation.

  9. The influence of seasonal factors on the recognition of surface lithologies from ERTS-imagery of the western Transvaal. [South Africa (United States)

    Grootenboer, J.


    The value to geological studies of repetitive ERTS-imagery was investigated by comparing two images gathered during different seasons over an area in the western Transvaal Province of the Republic of South Africa. The first of the two images (1050-07355) was gathered on September 11th., 1972, co-inciding with the end of the dry winter season. The second image (1158-07363) was gathered in the middle of the summer rainfall season on December 28th., 1972. A comparison of the two images reveals striking differences in the amount of recognizable geological detail. The differences exhibited by the two images clearly demonstrate the importance of repetitive ERTS coverage in geological investigations, particularly in areas of marked seasonal variations.

  10. Lithological, grain-size and architectural trends in the holocene Rhine-Meuse delta-insights from 3D voxel models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.S.


    TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands systematically produces 3D voxel models for answering subsurface related questions. The unique combination of vast amounts of borehole data and the voxelbased approach makes the models valuable new sources for exploring the Quaternary fluvial record. The late

  11. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy) (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola


    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to estimate which value or class had been more often associated to landsliding during the studied event. Results highlights that road cuts seem to be one of the most predisposing features, together with the presence of layered or schistous geologic formations. Many landslides concentrated in agricultural areas or in artificially modified slopes and, quite surprisingly, slope gradient seems to have played a secondary role. Landslides are very recurrent phenomena in the studied area and on behalf of the local civil protection agencies the Earth Science Department of the Florence University is at present defining an alert system based on spatially variable rainfall thresholds. The alert system is still in a test phase and it is not yet operative, but some of the thresholds it is based upon have been validated making use of the data concerning the reported event. A comparison with other classic literature thresholds has been performed as well. The errors committed by each model have been then characterized in light of the afore discussed predisposing factors.

  12. Karelian shungite—an indication of 2.0-Ga-old metamorphosed oil-shale and generation of petroleum: geology, lithology and geochemistry (United States)

    Melezhik, V. A.; Fallick, A. E.; Filippov, M. M.; Larsen, O.


    The ca. 2.0-Ga-old, 600-m-thick upper Zaonezhskaya Formation near Lake Onega, NW Russia, contains unusually high concentrations of C org (up to 98%), averaging around 25%. The formation contains an estimated 25×10 10 tonnes of organic carbon accumulated within an area of 9000 km 2. Organic material is represented by shungite, which forms a black, dense, amorphous or nanocrystalline mass consisting of C with traces of N, O, S, and H. Autochthonous shungite occurs as disseminated organic material (0.1-50% C org) which, when mixed with migrated bitumen (now pyrobitumen), appears as coal-like seams and lenses of semilustrous and semimat layer-shungite rocks (oil shales, 50-75% C org). The migrated bitumen (originally petroleum), represented by the lustrous vein- and layer-shungite, conformably fills interbedding spaces or cross-cutting joints and usually contains 80-98% C org. The shungite-bearing rocks of the upper Zaonezhskaya Formation represent one of the most richest accumulations of organic material reported from the Palaeoproterozoic, and one of the geologically earliest stages of petroleum generation. The sediments of the Zaonezhskaya Formation were initially deposited in brackish water in a non-euxinic, lagoonal environment. The high C/S ratio (8-1000) with a zero intercept on the C-S cross-plot indicates that deposition occurred in sulphur-poor water. Intensive synchronous volcanism may have contributed to both the enhanced delivery of nutrients and elevated sedimentation rate, and eventually to the high degree of preservation of organic material. The integrated data suggest that the organic material has a biogenic origin, most likely algal or bacterial. The organic material suffered complex catagenetic and metamorphic alteration which is reflected in: (1) the four-modal distribution of C org content (with maxima at 5, 30, 65 and 95%); (2) highly variable δ 13C org (-45‰ to -17‰); (3) bimodal distribution of δ 13C org (with maxima at -28 and -39‰); and (4) low H/C ratios (0.005-0.2). Abundant diagenetic carbonates associated with shungite rocks ( δ 13C carb=-5 to -26‰) and the presence of pyrite ( δ 34S -22 to +31‰), reflects substantial loss of organic matter via bacterial reduction of sulphate during diagenesis. The shungite rocks are characterised by a further substantial loss (>50%) of biologically produced organic material in the course of thermal maturation and by a depletion in 12C (>10‰). The isotopic composition of carbonate concretions does not indicate the involvement of fermentative diagenesis. Conservative estimates give δ13C org of -34‰ as the best value of the initial biomass. Lustrous vein- and layer-shungite containing more than 80% C org are considered to be allochthonous, migrated bitumen (originally petroleum). The semilustrous and semimat layer shungite rocks containing 55-75% C org represent oil shales with both migrated bitumen (originally petroleum) and autochthonous kerogen residues. The oil source rocks were apparently hosted in the Zaonezhskaya Formation. The generated oil has migrated both vertically and laterally with the highest concentration in cupola structures. The locality at Shunga represents the most significant volume of trapped petroleum from the study area.

  13. Characteristics of the Paleozoic slope break system and its control on stratigraphic-lithologic traps: An example from the Tarim Basin, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu


    Full Text Available Based on comprehensive analyses of seismic and log data, this study indicates that mainly four widespread angular to minor angular unconformities (Tg8, Tg51, Tg5 and Tg3 were formed during the Paleozoic. Through the interpretation of structural unconformities, calculation of eroded thickness, correction of palaeo-water depth and compaction and compilation of the Early Paleozoic structural maps, the Early Paleozoic slope break belt (geomorphologic unit of the Tarim Basin is subdivided into uplift area, subaqueous uplift area, rift slope break belt, flexure slope break belt (slope belt, depression area and deep basin area. Palaeogeomorphology of the Cambrian-Early Ordovician was approximately in EW trend within which three tectonic units including the Tabei Palaeo-uplift, the northern Depressional Belt and the southern Palaeo-uplift developed respectively and are grouped into two slope break systems namely as the Tabei Palaeo-uplift and the southern Palaeo-uplift. These tectonic units obviously control the deposition of isolated platform, open platform, restricted platform and deep basin. Influenced by extrusion in the Mid-Late Ordovician, the southern and northern subaqueous uplifts gradually elevated and then were eroded. Resultantly two slope break systems developed, namely as the northern and central Palaeo-uplifts which obviously controlled the deposition of provenance area, isolated platform, mixed continental shelf, slope and basin facies. The intensive extrusion of the Mid-Late Ordovician leads to significant tectonic deformation of the Tarim Basin: large area of uplifting and erosion and development of EW trending anticline and syncline. Deposition of shore, tidal flat, delta, shallow marine clastics and deep marine facies is obviously controlled by the Tabei, the southern and the Tadong Palaeo-uplifts. Slope break systems control development of stratigraphic unconformity and thus truncation and onlap unconformity zones become favorable areas in a palaeo-uplift and at a palaeo-slope belt for forming important unconformity traps; Whereas slope (slope break belt along a palaeo-uplift margin is a geomorphologic unit where high-energy sedimentary facies widely develops, such as reef, oolitic sandy clastics or bioclastic limestone beach bar facies, thus litho-structural composite hydrocarbon accumulations usually develop when tectonic condition is suitable. In addition, large-scale palaeo-uplifts are the most favourable areas for hydrocarbon accumulation development

  14. Pollen and lithological data from the Bukovynka Cave deposits as recorders of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic change in the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia GERASIMENKO


    Full Text Available The study of clastic sediments of the BukovynkaCaveshows biotic and climatic changes during the Middle Pleniglacial (the Trapeznyi Chamber, Late Glacial and Holocene (the Sukhyi Chamber in the south-eastern part of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The artesian BukovynkaCaveis located near the villageof Stal’nivtsi(the Chernivtsi region, in the PrutRiver basin. It is developed in the Miocene gypsum strata. The Quaternary clastic infilling of the cave, as well as mammal taphonomy has been previously studied in the Trapeznyi Chamber (Vremir et al., 2000; Ridush, 2004; Ridush et al., 2012, whereas palaeomagnetic research and its palaeoenvironmental implication has been provided for the Sukhyi Chamber (Bondar and Ridush, 2014. The results of pollen and grain-size studies of clastic deposits in both chambers, supported by mammal finds, are presented in this paper. In the Chernivtsi region, the pollen study has been previously performed (without 14C-dating on the Upper Pleistocene loess-paleosol section of Snyatyn and on the Onut site of the Holocene flood-plain deposits of the River Prut (Artyushenko et al., 1982. 39 samples from the cave sediments have been processed for grain-size analyses using the ‘pipette’ technique by Kachinsky (1965. In order to get pollen from clastic sediments, the following technique has been applied: heating with 10% HCl and 10% KOH, cold treatment with HF, disintegration in a solution of Na4P2O7 and separation in heavy liquid (CdI2 and KI with a specific gravity 2.2. The abundance and good preservation of pollen show that the cave chambers turned periodically into sedimentation traps. Mammal bones are also mostly well preserved. Re-deposited pollen are abundant in the Trapeznyi Chamber but occur very rarely in the Suchyi Chamber. The present-day vegetation near the cave is a meadow-steppe surrounded by Carpinus-Quercus forest. The high proportion of Pinus sylvestris pollen in the surface soil samples (30-40% does not correspond to the limited role that pine has in the modern vegetation. On the basis of this fact, pine pollen in the cave deposits are also regarded as over-represented because of its ability to travel farther on the wind than other pollen and its better preservation in rocks.

  15. A pre-Paleogene unconformity surface of the Sikeshu Sag, Junggar Basin: Lithological, geophysical and geochemical implications for the transportation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Gao


    Full Text Available The unconformity surface at the bottom of the Paleogene is one of the most important migration pathways in the Sikeshu Sag of the Junggar Basin, which consists of three layers: upper coarse clastic rock, lower weathering crust and leached zone. The upper coarse clastic rock is characterized by higher density and lower SDT and gamma-ray logging parameters, while the lower weathering crust displays opposite features. The transport coefficient of the unconformity surface is controlled by its position in respect to the basal sandstone; it is higher in the ramp region but lower in the adjacent uplifted and sag areas. The content of saturated hydrocarbons increases with the decrease of the content of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltenes. The content of benzo[c] carbazole decreases as the content of benzo[a] carbazole and [alkyl carbazole]/[alkyl + benzo carbazole] increases. This suggests that the unconformity surface is an efficient medium for the transportation of hydrocarbons.

  16. Variation in radon concentration and terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates in relation to the lithology in southern part of Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, HNB. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249199 (India)]. E-mail:; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248001 (India); Prasad, Yogesh [Department of Physics, HNB. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249199 (India); Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, HNB. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249199 (India); Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248001 (India)


    Radon concentrations in groundwater and soil-gas along with the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate have been measured in the different geological formation of Kumaon Himalaya, India. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 1 to 392Bq/l with a mean of 50Bq/l in water and 398Bq/m{sup 3} to 25.8kBq/m{sup 3} with a mean value of 5.867kBq/m{sup 3} in soil-gas. The radium content in collected groundwater samples from the study area was found to vary from 0.11 to 0.75Bq/l with a mean value 0.35Bq/l. The terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate and uranium content in soil were found to vary from 21.67 to 57.50{mu}R/h with a mean value of 36.15{mu}R/h and 0.8 to 15.3ppm with a mean value 3.4ppm, respectively, in different lithotectonic units. The emanation of radon in groundwater and soil-gas are found to be controlled by the geological formation of the area. It was also found to be controlled by the tectonic structure of the area. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites slates and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. The terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the area was found positively correlated with radon concentrations in groundwater and soil-gas. A strong positive correlation was observed between uranium content in soil and terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate. Soil-gas radon concentration was also found positively correlated with the uranium content in the soil. However, a weak correlation was found between uranium content in soil and radon concentrations in groundwater samples from the study area. No correlation was observed between radon concentrations in groundwater and soil-gas.

  17. A Groundmass Composition for EET 79001A Using a Novel Microprobe Technique for Estimating Bulk Compositions. Lithology A as an Impact Melt? (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Hanson, B. Z.


    Petrologic investigation of the shergottites has been hampered by the fact that most of these meteorites are partial cumulates. Two lines of inquiry have been used to evaluate the compositions of parental liquids: (i) perform melting experiments at different pressures and temperatures until the compositions of cumulate crystal cores are reproduced [e.g., 1]; and (ii) use point-counting techniques to reconstruct the compositions of intercumulus liquids [e.g., 2]. The second of these methods is hampered by the approximate nature of the technique. In effect, element maps are used to construct mineral modes; and average mineral compositions are then converted into bulk compositions. This method works well when the mineral phases are homogeneous [3]. However, when minerals are zoned, with narrow rims contributing disproportionately to the mineral volume, this method becomes problematic. Decisions need to be made about the average composition of the various zones within crystals. And, further, the proportions of those zones also need to be defined. We have developed a new microprobe technique to see whether the point-count method of determining intercumulus liquid composition is realistic. In our technique, the approximating decisions of earlier methods are unnecessary because each pixel of our x-ray maps is turned into a complete eleven-element quantitative analysis. The success or failure of our technique can then be determined by experimentation. As discussed earlier, experiments on our point-count composition can then be used to see whether experimental liquidus phases successfully reproduce natural mineral compositions. Regardless of our ultimate outcome in retrieving shergottite parent liquids, we believe our pixel-bypixel analysis technique represents a giant step forward in documenting thin-section modes and compositions. For a third time, we have analyzed the groundmass composition of EET 79001, 68 [Eg]. The first estimate of Eg was made by [4] and later modified by [5], to take phase diagram considerations into account. The Eg composition of [4] was too olivine normative to be the true Eg composition, because the ,68 groundmass contains no forsteritic olivine. A later mapping by [2] basically reconfirmed the modifications of [5]. However, even the modified composition of [5] has olivine on the liquidus for 50 C before low-Ca pyroxene appears [6].

  18. Overview of the Plio-Pleistocene geology of Rhodes, Greece. Lithology, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, and sampling of the Kallithea Bay section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Tine Lander; Hastrup, Annette


    The Kallithea Bay section on the east coast of Rhodes represents an overall transgressive succession ranging from fluviatile and brackish water gravel at the base to deep-water marl at the top. The brackish water and near-shore deposits are assigned to the Kritika Formation, while the deep-water ...

  19. RPROP算法在测井岩性识别中的应用%Application of RPROP Algorithm to Well Logging Lithologic Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治国; 杨毅恒; 夏立显


    为了更好地解决测井岩性识别问题,引入一种快速实用的BP算法-Resilient Backpropagation (RPROP)算法.在说明RPROP算法的基础上,结合某地的实际测井资料,建立基于RPROP算法的BP网络岩性识别模型,进行岩性识别的应用研究.结果表明,应用RPROP算法进行测井资料岩性识别,识别的准确率较高,与基本BP算法及其一些改进算法相比,训练速度快,具有很好的应用前景.

  20. Drawings and Application of Lithological Symbols Based on SVG%基于SVG的岩性符号的绘制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敏芳; 卿粼波; 滕奇志; 张余强



  1. Temporal changes in lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana: March 2012-July 2013 (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Bernier, Julie C.


    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a time-series collection of shallow sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana from March 2012 through July 2013. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological, radiochemical, and microbiological data derived from the sediment cores. Data are available for a time-series of four sampling periods: March 2012; July 2012; September 2012; and July 2013. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: ArcGIS shapefiles of the sampling sites, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  2. Effects of Bedrock Lithology and Subglacial Till on the Motion of Ruth Glacier, Alaska, Deduced from Five Pulses from 1973-2012 (United States)

    Turrin, J.; Forster, R.; Sauber, Jeanne; Hall, Dorothy K.; Bruhn, R.


    A pulse is a type of unstable glacier flow intermediate between normal flow and surging. Using Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery and feature tracking software, a time-series of mostly annual velocity maps from 1973 to 2012 was produced that reveals five pulses of Ruth Glacier, Alaska. Peaks in ice velocity were found in the 1981, 1989, 1997, 2003, and 2010; approximately every 7 years. During these peak years the ice velocity increased 300%, from approximately 40 m/yr to 160 m/yr, and occurred in an area of the glacier underlain by sedimentary bedrock. Based on the spatio-temporal behavior of Ruth Glacier during the pulse cycles, we suggest the pulses are due to enhanced basal motion via deformation of a subglacial till. The cyclical nature of the pulses is theorized to be due to a thin till, with low permeability, that causes incomplete drainage of the till between the pulses, followed by eventual recharge and dilation of the till. These findings suggest care is needed when attempting to correlate changes in regional climate with decadal-scale changes in velocity, because in some instances basal conditions may have a greater influence on ice dynamics than climate.

  3. Correlation of Low Energy Spectrum and Lithology With MCNP5 in Airborne Gamma Spectrometry%航空γ能谱低能谱段与地质体岩性相关性模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永红; 葛良全; 张庆贤; 谷懿


    为了研究航空γ能谱低能谱段与地质体岩性的相关关系,基于蒙特卡罗方法,应用MCNP5程序模拟天然γ射线穿过不同地质体(辉绿岩、砂岩、白云岩、玄武岩、黑云母花岗岩、花岗斑岩),且经过100 m高度空气介质散射后γ能谱的变化.模拟结果显示:地质体的有效原子序数对航空γ能谱低能谱段能量< 150 keV的能量段影响较大,低能散射峰峰位、不同能量段峰面积之比与原子序数均有一定的相关性.地质体的密度不会改变低能段散射峰峰位.%Hie paper simulated the changes of low energy airborne gamma - ray spectrometry after gamma photons eitted by natural source through mediums,such as diabase、sandstone、doloinite、basah、biotite granite 、granite porphyry and so on. The result showed that the effective atomic number of medium has great influence on low energy spectrum( < 150 keV). The position of peak ,as well as the peak area ratio of different energy,has a certain relationship with effective atomic number of medium, the Medium density has little influence on peak situation of low energy spectrum.

  4. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T.; Tapley, I.


    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Lithology, mineralogy and geochemical characterizations of sediment-hosted Sr-F deposits in the eastern Neo-Tethyan region - With special reference to evaporation and halokinesis in Tunisia (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Nolte, N.; Hansen, B. T.


    The Neo-Tethyan basin is known for its sediment-hosted Sr deposits in Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, and the Gulf Region. Sediment-hosted Sr-F deposits with base metals formed in the rim sinks and on top of salt domes resulting from halokinesis of Triassic evaporites near the southern edge of the Mediterranean Sea in Tunisia. These evaporites delivered part of the elements, created a basin-and-swell topography and provided the local and regional unconformities to which many of the mineral deposits are related. Five mineralizing processes, each with characteristic sedimentary ore textures, are related to this subsurface salt movement: (1 + 2) Early- and late-stage replacement ("zebra rocks"), (3) hydraulic fracturing ("fitting breccia" sensuDill and Weber, 2010b), (4) remobilization ("spinifex structures"), and (5) open-space filling ("caves and vein-like deposits"). Basinal brines from Mesozoic aquifers delivered Pb, Zn, Cd, REE, Y, Hg, and Se, while Sr, Cs, Be, Li, Cu and Co have been derived from Cenozoic salinas of the Neo-Tethyan basin. Mixing of Mesozoic and Cenozoic brines between 28 and 19 Ma provoked the emplacement of Sr-F mineralization at temperatures below 200 °C under strong alkaline conditions. Epigenetic polyphase Sr-F deposits bearing base-metals which are closely related to salt domes (Tunisian-Type) may be traced into epigenetic monophase Sr deposits within bioherms (Cyprus-Type) devoid of Pb, Zn and F. Moving eastward, syndiagenetic monophase Sr deposits in biostromes (Gulf-Type) herald the beginning of Sr concentration in Miocene sabkhas of the Neo-Tethys. The current results are based upon field-related sediment petrography and on mineralogical studies, which were supplemented by chemical studies. The present studies bridge the gap between epigenetic carbonate-hosted MVT and syndiagenetic evaporite deposits, both of which developed during the same time span (Neogene) and were hosted by the same environment (near-shore marine marginal facies of the Neo-Tethys basin).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明春; 李录明; 罗省贤



  7. Rb-Sr isotopic composition of granites in the Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton, Central Europe: record of variations in source lithologies, mafic magma input and postmagmatic hydrothermal events (United States)

    Dolejš, David; Bendl, Jiří; Štemprok, Miroslav


    The late Variscan (327-318 Ma) Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton (Czech Republic and Germany) represents a multiply emplaced intrusive sequence ranging from low-F biotite monzogranites (with rare minor bodies of gabbrodiorites and granodiorites) to high-F topaz-zinnwaldite alkali-feldspar granites. This granite suite is characterized by progressively increasing concentrations of incompatible elements (Li, Rb, F), monotonous decrease in mafic components and compatible elements (FeOtot, MgO, TiO2, CaO, Sr) with increasing silica. Consequently, this leads to extreme variations in the Rb/Sr ratios (0.52 to 59), which impose highly variable 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr signatures. The low-F biotite monzogranites represent isotopically heterogeneous mixture with (87Sr/86Sr)323 = 0.707-0.709 between partial melts from the Saxothuringian metasediments and mantle-derived mafic precursors. The medium-F two-mica microgranites show variable (87Sr/86Sr)323 = 0.708-0.714, indicating involvement of multiple precursors and more mature crustal protoliths. The evolved high-F topaz-zinnwaldite alkali-feldspar granites were derived from a precursor with (87Sr/86Sr)320 = 0.707-0.708 at 324-317 Ma by differentiation, which produced the extreme Rb/Sr enrichment and variations. The Li/Rb ratios remain nearly constant (~0.5), thus insensitive to the degree of geochemical differentiation. In comparison to terrestrial variations, the high Li/Rb values indicate derivation of granitic magmas from predominantly sedimentary precursors, in accord with 7Li-6Li and 143Nd-144Nd isotope composition reported previously. The Rb-Sr element variations in each granite unit are sligthly different and indicate ascent and emplacement of separate magma batches, which do not form a single liquid line of descent. We consider the enrichment of granites in incompatible elements (Li, Rb, F) and compatible depletion of ferromagnesian components, CaO and Sr as a combined effect of multiple precursors, changes in the chemical composition of crustal sources, in the degree of fractional melting and fractional crystallization, and of possibly repeated postmagmatic hydrothermal events.

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Frequency of Debris Flow and the Lithology in the Catchment of Debris Flow%泥石流流域岩性的坚固系数与暴发频率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁科; 余斌; 韩林; 谢洪


    坚硬岩性地区的泥石流暴发频率较低在定性上基本可以概括岩性与泥石流暴发频率的关系,但目前还没有定量地描述岩性与泥石流暴发频率的关系。以四川省17个泥石流流域作为研究对象,通过现场调查研究泥石流形成区和堆积区粗化层颗粒的岩性、硬度以及泥石流的暴发频率,得出:①泥石流堆积区岩性组成特征基本可以代表形成区的岩性组成特征;②用地质图计算的流域坚固系数与现场调查的流域坚固系数基本一致;③岩性坚固系数与泥石流暴发频率的关系为:坚固系数≥8的硬岩地区主要暴发(极)低频率泥石流,坚固系数〈8的软岩地区主要暴发中高频率泥石流。最终对比其他地区的39个泥石流流域的岩性坚固系数与泥石流暴发频率关系,其结果验证了研究的坚固系数8作为(极)低频率或中高频率泥石流界线的正确性。%It is qualitatively described the relationship between the hardness of rock in catchment and the triggering frequency of debris flow: the harder of rock in catchment,the lower frequency of debris flow is.But there is no quantitative relationship of the hardness and the triggering frequency.In this paper,17 catchments of debris flow in west Sichuan Province were investigated.The hardness of catchment,the triggering frequency of debris flow,and their relationship were researched.One can obtain the results from these research: ①The hardness of rock in the formation area is almost the same as the hardness of rock in the deposition area of debris flow catchment;②The hardness of catchment calculated by geology map is almost the same as the hardness of catchment obtained by investigated in field;③The relationship between the hardness of catchment and the triggering frequency of debris flow is: the(extremely) low frequency debris flows often happen in the hard rock area with the hardness ≥ 8,and the middle or high frequency debris flows often happen in the soft rock area with the hardness 8.Finally,the comparing was made for the hardness of catchment and triggering frequency of 39 catchments of debris flow in other areas.It verified the boundary of(extremely) low frequency and middle or high frequency determined by hardness of 8 obtained in this study.

  9. Distinguishing major lithologic types in rocks of precambrian age in central Wyoming using multilevel sensing, with a chapter on possible economic significance of iron formation discovered by use of aircraft images in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Information obtained by remote sensing from three altitude levels: ERTS-1 (565 miles), U-2 (60,000 feet), and C-130 aircraft (15,000 feet) illustrates the possible application of multilevel sensing in mineral exploration. Distinction can be made between rocks of greenstone belts and rocks of granite-granite gneiss areas by using ERTS-1 imagery in portions of the Precambrian of central Wyoming. Study of low altitude color and color infrared photographs of the mafic terrain revealed the presence of metasedimentary rocks with distinct layers that were interpreted as amphibolite by photogeologic techniques. Some of the amphibolite layers were found to be iron formation when examined in the field. To our knowledge this occurrence of iron formation has not been previously reported in the literature.

  10. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.M.; Huckins, H.E.


    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ``carbonate`` in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes.

  11. Lithology Identification Based on Growing Hierarchical Self-organizing Map Network%基于生长分层自组织映射网络的岩性识别模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中亚; 韩家新; 杜美华



  12. Study and simulation of a multi-lithology stratigraphic model under maximum erosion rate constraint; Etude et simulation d'un modele statigraphique multi-lithologique sous contrainte de taux d'erosion maximal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, V.


    The subject of this report is the study and simulation of a model describing the infill of sedimentary basins on large scales in time and space. It simulates the evolution through time of the sediment layer in terms of geometry and rock properties. A parabolic equation is coupled to an hyperbolic equation by an input boundary condition at the top of the basin. The model also considers a unilaterality constraint on the erosion rate. In the first part of the report, the mathematical model is described and particular solutions are defined. The second part deals with the definition of numerical schemes and the simulation of the model. In the first chap-ter, finite volume numerical schemes are defined and studied. The Newton algorithm adapted to the unilateral constraint used to solve the schemes is given, followed by numerical results in terms of performance and accuracy. In the second chapter, a preconditioning strategy to solve the linear system by an iterative solver at each Newton iteration is defined, and numerical results are given. In the last part, a simplified model is considered in which a variable is decoupled from the other unknowns and satisfies a parabolic equation. A weak formulation is defined for the remaining coupled equations, for which the existence of a unique solution is obtained. The proof uses the convergence of a numerical scheme. (author)

  13. Direct-push Electrical Conductivity Profiling for Soil Lithology in a Thick Vadose Zone%直压式电导法测定厚包气带土壤岩性的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 雷玉平; 郑力; 付玉芹; Marcia K. SCHULMEISTER


    探索将厚包气带直压式测量土壤电导率(EC)用于绘制土壤岩性剖面的方法.研究区位于太行山山前平原,由于浅层地下水大幅度下降,该区已经形成了厚包气带.我们利用Geoprobe(r)直压式钻机和温纳排列(Wenner Array)电极组测得EC剖面并钻取相应的土样.土样分析结果显示,深层土壤水分含量受岩性控制.由于研究区土壤为非盐渍土,因此土壤岩性是EC变化的主要控制因素,而土壤EC的空间变化也能表达岩性的分布.比较土样颗粒组成和EC值发现,EC值与土壤砂粒含量成负相关,与土壤粘粒含量成正相关.当土壤中砂粒含量由12%增加到100%时, EC由100 mS m-1 减少到20 mS m-1;而粘粒含量由3%增加到26%时,EC由30 mS m-1 增加到100 mS m-1.研究结果表明,厚包气带直压式测量EC资料可以推断土壤岩性.

  14. Lithology and palynology of Neogene sediments on the narrow edge of the Kitakami Massif (basement rocks), northeast Japan: significant change for depositional environments as a result of plate tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koji Yagishita; Akiko Obuse; Hiroshi Kurita [Iwate University, Morioka-City (Japan). Department of Geology, Faculty of Education


    A controversial stratigraphic section, the Taneichi Formation, is exposed along the Pacific Coast of northeastern Honshu, the main island of the Japanese Archipelago. Although most sediments of the formation have long been dated as late Cretaceous, the northern section of it has been assigned to (I) the Upper Cretaceous; (ii) the Paleogene; or (iii) the Neogene. In the present report, we present the data of palynological and sedimentological studies, showing that the northern section should be assigned to the Neogene. A more important point in the present study is that we invoke some basic principles of fluvial sedimentology to resolve this stratigraphic subject. The lignite layers full of PaleogeneMiocene dinoflagellate cysts and pollen assemblages drape over the boulder-sized ({gt}40 cm in diameter) clasts in the northern section. However, the layers totally consist of aggregates of small lignite chips, indicating that the lignites are allochthonous materials. The mega-clasts with derived microfossils in the lignites are thought to have been deposited as Neogene fluvial (flood) sediments in the newly formed Japanese Archipelago. Prior to the Miocene, the northern Honshu was part of the Eurasian Plate, thus the boulder-sized clasts cannot be envisaged as long river flood deposits along the continental Paleogene Pacific Coast. Instead, the mega-clasts with the draping lignites were probably derived from nearby Miocene highlands in the newly born island arc.

  15. 吉林油田两井东-木头南地区储层岩性测井解释%Lithology Well Logging Interpretation for the Reservoir in the Southern Area of Jilin Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾方; 马世忠; 方德庆; 闫百泉; 杨洁



  16. Neoarchean arc magmatism followed by high-temperature, high-pressure metamorphism in the Nilgiri Block, southern India (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Sajeev, K.; Hokada, T.; Horie, K.; Itaya, T.


    The Nilgiri Block, southern India is an exhumed lower crust formed through arc magmatic processes in the Neoarchean. The main lithologies in this terrane include charnockites, gneisses, volcanic tuff, metasediments, banded iron formation and mafic-ultramafic bodies. Mafic-ultramafic rocks are present towards the northern and central part of the Nilgiri Block. We examine the evolution of these mafic granulites/metagabbros by phase diagram modeling and U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating. They consist of a garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-hornblende-ilmenite ± orthopyroxene ± rutile assemblage. Garnet and clinopyroxene form major constituents with labradorite and orthopyroxene as the main mineral inclusions. Labradorite, identified using Raman analysis, shows typical peaks at 508 cm- 1, 479 cm- 1, 287 cm- 1 and 177 cm- 1. It is stable along with orthopyroxene towards the low-pressure high-temperature region of the granulite facies (M1 stage). Subsequently, orthopyroxene reacted with plagioclase to form the peak garnet + clinopyroxene + rutile assemblage (M2 stage). The final stage is represented by amphibolite facies-hornblende and plagioclase-rim around the garnet-clinopyroxene assemblage (M3 stage). Phase diagram modeling shows that these mafic granulites followed an anticlockwise P-T-t path during their evolution. The initial high-temperature metamorphism (M1 stage) was at 850-900 °C and ~ 9 kbar followed by high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (M2 stage) at 850-900 °C and 14-15 kbar. U-Pb isotope studies of zircons using SHRIMP revealed late Neoarchean to early paleoproterozoic ages of crystallization and metamorphism respectively. The age data shows that these mafic granulites have undergone arc magmatism at ca. 2539.2 ± 3 Ma and high-temperature, high-pressure metamorphism at ca. 2458.9 ± 8.6 Ma. Thus our results suggests a late Neoarchean arc magmatism followed by early paleoproterozoic high-temperature, high

  17. Raman spectra of carbonaceous material in Archean chert and silica dike: a thermal structure of ancient ocean floor (United States)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.


    Carbonaceous material (CM) is widespread in metamorphic rocks. CM is also reported from Archean rocks such as sedimentary rock and hydrothermal vein. Raman spectrum of CM changes with the degree of graphitization by metamorphism. The purpose of this study is to determine of the thermal structure of the low-grade zone in the Archean accretionary complex which was not able to determine using metamorphic petrology because of luck of index minerals, and to select of the best sample for analysis of molecular fossil. The North Pole area (3.5 Ga) is one of the best regions in the Archean greenstone belt, because this area had been subjected only to very low-grade metamorphism. A 1/5000 scale mapping was performed in the North Pole area. The mapped area is divided into seven units bounded by layer-parallel thrusts: Units-I, -II, -III, -IV, -V, -VI and -VII, in ascending order. These units are divided into MORB-type (Unit-I and -II) and OIB-type (Unit-III, -IV, -V, -VI and -VII) units by lithology and mode of occurrence. Microfossils are reported from the bedded chert and silica dike which is composed of very fine-grained silica in the Unit-I. We analyzed 20 bedded and silica dike samples collected from ancient seafloor (0 m) to 900 m depth of oceanic crust. The characterization of samples was performed by Raman microspectroscopy in situ using conventional petrologic double polished thin sections. All sample shows ordered peak (O-peak) and disordered peak (D-peak) around 1580-1610 cm-1 and ~1355 cm-1, respectively. There is no trend in D/O intensity and D/O area ratio. D/O width ratio and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of D-peak, however, indicate a clear trend, except bedded chert samples. D/O width ratio is decreasing with depth, from 2.2 to ~1, and FWHM of D-peak is also decreasing with depth from 100 cm-1 to 60 cm-1 between top of the unit and 180 m depth. It is considered that decreasing of D/O width ratio and FWHM of D-peak occurs with increasing of metamorphic

  18. Spectral Diversity in the Columbia Hills from Spirit's Mini-TES and PanCam (United States)

    Blaney, D.


    Since reaching the Columbia Hills, Spirit has investigated their composition and structure with the Athena payload. Two remote sensing instruments collected spectral information at visible (PanCam) and at thermal infrared (Mini-TES) wavelengths. Observations were coordinated and targeted to determine the mineralogical diversity and identify lithologies for investigation with the rest of the payload. Spirit has measured a wide range of targets including outcrop, rocks, and disturbed soils. While there is variation within classes, materials observed fell into five rock types and two soil types. Class names derive from their general location and a representative example target. Gusev plains rocks (e.g. Adirondack) have an olivine feature in the long wavelength part of the spectrum and are the dominant rocks on the plains. While initially very rare in the Columbia hills, plains basalts have become more common as the rover has climbed into the hills. West Spur rocks (e.g. Palenque) are highly altered. Lower Husband Hill I rocks (e.g. Wishstone) are dominated spectrally by intermediate plagioclase feldspar while Lower Husband Hills II rocks (e.g. Peace) show spectral evidence for bound water. Upon reaching the ``Cumberland Ridge", two types of materials were identified. The ``Watchtower" and ``Jibsheet" outcrops represent the next class, characterized by steep slope from 700 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. Finally, the ``Methuselah" outcrop shares many of the same spectral characteristics as Lower Husband Hill I (e.g. Wishstone). Disturbed soils all have similar characteristics, except for Huron (near Paso Robles), which shows evidence for water at Mini-TES wavelengths and is significantly less ``red" than other materials measured at visible wavelengths. The complex mixture of rock types indicate that multiple processes have been at work in the formation and evolution of the Columbia Hills. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

  19. Rapid identification of Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin


    Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  20. 典型喀斯特岩性组合结构的流域水文干旱机制研究——以贵州省为例%Studies on the mechanism of watershed hydrologic droughts based on the combined structure of typical karst lithologys: Taking Guizhou Province as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺中华; 陈晓翔; 梁虹; 杨朝晖; 黄法苏; 曾信波


    水文干旱已成为全球气候变化背景下典型的自然现象,是气象干旱和农业干旱的延续和发展,是最终、最彻底的干旱.岩性是流域下垫面的重要组成物质,其岩性类型及结构控制着地貌及水系的发育、促进流域储水空间的形成,影响流域的储水能力,关系到流域水文干旱的发生.本文在贵州省选择40个典型流域为研究样区,利用面向对象分类技术,提取流域岩性类型的遥感信息;利用主成分分析及灰色理论,研究岩性类型及其结构对流域水文干旱的影响机制.研究表明:1)从岩性类型因素上看,流域岩性类型对水文干旱影响总体较大,影响从大到小排序(关联度)为:K(0.985) >Z(0.96) >O(0.924) >J(0.922) >S(0.806)>D(0.788) >ε(0.75) >C(0.69) >Pt(0.684) >P(0.568) >T(0.542);2)岩性类型的主成分因素对流域水文干旱影响从大到小排序(关联度)为:Z3(0.48)>Z4(0.47)>Z1(0.44)>Z5(0.42)>Z2(0.39);3)岩性类型组合方式对流域水文干旱影响从大到小排序为:Ⅰ、Ⅱ>Ⅴ、Ⅳ>Ⅲ.

  1. 松辽盆地南部长岭断陷火山岩岩性岩相特征及其对储层的控制作用%Lithologic and Lithofacies Characteristics of Volcanic Rock and Their Controlling Effects on Reservoirs of Changling Fault Depression in the South of Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪; 邹华耀; 饶勇; 杨元元


    长岭断陷是松辽盆地南部最大的断陷,其深层勘探程度低、油气资源丰富、火山岩分布面积大,是很好的油气储集空间.为了明确长岭断陷层火山岩的分布规律以预测有利的储层,本文通过对火山岩的岩心观察、薄片鉴定、测井资料、二维、三维地震资料的综合分析,提出长岭断陷层火山岩主要发育于火石岭组和营城组,以火山熔岩和火山碎屑岩为主;发育出爆发相、溢流相、火山通道相、侵出相和火山沉积相5种火山岩岩相及11种亚相,其中以爆发相和溢流相为主;长岭断陷深层火山岩主要沿深大断裂呈带状分布.裂隙式和中心式喷发兼有,在垂向上表现为多期次喷发序列的叠置:营城组发育三个火山喷发旋回.统计显示溢流相上部和下部亚相的流纹岩和爆发相热碎屑流亚相的凝灰岩的气孔、溶孔和裂缝发育,储集物性最好.%The Changling fault depression is the largest fault depression in the south of Songliao Basin. The deep formation in the depression with a low exploration degree contains abundant hydrocarbon resources, where volcanic rocks are distributedextensively, as a good reservoir of oil and gasses. According to core observation, thin section identification and integration of well log and 2D/3D seismic data, the Yingcheng formation and Huoshiling formation are rich in volcanic rocks, mainly consisting of lava and pyroclastic rocks. 5 types of volcanic lithofacies and 11 types of volcanic subfacies such as explosive facies, overflow facies, volcanic conduit facies, extrusive facies and eruptive-sedimentary facies can be identified, which are mainly overflow facies and explosive facies. The volcanic rocks in the depression are distributed along big deep faults and superimposed by many times of volcanic eruption in the vertical direction in models of eruption of both central type and fissure type. And three volcanic eruption cycles can be identified in the Yingcheng formation. Statistics show that the rhyolite in the lower part and the upper part subfacies of overflow as well as the tuff in pyroclastic flow subfacies of explosive have many gas pores, solution pores and fractures, which may serve as a good reservoir.

  2. Controlling factors and distribution patterns of lithologic pools in the fluvial facies of the 3rd and 4th members of the Quantou Formation in the Songliao Basin%松辽盆地泉头组三、四段河流相储层岩性油藏控制因素及分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺; 崔坤宁; 张晨晨; 金明玉


    Based on data from drilling, logging, seismic and lab, we make a study of the Fuyang oil-bearing interval in Songliao Basin by using theories of continental sequence stratigraphy, sedimentary geology and hydrocarbon accumulation. The Fuyang oil-bearing interval in Songliao Basin is a low-porosity and low-permeability reservoir of fluvial facies. The overlapping mudstone of lacustrine facies in the 1" member of the Cretaceous Qings-hankou Formation is both source rock and regional seal, and therefore hydrocarbons generated in the upper source rocks migrated downward and accumulated in the lower reservoirs. Oil-source correlation shows that average distance of downward vertical migration of hydrocarbons is 300 m with the longest distance of 500 m. At the end of the Mingshui Formation deposition, stress field inversion resulted in various faults cutting through source rocks and the Fuyang oil-bearing interval and many fractures inside the source rocks and reservoirs. At the same time, source rocks reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation. Driven by tectonic stress and overpressure due to hydrocarbon generation, the hydrocarbons migrated downward along the faults and fractures and accumulated in the Fuyang oil-bearing interval. Hence the major period for hydrocarbon accumulation is the late period of the Mingshui Formation deposition. With favorable reservoir quality, meandering river point bars are major reservoirs for oil and gas. The existence of mudstone seals of shallow lacustrine facies leads to the formation of two sets of oil-bearing intervals. Oil pools mainly developed in the Fuyang oil-bearing interval which was close to the oil source and have a uniform oil-water contact in the basin. High mature source rocks in the 1" member of the Qingshankou Formation determine that oil pools are mainly distributed in the central depression zone. Relatively low net-to-gross ratio leads to the predominance of lithlogic oil pools in the Fuyang oil-bearing interval.%依据大量钻井、测井、地震及实验室分析资料,应用陆相层序地层学、沉积地质学及油气成藏理论,通过成藏条件研究认识到,松辽盆地扶杨油层为河流相低孔、低渗储层,上覆的白垩系青山口组一段湖相泥岩既是烃源岩又是区域性盖层,因此具有上生下储式成藏特征.油-源对比表明,油气垂直下排最大距离可达550 m,平均约300 m.明水组沉积末期,盆地反转应力场产生了大量断穿烃源岩及扶杨油层的断层并在源岩及储层内产生大量裂缝,同时源岩进入生烃高峰期,于是在构造应力及生烃超压作用下油气沿断层及裂缝下排到扶杨油层而成藏.因此,明水组沉积末期成为油气成藏的主要时期.曲流河点砂坝具有较好的物性,是油气的主要储集体.受浅水湖泊形成的泥岩盖层影响,形成了两套含油层系,油藏主要发育在近油源的扶余油层,盆地范围内具有统一的油-水界面.青山口组一段高成熟烃源岩控制了油藏主要分布在中央坳陷区,较低的砂地比决定了扶杨油层以发育岩性油藏为主.

  3. Seismic prediction technology for effective reservoir in complex lithology:The 1st interval of Da'anzhai Section in B Gas Field case%复杂岩性有效储层地震预测技术——以B气田大安寨段一亚段气藏为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊; 彭嫦姿; 于少勇



  4. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using an attenuated total reflection probe to distinguish between Japanese larch, pine and citrus plants in healthy and diseased states (United States)

    Gandolfo, D. S.; Mortimer, H.; Woodhall, J. W.; Boonham, N.


    FTIR spectroscopy coupled with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) sampling probe has been demonstrated as a technique for detecting disease in plants. Spectral differences were detected in Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) infected with Phytophthora ramorum at 3403 cm-1 and 1730 cm-1, from pine (Pinus spp.) infected with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at 1070 cm-1, 1425 cm-1, 1621 cm-1 and 3403 cm-1 and from citrus (Citrus spp.) infected with 'Candidatus liberibacter' at 960 cm-1, 1087 cm-1, 1109 cm-1, 1154 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1385 cm-1, 1462 cm-1, 1707 cm-1, 2882 cm-1, 2982 cm-1 and 3650 cm-1. A spectral marker in healthy citrus has been identified as Pentanone but is absent from the diseased sample spectra. This agrees with recent work by Aksenov, 2014. Additionally, the spectral signature of Cutin was identified in the spectra of Pinus spp. and Citrus spp. and is consistent with work by Dubis, 1999 and Heredia-Guerrero, 2014.

  5. General, Unified, Multiscale Modeling to Predict the Sensitivity of Energetic Materials (United States)


    FOX-7. Corrigendum. Acta Crystallographica Section B 64(4): 519. Miller, M. S. (1995): Three-phase combustion modelling: frozen ozone , a proto- type...of 1308.9 cm1 compares to 312the previously reported values of 1229 cm1, obtained by 313neutron diffraction; 1221 cm1 from FTIR , and at 1219 cm1

  6. 白玉及其仿品的激光拉曼光谱特征%Laser Raman Spectral Characteristics of White Nephrite And Its Imitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓萍; 李坤


    白玉是和田玉的主要品种之一,首先采用常规宝石学鉴定手段对白玉及其石英岩、大理石、岫玉和玻璃等仿品进行了测试,重点采用激光拉曼光谱仪对它们的拉曼光谱特征进行了测试,结果表明,白玉及其仿品的拉曼谱峰明显不同,其中白玉的拉曼谱峰主要表现在:1059cm-1、1029cm-1和930cm-1是 Si-O的伸缩振动,747cm-1和673cm-1是 Si-O-Si的伸缩振动,528cm-1是 Si-O的弯曲振动,415cm-1、392cm-1、368cm-1、221cm-1、177cm-1、157cm-1和120cm-1与晶格振动有关。%White nephrite is one of the main varieties of nephrite. Firstly, white nephrite, quartzite, marble, serpentine and glass are carefully observed and tested by the conventional gemological testing means. What`s more, with the help of laser Raman spectrometer, their different peak positions, peak shapes and relative strength characteristics of Raman spectra and vibration patterns are described and analyzed. The Raman spectral band positions and assignments for white nephrite are shown as follows:1059cm-1, 1029cm-1 and 930cm-1 are caused by the Si-O stretching vibrations, 747cm-1 and 673cm-1 are caused by the Si-O-Si stretching vibrations, 528cm-1 is caused by the Si-O bending vibration, 415cm-1, 392cm-1, 368cm-1, 221cm-1, 177cm-1, 157cm-1 and 120cm-1 are related to the crystal lattice vibrations.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies. (United States)

    Peng, Wanxi; Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Furuta, Yuzo


    Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people's health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO4)3 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of S-S stretch, H2O stretch, O-H stretch, C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 O stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1), respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO4)3, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1) and 3740 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahju Krisna H


    Full Text Available Geological conditions at Tembalang areas and surround, Semarang, as a Undulating – Hillockymorphological. That’s can be representation lithological and structural conditions. This surveysused the Geoelectrical sounding and combined with geological surface mapping. There are 15points sounding of Geoelectrical, after interpreted with geological surface mapping, can beconclusion the Breccias lithologic overlay on the upper of Limestones lithologic and finding thereverse fault in the part north of areas survey.

  9. Raman scattering study of α-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 (United States)

    Kuzovnikov, M. A.; Efimchenko, V. S.; Filatov, E. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Ramirez-Cuesta, A. J.


    Two modifications of MgH2 have been studied by Raman spectroscopy: α-MgH2 with the P42/mnm space group and γ-MgH2 with the Pbcn space group. The latter was prepared from α-MgH2 by exposing it to a pressure of 5.6 GPa at 470 °C for 1.5 h. A comparison of the experimental spectra with ab-initio calculations allowed identification of a few phonon modes. A broad feature in the Raman spectrum of α-MgH2 in the range 1470-1790 cm-1 was identified as the B2g phonon mode. A Raman spectrum of γ-MgH2 consists of five discernible peaks at 186 cm-1, 313 cm-1, 509 cm-1, 660 cm-1, 706 cm-1 and of three broad features in the regions 890-980 cm-1, 1010-1220 cm-1 and 1240-1430 cm-1. The peaks are identified as the 1Ag (186 cm-1), 3B3g (509 cm-1), 2Ag (660 cm-1) and 3B1g (706 cm-1) phonon modes.

  10. Detection of molecular changes induced by antibiotics in Escherichia coli using vibrational spectroscopy (United States)

    Xuan Nguyen, N. T.; Sarter, Samira; Hai Nguyen, N.; Daniel, Philippe


    This study aimed to test Raman (400-1800 cm- 1) and Infra-red (1900-500 cm- 1) spectroscopies followed by statistical analysis (principal component analysis) to detect molecular changes induced by antibiotics (ampicillin, cefotaxime - cell wall synthesis inhibitors, tetracycline - protein synthesis inhibitor, ciprofloxacin - DNA synthesis inhibitor) against Escherichia coli TOP10. In case of ampicillin and cefotaxime, a decrease in protein bands in both Raman (1240, 1660 cm- 1), and IR spectra (1230, 1530, 1630 cm- 1), and an increase in carbohydrate bands (1150, 1020 cm- 1) in IR spectra were observed. Tetracycline addition caused an increase in nucleic acid bands (775, 1478, 1578 cm- 1), a sharp decrease in phenylalanine (995 cm- 1) in Raman spectra and the amide I and amide II bands (1630, 1530 cm- 1) in IR spectra, an increase in DNA in both Raman (1083 cm- 1) and IR spectra (1080 cm- 1). Regarding ciprofloxacin, an increase in nucleic acids (775, 1478, 1578 cm- 1) in Raman spectra and in protein bands (1230, 1520, 1630 cm- 1), in DNA (1080 cm- 1) in IR spectra were detected. Clear discrimination of antibiotic-treated samples compared to the control was recorded, showing that Raman and IR spectroscopies, coupled to principal component analysis for data, could be used to detect molecular modifications in bacteria exposed to different classes of antibiotics. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of antibiotics in bacteria.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy an Option for the Early Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing. (United States)

    Pérez, Moisés Roberto Vallejo; Mendoza, María Guadalupe Galindo; Elías, Miguel Ghebre Ramírez; González, Francisco Javier; Contreras, Hugo Ricardo Navarro; Servín, Carlos Contreras


    This research describes the application of portable field Raman spectroscopy combined with a statistical analysis of the resulting spectra, employing principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which we determine that this method provides a high degree of reliability in the early detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) on Sweet Orange, disease caused by the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis), Persian Lime (C. latifolia), and Mexican Lime (C. aurantifolia) trees were collected from several municipalities, three at Colima State and three at Jalisco State (HLB presence). In addition, Sweet Orange samples were taken from two other Mexican municipalities, one at San Luis Potosí and the other at Veracruz (HLB absent). All samples were analyzed by real-time PCR to determine its phytosanitary condition, and its spectral signatures were obtained with an ID-Raman mini. Spectral anomalies in orange trees HLB-positive, were identified in bands related to carbohydrates (905 cm(-1), 1043 cm(-1), 1127 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1370 cm(-1), 1272 cm(-1), 1340 cm(-1), and 1260-1280 cm(-1)), amino acids, proteins (815 cm(-1), 830 cm(-1), 852 cm(-1), 918 cm(-1), 926 cm(-1), 970 cm(-1), 1002 cm(-1), 1053 cm(-1), and 1446 cm(-1)), and lipids (1734 cm(-1), 1736 cm(-1), 1738 cm(-1), 1745 cm(-1), and 1746 cm(-1)). Moreover, PCA-LDA showed a sensitivity of 86.9 % (percentage of positives, which are correctly identified), a specificity of 91.4 % (percentage of negatives, which are correctly identified), and a precision of 89.2 % (the proportion of all tests that are correct) in discriminating between orange plants HLB-positive and healthy plants. The Raman spectroscopy technique permitted rapid diagnoses, was low-cost, simple, and practical to administer, and produced immediate results. These are essential features for phytosanitary

  12. Studies of cartilaginous tissue using Raman spectroscopy method (United States)

    Timchenko, Pavel E.; Timchenko, Elena V.; Volova, Larisa T.; Dolgyshkin, Dmitry A.; Markova, Maria D.; Kylabyhova, A. Y.; Kornilin, Dmitriy V.


    The work presents the results of studies of samples of human articular surface of the knee joint, obtained by Raman spectroscopy implementedduring endoprosthesis replacement surgery . The main spectral characteristics of articular surface areas with varying degrees of cartilage damage were detected at 956 cm-1, 1066 cm-1 wavenumbers, corresponding to phosphate and carbonate, and at 1660 cm-1, 1271 cm-1 wavenumbers, corresponding to amide I and amide III. Criteria allowing to identify the degree of articular hyaline cartilage damage were introduced.

  13. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms (United States)


    follows: 1634 cm-1 is C=C bond vibration, 1410 cm-1 is C-H of C=CH2 in-plane scissoring, 1297 cm-1 is C-H of C=CH in-plane vibration, and 997 and 893 of NG-18 gels. In addition to testing performed on metal coupons, field samples obtained from Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, NH

  14. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the interacting v9, v5 + v6 and 3v6 levels of CH279BrF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visinoni, R.; Baldacci, A.; Larsen, R. Wugt


    The high-resolution (0.0030 cm(-1)) Fourier transform infrared spectrum of (CH2BrF)-Br-79 has been studied in part of the atmospheric window between 910 and 980 cm(-1), the region of the v(9) (935.847 cm(-1)) and V-5 + v(6) (961.239 cm(-1)) bands. The v9 fundamental consists of a pseudo a-type band...

  15. Far infrared transmittance of Sc2@C84 and Er2@C82

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grannan, S.M.; Birmingham, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Bethune, D.S.; Vries, M.S. de; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Dorn, H.C.; Burbank, P.; Bailey, J.; Stevenson, S.


    We have measured the far infrared transmittance of Sc2@C84 and Er2@C82 at 1.5 K between 30 and 200 cm-1. Both materials are observed to have a large primary absorption feature centered at 95 cm-1 with a width of approximately 50 cm-1, as well as a number of secondary absorption features which are di

  16. Structure-Antimicrobial Activity Relationship for a New Class of Antimicrobials, Silanols, in Comparison to Alcohols and Phenols (United States)


    1 and the free OH peak at 3610cm-1 while 3-chlorophenol displayed H-boned OH at 3287cm-1 and free OH at 3606cm-1. 2- phenylphenol exhibited its H...2.16 318 2- phenylphenol 3.28 252 2.4 Conclusions The silanols were prepared through the hydrolysis of chlorine derivative silanes. The

  17. Annona muricata Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    moiety, non-hydroxylated at the C-4 position, was suggested by an IR carbonyl absorption at. 1735.9 cm-1 and 1662.7 cm-1; the IR also gave signal for hydroxyl group at 3339.0 cm-1. .... ligand conformations in the binding sites through the.

  18. High resolution infrared synchrotron study of CH2D81Br: ground state constants and analysis of the ν5, ν6 and ν9 fundamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldacci, A.; Stoppa, P.; Visinoni, R.


    The high resolution infrared absorption spectrum of CH2D81Br has been recorded by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the range 550–1075 cm1, with an unapodized resolution of 0.0025 cm-1, employing a synchrotron radiation source. This spectral region is characterized by the ν6 (593.872 cm-1), ν5 (768...

  19. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW


    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating of zir...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  1. Informing groundwater model hydrostratigraphy with airborne time-domain electromagnetic data and borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    lithological information directly into groundwater models is proposed. The approach builds on a clay-fraction inversion which is a spatially variable translation of resistivity values from EM data into clay-fraction values using borehole lithological information. Hydrostratigraphical units are obtained through...

  2. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Group (Devonian black shale) in Illinois to evaluate its characteristics as a source of hydrocarbons. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.


    This proect is a detailed analysis of the lithology, stratiraphy, and structure of the New Albany Group in Illinois to determine those characteristics of lithology, thickness, regional distribution, vertical andlateral variability, and deformation that are most relevant to the occurrence of hydrocarbons.

  3. Aggregate resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Gessel, S.F. van; Veldkamp, J.G.


    We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attribute

  4. Sedimentology and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van B.


    The present study deals with the primary lithology, sedimentary structures, depositional history and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the south-central Pyrenees, and presents a brief review of the lithology and depositional environment of surrounding contemporaneous deposits.

  5. Magnetic excitations in metalloporphyrins by inelastic neutron scattering: determination of zero-field splittings in iron, manganese, and chromium complexes. (United States)

    Hunter, Seth C; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Xue, Zi-Ling


    Zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters of several nondeuterated metalloporphyrins [M(TPP)Cl] and [Mn(TPP)] (H2TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin) have been directly determined by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The ZFS values are the following: D = 6.33(8) cm(-1) for [Fe(TPP)Cl], -2.24(3) cm(-1) for [Mn(TPP)Cl], 0.79(2) cm(-1) for [Mn(TPP)], and |D|= 0.234(12) cm(-1) for [Cr(TPP)Cl]. The work shows that compounds with magnetic excitations below ∼30 cm(-1) could be determined using nondeuterated samples.

  6. Chiari type 1 malformation in a pseudotumour cerebri patient: is it an acquired or congenital Chiari malformation? (United States)

    Istek, Seref


    Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1) is a developmental abnormality of the cerebellar tonsils. Patients with CM1 commonly present with headache. Papilloedema is rarely seen in CM1. However, a 52-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a headache and her ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral papilloedema. Her cranial MRI was compatible with borderline CM1. Bilateral papilloedema and headache suggested idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) as the preliminary diagnosis. IIH is a rare case in CM1. This article argues about this association and discusses as to whether it is an acquired or congenital Chiari malformation.

  7. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy (United States)

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, J. L.


    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S1, using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D0, using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar1 and aniline-Ar2, which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm-1 and 89 cm-1 from the S1 origin bands and 83 cm-1 and 148 cm-1 from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar1 and Ar2 complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm-1 and 109 cm-1 for the S1 origin bands, and 61 cm-1 and 125 cm-1 for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups