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Sample records for kahp model promotes

  1. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  2. Nutrition/Dietetics Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Education in nutrition/dietetics in Kentucky and articulation within the field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed an articulated statewide system to promote entry and exit of personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and resource…

  3. Radiological Sciences Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Radiological sciences education in Kentucky and articulation within this field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed an articulated statewide system to promote entry and exit of personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and resource…

  4. Respiratory Therapy Discipline Advisory Group Final Report. Kentucky Allied Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Respiratory therapy education in Kentucky and articulation within the field are examined, based on the Kentucky Allied Health Project (KAHP), which designed a statewide system to promote entry and exit of prepared personnel at a variety of educational levels. The KAHP model promotes articulation in learning, planning, and resource utilization. The…

  5. Pender's health promotion model in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    This review shows how researchers use pander's health promotion model. We included all articles in which Pender's health promotion has been used for theoretical framework. Eligible articles were selected according to review of abstracts. Search was conducted using the electronic database from 1990 to 2012. Based on our search, 74 articles with various methodologies were relevant for review. Their aims of these studies were to predict effective factors/barriers in health promotion behaviours, to detect effects of intervention programme for improving health promotion behaviours, test the model, identify quality of life and health promotion behaviour, predict stage of change in related factors that affect health promotion behaviour, prevent the events that interfere with health promotion behaviour, develop another model similar to this model, compare this model with another model, determine the relationship of variables associated to health promotion behaviours.

  6. Psychosocial environment: a health promotion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S B

    1983-01-01

    This article presents a multidimensional model of psychosocial determinants of health behavior for health promotion research and policy analysis. Frequently, health promotion focuses almost exclusively on intrapsychic determinants and on individual level behavior. Based upon Field Theory and attitude theories, this proposed model holds that in populations with comparable sociodemographic and biological status (exogenous variables) a health behavior is a function of direct and interaction effects of five key intrapsychic and external variables. These are: behavioral intentions, social support, accessibility of means for action, personal autonomy, and action situation. Empirical tests with cross-cultural studies in Venezuela, Kenya, and the Philippines provide substantial support for the model. The findings suggest that while health promotion strategies should deal with intrapsychic determinants of behavior, key extrapsychic factors (such as social support, quality and accessibility of health care measures, and situational factors) all have direct and independent effects on health behavior as well. Health promotion research and interventions which aim exclusively at intrapsychic determinants would thus have rather limited overall value. The article discusses key research and policy implications of the model presented.

  7. Modeling promoter grammars with evolving hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Sandelin, Albin; Marstrand, Troels Torben

    2008-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Describing and modeling biological features of eukaryotic promoters remains an important and challenging problem within computational biology. The promoters of higher eukaryotes in particular display a wide variation in regulatory features, which are difficult to model. Often several...... factors are involved in the regulation of a set of co-regulated genes. If so, promoters can be modeled with connected regulatory features, where the network of connections is characteristic for a particular mode of regulation. RESULTS: With the goal of automatically deciphering such regulatory structures......, we present a method that iteratively evolves an ensemble of regulatory grammars using a hidden Markov Model (HMM) architecture composed of interconnected blocks representing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and background regions of promoter sequences. The ensemble approach reduces the risk...

  8. Modeling Potentially Time-Varying Effects of Promotions on Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.A. Sijthoff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA commonly applied modeling tool for the analysis of promotional effects on weekly sales data is a linear regression model. Usually, such a model includes 0/1 dummy variables for promotions, where weeks with a promotion get a value of 1. When these variables are included in a model with

  9. An optimal promotion cost control model for a markovian manpower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optimal promotion cost control model for a markovian manpower system. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A theory concerning the existence of an optimal promotion control strategy for controlling a Markovian ...

  10. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters usinghidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma-70 and sigma-54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely......In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... have at the same time the ability to find clusters and the ability to model the sequential structure in the input data. This is highly relevant in situations where the variance in the data is high, as is the case for the subclass structure in for example promoter sequences....

  11. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma 70 and sigma 54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely......In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... have at the same time the ability to find clusters and the ability to model the sequential structure in the input data. This is highly relevant in situations where the variance in the data is high, as is the case for the subclass structure in for example promoter sequences....

  12. Dynamics of an advertising competition model with sales promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Feng, Zhaosheng; Jiang, Guirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an advertising competition model with sales promotion is constructed and investigated. Conditions of the existence and stability of period-T solutions are obtained by means of the discrete map. Flip bifurcation is analyzed by using the center manifold theory and three sales promotion strategies are discussed. Example and numerical simulations are illustrated which agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  13. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  14. Data and Model Integration Promoting Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, T.

    2014-12-01

    It is very difficult to reflect accumulated subsystem knowledge into holistic knowledge. Knowledge about a whole system can rarely be introduced into a targeted subsystem. In many cases, knowledge in one discipline is inapplicable to other disciplines. We are far from resolving cross-disciplinary issues. It is critically important to establish interdisciplinarity so that scientific knowledge can transcend disciplines. We need to share information and develop knowledge interlinkages by building models and exchanging tools. We need to tackle a large increase in the volume and diversity of data from observing the Earth. The volume of data stored has exponentially increased. Previously, almost all of the large-volume data came from satellites, but model outputs occupy the largest volume in general. To address the large diversity of data, we should develop an ontology system for technical and geographical terms in coupling with a metadata design according to international standards. In collaboration between Earth environment scientists and IT group, we should accelerate data archiving by including data loading, quality checking and metadata registration, and enrich data-searching capability. DIAS also enables us to perform integrated research and realize interdisciplinarity. For example, climate change should be addressed in collaboration between the climate models, integrated assessment models including energy, economy, agriculture, health, and the models of adaptation, vulnerability, and human settlement and infrastructure. These models identify water as central to these systems. If a water expert can develop an interrelated system including each component, the integrated crisis can be addressed by collaboration with various disciplines. To realize this purpose, we are developing a water-related data- and model-integration system called a water cycle integrator (WCI).

  15. Models for financing the regulation of pharmaceutical promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2012-07-11

    Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums promoting their products whereas regulation of promotional activities is typically underfinanced. Any option for financing the monitoring and regulation of promotion should adhere to three basic principles: stability, predictability and lack of (perverse) ties between the level of financing and performance. This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of six different models. All these six models considered here have positive and negative features and none may necessarily be ideal in any particular country. Different countries may choose to utilize a combination of two or more of these models in order to raise sufficient revenue. Financing of regulation of drug promotion should more than pay for itself through the prevention of unnecessary drug costs and the avoidance of adverse health effects due to inappropriate prescribing. However, it involves an initial outlay of money that is currently not being spent and many national governments, in both rich and poor countries, are unwilling to incur extra costs.

  16. Models for financing the regulation of pharmaceutical promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexchin Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums promoting their products whereas regulation of promotional activities is typically underfinanced. Any option for financing the monitoring and regulation of promotion should adhere to three basic principles: stability, predictability and lack of (perverse ties between the level of financing and performance. This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of six different models. All these six models considered here have positive and negative features and none may necessarily be ideal in any particular country. Different countries may choose to utilize a combination of two or more of these models in order to raise sufficient revenue. Financing of regulation of drug promotion should more than pay for itself through the prevention of unnecessary drug costs and the avoidance of adverse health effects due to inappropriate prescribing. However, it involves an initial outlay of money that is currently not being spent and many national governments, in both rich and poor countries, are unwilling to incur extra costs.

  17. Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for t

  18. A Contemporary Leadership Model to Promote Teacher Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Harold L.; Tinley, Alice; Berman, Barbara T.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a contemporary leadership model comprised of three elements necessary to successfully recognize and promote teacher leaders. The elements include establishing an appropriate school culture, recognizing teacher leaders, and inspiring teachers' confidence. The three elements, along with enabled teacher leadership, create positive cultural…

  19. MODEL2TALK: An Intervention to Promote Productive Classroom Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Chiel; van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van Oers, Bert; Michaels, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the MODEL2TALK intervention, which aims to promote young children's oral communicative competence through productive classroom talk. Productive classroom talk provides children in early childhood education with many opportunities to talk and think together. Results from a large-scale study show that productive classroom talk…

  20. STAS and Logit Modeling of Advertising and Promotion Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Yssing Hansen, Lotte; Grønholdt, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies of the effect of advertising and promotion on purchases using the British single-source database Adlab. STAS and logit modeling are the two measures studied. Results from the two measures have been compared to determine the extent to which, they give...

  1. Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for

  2. Promoting Continuous Quality Improvement in Online Teaching: The META Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Eileen; McCracken, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Experienced e-learning faculty members share strategies for implementing a comprehensive postsecondary faculty development program essential to continuous improvement of instructional skills. The high-impact META Model (centered around Mentoring, Engagement, Technology, and Assessment) promotes information sharing and content creation, and fosters…

  3. A Pervasive Promotion Model for Personalized Promotion Systems on Using WLAN Localization and NFC Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Yiu Lam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel pervasive business model for sales promotion in retail chain stores utilizing WLAN localization and near field communication (NFC technologies. The objectives of the model are to increase the customers’ flow of the stores and their incentives in purchasing. In the proposed model, the NFC technology is used as the first mean to motivate customers to come to the stores. Then, with the use of WLAN, the movements of the customers, who are carrying smartphones, within the stores are captured and maintained in the movement database. By interpreting the movements of customers as indicators of their interests to the displayed items, personalized promotion strategies can be formulated to increase their incentives for purchasing future items. Various issues in the application of the adopted localization scheme for locating customers in a store are discussed. To facilitate the item management and space utilization in displaying the items, we propose an enhanced R-tree for indexing the data items maintained in the movement database. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the adopted localization scheme in supporting the proposed model.

  4. Nutraceutical Interventions for Promoting Healthy Aging in Invertebrate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex and inevitable biological process that is associated with numerous chronically debilitating health effects. Development of effective interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research. Mechanistic studies in various model organisms, noticeably two invertebrates, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have identified many genes and pathways as well as dietary interventions that modulate lifespan and healthspan. These studies have shed light on some of the mechanisms involved in aging processes and provide valuable guidance for developing efficacious aging interventions. Nutraceuticals made from various plants contain a significant amount of phytochemicals with diverse biological activities. Phytochemicals can modulate many signaling pathways that exert numerous health benefits, such as reducing cancer incidence and inflammation, and promoting healthy aging. In this paper, we outline the current progress in aging intervention studies using nutraceuticals from an evolutionary perspective in invertebrate models.

  5. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheo...

  6. Nutraceutical Interventions for Promoting Healthy Aging in Invertebrate Models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a complex and inevitable biological process that is associated with numerous chronically debilitating health effects. Development of effective interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research. Mechanistic studies in various model organisms, noticeably two invertebrates, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have identified many genes and pathways as well as dietary interventions that modulate lifespan and healthspan. These studies ...

  7. Promoter recognition based on the maximum entropy hidden Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Pian, Cong; Zhang, Liang-yun

    2014-08-01

    Since the fast development of genome sequencing has produced large scale data, the current work uses the bioinformatics methods to recognize different gene regions, such as exon, intron and promoter, which play an important role in gene regulations. In this paper, we introduce a new method based on the maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM) to recognize the promoter, which utilizes the biological features of the promoter for the condition. However, it leads to a high false positive rate (FPR). In order to reduce the FPR, we provide another new method based on the maximum entropy hidden Markov model (ME-HMM) without the independence assumption, which could also accommodate the biological features effectively. To demonstrate the precision, the new methods are implemented by R language and the hidden Markov model (HMM) is introduced for comparison. The experimental results show that the new methods may not only overcome the shortcomings of HMM, but also have their own advantages. The results indicate that, MEMM is excellent for identifying the conserved signals, and ME-HMM can demonstrably improve the true positive rate.

  8. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  9. An organisational culture model to promote creativity and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Martins

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine what type of organisational culture would support creativity and innovation in an organisation. A new model was developed and compared with the theoretical model. Similarities, differences and new perspectives emerged. The factors trust relationship, working environment, management support and customer orientation on an operational level presented shifts in emphasis in the new model. The trust relationship in particular indicated that trust manifests in openness and sincerity. Trust influences both employee support for change and the probability of successful change, which influence the degree to which creativity and innovation are stimulated and promoted. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal watter tipe organisasiekultuur kreatiwiteit en innovasie in ‘n organisasie sal stimuleer. ‘n Nuwe model is ontwikkel en met die teoretiese model vergelyk. Ooreenkomste, verskille en nuwe perspektiewe het aan die lig gekom. Die faktore vertrouensverhouding, werkomgewing, bestuursondersteuning en kliëntegeoriënteerdheid op ‘n operasionele vlak was klemverskuiwings in die nuwe model. Spesifiek die vertrouensverhouding het daarop gedui dat vertroue manifesteer in openlikheid en opregtheid. Vertroue beïnvloed beide werknemers se steun vir verandering en die waarskynlikheid van suksesvolle verandering, wat die mate waarin kreatiwiteit en innovasie gestimuleer en bevorder word, sal beïnvloed.

  10. An ANN-GA model based promoter prediction in Arabidopsis thaliana using tilling microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Singh, Nitya; Misra, Krishna; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2011-01-01

    Identification of promoter region is an important part of gene annotation. Identification of promoters in eukaryotes is important as promoters modulate various metabolic functions and cellular stress responses. In this work, a novel approach utilizing intensity values of tilling microarray data for a model eukaryotic plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used to specify promoter region from non-promoter region. A feed-forward back propagation neural network model supported by genetic algorithm was ...

  11. Unicriterion Model: A Qualitative Decision Making Method That Promotes Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Silvano Lobo Pimentel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Management decision making methods frequently adopt quantitativemodels of several criteria that bypass the question of whysome criteria are considered more important than others, whichmakes more difficult the task of delivering a transparent viewof preference structure priorities that might promote ethics andlearning and serve as a basis for future decisions. To tackle thisparticular shortcoming of usual methods, an alternative qualitativemethodology of aggregating preferences based on the rankingof criteria is proposed. Such an approach delivers a simpleand transparent model for the solution of each preference conflictfaced during the management decision making process. Themethod proceeds by breaking the decision problem into ‘two criteria– two alternatives’ scenarios, and translating the problem ofchoice between alternatives to a problem of choice between criteriawhenever appropriate. The unicriterion model method is illustratedby its application in a car purchase and a house purchasedecision problem.

  12. Development of a caregiver empowerment model to promote positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Winslow, Betty W; Lee, Jerry W; Burns, Margaret; Zhang, Xinwei Esther

    2011-02-01

    Family members caring for aging parents experience both negative and positive outcomes from providing care. Theoretical explanations for negative outcomes have been developed. There is need for models that explain and predict positive outcomes. This article describes the evolution of the Caregiver Empowerment Model (CEM) to explain and predict positive outcomes of family caregiving. Although empirical findings support positive outcomes of family caregiving, less attention has been given to theoretical rationale for positive effects. The CEM predicts that, in the presence of filial values and certain background variables, caregiving demands are appraised as challenges instead of stressors. Appraising caregiving demands as a challenge, finding meaning, and using certain types of coping strategies are posited to be associated with growth and well-being. The CEM extends our understanding of the complexity of the caregiving experience, and can serve as a framework to guide in developing and testing theory-based interventions to promote positive outcomes.

  13. Modelling the results of health promotion activities in Switzerland: development of the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda; Broesskamp-Stone, Ursel; Ruckstuhl, Brigitte; Ackermann, Günter; Spoerri, Adrian; Cloetta, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention adopted by Health Promotion Switzerland (SMOC, Swiss Model for Outcome Classification) and the process of its development. The context and method of model development, and the aim and objectives of the model are outlined. Preliminary experience with application of the model in evaluation planning and situation analysis is reported. On the basis of an extensive literature search, the model is situated within the wider international context of similar efforts to meet the challenge of developing tools to assess systematically the activities of health promotion and prevention.

  14. Generalized Poisson-Lindely Distribution in Promotion Time Cure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Baghestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Long-term survival analysis has been improved in the last decade and most of the models concentrate on the promotion time cure model that proposed by Chen (1999. These models are based on the distribution of latent variable N, number of initiated node cells. In this paper we proposed a Generalized Poisson-Lindely distribution that is another option instead of Negative Binomial distribution when there is overdispersion. The results indicated a better fitness compared to others, because of its more flexibility. Parameter estimation has been done by Bayesian approach, in a real data set and a simulation study has shown the advantages of proposed model. Normal 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  15. Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryohei; Nakata, Ken; Kawano, Fuminori; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Ogasawara, Issei; Nakai, Naoya; Mae, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Tomohiko; Tachibana, Yuta; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    centrifuge acceleration group had no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. Union rate and BV in the low-magnitude group of RFH model were also significantly higher than those in the other groups (Union rate: 60% v.s. 0% in the high-magnitude group and 10% in the control-VA group, BV: 0.69±0.30mm3 v.s. 0.15±0.09mm3 in high-magnitude group and 0.22±0.17mm3 in control-VA group). BV/TV in the low-magnitude group of RFH model was significantly higher than that in control-VA group (59.4±14.9% v.s. 35.8±13.5%). On the other hand, radiographic union rate (10% in centrifuge acceleration group v.s. 20% in control-CA group) and micro-CT parameters in RFH model were not significantly different between two groups in the constant acceleration studies. Radiographic images of non-union rib fractures showed cartilage at the fracture site and poor new bone formation, whereas union samples showed only new bone. In conclusion, low-magnitude vibration acceleration promoted bone formation at the trunk in both BMP-induced ectopic bone formation and rib fracture healing models. However, the micro-CT parameters were not similar between two models, which suggested that there might be difference in the mechanism of effect by vibration between two models. PMID:28264058

  16. Multivariable Linear Regression Model for Promotional Forecasting:The Coca Cola - Morrisons Case

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yiwei/Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a promotional forecasting model, built by linear regression module in Microsoft Excel. It intends to provide quick and reliable forecasts with a moderate credit and to assist the CPFR between the Coca Cola Enterprises (CCE) and the Morrisons. The model is derived from previous researches and literature review on CPFR, promotion, forecasting and modelling. It is designed as a multivariable linear regression model, which involves several promotional mix as variables includi...

  17. OPTIMAL TRAINING POLICY FOR PROMOTION - STOCHASTIC MODELS OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.

  18. Consumer choice models on the effect of promotions in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyt, Jonne

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral thesis contains three empirical essays regarding the effect of promotions on consumer choices in a retailing context. The first essay studies the scheduling of featured price cuts for national brands, across retail chains. It shows that coordinating promotions across chains influences

  19. Disruptions in Women's Self-Promotion: The Backlash Avoidance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Rudman, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience social and economic penalties (i.e., backlash) for self-promotion, a behavior that violates female gender stereotypes yet is necessary for professional success. However, it is unknown whether and how the threat of backlash interferes with women's ability to self-promote. The present research examined the effects of fear of…

  20. An improved model for the hTERT promoter quadruplex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Chaires

    Full Text Available Mutations occur at four specific sites in the hTERT promoter in >75% of glioblastomas and melanomas, but the mechanism by which the mutations affect gene expression remains unexplained. We report biophysical computational studies that show that the hTERT promoter sequence forms a novel G-quadruplex structure consisting of three contiguous, stacked parallel quadruplexes. The reported hTERT mutations map to the central quadruplex within this structure, and lead to an alteration of its hydrodynamic properties and stability.

  1. [Educational theories and models in health-promoting interventions: a critical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaele, Barbara; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Health promotion interventions are aimed at improving health by seeking to influence lifestyles, healthcare services and physical, cultural and socioeconomic environments. Several publications support the relevance of theory-based interventions directed to promoting health. However, the adoption of an educational conceptual framework in the planning and evaluation of health promotion interventions is still limited. The aim of this article is to describe the educational paradigms for health promotion intervention and analyse the main educational theories and models used in literature, reporting the international debate about the type and level of application of different theoretical frameworks in health promotion interventions.

  2. How promotions work : SCAN*PRO-based evolutionary model building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We provide a rationale for evolutionary model building. The basic idea is that to enhance user acceptance it is important that one begins with a relatively simple model. Simplicity is desired so that managers understand models. As a manager uses the model and builds up experience with this decision

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Wool Promotion An Equilibrium Displacement Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of the International Wool Secretariat (IWS) is to increase the world demand for wool through promotion activities. Australia is a leading wool producer and the world's largest apparel wool exporter. Each year Australian wool producers contribute millions of dollars to the IWS for wool promotion. The principal aims of this paper are to demonstrate the potential for equilibrium displacement modelling to assess the impact of incremental wool promotion on wool producer incomes and p...

  4. Latino children's health and the family-community health promotion model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, F S; Fuentes-Afflick, E.

    1999-01-01

    A majority of Latino children in the US live in poverty. However, unlike other poor children, Latino children do not seem to have a consistent association between poverty and poor health. Instead, many poor Latino children have unexpectedly good health outcomes. This has been labeled an epidemiologic paradox. This paper proposes a new model of health, the family-community health promotion model, to account for this paradox. The family-community health promotion model emphasizes the family-com...

  5. Modeling dynamic effects of promotion on interpurchase times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a duration model to analyze the dynamic effects of marketing-mix variables on interpurchase times. We extend the accelerated failure-time model with an autoregressive structure. An important feature of our model is that it allows for different long-run and

  6. Modeling dynamic effects of promotion on interpurchase times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a duration model to analyze the dynamic effects of marketing-mix variables on interpurchase times. We extend the accelerated failure-time model with an autoregressive structure. An important feature of our model is that it allows for different long-run and

  7. An Innovative Dialogue about College Drinking: Developing an Immediate Response Technology Model for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGreco, Marianne; Hess, Aaron; Lederman, Linda C.; Schuwerk, Tara; LaValley, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies, including personal response "clickers," have become increasingly popular across college campuses as a way to promote a wide range of practices. This paper calls attention to the need for communication models that account for the usefulness of these new technologies, especially as they relate to health promotion,…

  8. Revisiting Precede-Proceed: A Leading Model for Ecological and Ethical Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Precede-Proceed model has provided moral and practical guidance for the fields of health education and health promotion since Lawrence Green first developed Precede in 1974 and Green and Kreuter added Proceed in 1991. Precede-Proceed today remains the most comprehensive and one of the most used approaches to promoting health.…

  9. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  10. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to

  11. Measuring Short- and Long-run Promotional Effectiveness on Scanner Data Using Persistence Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); V.R. Nijs; J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe use of price promotions to stimulate brand and firm performance is increasing. We discuss how (i) the availability of longer scanner data time series, and (ii) persistence modeling, have lead to greater insights into the dynamic effects of price promotions, as one can now quantify th

  12. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  13. Hydrostatic Pressure Promotes Domain Formation in Model Lipid Raft Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, David L; Weinrich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure promotes liquid-ordered (Lo) domain formation in lipid membranes prepared as both oriented multilayers and unilamellar vesicles made of a canonical ternary lipid mixture for which demixing transitions have been extensively studied. The results demonstrate an unusually large dependence of the mixing transition on hydrostatic pressure. Additionally, data at 28 °C show that the magnitude of increase in Lo caused by 10 MPa pressure is much the same as the decrease in Lo produced by twice minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of general anesthetics such as halothane, nitrous oxide, and xenon. Therefore, the results may provide a plausible explanation for the reversal of general anesthesia by hydrostatic pressure.

  14. An ANN-GA model based promoter prediction in Arabidopsis thaliana using tilling microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Singh, Nitya; Misra, Krishna; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2011-01-01

    Identification of promoter region is an important part of gene annotation. Identification of promoters in eukaryotes is important as promoters modulate various metabolic functions and cellular stress responses. In this work, a novel approach utilizing intensity values of tilling microarray data for a model eukaryotic plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used to specify promoter region from non-promoter region. A feed-forward back propagation neural network model supported by genetic algorithm was employed to predict the class of data with a window size of 41. A dataset comprising of 2992 data vectors representing both promoter and non-promoter regions, chosen randomly from probe intensity vectors for whole genome of Arabidopsis thaliana generated through tilling microarray technique was used. The classifier model shows prediction accuracy of 69.73% and 65.36% on training and validation sets, respectively. Further, a concept of distance based class membership was used to validate reliability of classifier, which showed promising results. The study shows the usability of micro-array probe intensities to predict the promoter regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:21887014

  15. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL SEKOLAH SEHAT (HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL DI DAERAH MISKIN PERKOTAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andryansyah Arifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that there was strong relation between health status of primary school students and school records. A health­ promoting school was, whether all members of school community work together to provide students with an integrated positive experiences and structures which promote and protect their health.These include both formal and informal curriculum in health, creation of a safe and healthy school environment, provision of appropriate health services and involvement of family and wider commmunities was in efforts to promote health. The objectives of, this study is to develop a model of health promoting school at poor urban areas which included to measure student knowledge and attitude, nutrition intake, and role of school teacher in health promotion. A stratified mulitistage randomized pre-post test control groups design was used in this study. Duration of this study was 3 years (2001-2003 and the location at 9 primary schools (6 intervention schools and 3 control schools in Semarang, Surakarta, Denpasar municipalities and Kendal district. Results of this study showed that students knowledge and atitude toward health were improved significantly as well as nutrition intake at intervention groups. This improvement was caused by the role of school teachers in health promotion which was integrated in daily learning process. Based on this results a model of health promoting school has been developed. It recommends to implement this health promoting school model at wider areas and to provide school teachers completed with health promotion manuals.   Keywords: model, health promoting school

  16. Metabolic Trade-Offs Promote Diversity in a Model Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfai, Anna; Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2017-01-01

    In nature, a large number of species can coexist on a small number of shared resources; however, resource-competition models predict that the number of species in steady coexistence cannot exceed the number of resources. Motivated by recent studies of phytoplankton, we introduce trade-offs into a resource-competition model and find that an unlimited number of species can coexist. Our model spontaneously reproduces several notable features of natural ecosystems, including keystone species and population dynamics and abundances characteristic of neutral theory, despite an underlying non-neutral competition for resources.

  17. Promoting and Supporting Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom: The Evaluate-Alternatives Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an instructional model that science teachers can use to promote and support student engagement in scientific argumentation. This model is called the evaluate-alternatives instructional model and it is grounded in current research on argumentation in science education (e.g., Berland and Reiser 2009; McNeill and Krajcik 2006;…

  18. Assessment of organizational readiness for health promotion policy implementation: test of a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Röger, U; Abu-Omar, K; Frahsa, A

    2009-09-01

    Models explaining the engagement of organizations in different policy sectors in health promotion policy implementation often utilize retrospective data. The current study attempted to model determinants of organizational readiness (goals, resources, obligation, opportunities) in supporting health policy implementation prospectively. Twenty qualitative interviews with representatives of organizations from different policy sectors, levels of government and organizational legal entities were conducted at the beginning of a project for the promotion of physical activity among women in difficult life situations. Organizational support in developing, implementing and disseminating the project was documented over 36 months. Results indicated that in most organizations, determinants were not favorable for health promotion policy action for physical activity among women in difficult life situations. Six organizations did not report any favorable determinant, and two organizations reported four. The other 12 organizations reported positive results for some of the determinants. Project work received support from 6 out of the 20 organizations. A case study of three organizations indicated that engagement or disengagement of organizations in health promotion policy actions might be partly explained by the theoretical model. The prospective assessment of organizational readiness in implementing health promotion policy is highly relevant for health promotion. Considering the proposed theoretical framework may aid in advancing our understanding of factors that are related to organizational engagement in health promotion actions.

  19. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  20. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  1. ProMT: effective human promoter prediction using Markov chain model based on DNA structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dapeng; Liu, Rongjie; Xiao, Fen; Gao, Xieping

    2014-12-01

    The core promoters play significant and extensive roles for the initiation and regulation of DNA transcription. The identification of core promoters is one of the most challenging problems yet. Due to the diverse nature of core promoters, the results obtained through existing computational approaches are not satisfactory. None of them considered the potential influence on performance of predictive approach resulted by the interference between neighboring TSSs in TSS clusters. In this paper, we sufficiently considered this main factor and proposed an approach to locate potential TSS clusters according to the correlation of regional profiles of DNA and TSS clusters. On this basis, we further presented a novel computational approach (ProMT) for promoter prediction using Markov chain model and predictive TSS clusters based on structural properties of DNA. Extensive experiments demonstrated that ProMT can significantly improve the predictive performance. Therefore, considering interference between neighboring TSSs is essential for a wider range of promoter prediction.

  2. Compensation and Promotion Models: A New Econometrics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    m itjmw 1 M itj itjm m m w v    1,1itj    1,1mv The Information Theoretic, General Maximum Entropy (IT-GME) Model: (Maximizing the joint...that may contradict economic intuition/theory. • From a practical point of view, a number of researchers show that the multivariate (or bivariate ... entropies of the signal and noise subject to the linear cross moments, First Order Markov conditions, and the requirements that w are proper

  3. Characterization and identification of microRNA core promoters in four model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although many functions of microRNAs in plants and animals have been revealed in recent years, the transcriptional mechanism of microRNA genes is not well-understood. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of microRNA genes, we study and characterize, in a genome scale, the promoters of intergenic microRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. We show that most known microRNA genes in these four species have the same type of promoters as protein-coding genes have. To further characterize the promoters of microRNA genes, we developed a novel promoter prediction method, called common query voting (CoVote, which is more effective than available promoter prediction methods. Using this new method, we identify putative core promoters of most known microRNA genes in the four model species. Moreover, we characterize the promoters of microRNA genes in these four species. We discover many significant, characteristic sequence motifs in these core promoters, several of which match or resemble the known cis-acting elements for transcription initiation. Among these motifs, some are conserved across different species while some are specific to microRNA genes of individual species.

  4. [An Experience Promoting the Interdisciplinary Care Model for Dengue Fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Fu; Ke, Ya-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Emergency departments represent the first line in facing major healthcare events. During major epidemic outbreaks, patients crowding into the emergency departments increase the wait time for patients and overload the staffs that are on duty. The dengue fever outbreak in southern Taiwan during the summer 2015 presented a huge management challenge for physicians and nurses in local hospitals. We responded to this challenge by integrating resources from different hospital departments. This strategy successfully increased group cohesiveness among the medical team, ensuring that they could not only ultimately cope with the outbreak together but also effectively provide patient-centered care. This interdisciplinary care model may serve as a reference for medical professionals for the management of future epidemics and similar events.

  5. Structural Equation Model of Health Promoting Behaviors for Health Information Seekers with Mobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Kim, Jeongeun; Byun, Ahjung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on verifying whether variables such as prior health related behaviors, health literacy, interpersonal influence, perceived ease of use and usefulness of health information, and behavioral intention could predict actual health promoting behaviors of consumers using health information with mobile in the future. The research model was based on Technology Acceptance Model. Data were collected from 199 mobile health information seekers. Participants' actual health promoting behaviors were checked after 3 months from pre-data collection. The final modified model had good fit indices.

  6. [Empowering the family-center health model: the toy library as a health promotion platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chu; Tsai, Yen-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Facing the lowest birth rates in its history, Taiwan is increasingly recognizing the centrality of children's healthcare needs to effective family care. The World Health Organization's goal of health for all emphasizes health promotion. However, little research attention has been given to how families actively promote personal health in everyday life. This article considers 'family-centric' healthcare, with a particular emphasis on children's health and well-being and the mother health promotion model. Authors employ a 'toy library' as the health promotion platform to build community interaction and empower the health enhancement process. Results suggested the following: 1. The fixed-point type toy library may be an effective tool in a health promotion strategy; 2. A model may be developed for rural institution agencies; 3. Cooperation may be facilitated using a medical service vehicle; 4. The love bag program can serve extended purposes. The authors found that the empowerment and growth of tribal mothers is a key element to facilitate the successful development of their children. Based on findings, the implementation of a toy library as the platform to build community-based health promotion model is suggested.

  7. Promoting Conceptual Coherence in Quantum Learning through Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-02-01

    In order to explain phenomena at the quantum level, scientists use multiple representations in verbal, pictorial, mathematical, and computational forms. Conceptual coherence among these multiple representations is used as an analytical framework to describe student learning trajectories in quantum physics. A series of internet-based curriculum modules are designed to address topics in quantum mechanics, semiconductor physics, and nano-scale engineering applications. In these modules, students are engaged in inquiry-based activities situated in a highly interactive computational modeling environment. This study was conducted in an introductory level solid state physics course. Based on in-depth interviews with 13 students, methods for identifying conceptual coherence as a function of students' level of understanding are presented. Pre-post test comparisons of 20 students in the course indicate a statistically significant improvement in students' conceptual coherence of understanding quantum phenomena before and after the course, Effect Size = 1.29 SD. Additional analyses indicate that students who responded to the modules more coherently improved their conceptual coherence to a greater extent than those who did less to the modules after controlling for their course grades.

  8. Modeling mechanical effects on promotion and retardation of martensitic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalekian, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.maalekian@ubc.ca [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. V61Z4 (Canada); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Christian Doppler Laboratory for ' Early Stages of Precipitation' , Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Compressive elastic stresses up to 250 MPa are applied in continuous cooling. {yields} Using the thermodynamic data and maximum value of the mechanical driving force the predicted increase in M{sub s} ({approx}0.1 K/MPa) is in agreement with experiment {yields} Austenite was deformed plastically at different temperatures (800 deg. C-1100 deg. C). {yields} High deformation temperature (i.e. 1100 deg. C) as well as low plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 30%) do not affect martensite transformation noticeably, whereas lower deformation temperature (e.g. 900 deg. C) and large plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 70%) retards martensite transformation. {yields} The theory of mechanical stabilization predicts the depression of M{sub s}. - Abstract: The influence of compressive stress and prior plastic deformation of austenite on the martensite transformation in a eutectoid steel is studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that martensite formation is assisted by stress but it is retarded when transformation occurs from deformed austenite. With the quantitative modeling of the problem based on the theory of displacive shear transformation, the explanation of the two opposite roles of mechanical treatment prior to or simultaneously to martensite transformation is presented.

  9. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  10. Mesoscopic model and free energy landscape for protein-DNA binding sites: analysis of cyanobacterial promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tapia-Rojo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification of protein binding sites in promoter sequences is a key problem to understand and control regulation in biochemistry and biotechnological processes. We use a computational method to analyze promoters from a given genome. Our approach is based on a physical model at the mesoscopic level of protein-DNA interaction based on the influence of DNA local conformation on the dynamics of a general particle along the chain. Following the proposed model, the joined dynamics of the protein particle and the DNA portion of interest, only characterized by its base pair sequence, is simulated. The simulation output is analyzed by generating and analyzing the Free Energy Landscape of the system. In order to prove the capacity of prediction of our computational method we have analyzed nine promoters of Anabaena PCC 7120. We are able to identify the transcription starting site of each of the promoters as the most populated macrostate in the dynamics. The developed procedure allows also to characterize promoter macrostates in terms of thermo-statistical magnitudes (free energy and entropy, with valuable biological implications. Our results agree with independent previous experimental results. Thus, our methods appear as a powerful complementary tool for identifying protein binding sites in promoter sequences.

  11. Critical incident stress debriefing: a health promotion model for workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, D

    2001-01-01

    To view the global impact of violence as a critical incident. Published literature, author's experience. Psychiatric nurses can use the critical incident stress debriefing protocol to minimize adverse outcomes after a traumatic event. Workplace violence threatens the safety and well-being of nurses. Psychiatric nurses are more likely to encounter workplace violence than nurses in other settings and must prepare themselves using proactive health-promoting activities, for example the critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) model. This health-promotion model provides immediate emotional support and education about normal stress reactions, and may reduce the risk of chronic and disabling emotional and physical consequences.

  12. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Does a Socio-Ecological School Model Promote Resilience in Primary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patricia C.; Stewart, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This research investigates the extent to which the holistic, multistrategy "health-promoting school" (HPS) model using a resilience intervention can lead to improved resilience among students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design using a study cohort selected from 20 primary schools in Queensland, Australia was employed. Ten…

  14. Modeling the active sites of Co-promoted MoS2 particles by DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel; Rossmeisl, Jan; Moses, Poul Georg

    2017-01-01

    The atomic-scale structure of the Co-promoted MoS2 catalyst (CoMoS), used for hydrodesulfurization and as a potential replacement for platinum in the acidic hydrogen evolution reaction has been analyzed by modeling its sites using density functional theory and applying thermochemical corrections...

  15. COMPASS: Collaborative Organizational Model to Promote Aligned Support Structures. Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa; Philp, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Iredell-Statesville Schools was awarded an Investing in Innovation grant (i3) from the Office of Innovation and Improvement within the Federal Department of Education. Collaborative Organizational Model to Promote Aligned Support Structures (COMPASS) is a development grant that seeks to meet the needs of students with disabilities,…

  16. ECSCHOOL Model: A Case Study of Building Learning Support Community in ICT Promotion Project in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to concerns about the digital divide based on age, an ICT promotion project named “e-namokun” was started in Nagoya, Japan to support the Internet use by senior citizens. In the project, a learning support community system named ECSCHOOL (www.ecschool.org for senior citizens and ICT novices was developed to help them gain computer and Internet-related knowledge. The ECSCHOOL model has the following features: learning contents for different users, suitable communication and support tools, introduction of field research results, participation of ICT volunteers, an easy-to-use interface, and low development cost. The ECSCHOOL scheme is a new operational model for promoting e-learning in lifelong learning fields. This paper discusses the ECSCHOOL model, the system’s structure, its main functions, its learning content, and the formation of communities.

  17. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1995-08-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations.

  18. Information System Success Model for Customer Relationship Management System in Health Promotion Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wona; Rho, Mi Jung; Park, Jiyun; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Intensified competitiveness in the healthcare industry has increased the number of healthcare centers and propelled the introduction of customer relationship management (CRM) systems to meet diverse customer demands. This study aimed to develop the information system success model of the CRM system by investigating previously proposed indicators within the model. Methods The evaluation areas of the CRM system includes three areas: the system characteristics area (system quality, information quality, and service quality), the user area (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction), and the performance area (personal performance and organizational performance). Detailed evaluation criteria of the three areas were developed, and its validity was verified by a survey administered to CRM system users in 13 nationwide health promotion centers. The survey data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling method, and the results confirmed that the model is feasible. Results Information quality and service quality showed a statistically significant relationship with perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. Consequently, the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction had significant influence on individual performance as well as an indirect influence on organizational performance. Conclusions This study extends the research area on information success from general information systems to CRM systems in health promotion centers applying a previous information success model. This lays a foundation for evaluating health promotion center systems and provides a useful guide for successful implementation of hospital CRM systems. PMID:23882416

  19. Information system success model for customer relationship management system in health promotion centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wona; Rho, Mi Jung; Park, Jiyun; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae; Choi, In Young

    2013-06-01

    Intensified competitiveness in the healthcare industry has increased the number of healthcare centers and propelled the introduction of customer relationship management (CRM) systems to meet diverse customer demands. This study aimed to develop the information system success model of the CRM system by investigating previously proposed indicators within the model. THE EVALUATION AREAS OF THE CRM SYSTEM INCLUDES THREE AREAS: the system characteristics area (system quality, information quality, and service quality), the user area (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction), and the performance area (personal performance and organizational performance). Detailed evaluation criteria of the three areas were developed, and its validity was verified by a survey administered to CRM system users in 13 nationwide health promotion centers. The survey data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling method, and the results confirmed that the model is feasible. Information quality and service quality showed a statistically significant relationship with perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. Consequently, the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction had significant influence on individual performance as well as an indirect influence on organizational performance. This study extends the research area on information success from general information systems to CRM systems in health promotion centers applying a previous information success model. This lays a foundation for evaluating health promotion center systems and provides a useful guide for successful implementation of hospital CRM systems.

  20. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p organizational health culture on three dimensions of employee effectiveness were completely mediated by health behavior. The construct connections established in this multilevel model will help in

  1. Policy development and implementation in health promotion--from theory to practice: the ADEPT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter; Abu-Omar, Karim

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest among health promotion researchers to better understand and influence the policy process. However, at this point in time, theoretical concepts enabling researchers to do so are still rare and underused, suggesting a need for new, easy-to-use concepts to explain successes or failures of health promotion policies. This article presents the ADEPT (Analysis of Determinants of Policy Impact) approach, which aims to explain and influence policy development and policy impact implementation with four determinants: goals, obligations, resources and opportunities. ADEPT provides a detailed operationalization for both quantitative and qualitative use. An empirical test of the ADEPT model using a quantitative survey of 719 policy-makers from four health promotion policy fields and six European nations indicated that both policy outputs and policy outcomes are influenced by the four determinants. The approach has, in the meantime, been successfully utilized to analyze and initiate policy development in a number of health promotion projects. Despite a number of limitations, ADEPT provides an easy-to-use, theory-based and parsimonious tool for understanding and influencing policy processes in health promotion. Moreover, as it identifies potential 'levers of influence' and can easily be connected to existing methods of community development or capacity building, it is a particularly powerful tool for policy development.

  2. The Health Equity Promotion Model: Reconceptualization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered. PMID:25545433

  3. Model Development for Health Promotion in the Elderly Participating in Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supat Jampawai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of research study to develop the suitable model for health promotion in the elderly and examine factors concerning the health promotion in the elderly. This research aimed to study and develop suitable health promotion model for elderly participating in communities and examine factors related to the health promotion of the elderly. Approach: The samples were 654 older people. This study was participatory action research including many stages which were situation analysis, action and assessment. The explored location was the area of Nonsa-ad Sub-District, Nong Ruea District, Khon Kaen Province. Results: The results of the study led to the process of health promotion for the elderly participating in the communities in the action stage including the participation of the communities, local administrative organizations and government agencies consisting of health service centers and department of social development and human security to drive the thinking of the elderly and push it into real practice. The activities for the health promotion were health check-up, home visit of volunteers and public health staff, exercise, having suitable food, stress management, adequate sleep, avoidance to alcohol, steroids, smoking, accidents and resistance to hard work. After a year of these activities, the health condition of the aged people was better while several health problems decreased such as the rate of sickness, risk group of chronic diseases, join and muscular pain. Besides, diabetes and blood pressure were at the same level. The patients with diabetes and blood pressure were able to better control glucose level and blood pressure at the safe rate without any complications. The whole quality of life of the elderly on physical and mental health, daily routine, society and finance were also increased by 63.15%. Furthermore, sex and age were significantly related to the health promotion for

  4. Role Modeling Attitudes, Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of Prospective Physical Education Specialists and Non-Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…

  5. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  6. Allopregnanolone promotes regeneration and reduces β-amyloid burden in a preclinical model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Shuhua Chen

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that allopregnanolone (APα promoted proliferation of rodent and human neural progenitor cells in vitro. Further, we demonstrated that APα promoted neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ and reversed learning and memory deficits in the male triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's (3xTgAD. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of APα to promote the survival of newly generated neural cells while simultaneously reducing Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology in the 3xTgAD male mouse model. Comparative analyses between three different APα treatment regimens indicated that APα administered 1/week for 6 months was maximally efficacious for simultaneous promotion of neurogenesis and survival of newly generated cells and reduction of AD pathology. We further investigated the efficacy of APα to impact Aβ burden. Treatment was initiated either prior to or post intraneuronal Aβ accumulation. Results indicated that APα administered 1/week for 6 months significantly increased survival of newly generated neurons and simultaneously reduced Aβ pathology with greatest efficacy in the pre-pathology treatment group. APα significantly reduced Aβ generation in hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala, which was paralleled by decreased expression of Aβ-binding-alcohol-dehydrogenase. In addition, APα significantly reduced microglia activation as indicated by reduced expression of OX42 while increasing CNPase, an oligodendrocyte myelin marker. Mechanistic analyses indicated that pre-pathology treatment with APα increased expression of liver-X-receptor, pregnane-X-receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase (HMG-CoA-R, three proteins that regulate cholesterol homeostasis and clearance from brain. Together these findings provide preclinical evidence for the optimal treatment regimen of APα to achieve efficacy as a disease modifying therapeutic to promote regeneration while simultaneously decreasing

  7. Statistical mechanical model of coupled transcription from multiple promoters due to transcription factor titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenfelt, Mattias; Cox, Robert Sidney, III; Garcia, Hernan; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory action at multiple promoter targets is the rule rather than the exception, with examples ranging from the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in E. coli that regulates hundreds of different genes simultaneously to situations involving multiple copies of the same gene, such as plasmids, retrotransposons, or highly replicated viral DNA. When the number of TFs heavily exceeds the number of binding sites, TF binding to each promoter can be regarded as independent. However, when the number of TF molecules is comparable to the number of binding sites, TF titration will result in correlation (“promoter entanglement”) between transcription of different genes. We develop a statistical mechanical model which takes the TF titration effect into account and use it to predict both the level of gene expression for a general set of promoters and the resulting correlation in transcription rates of different genes. Our results show that the TF titration effect could be important for understanding gene expression in many regulatory settings.

  8. T-tubule disruption promotes calcium alternans in failing ventricular myocytes: mechanistic insights from computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Michael; Song, Zhen; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2015-02-01

    In heart failure (HF), T-tubule (TT) disruption contributes to dyssynchronous calcium (Ca) release and impaired contraction, but its role in arrhythmogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effects of TT disruption and other HF remodeling factors on Ca alternans in ventricular myocytes using computer modeling. A ventricular myocyte model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling modeled by a coupled Ca release unit (CRU) network was used, in which the L-type Ca channels and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were simulated by random Markov transitions. TT disruption, which removes the L-type Ca channels from the associated CRUs, results in "orphaned" RyR clusters and thus provides increased opportunity for spark-induced Ca sparks to occur. This effect combined with other HF remodeling factors promoted alternans by two distinct mechanisms: 1) for normal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) activity, alternans was caused by both CRU refractoriness and coupling. The increased opportunity for spark-induced sparks by TT disruption combined with the enhanced CRU coupling by Ca elevation in the presence or absence of increased RyR leakiness facilitated spark synchronization on alternate beats to promote Ca alternans; 2) for down-regulated SERCA, alternans was caused by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load-dependent mechanism, independent of CRU refractoriness. TT disruption and increased RyR leakiness shifted and steepened the SR Ca release-load relationship, which combines with down-regulated SERCA to promote Ca alternans. In conclusion, the mechanisms of Ca alternans for normal and down-regulated SERCA are different, and TT disruption promotes Ca alternans by both mechanisms, which may contribute to alternans at different stages of HF.

  9. Evaluation of the hydrodynamic behaviour of turbulence promoters in parallel plate electrochemical reactors by means of the dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colli, A.N. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: jbisang@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {center_dot} The type of turbulence promoters has a strong influence on the hydrodynamics. {center_dot} The dispersion model is appropriate for expanded plastic turbulence promoters. {center_dot} The dispersion model is appropriate for glass beads turbulence promoters. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic behaviour of electrochemical reactors with parallel plate electrodes is experimentally studied using the stimulus-response method either with an empty reactor or with different turbulence promoters. Theoretical results which are in accordance with the analytical and numerical resolution of the dispersion model for a closed system are compared with the classical relationships of the normalized outlet concentration for open systems and the validity range of the equations is discussed. The experimental results were well correlated with the dispersion model using glass beads or expanded plastic meshes as turbulence promoters, which have shown the most advantageous performance. The Peclet number was higher than 63. The dispersion coefficient was found to increase linearly with flow velocity in these cases.

  10. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  11. Agenda Setting for Health Promotion: Exploring an Adapted Model for the Social Media Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation of best practice in health promotion is a robust theoretical base that informs design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions that promote the public's health. This study provides a novel contribution to health promotion through the adaptation of the agenda-setting approach in response to the contribution of social media. This exploration and proposed adaptation is derived from a study that examined the effectiveness of Twitter in influencing agenda setting among users in relation to road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. The proposed adaptations to the agenda-setting model to be explored reflect two levels of engagement: agenda setting within the social media sphere and the position of social media within classic agenda setting. This exploratory research aims to assess the veracity of the proposed adaptations on the basis of the hypotheses developed to test these two levels of engagement. To validate the hypotheses, we collected and analyzed data from two primary sources: Twitter activities and Saudi national newspapers. Keyword mentions served as indicators of agenda promotion; for Twitter, interactions were used to measure the process of agenda setting within the platform. The Twitter final dataset comprised 59,046 tweets and 38,066 users who contributed by tweeting, replying, or retweeting. Variables were collected for each tweet and user. In addition, 518 keyword mentions were recorded from six popular Saudi national newspapers. The results showed significant ratification of the study hypotheses at both levels of engagement that framed the proposed adaptions. The results indicate that social media facilitates the contribution of individuals in influencing agendas (individual users accounted for 76.29%, 67.79%, and 96.16% of retweet impressions, total impressions, and amplification multipliers, respectively), a component missing from traditional constructions of agenda-setting models. The influence of organizations on agenda setting is

  12. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Urt Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF.

  14. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  15. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  16. Construction of predictive promoter models on the example of antibacterial response of human epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingender Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binding of a bacteria to a eukaryotic cell triggers a complex network of interactions in and between both cells. P. aeruginosa is a pathogen that causes acute and chronic lung infections by interacting with the pulmonary epithelial cells. We use this example for examining the ways of triggering the response of the eukaryotic cell(s, leading us to a better understanding of the details of the inflammatory process in general. Results Considering a set of genes co-expressed during the antibacterial response of human lung epithelial cells, we constructed a promoter model for the search of additional target genes potentially involved in the same cell response. The model construction is based on the consideration of pair-wise combinations of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. It has been shown that the antibacterial response of human epithelial cells is triggered by at least two distinct pathways. We therefore supposed that there are two subsets of promoters activated by each of them. Optimally, they should be "complementary" in the sense of appearing in complementary subsets of the (+-training set. We developed the concept of complementary pairs, i.e., two mutually exclusive pairs of TFBS, each of which should be found in one of the two complementary subsets. Conclusions We suggest a simple, but exhaustive method for searching for TFBS pairs which characterize the whole (+-training set, as well as for complementary pairs. Applying this method, we came up with a promoter model of antibacterial response genes that consists of one TFBS pair which should be found in the whole training set and four complementary pairs. We applied this model to screening of 13,000 upstream regions of human genes and identified 430 new target genes which are potentially involved in antibacterial defense mechanisms.

  17. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-07

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing.

  18. Promoting health behavior change using appreciative inquiry: moving from deficit models to affirmation models of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new theoretical approach to health promotion and behavior change that may be especially suited to underserved women. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an organizational development process that focuses on the positive and creative as a force for an improved future, is described and adapted for use as an intervention to achieve health behavior change at the individual level. Guiding principles for its use with clients are provided, and an example of its application is illustrated in a hypothetical case study of an African American woman of low-socioeconomic resources who is attempting to increase lifestyle exercise following a cardiac event. AI is contrasted with the more traditional problem-solving approaches to the provision of care. The advantages, challenges, and issues associated with the use of AI as a health behavior change strategy are discussed.

  19. An iterative strategy combining biophysical criteria and duration hidden Markov models for structural predictions of Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojcius David M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoter identification is a first step in the quest to explain gene regulation in bacteria. It has been demonstrated that the initiation of bacterial transcription depends upon the stability and topology of DNA in the promoter region as well as the binding affinity between the RNA polymerase σ-factor and promoter. However, promoter prediction algorithms to date have not explicitly used an ensemble of these factors as predictors. In addition, most promoter models have been trained on data from Escherichia coli. Although it has been shown that transcriptional mechanisms are similar among various bacteria, it is quite possible that the differences between Escherichia coli and Chlamydia trachomatis are large enough to recommend an organism-specific modeling effort. Results Here we present an iterative stochastic model building procedure that combines such biophysical metrics as DNA stability, curvature, twist and stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization along with duration hidden Markov model parameters to model Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters from 29 experimentally verified sequences. Initially, iterative duration hidden Markov modeling of the training set sequences provides a scoring algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis RNA polymerase σ66/DNA binding. Subsequently, an iterative application of Stepwise Binary Logistic Regression selects multiple promoter predictors and deletes/replaces training set sequences to determine an optimal training set. The resulting model predicts the final training set with a high degree of accuracy and provides insights into the structure of the promoter region. Model based genome-wide predictions are provided so that optimal promoter candidates can be experimentally evaluated, and refined models developed. Co-predictions with three other algorithms are also supplied to enhance reliability. Conclusion This strategy and resulting model support the conjecture that DNA biophysical properties

  20. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  1. Promotion effect of sulfite on deoxyosones and 4-methylimidazole in caramel model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian-Bing; Yu, Pei; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2017-05-15

    In this study, hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange experiment was carried out to reveal the promotion effect of sulfite on the formation of deoxyosones and 4-methylimidazole (4-MeI) in the Maillard reaction. Glucose-ammonium (40mmol/L, pH 7.4 in PBS) model systems with different levels of sulfite were incubated at 110°C for 2h. Alpha-dicarbonyls were detected after derivatization by a high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). 4-MeI in the Maillard reaction was tested using a high-performance anion exchange chromatography with an electrochemical detector (HPAEC-ED). The H/D exchange ratios of hexose (fructose, glucose and mannose) were tested by HPAEC-MS. Results showed that the aldo-enol transition of enediol was promoted by sulfite, which promoted the formation of deoxyosones and 4-MeI. In addition, the oxidation reaction of enediols was inhibited by the antioxidant sulfite, which caused the inhibition of osones formation in the Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can health promotion model constructs predict nutritional behavior among diabetic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Mohebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since, the nutritional behavior is a complicated process in which various factors play the role, this study aimed at specifying the effective factors in nutritional behavior of diabetic patients based on Health Promotion Model. This paper reviews the published articles from 2000 to the beginning of 2012, using the various data banks and search engines such as PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, Elsevier, and the key words" perceived benefits and barriers, perceived self-efficacy, social support, activity related affect, situational influences, commitment to plan of action, immediate competing demands and diabetes, self-caring and diabetes. Unfavorable self-care situation especially, inappropriate nutritional behavior is related to some effective modifiable factors. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy regarding behaviors play a major role in the nutritional behaviors. Social support especially, spouses′ support has a significant role in this regard. Moreover, there is a reverse relationship between perceived barriers and nutritional self-care. In addition, behavioral feelings, situational influences, commitment to plan of action and immediate competing demands and preferences can also impact and overshadow the nutritional self-care. Following the relationship between constructs of Health Promotion Model and nutritional behavior the constructs of this model can be utilized as the basis for educational intervention among diabetes.

  3. Can health promotion model constructs predict nutritional behavior among diabetic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Siamak; Sharifirad, Ghlamreza; Feizi, Avat; Botlani, Saeedeh; Hozori, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Since, the nutritional behavior is a complicated process in which various factors play the role, this study aimed at specifying the effective factors in nutritional behavior of diabetic patients based on Health Promotion Model. This paper reviews the published articles from 2000 to the beginning of 2012, using the various data banks and search engines such as PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, Elsevier, and the key words" perceived benefits and barriers, perceived self-efficacy, social support, activity related affect, situational influences, commitment to plan of action, immediate competing demands and diabetes, self-caring and diabetes. Unfavorable self-care situation especially, inappropriate nutritional behavior is related to some effective modifiable factors. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy regarding behaviors play a major role in the nutritional behaviors. Social support especially, spouses' support has a significant role in this regard. Moreover, there is a reverse relationship between perceived barriers and nutritional self-care. In addition, behavioral feelings, situational influences, commitment to plan of action and immediate competing demands and preferences can also impact and overshadow the nutritional self-care. Following the relationship between constructs of Health Promotion Model and nutritional behavior the constructs of this model can be utilized as the basis for educational intervention among diabetes.

  4. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2011-04-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn.

  5. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2012-03-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Māori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn.

  6. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawdekar, Ashwin Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children's health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing) pragmatically. PMID:24288533

  7. Testing the health promotion model for adherence and quality of life in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penwell-Waines, Lauren; Lewis, Kimberly; Valvano, Abbey; Smith, Suzanne; Rahn, Rebecca; Stepleman, Lara

    2017-02-01

    The nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) presents challenges to health-promoting behaviors (e.g. adherence) and quality of life. The Health Promotion Model (HPM) proposes that these outcomes are explained by individual characteristics (i.e. biological, social, psychological) and behavior-specific cognitions (e.g. self-efficacy). The current study sought to test the HPM in explaining self-reported adherence and MS quality of life among 121 MS patients receiving care in an MS clinic in the southeastern United States. Hierarchical regression models partially supported the HPM for adherence (R(2) = .27) and more fully for quality of life (QoL) (R(2) = .64). Depression and stigma were among the variables most strongly related to both adherence and QoL; contrary to HPM theory, self-efficacy was not significantly related to adherence but was to QoL. Thus, the HPM may help to guide strategies used to improve QoL among individuals living with MS; however, the model may need further refinement to be used with adherence.

  8. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Muralidhar Jawdekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children’s health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing pragmatically.

  9. Approach Choice and Innovative Model Design of Grass-root Agricultural Technology Promotion under the View of New Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the approach types of agricultural technology promotion we can choose in the process of new countryside construction, and there are mainly 6 types, namely government-domination-oriented approach, market-development-oriented approach, university (scientific research institution)-education-oriented approach, farmers’ participation-oriented approach, direct-training-oriented approach and individual-service-oriented approach, including 20 models. The problems existing in the grass-root agricultural technology promotion in the process of new village construction are analyzed as follows: the awareness of innovation is not strong; scientific research, education, and promotion are disjointed; the construction of specific work system lags behind; the structure of promotion team is irrational, and the quality of promotion personnel is yet to be promoted; the cultural quality of farmers is low, and the cooperative organizations are not sound; the working conditions are poor, and the basic security is inadequate; the investment channel is simple and the supply amount is badly short; the methods of agricultural technology promotion do not adapt to the requirements of new situation. According to the characteristics and internal requirements of grass-root agricultural technology promotion, we creatively design an overall working model, and put forward new measures from objective of grass-root agricultural technology promotion, service object, service content, organization work and scope, method, role of agricultural technology personnel and so on.

  10. FXN Promoter Silencing in the Humanized Mouse Model of Friedreich Ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Chutake

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia is caused by an expanded GAA triplet-repeat sequence in intron 1 of the FXN gene that results in epigenetic silencing of the FXN promoter. This silencing mechanism is seen in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells but it remains unknown if it is a widespread phenomenon affecting multiple cell types and tissues.The humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia (YG8sR, which carries a single transgenic insert of the human FXN gene with an expanded GAA triplet-repeat in intron 1, is deficient for FXN transcript when compared to an isogenic transgenic mouse lacking the expanded repeat (Y47R. We found that in YG8sR the deficiency of FXN transcript extended both upstream and downstream of the expanded GAA triplet-repeat, suggestive of deficient transcriptional initiation. This pattern of deficiency was seen in all tissues tested, irrespective of whether they are known to be affected or spared in disease pathogenesis, in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and in cultured primary fibroblasts. FXN promoter function was directly measured via metabolic labeling of newly synthesized transcripts in fibroblasts, which revealed that the YG8sR mouse was significantly deficient in transcriptional initiation compared to the Y47R mouse.Deficient transcriptional initiation accounts for FXN transcriptional deficiency in the humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia, similar to patient-derived cells, and the mechanism underlying promoter silencing in Friedreich ataxia is widespread across multiple cell types and tissues.

  11. Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promotes lung metastasis in breast cancer model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2017-08-26

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women in the world. Although breast cancer is well treatable at the early stage, patients with distant metastases show a poor prognosis. Data from recent studies using transplantation models indicate that Mint3/APBA3 might promote breast cancer malignancy. However, whether Mint3 indeed contributes to tumor development, progression, or metastasis in vivo remains unclear. To address this, here we examined whether Mint3 depletion affects tumor malignancy in MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model mice. In MMTV-PyMT mice, Mint3 depletion did not affect tumor onset and tumor growth, but attenuated lung metastases. Experimental lung metastasis of breast cancer Met-1 cells derived from MMTV-PyMT mice also decreased in Mint3-depleted mice, indicating that host Mint3 expression affected lung metastasis of MMTV-PyMT-derived breast cancer cells. Further bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promoted lung metastasis in MMTV-PyMT mice. Thus, targeting Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells might be a good strategy for preventing metastasis and improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental and Modeling Study of Kinetics for Methane Hydrate Formation with Tetrahydrofuran as Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhengfu; Zhang Shixi; Zhang Qin; Zhen Shuangyi; Chen Guangjin

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics behavior of methane hydrate formation in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) as promoter was studied. A set of experimental equipment was designed and constructed. A series of kinetics data for the formation of methane hydrate in the presence of THF were measured with the isochoric method. The influences of temperature,pressure and liquid flow rate on the methane consumption rate were studied respectively. Based on the Chen-Guo hydrate formation mechanism,a kinetics model for the formation of methane hydrate in the presence of THF by using the dimensionless Gibbs free energy difference of quasi-chemical reaction of basic hydrate formation,,as the driving force was proposed. The model was used to calculate the rate of methane consumption and it was shown that the calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Does trust promote more teamwork? Modeling online game players' teamwork using team experience as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Chia; Chang, Jen-Wei

    2013-11-01

    The need for teamwork has grown significantly in today's organizations. Especially for online game communities, teamwork is an important means of online game players' engagement. This study aims to investigate the impacts of trust on players' teamwork with affective commitment and normative commitment as mediators. Furthermore, this research includes team experience as a moderator to compare the difference between different player groups. A model was proposed and tested on 296 online game players' data using structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that team experience moderated the relationship between trust and teamwork. The results indicated that trust promotes more teamwork only for players with high experience through affective commitment than those who with low experience. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  15. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  16. On Promoting the Construction of Model Province of National Rural Informationization in Hubei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of model province of national rural informationization, which needs more departments jointly and participants, is a systematic, socialized major project. Hubei provincial government, standing in the angle of planning the province's economic and social development as a whole, proposes the “one Yuan multi-level” development strategy and it has laid a solid foundation to make Hubei province become the construction pilot provinces of “model province of national rural informationization”. In the construction of model province of rural informationization, the open and inclusive concept is of great significance to realize national long-term goals and make the rural information service sustained and long efficient. At the same time, each department and each participation main body coordinate with each other, which realize the integration of rural information service resources and prevent rural information service from redundant and inefficient investment. Therefore, in the construction of model province of national rural informationization, Hubei province need to uphold the open and inclusive concept, further emancipate the mind, and complement each other. It should strengthen organizational leadership, complete the top planning and design, strengthen the department coordination, innovate information services operating mechanism, strengthen integration of information resources and integrated application of service platform, strengthen the system construction and examination management, strengthen the propaganda guidance, and further promote each work of model province carried out smoothly and orderly.

  17. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; Fonseca, Paula C. A. da; Barford, David, E-mail: david.barford@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    This article describes an example of molecular replacement in which atomic models are used to interpret electron-density maps determined using single-particle electron-microscopy data. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14–15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex.

  18. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kinsman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design: The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1 poverty, 2 body image ideals, 3 gender, 4 parents and home life, 5 demographic factors, 6 perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7 human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions: Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for

  19. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  20. Evaluation of an e-PBL model to promote individual reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators should promote the development of student clinical reasoning toward independence in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate an online problem-based learning (e-PBL) model designed to promote student individual reasoning in supplement to traditional PBL. Twelve e-PBL modules were added to the fully problem-based curriculum for Year 2 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM). In this e-PBL, students worked on the problems individually in an online setting, followed by face-to-face discussions in a colloquium. The cases were presented using interactive multimedia to enhance the authenticity of the case and stimulate student interest in learning. A formative evaluation study was conducted to determine student satisfaction with e-PBL and its effectiveness as perceived by the students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A cohort of Year 2 students at SKKUSOM (n = 38) took part in this study. Students perceived e-PBL significantly more positively after they had taken a module in terms of its ability to foster problem-solving skills and its ability to allow them to learn in ways suited to individual learning styles. Additionally, student survey and interview revealed that a vast majority of students were satisfied with the overall learning process in e-PBL and perceived it positively in fostering knowledge acquisition and clinical reasoning. Moreover, students found the cases realistic and engaging. The results show the potential of e-PBL to enhance traditional PBL by promoting the development of individual reasoning in a flexible online-learning environment and offering cases in an interactive multimedia format, which warrants further investigation into its impact on student learning outcomes.

  1. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  2. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Barford, David

    2013-11-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14-15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex.

  3. Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2014-03-07

    Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution.

  4. Diabetes empowerment related to Pender's Health Promotion Model: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Agnes Yin Kwan; Berggren, Ingela; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2010-06-01

    Diabetes self-management is a challenge for both clients and health-care professionals. Empowerment plays a vital role in helping clients to achieve successful self-management. This study adopted a meta-ethnographic approach. Nine qualitative studies were synthesized in order to contribute to a deeper understanding of what clients perceive as being important in an effective empowerment strategy for diabetes self-management. Four central metaphors that influenced empowerment were identified: trust in nurses' competence and awareness, striving for control, a desire to share experiences, and nurses' attitudes and ability to personalize. The lines-of-argument synthesis suggested the need for an evaluation system to appraise clients' diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and negative emotions, as well as the outcome of interventions. Based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study emphasizes the fact that health-care professionals need to understand and address modifiable behavior-specific variables. The study suggests that an effective empowerment strategy would be to use activity-related affect, as well as interpersonal and situational influences, as a means of facilitating and enhancing clients' health-promoting behaviors.

  5. C-peptide promotes lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Dusica; Marx, Nikolaus; Sukhova, Galina; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Grüb, Miriam; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show elevated serum levels of the proinsulin cleavage product C-peptide and immunohistochemical data from our group revealed C-peptide deposition in early lesions of these individuals. Moreover, in vitro studies suggest that C-peptide could promote atherogenesis. This study examined whether C-peptide promotes vascular inflammation and lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet were treated with C-peptide or control injections for 12 weeks and the effect on lesion size and plaque composition was analysed. C-peptide treatment significantly increased C-peptide blood levels by 4.8-fold without having an effect on glucose or insulin levels, nor on the lipid profile. In these mice, C-peptide deposition in atherosclerotic plaques was significantly increased compared with controls. Moreover, lesions of C-peptide-treated mice contained significantly more macrophages (1.6 ± 0.3% versus 0.7 ± 0.2% positive area; P arteriosclerosis support the hypothesis that C-peptide may have an active role in atherogenesis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance.

  6. Antibiotics Smart Use: a workable model for promoting the rational use of medicines in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpradit, Nithima; Chongtrakul, Pisonthi; Anuwong, Kunyada; Pumtong, Somying; Kongsomboon, Kedsenee; Butdeemee, Parichart; Khonglormyati, Jurairat; Chomyong, Santi; Tongyoung, Parnuchote; Losiriwat, Suraphol; Seesuk, Piyanooch; Suwanwaree, Pongthep; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2012-12-01

    The Antibiotics Smart Use (ASU) programme was introduced in Thailand as a model to promote the rational use of medicines, starting with antibiotics. The programme's first phase consisted of assessing interventions intended to change prescribing practices; the second phase examined the feasibility of programme scale-up. Currently the programme is in its third phase, which centres on sustainability. This paper describes the concept behind ASU, the programme's functional modalities, the development of its conceptual framework and the implementation of its first and second phases. To change antibiotic prescription practices, multifaceted interventions at the individual and organizational levels were implemented; to maintain behaviour change and scale up the programme, interventions at the network and policy levels were used. The National Health Security Office has adopted ASU as a pay-for-performance criterion, a major achievement that has led to the programme's expansion nationwide. Despite limited resources, programme scale-up and sustainability have been facilitated by the promotion of local ownership and mutual recognition, which have generated pride and commitment. ASU is clearly a workable entry point for efforts to rationalize the use of medicines in Thailand. Its long-term sustainability will require continued local commitment and political support, effective auditing and integration of ASU into routine systems with appropriate financial incentives.

  7. Promoting the development of professional identity of gerontologists: an academic/experiential learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tracey L; Myers, Barbara J; Pelco, Lynn E; Welleford, E Ayn

    2013-01-01

    Graduate education in gerontology has an essential role in providing the foundational knowledge required to work with a diverse aging population. It can also play an essential role in promoting best-practice approaches for the development of professional identity as a gerontologist. The primary goal of this study was to determine what factors predict the professional identity and career path of gerontologists. In addition, the study explored how experiential learning influenced professional identity for newcomers to the field and for those experienced in an aging-related field ("professional incumbents"). Graduates (N = 146) of Association for Gerontology in Higher Education-affiliated graduate programs participated. Professional identity as a gerontologist was predicted by length of time in the field, age, satisfaction with coworkers, and satisfaction with opportunities for advancement. Experiential learning contributed to professional identity in important but different ways for newcomers to the field and for professional incumbents. The inclusion of an academic/experiential learning model within graduate gerontology programs promotes the development of professional identity and career path for all graduate students.

  8. The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) firefighter study: testing mediating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranby, Krista W; MacKinnon, David P; Fairchild, Amanda J; Elliot, Diane L; Kuehl, Kerry S; Goldberg, Linn

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise, and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At posttest, team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective program's process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Modelling of tetrahydrofuran promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    accurate descriptions of both fluid- and hydrate phase equilibria in the studied system and its subsystems. The developed model is applied to simulate two simplified, gas hydrate-based processes for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gases. The first process, an unpromoted...... hydrate process, operates isothermally at a temperature of 280. K. Applying three consecutive hydrate formation/dissociation stages (three-stage capture process), a carbon dioxide-rich product (97. mol%) is finally delivered at a temperature of 280. K and a pressure of 3.65. MPa. The minimum pressure...... requirement of the first stage is estimated to be 24.9. MPa, corresponding to the incipient hydrate dissociation pressure at 280. K for the considered flue gas. A second simulated carbon dioxide capture process uses tetrahydrofuran as a thermodynamic promoter to reduce the pressure requirements. By doing so...

  10. Police Training in El Salvador: Challenges and Opportunities in Promoting the Community Police Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390

  11. Sleep-promoting effects of the GABA/5-HTP mixture in vertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-promoting effect of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on sleep quality and quantity in vertebrate models. Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis were applied to investigate sleep latency, duration, total sleeping time and sleep quality of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture. In addition, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. The GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly regulated the sleep latency, duration (pHTP mixture modulates both GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, the sleep architecture can be controlled by the regulation of GABAA receptor and GABA content with 5-HTP.

  12. Protease-sensitive atelocollagen hydrogels promote healing in a diabetic wound model

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Holmes, Roisin A; Liang, He; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J

    2016-01-01

    The design of exudate-managing wound dressings is an established route to accelerated healing, although such design remains a challenge from material and manufacturing standpoints. Aiming towards the clinical translation of knowledge gained in vitro with highly swollen rat tail collagen hydrogels, this study investigated the healing capability in a diabetic mouse wound model of telopeptide-free, protease-inhibiting collagen networks. 4 vinylbenzylation and UV irradiation of type I atelocollagen (AC) led to hydrogel networks with chemical and macroscopic properties comparable to previous collagen analogues, attributable to similar lysine content and dichroic properties. After 4 days in vitro, hydrogels induced nearly 50 RFU% reduction in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, whilst showing less than 20 wt.-% weight loss. After 20 days in vivo, dry networks promoted 99% closure of 10x10 mm full thickness wounds and accelerated neodermal tissue formation compared to Mepilex. This collagen system can be equi...

  13. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture. Further mechanistic study revealed that GLP potentiated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and AKT cascades. Consistently, inhibition of FGFR1 effectively blocked the GLP-promoted NPC proliferation and activation of the downstream cascades. Our findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.•G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP improve cognition in transgenic AD mice•GLP promote neural progenitor proliferation and self-renewal to enhance neurogenesis•GLP potentiate FGFR signalingG. lucidum is a revered medicinal herb for promoting health. Pei and colleagues found that the polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLP promoted neural progenitor proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and ameliorated cognition deficits in transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice. These findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Simulation and modeling CO2 absorption in biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution in packed column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhamidah, Siti; Altway, Ali; Airlangga, Bramantyo; Emilia, Dwi Putri

    2017-05-01

    Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is one of biogas purification method. However, K2CO3 have slow mass transfer in liquid phase. So it is necessary to eliminate the disadvantage of CO2 absorption using K2CO3 by adding promotor (activator). Diethanol amine (DEA) is one of promotor which can increase its reaction rate. Simulation and modeling research of the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution has not been conducted. Thus, the main goal of this research is create model and simulation for the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution, then observe the influence of promoter concentration. DEA concentration varies between 1-5 %wt. From the simulation, we concluded that the CO2 removal rise with the increasing of promoter concentration. The highest CO2 removal is 54.5318 % at 5 % wt DEA concentration.

  15. Measuring and modelling of the combined thermodynamic promoting effect of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane on carbon dioxide hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Daraboina, Nagu; Thomsen, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    promoters due to its significant pressure reducing effect in hydrate forming systems such as those related to carbon dioxide capture.The present work shows that hydrate dissociation pressures may be lowered by up to 22% compared to those of the cyclopentane promoted carbon dioxide hydrate system by addition......This work documents both experimental data, and by thermodynamic modelling, the synergistic effect occurring in promoted carbon dioxide hydrate systems at the simultaneous presence of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane.Cyclopentane has previously been considered a reference among gas hydrate...

  16. Policy, competence and participation: empirical evidence for a multilevel health promotion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses data from a European health promotion evaluation study (MAREPS) to empirically test some fundamental assumptions of health promotion theory. Analysis shows that both the competence of individual actors and the opportunities provided for by health-promoting policies are significant pr

  17. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  18. Promoting Social Inclusion through Sport for Refugee-Background Youth in Australia: Analysing Different Participation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Block

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports participation can confer a range of physical and psychosocial benefits and, for refugee and migrant youth, may even act as a critical mediator for achieving positive settlement and engaging meaningfully in Australian society. This group has low participation rates however, with identified barriers including costs; discrimination and a lack of cultural sensitivity in sporting environments; lack of knowledge of mainstream sports services on the part of refugee-background settlers; inadequate access to transport; culturally determined gender norms; and family attitudes. Organisations in various sectors have devised programs and strategies for addressing these participation barriers. In many cases however, these responses appear to be ad hoc and under-theorised. This article reports findings from a qualitative exploratory study conducted in a range of settings to examine the benefits, challenges and shortcomings associated with different participation models. Interview participants were drawn from non-government organisations, local governments, schools, and sports clubs. Three distinct models of participation were identified, including short term programs for refugee-background children; ongoing programs for refugee-background children and youth; and integration into mainstream clubs. These models are discussed in terms of their relative challenges and benefits and their capacity to promote sustainable engagement and social inclusion for this population group.

  19. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  20. Promoting Sustainable Forest Management Among Stakeholders in the Prince Albert Model Forest, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen T Hvenegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model Forests are partnerships for shared decision-making to support social, environmental, and economic sustainability in forest management. Relationships among sustainable forest management partners are often strained, but the Prince Albert Model Forest (PAMF represents a process of effective stakeholder involvement, cooperative relationships, visionary planning, and regional landscape management. This article seeks to critically examine the history, drivers, accomplishments, and challenges associated with the PAMF. Four key phases are discussed, representing different funding levels, planning processes, research projects, and partners. Key drivers in the PAMF were funding, urgent issues, provincial responsibility, core of committed people, evolving governance, desire for a neutral organisation, role of protected areas, and potential for mutual benefits. The stakeholders involved in the Model Forest, including the forest industry and associated groups, protected areas, Aboriginal groups, local communities, governments, and research groups, were committed to the project, cooperated on many joint activities, provided significant staffing and financial resources, and gained many benefits to their own organisations. Challenges included declining funding, changing administrative structures, multiple partners, and rotating representatives. The PAMF process promoted consultative and integrated land resource management in the region, and demonstrated the positive results of cooperation between stakeholders interested in sustainable forest management.

  1. Coaching Early Educators to Implement Effective Practices: Using the Pyramid Model to Promote Social-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2011-01-01

    The Pyramid Model is a conceptual framework for organizing practices for promoting young children's social-emotional development and preventing and addressing challenging behavior. The authors describe a coaching approach that is focused on supporting early educators' implementation of the Pyramid Model. The authors provide a description of the…

  2. Evaluating the Implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Social-Emotional Competence" in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia A.; Fox, Lise; Algina, James

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a potential efficacy trial examining the effects of classroom-wide implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence" on teachers' implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices and children's social-emotional skills and challenging behavior. Participants were 40 preschool…

  3. Cyclosporin promotes neurorestoration and cell replacement therapy in pre-clinical models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Anna; Churchill, Madeline J; Wan, Oi W; Colino-Sanguino, Yolanda; Ippolito, Rossana; Bergstrand, Sofie; Wolf, Daniel A; Herz, Niculin J; Sconce, Michelle D; Björklund, Anders; Meshul, Charles K; Decressac, Mickael

    2015-12-14

    The early clinical trials using fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) allografts in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have shown efficacy (albeit not in all cases) and have paved the way for further development of cell replacement therapy strategies in PD. The preclinical work that led to these clinical trials used allografts of fetal VM tissue placed into 6-OHDA lesioned rats, while the patients received similar allografts under cover of immunosuppression in an α-synuclein disease state. Thus developing models that more faithfully replicate the clinical scenario would be a useful tool for the translation of such cell-based therapies to the clinic. Here, we show that while providing functional recovery, transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons into the AAV-α-synuclein rat model of PD resulted in smaller-sized grafts as compared to similar grafts placed into the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. Additionally, we found that cyclosporin treatment was able to promote the survival of the transplanted cells in this allografted state and surprisingly also provided therapeutic benefit in sham-operated animals. We demonstrated that delayed cyclosporin treatment afforded neurorestoration in three complementary models of PD including the Thy1-α-synuclein transgenic mouse, a novel AAV-α-synuclein mouse model, and the MPTP mouse model. We then explored the mechanisms for this benefit of cyclosporin and found it was mediated by both cell-autonomous mechanisms and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. This study provides compelling evidence in favor for the use of immunosuppression in all grafted PD patients receiving cell replacement therapy, regardless of the immunological mismatch between donor and host cells, and also suggests that cyclosporine treatment itself may act as a disease-modifying therapy in all PD patients.

  4. Applying an Educational-participatory Program based on the PRECEDE Model for Promoting Self-esteem and Mental Health of Students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moshki

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Health promotion planning by using life skills training based on the PRECEDE model can result in participation and empowerment, in order to promote the self-esteem and mental health of the students.

  5. Bcl-2 promotes malignant progression in a PDGF-B-dependent murine model of oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Tiffany; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N; Suki, Dima; Fults, Daniel W; Rao, Ganesh

    2011-11-01

    A significant subset of gliomas arises after activation of the proproliferative platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathway. The progression of low-grade gliomas to more malignant tumors may be due to oncogenic cellular programs combining with those suppressing apoptosis. Antiapoptotic genes are overexpressed in a variety of cancers, and the antiapoptotic gene, BCL2, is associated with treatment resistance and tumor recurrence in gliomas. However, the impact of antiapoptotic gene expression to tumor formation and progression is unclear. We overexpressed Bcl-2 in a PDGFB-dependent mouse model of oligodendroglioma, a common glioma subtype, to assess its effect in vivo. We hypothesized that the antiapoptotic effect would complement the proproliferative effect of PDGFB to promote tumor formation and progression to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). Here, we show that coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 results in a higher overall tumor formation rate compared to PDGFB alone. Coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 promotes progression to AO with prominent foci of necrosis, a feature of high-grade gliomas. Median tumor latency was shorter in mice injected with PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those injected with PDGFB alone. Although independent expression of Bcl-2 was insufficient to induce tumors, suppression of apoptosis (detected by cleaved caspase-3 expression) was more pronounced in AOs induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those induced by PDGFB alone. Tumor cell proliferation (detected by phosphohistone H3 activity) was also more robust in high-grade tumors induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2. Our results indicate that suppressed apoptosis enhances oligodendroglioma formation and engenders a more malignant phenotype.

  6. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor against Alzheimer's dementia, promotes angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Furihata, Mutsuo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Arikawa, Mikihiko; Handa, Takemi; Katare, Rajesh G; Sato, Takayuki

    2010-04-01

    Our recent studies have indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects cardiomyocytes from prolonged hypoxia through activation of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1alpha/VEGF pathway and that cardiomyocyte-derived VEGF promotes angiogenesis in a paracrine fashion. These results suggest that a cholinergic system plays a role in modulating angiogenesis. Therefore, we assessed the hypothesis that the cholinergic modulator donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor utilized in Alzheimer's disease, exhibits beneficial effects, especially on the acceleration of angiogenesis. We evaluated the effects of donepezil on angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, using an ischemic hindlimb model of alpha7 nicotinic receptor-deleted mice (alpha7 KO) and wild-type mice (WT). Donepezil activated angiogenic signals, i.e., HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression, and accelerated tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ACh and nicotine upregulated signal transduction with acceleration of tube formation, suggesting that donepezil promotes a common angiogenesis pathway. Moreover, donepezil-treated WT exhibited rich capillaries with enhanced VEGF and PCNA endothelial expression, recovery from impaired tissue perfusion, prevention of ischemia-induced muscular atrophy with sustained surface skin temperature in the limb, and inhibition of apoptosis independent of the alpha7 receptor. Donepezil exerted comparably more effects in alpha7 KO in terms of angiogenesis, tissue perfusion, biochemical markers, and surface skin temperature. Donepezil concomitantly elevated VEGF expression in intracardiac endothelial cells of WT and alpha7 KO and further increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) protein expression, which is critical for ACh synthesis in endothelial cells. The present study concludes that donepezil can act as a therapeutic tool to accelerate angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease patients.

  7. Assessing the Physical Activity of Health Volunteers Based on the Pender’s Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimian M.* MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Physical inactivity has been identified as the 4th leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated of 3.2million deaths per year. This study aimed to assess the physical activity of health volunteers with Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Instrument & Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, in 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire with the following sections was used to gather data; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, selfefficacy, interpersonal influences, positive emotion, commitment, modeling and competing preferences. SPSS 16 sofware was used to analyze data by independent T, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Findings There was no significant difference between the scores according to educational levels, age groups, BMI score, marital status, habitat and experience as a health volunteer duration. Physical activity had positive correlation with perceived benefits, self-efficacy, commitment, positive emotion and situational influences and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. Situational influences, as the strongest predictor of the physical activity, predicted 35.1% of it and then positive emotions predicted 34.7% and self-efficacy predicted 23.4% of physical activity. Conclusion The level of physical activity in health volunteers of Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, is not appropriate and is less than moderate.

  8. In vivo measurement of epidermal thickness changes associated with tumor promotion in murine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Gladish, James C.; Thuillier, Philippe; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-07-01

    The characterization of tissue morphology in murine models of pathogenesis has traditionally been carried out by excision of affected tissues with subsequent immunohistological examination. Excision-based histology provides a limited two-dimensional presentation of tissue morphology at the cost of halting disease progression at a single time point and sacrifice of the animal. We investigate the use of noninvasive reflectance mode confocal scanning laser microscopy (rCSLM) as an alternative tool to biopsy in documenting epidermal hyperplasia in murine models exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). An automated technique utilizing average axial rCSLM reflectance profiles is used to extract epidermal thickness values from rCSLM data cubes. In comparisons to epidermal thicknesses determined from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, we find no significant correlation to rCSLM-derived thickness values. This results from method-specific artifacts: physical alterations of tissue during H&E preparation in standard histology and specimen-induced abberations in rCSLM imaging. Despite their disagreement, both histology and rCSLM methods reliably measure statistically significant thickness changes in response to TPA exposure. Our results demonstrate that in vivo rCSLM imaging provides epithelial biologists an accurate noninvasive means to monitor cutaneous pathogenesis.

  9. The DREAM model's effectiveness in health promotion of AIDS patients in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano San Lio, M; Mancinelli, S; Palombi, L; Buonomo, E; Altan, A Doro; Germano, P; Magid, N A; Pesaresi, A; Renzi, E; Scarcella, P; Zimba, I; Marazzi, M C

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a holistic model for treating people living with AIDS in Africa; the model aims to improve knowledge about AIDS prevention and care, increase trust in the health centre, impact behaviour, and promote a high level of adherence to HAART. The study took place in the context of the DREAM (Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) programme in Mozambique, designed by the Community of Sant'Egidio to treat HIV patients in Africa. It provides patients with free anti-retroviral drugs, laboratory tests (including viral load), home care and nutritional support. This is a prospective study involving 531 patients over a 12-month period. The patients, predominantly poor and with a low level of education, demonstrated a good level of knowledge about AIDS (more than 90% know how it is transmitted) and trust in the treatment, with a relatively small percentage turning to traditional healers. Overall the patients had a low level of engaging in risky sexual behaviour and a very good level of adherence to HAART (69.5% of the 531 subjects had a pill count higher than 95%). The positive results of the programme's educational initiatives were confirmed with the patients' good clinical results.

  10. Community-based senior health promotion program using a collaborative practice model: the Escalante Health Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Diane E; Armbruster, Charlotte; Phillips, Wayne T; Gale, Betty J

    2003-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that, although the risk of disease and disability clearly increases with age, poor health need not be an inevitable consequence of aging. A healthy lifestyle is more influential than genetic factors in assisting older adults avoid the decline and deterioration traditionally associated with aging. Many effective strategies for reducing disease and disability are widely underused. The Escalante Health Partnerships is a community-based, nurse-managed health promotion and chronic disease care management program for community-residing older adults. The program base supports a multidisciplinary, collaborative practice model, which has responded to the health needs of members of a community at high risk of having or developing chronic conditions. Preliminary comparisons of the health status of program participants with national norms demonstrate that these seniors report better general health, performance of roles, and social functioning, with the strongest correlations occurring between general health and vitality and between general health and role-physical. In addition, these participants have 4.2 doctor visits per year, in comparison with 7.1 office visits for a national comparison group and 1.6 hospital days per year, in comparison with 2.1 hospital days in the same referenced population. This collaborative partnership is a model that can be replicated cost-effectively in other communities.

  11. Aggressiveness of human melanoma xenograft models is promoted by aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Véronique; Pirker, Christine; Schmidt, Wolfgang M; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Lötsch, Daniela; Heffeter, Petra; Hegedus, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Kiss, Robert; Berger, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in immuno-compromised mice (N=22). Although the vast majority >90% of melanoma models harbored mutations in either BRAF or NRAS, significant differences in subcutaneous growth aggressiveness became obvious. Unsupervised clustering revealed that genomic alterations rather than gene expression data reflected this aggressive phenotype, while no association with histology, stage or metastatic site of the original melanoma was found. Genomic clustering allowed separation of melanoma models into two subgroups with differing local growth aggressiveness in vivo. Regarding genes expressed at significantly altered levels between these subgroups, a surprising correlation with the respective gene doses (>85% accordance) was found. Genes deregulated at the DNA and mRNA level included well-known cancer genes partly already linked to melanoma (RAS genes, PTEN, AURKA, MAPK inhibitors Sprouty/Spred), but also novel candidates like SIPA1 (a Rap1GAP). Pathway mining further supported deregulation of Rap1 signaling in the aggressive subgroup e.g. by additional repression of two Rap1GEFs. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SIPA1 exerted significant effects on clonogenicity, adherence and migration in aggressive melanoma models. Together our data suggest that an aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation drives local aggressiveness in human melanoma.

  12. Radiation promotes cancer cell metastasis via EMT induction in mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongkuk; Kang, Sungwook; Hwang, Sanggu; Um, Hongduck [Department of Radiation Cancer, New York (United States); Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joohyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Charlestown (United States); Park, Sunhoo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wunjae [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Whether γ-IR-induced invasion and metastasis are stimulated in our in vitro C6L cell line and in vivo systems, and further identify the associated changes in signal pathways or mice physiology. We constructed an animal model system with a view to clarifying the intracellular molecular events underlying the promotion of metastasis after γ-IR treatment for primary cancer and developing effective anti-metastatic reagents. Our results demonstrate that γ-IR treatment of cancer cell lines and mice xenografts triggers invasion and metastasis. In particular, γ-IR-treated cancer cells or mouse xenografts and metastatic lesions in mice bearing γ-IR-treated xenografts also display typical EMT marker expression patterns, such as increased venetum or MMP-2 expression, decreased E-chondron, and enhanced activity of MMP-2. Our results collectively suggest that γ-IR-induced invasion or metastasis results from induction of EMT, and inhibition of EMT may thus be a means to enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy. Our results also suggested EMT might be one of the major therapeutic targets to block metastasis.

  13. Community care of individuals at risk of suicide: the Life Promotion Clinic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kolves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assistance to suicidal patients is problematic both at the hospital and community care level. Inadequacy of facilities, pressured personnel, long waiting time, and professional and social stigmatization are just some of the many issues that interfere with successful treatment. The goal of this paper is to present the functioning of the Life Promotion Clinic (LPC, Australia, and describe its users. The LPC is the first specialized outpatient service in Australia dedicated to the treatment of individuals with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A description of the service and characteristics of its clients (demographic, psychopathology, risk of suicide are herein presented. Data were collected for 63 male and 175 female patients who attended the LPC over a three-year period. Patients were mostly single females, aged up to 44 years, poorly educated, unemployed or on a pension/benefit. The majority of patients reported at least one suicide attempt, severe depression and anxiety scores, moderate-severe feelings of hopelessness, and high impulsiveness scores. Compared to females, male patients presented with more active desire to kill themselves and higher level of suicidal ideation. We can conclude that establishing a specialist service for treatment of individuals at increased risk for suicide requires consideration of both patient and clinicians needs. The LPC presents an innovative model of community service, capable of engaging patients with serious mental health issues, while making the service accessible to people from various social categories.

  14. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  15. Promoting Psychological Well-Being in an Urban School Using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…

  16. The Behavioral Ecological Model as a Framework for School-Based Anti-Bullying Health Promotion Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual strategy which uses the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) as a health promotion framework to guide school-based bullying awareness programs and subsequent anti-bullying strategies for school nursing practice. Anti-bullying frameworks and tools are scarce despite the extent of the problem of bullying. This article…

  17. A Social Partnership Model to Promote Educators' Development in Mauritius through Formal and Informal Capacity-Building Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santally, Mohammad Issack; Cooshna-Naik, Dorothy; Conruyt, Noel; Wing, Caroline Koa

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a social partnership model based on the living lab concept to promote the professional development of educators through formal and informal capacity-building initiatives. The aim is to have a broader impact on society through community outreach educational initiatives. A Living Lab is an environment for user-centered…

  18. Promoting Psychological Well-Being in an Urban School Using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…

  19. Reorienting health services in the Northern Territory of Australia: a conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jenni; Keleher, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Reorienting work practices to include health promotion and prevention is complex and requires specific strategies and interventions. This paper presents original research that used 'real-world' practice to demonstrate that knowledge gathered from practice is relevant for the development of practice-based evidence. The paper shows how practitioners can inform and influence improvements in health promotion practice. Practitioner-informed evidence necessarily incorporates qualitative research to capture the richness of their reflective experiences. Using a participatory action research (PAR) approach, the research question asked 'what are the core dimensions of building health promotion capacity in a primary health care workforce in a real-world setting?' PAR is a method in which the researcher operates in full collaboration with members of the organisation being studied for the purposes of achieving some kind of change, in this case to increase the amount of health promotion and prevention practice within this community health setting. The PAR process involved six reflection and action cycles over two years. Data collection processes included: survey; in-depth interviews; a training intervention; observations of practice; workplace diaries; and two nominal groups. The listen/reflect/act process enabled lessons from practice to inform future capacity-building processes. This research strengthened and supported the development of health promotion to inform 'better health' practices through respectful change processes based on research, practitioner-informed evidence, and capacity-building strategies. A conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the primary health care workforce was informed by the PAR processes and recognised the importance of the determinants approach. Practitioner-informed evidence is the missing link in the evidence debate and provides the links between evidence and its translation to practice. New models of health promotion service

  20. Promoting Visualization Skills through Deconstruction Using Physical Models and a Visualization Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Holly Kristine

    Visualization skills are important in learning chemistry, as these skills have been shown to correlate to high ability in problem solving. Students' understanding of visual information and their problem-solving processes may only ever be accessed indirectly: verbalization, gestures, drawings, etc. In this research, deconstruction of complex visual concepts was aligned with the promotion of students' verbalization of visualized ideas to teach students to solve complex visual tasks independently. All instructional tools and teaching methods were developed in accordance with the principles of the theoretical framework, the Modeling Theory of Learning: deconstruction of visual representations into model components, comparisons to reality, and recognition of students' their problemsolving strategies. Three physical model systems were designed to provide students with visual and tangible representations of chemical concepts. The Permanent Reflection Plane Demonstration provided visual indicators that students used to support or invalidate the presence of a reflection plane. The 3-D Coordinate Axis system provided an environment that allowed students to visualize and physically enact symmetry operations in a relevant molecular context. The Proper Rotation Axis system was designed to provide a physical and visual frame of reference to showcase multiple symmetry elements that students must identify in a molecular model. Focus groups of students taking Inorganic chemistry working with the physical model systems demonstrated difficulty documenting and verbalizing processes and descriptions of visual concepts. Frequently asked student questions were classified, but students also interacted with visual information through gestures and model manipulations. In an effort to characterize how much students used visualization during lecture or recitation, we developed observation rubrics to gather information about students' visualization artifacts and examined the effect instructors

  1. Computing DNA duplex instability profiles efficiently with a two-state model: trends of promoters and binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapti Zoi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA instability profiles have been used recently for predicting the transcriptional start site and the location of core promoters, and to gain insight into promoter action. It was also shown that the use of these profiles can significantly improve the performance of motif finding programs. Results In this work we introduce a new method for computing DNA instability profiles. The model that we use is a modified Ising-type model and it is implemented via statistical mechanics. Our linear time algorithm computes the profile of a 10,000 base-pair long sequence in less than one second. The method we use also allows the computation of the probability that several consecutive bases are unpaired simultaneously. This is a feature that is not available in other linear-time algorithms. We use the model to compare the thermodynamic trends of promoter sequences of several genomes. In addition, we report results that associate the location of local extrema in the instability profiles with the presence of core promoter elements at these locations and with the location of the transcription start sites (TSS. We also analyzed the instability scores of binding sites of several human core promoter elements. We show that the instability scores of functional binding sites of a given core promoter element are significantly different than the scores of sites with the same motif occurring outside the functional range (relative to the TSS. Conclusions The time efficiency of the algorithm and its genome-wide applications makes this work of broad interest to scientists interested in transcriptional regulation, motif discovery, and comparative genomics.

  2. Due process model of procedural justice in performance appraisal: promotion versus termination scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Heloneida C; Cole, Nina D; Flint, Douglas A

    2006-12-01

    In a laboratory study, 318 student participants (148 male, 169 female, and one who did not report sex; M age 25.0, SD = 6.0) in introductory organizational behavior classes responded to scenarios in which performance appraisal resulted in either employee promotion or termination. Each scenario had varying levels of three procedural justice criteria for performance appraisal. For both promotion and termination outcomes, analysis showed that, as the number of criteria increased, perceptions of procedural fairness increased. A comparison between the two outcomes showed that perceptions of fairness were significantly stronger for the promotion outcome than for termination.

  3. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

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    Pedro Beschoren da Costa

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  4. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  5. Linking Colleague Support to Employees' Promotive Voice: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Yun; Ling, Chu-Ding; Mo, Shen-Jiang; Luan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Promotive voice is essential for improving team and organization performance. Yet in the current literature, less was known regarding the psychological reasons why people engage in promotive voice. Through the lens of social exchange, we proposed that employees who received support from colleagues may develop higher level of felt obligation for constructive change which leads to promotive voice. Analyses of multi-source data from 51 cross-functional sources (51 team supervisors and 162 employees) showed that employees' felt obligation for constructive change positively mediates the relationship between colleague support and promotive voice behavior. Moreover, the impact of colleague support on felt obligation for constructive change is stronger when there is a low level of subgroup formation in the team. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Feedback models allowing estimation of thresholds for self-promoting body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2008-01-01

    . The difference between the two situations is typically an energy imbalance of about 1% over a long period of time. THEORY: Weight gain increases basal metabolic rate. Weight gain is often associated with a decrease in physical activity, although not to such an extent that it prevents an increase in total energy...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... cases do they take values that make weight gain self-promoting. RESULTS: We determine the quantitative conditions under which body weight gain becomes self-promoting. We find that these conditions can easily be met, and that they are so small that they are not observable with currently available...

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  8. Spinal traction promotes molecular transportation in a simulated degenerative intervertebral disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ya-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Chuang, I-Ting; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2014-04-20

    Biomechanical experiment using an in situ porcine model. To find the effect of traction treatment on annulus microstructure, molecular convection, and cell viability of degraded discs. Spinal traction is a conservative treatment for disc disorders. The recognized biomechanical benefits include disc height recovery, foramen enlargement, and intradiscal pressure reduction. However, the influence of traction treatment on annulus microstructure, molecular transportation, and cell viability of degraded discs has not been fully investigated. A total of 48 thoracic discs were dissected from 8 porcine spines (140 kg, 6-month old) within 4 hours after killing them and then divided into 3 groups: intact, degraded without traction, and degraded with traction. Each disc was incubated in a whole-organ culture system and subjected to diurnal loadings for 7 days. Except for the intact group, discs were degraded with 0.5 mL of trypsin on day 1 and a 5-hour fatigue loading on day 2. From day 4 to day 6, half of the degraded discs received a 30-minute traction treatment per day (traction force: 20 kg; loading: unloading = 30 s: 10 s). By the end of the incubation, the discs were inspected for disc height loss, annulus microstructure, molecular (fluorescein sodium) intensity, and cell viability. Collagen fibers were crimped and delaminated, whereas the pores were occluded in the annulus fibrosus of the degraded discs. Molecular transportation and cell viability of the discs decreased after matrix degradation. With traction treatment, straightened collagen fibers increased within the degraded annulus fibrosus, and the annulus pores were less occluded. Both molecular transportation and cell viability increased, but not to the intact level. Traction treatment is effective in enhancing nutrition supply and promoting disc cell proliferation of the degraded discs. N/A.

  9. Tissue engineering chamber promotes adipose tissue regeneration in adipose tissue engineering models through induced aseptic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang; Lu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin- perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34-/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction.

  10. A new method for screening potential sII and sH hydrogen clathrate hydrate promoters with model potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankcombe, Terry J; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2011-08-01

    A new predictive computational method for classifying clathrate hydrate promoter molecules is presented, based on the interaction energies between potential promoters and the water networks of sII and sH clathrates. The motivation for this work is identifying promoters for storing hydrogen compactly in clathrate hydrates. As a first step towards achieving this goal, we have developed a general method aimed at distinguishing between molecules that form sII clathrate hydrates and molecules that can-together with a weakly interacting help gas-form sH clathrate hydrates. The new computational method calculates differences in estimated formation energies of the sII and the sH clathrate hydrate. Model interaction potentials have been used, including the electrostatic interactions with newly calculated partial charges for all the considered potential promoter molecules. The methodology can discriminate between the clathrate structure types (sII or sH) formed by each potential promoter with good selectivity, i.e., better than achieved with a simple van der Waals diameter criterion.

  11. Utilizing the Health Promotion Model to predict oral health behaviors in the students of Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar(2008

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    Mehri A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: It is necessary to assess health status for designing and programming about oral health behaviors. In this study the Effectiveness of Health Promotion Model in Predicting oral health among the Students of Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar was examined. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. A random (stratified sample of 250 university students in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest based on health promotion model. Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined by a panel of experts and cronbach alpha (N=30,α=0.65-0.81 respectively. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 Statistical Software using Spearman Coefficient, Path analysis based on regression and ANOVA. "nResults: The mean of oral health behaviors among students was moderate (19.17±3.91 out of total 36.Statistically significant differences were found in oral health behaviors and the model variables by parent education (P<0.05. The results showed that the model variables were related to oral health behaviors of the students (P<0.05.Self-efficacy,interpersonal influences,positive emotion, perceived barriers and commitment to plan of action as variables of HPM model explained 29% of oral health behaviors among subjects within which self-efficacy was the strongest predictorβ=0.252. "nConclusion: Although the mean of oral health behaviors was moderate among the subjects, but it should be promoted because of their great importance on the individuals' health. It was concluded that the Health Promotion Model may be used as a framework for planning intervention programs in an attempt to improve the oral health behaviors of the university students.

  12. Folic acid supplementation promotes mammary tumor progression in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deghan Manshadi, Shaidah; Ishiguro, Lisa; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Medline, Alan; Renlund, Richard; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression

  13. Model of facilitation of emotional intelligence to promote wholeness of neophyte critical care nurses in South Africa

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    A. Towell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in order to develop a model of facilitation of emotional intelligence to promote wholeness in neophyte critical care nurses in South Africa. A theory-generative, explorative, descriptive, contextual research design was used. The model was developed utilising the four steps of theory generation as proposed by Dickoff, James, and Wiedenbach (1968, Chinn and Kramer (2011 and Walker and Avant (2011. Step one dealt with the empirical phase in which the concepts were distilled. The facilitation of inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience was the main concept of the model. Step two comprised the definition and classification of central and related concepts. Step three provides a description of the model. The model operates in three phases namely the dependent phase, partially dependent phase and the independent phase. Step four entailed the description of guidelines for operationalizing the model. During the three phases of the model a new nurse who starts to work in critical care moves from a latent ability to develop an inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience to a state of developing an inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience. This model provides a structured framework for the facilitation of emotional intelligence (EI to promote wholeness in nurses who commence to work in critical care units.

  14. Relevance of the mouse skin initiation-promotion model for the classification of carcinogenic substances encountered at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Thielmann, Heinz W; Meischner, Veronika; Fartasch, Manigé

    2015-06-01

    The Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) evaluates chemical substances using scientific criteria to prevent adverse effects on health at the work place. As part of this task there is a need to evaluate tumor promoting activity of chemicals (enhancement of formation of squamous cell carcinomas via premalignant papillomas) obtained from two-stage initiation/promotion experiments using the mouse skin model. In the present communication we address this issue by comparing responses seen in mouse skin with those in humans. We conclude that tumor promotional effects seen in such animal models be carefully analyzed on a case by case basis. Substances that elicit a rather non-specific effect that is restricted to the high dose range are considered to be irrelevant to humans and thus do not require classification as carcinogens. In contrast, substances that might have both a mode of action and a potency similar to the specific effects seen with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the prototype tumor promoter in mouse skin, which triggers receptor-mediated signal cascades in the very low dose range, have to be classified in a category for carcinogens.

  15. [Subtainable health promotion via organisational development--a model project for teachers in professional training schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, L; Nieskens, B; Bräuer, H; Sieland, B

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this project is the development, implementation and evaluation of a concept designed for sustainable health promotion among occupational and trade school teachers. We assume that for sustainable health promotion -- along with a behavioral prevention program -- a change is necessary in the structure, as well as, the working and communication processes within schools. The realization of early teacher participation and self regulated cooperative groups initiates comprehensive and goal-oriented developmental processes in the project schools. The organizational development process was accomplished in the following way: At the beginning we conducted a diagnosis of school-specific and individual health risks and the resources available to the project schools. The results were reported for both the individual and for the teacher group. This was intended to clarify the potential for improvement and, thus, strengthen the teachers' motivation toward processes of change. Following the diagnosis, the teachers chose areas of stress-related strain and then worked in groups to develop and implement behaviour and working condition-oriented intervention strategies for health promotion. The diagnosis results confirm the necessity of school-specific health promotion: the schools demonstrate very different demand and resource profiles. Furthermore, is has become evident that the central success factor for health promotion in schools is the teachers' willingness for change. The individual and group reports of the diagnosis results seem to have made clear how essential individual and organisational changes are.

  16. Modeling of the Institutional System of Enterpreneurship Promotion: the Case of Lithuania

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    Gediminas Pauliukevicius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review the institutional system of entrepreneurship promotion that exists in Lithuania and to offer guidelines to improve it. The research results show that the unified institutional system of entrepreneurship promotion in Lithuania does not present: responsible institutions coordinate single measures and their implementation, but do not follow long-term general strategy. According to research findings, in order to improve the entrepreneurship promotion system of Lithuania there is a need to create the main institutional system out of responsable ministries (the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Social Security and Labour and define the boundaries of their responsibilities.

  17. Promoter or enhancer, what's the difference? Deconstruction of established distinctions and presentation of a unifying model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Gene transcription is strictly controlled by the interplay of regulatory events at gene promoters and gene-distal regulatory elements called enhancers. Despite extensive studies of enhancers, we still have a very limited understanding of their mechanisms of action and their restricted spatio......-temporal activities. A better understanding would ultimately lead to fundamental insights into the control of gene transcription and the action of regulatory genetic variants involved in disease. Here, I review and discuss pros and cons of state-of-the-art genomics methods to localize and infer the activity...... of enhancers. Among the different approaches, profiling of enhancer RNAs yields the highest specificity and may be superior in detecting in vivo activity. I discuss their apparent similarities to promoters, which challenge the established view of enhancers and promoters as distinct entities, and present...

  18. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

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    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  19. Thrombin related peptide TP508 promoted fracture repair in a mouse high energy fracture model

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    Pan Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombin related peptide (TP508 is a 23 amino-acid synthetic peptide that represents a portion of the receptor-binding domain of thrombin molecule. Previous studies have shown that TP508 can accelerate musculoskeletal tissue repair including fracture healing. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TP508 on fracture healing in a murine fracture model representing high energy fracture situation. Methods Eighty CD 1 mice underwent controlled quadriceps muscle crush and open transverse mid diaphyseal femoral fracture that was then fixed with an external fixator. Animals were randomised into four groups to receive an intra-operative dose of either 100 μg TP508 into the fracture gap; 100 μg TP508 into the surrounding damaged muscle tissues; 10 μg TP508 into the fracture gap, or control equal amount of saline into the fracture gap. Radiographic assessment was performed weekly for 5 weeks; histological analysis was at 3 and 5 weeks post fracture and biomechanical testing of the fractured bone was performed at 5 weeks post fracture. Results Mechanical testing data showed that the fracture stiffness was significantly higher in the group receiving 100 μg TP508 into the fracture gap than other groups. Histological and radiographic analysis revealed a trend of increase in bone formation in the 100 μg TP508 injected into the fracture gap group compared to the saline control group. It was noted that the scar tissues was significantly less in Group II comparing with the saline control group and there was increased blood vessel formation in the crushed muscles and fracture gap areas in the groups receiving TP508 comparing to the saline control group. Conclusion The results from this study demonstrated the use of thrombin related peptide TP508 in the situation of a high energy fracture can promote fracture healing and reduce the potential complications such as muscle fibrosis and fracture delayed or non-union.

  20. The Effect of Pender's Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaveisi, Masoud; Omidi, Afsar; Farokhi, Shima; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2017-04-01

    Changes in lifestyle and eating habits have put women at risk of obesity and overweight more than ever. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) to improve the nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women admitted to Fatemiyeh Hospital clinics in Hamadan, west Iran in 2015. In this quasi-experimental study, 108 eligible women were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. Data were gathered using three questionnaires: demographics, Pender's HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior. The questionnaires were filled out by both groups as pre-test and two months later. A Pender's HPM-based intervention was conducted for the experimental group. The data were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests, ANCOVA, and Spearmans' correlation coefficient in SPSS/16. The level of significance was considered to be educative model can be used by healthcare providers to improve the nutritional and other health promoting behaviors.

  1. Modelling innovative interventions for optimising healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" phase I research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pombo Haizea; Cortada Josep M; Grandes Gonzalo; Sanchez Alvaro; Balague Laura; Calderon Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative col...

  2. Modelling innovative interventions for optimising healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care: "prescribe Vida Saludable" phase I research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Balague, Laura; Calderon, Carlos

    2009-06-18

    The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs) of the Basque Health Service--OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls). Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1) the commitment of professional and community partners who are involved; (2) their competence for

  3. Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness : Analysis of Models of Good Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Anja; Have, Kristin ten; Gründemann, Rob; Wevers, Cees

    2012-01-01

    The ENWHP project and campaign Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness (PH Work) should contribute towards the implementation of effective workplace health practices within corporate policies of enterprises in Europe. More specific the project should stimulate activities and polici

  4. Coaching Early Childhood Special Educators to Implement a Comprehensive Model for Promoting Young Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary; Snyder, Patricia; Binder, Denise Perez; Clarke, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the importance of practitioners implementing promotion, prevention, and intervention practices to foster children's social-emotional competence and address challenging behavior within schools. Limited research exists, however, on how to support teachers of school-age children to implement with fidelity comprehensive…

  5. Numerical Modelling with Spreadsheets as a Means to Promote STEM to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The article gives an account of an experiment in which sixty-eight high school students of age 16 - 19 developed spreadsheet applications that simulated fall and projectile motion in the air. The students applied the Euler method to solve the governing differential equations. The aim was to promote STEM to the students and motivate them to study…

  6. Promoting Entrepreneurial Culture in the University: The Institutional Collaborative Model at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Isidro; Alfaro, Fernando; Rodriguez, Miriam; Valdes, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case of collaboration between different types of public services and the private sector for the promotion of an entrepreneurial culture. This collaboration is achieved by means of a centre established and developed by the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, the Centro de Iniciativas Emprendedoras (the Centre for Entrepreneurial…

  7. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  8. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  9. DSS colitis promotes tumorigenesis and fibrogenesis in a choline-deficient high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwa, Koichi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-29

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients progress to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several lines of evidence indicate that accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and disruption of gut microbiota play contributory roles in HCC. Moreover, in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice, a high-fat diet increases portal LPS level and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this diet-induced NASH model requires at least 50 weeks for carcinogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased intestinal permeability would aggravate liver inflammation and fibrosis and accelerate tumorigenesis in a diet-induced NASH model. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat (CDHF) diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The DSS group was fed CDHF and intermittently received 1% DSS in the drinking water. Exposure to DSS promoted mucosal changes such as crypt loss and increased the number of inflammatory cells in the colon. In the DSS group, portal LPS levels were elevated at 4 weeks, and the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI in the fecal microbiota were elevated. In addition, levels of serum transaminase, number of lobular inflammatory cells, F4/80 staining-positive area, and levels of inflammatory cytokines were all elevated in the DSS group. Liver histology in the DSS group revealed severe fibrosis at 12 weeks. Liver tumors were detected in the DSS group at 12 weeks, but not in the other groups. Thus, DSS administration promoted liver tumors in a CDHF diet-induced NASH mouse over the short term, suggesting that the induction of intestinal inflammation and gut disruption of microbiota in NASH promote hepatic tumorigenesis.

  10. Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

  11. Aggressiveness of human melanoma xenograft models is promoted by aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Véronique; Pirker, Christine; Schmidt, Wolfgang M.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Lötsch, Daniela; Heffeter, Petra; Hegedus, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Kiss, Robert; Berger, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in ...

  12. NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1995-01-01

    The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

  13. Type-dependent irreversible stochastic spin models for genetic regulatory networks at the level of promotion-inhibition circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an approach to model genetic regulatory networks at the level of promotion-inhibition circuitry through a class of stochastic spin models that includes spatial and temporal density fluctuations in a natural way. The formalism can be viewed as an agent-based model formalism with agent behaviour ruled by a classical spin-like pseudo-Hamiltonian playing the role of a local, individual objective function. A particular but otherwise generally applicable choice for the microscopic transition rates of the models also makes them of independent interest. To illustrate the formalism, we investigate (by Monte Carlo simulations) some stationary state properties of the repressilator, a synthetic three-gene network of transcriptional regulators that possesses oscillatory behaviour.

  14. An evaluation of a model for the systematic documentation of hospital based health promotion activities: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Christensen, Mette E; Groene, Oliver;

    2007-01-01

    The first step of handling health promotion (HP) in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) is a systematic documentation and registration of the activities in the medical records. So far the possibility and tradition for systematic registration of clinical HP activities in the medical records and in pat......The first step of handling health promotion (HP) in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) is a systematic documentation and registration of the activities in the medical records. So far the possibility and tradition for systematic registration of clinical HP activities in the medical records...... of two parts; first part includes motivational counselling (7 codes) and the second part comprehends intervention, rehabilitation and after treatment (8 codes).The objective was to evaluate in an international study the usefulness, applicability and sufficiency of a simple model for the systematic...

  15. Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: the "breastfeeding gear" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Curry, Leslie; Minhas, Dilpreet; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) promotion is one of the most cost-effective interventions to advance mother-child health. Evidence-based frameworks and models to promote the effective scale up and sustainability of BF programs are still lacking. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature reports was conducted to identify key barriers and facilitators for scale up of BF programs in low- and middle-income countries. The review identified BF programs located in 28 countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. Study designs included case studies, qualitative studies, and observational quantitative studies. Only 1 randomized, controlled trial was identified. A total of 22 enabling factors and 15 barriers were mapped into a scale-up framework termed "AIDED" that was used to build the parsimonious breastfeeding gear model (BFGM). Analogous to a well-oiled engine, the BFGM indicates the need for several key "gears" to be working in synchrony and coordination. Evidence-based advocacy is needed to generate the necessary political will to enact legislation and policies to protect, promote, and support BF at the hospital and community levels. This political-policy axis in turn drives the resources needed to support workforce development, program delivery, and promotion. Research and evaluation are needed to sustain the decentralized program coordination "gear" required for goal setting and system feedback. The BFGM helps explain the different levels of performance in national BF outcomes in Mexico and Brazil. Empirical research is recommended to further test the usefulness of the AIDED framework and BFGM for global scaling up of BF programs.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rat model of nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Li, Wenxian; Tian, Ruifeng; Lei, Wei

    2010-07-05

    Searching for effective drugs which are capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries has gained extensive attention. Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) is one of the bioactive compounds extracted from ginseng. GRg1 has been shown to be neuroprotective in many in vitro studies, which raises the possibility of using GRg1 as a neuroprotective agent after nerve injuries. However, such a possibility has never been tested in in vivo studies. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of GRg1 in promoting nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury in rats. All rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group) after crush injury and were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with 1mg/kg, or 5mg/kg GRg1 (low or high dose GRg1 groups), or 100mug/kg mecobalamin or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by retrograde labeling and morphometric analysis. The motor functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies, behavioral tests and histological appearance of the target muscles. Our data showed that high dose GRg1 achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those achieved by low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin. The final outcome of low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin was similar in both morphological and functional items, which was significantly better than that in saline group. These findings show that GRg1 is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries, suggesting the possibility of developing GRg1 a neuroprotective drug for peripheral nerve repair applications.

  17. International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies: A model for international collaboration to promote orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Miclau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, the International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies (ICORS; http://i-cors.org was founded with inaugural member organisations from the previous Combined Orthopaedic Research Society, which had sponsored combined meetings for more than 2 decades. The ICORS is dedicated to the stimulation of orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research in fields such as biomedical engineering, biology, chemistry, and veterinary and human clinical research. The ICORS seeks to facilitate communication with member organisations to enhance international research collaborations and to promote the development of new international orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research organisations. Through new categories of membership, the ICORS represents the broadest coalition of orthopaedic research organisations globally.

  18. Bilateral olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promotes neurological function in a rat model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Yang; Wenli Sheng; Huiyong Shen; Qinghua Hou; Rui Li; Jinsheng Zeng; Ruxun Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, olfactory ensheathing cells were transplanted into the cortices of infarcted (infarct transplantation group), normal (normal transplantation group), and bilateral hemispheres (bilateral transplantation group). Olfactory ensheathing cells migrated to the infarct focus. The number of growth associated protein 43-positive cells and nerve fibers was slightly increased in the infarct area. These changes were more evident in the bilateral cortical transplantation group. Results demonstrated that transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells can migrate in rats with cerebral infarction. The olfactory ensheathing cells on the normal side can also promote neurological function. Bilateral cortical transplantation exhibited superior effects over unilateral transplantation.

  19. Promoting Model-based Definition to Establish a Complete Product Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemler, Shawn P; Zimmerman, Kyle E; Hartman, Nathan W; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeny, Allison Barnard

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing industry is evolving and starting to use 3D models as the central knowledge artifact for product data and product definition, or what is known as Model-based Definition (MBD). The Model-based Enterprise (MBE) uses MBD as a way to transition away from using traditional paper-based drawings and documentation. As MBD grows in popularity, it is imperative to understand what information is needed in the transition from drawings to models so that models represent all the relevant information needed for processes to continue efficiently. Finding this information can help define what data is common amongst different models in different stages of the lifecycle, which could help establish a Common Information Model. The Common Information Model is a source that contains common information from domain specific elements amongst different aspects of the lifecycle. To help establish this Common Information Model, information about how models are used in industry within different workflows needs to be understood. To retrieve this information, a survey mechanism was administered to industry professionals from various sectors. Based on the results of the survey a Common Information Model could not be established. However, the results gave great insight that will help in further investigation of the Common Information Model.

  20. Using Video-Based Modeling to Promote Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…

  1. Developing, Testing, and Using Theoretical Models for Promoting Quality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the dynamic model of educational effectiveness can be used to establish stronger links between educational effectiveness research (EER) and school improvement. It provides research evidence to support the validity of the model. Thus, the importance of using the dynamic model to establish an evidence-based and theory-driven…

  2. Promoting pollution prevention through community-industry dialogues: the good neighbor model in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Barbara Scott; Sexton, Ken

    2002-05-15

    This article examines five attempts by communities to promote pollution prevention through direct negotiations with local manufacturing plants. These projects were Good Neighbor Dialogues spearheaded by Citizens for a Better Environment-Minnesota, an environmental advocacy organization. Three community-company partnerships (a container plant, a foundry, and a cabinet manufacturer) were successful and two (a munitions plant and a petroleum refinery) were not. Successful dialogues all shared certain characteristics: the company was open to negotiating with the community; there was an effective "champion" within the company; a skilled, independent facilitator served as moderator; community participants received independent technical assistance; and both the company and community understood the value of cooperative environmental decision making. Results suggest that Good Neighbor Dialogues can, under the right settings and circumstances, be an effective mechanism for building social capital by fostering greater understanding and trust between companies and communities. They offer the prospect of community-company partnerships that promote pollution prevention and other environmental improvements, while at the same time reinforcing and amplifying traditional pollution control strategies.

  3. Bone marrow combined with dental bud cells promotes tooth regeneration in miniature pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, Hsin-Chi; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Min-Huey; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chang, Hao-Hueng

    2011-02-01

    Growth factors and morphogens secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of bone marrow fluid may promote tooth regeneration. Accordingly, a tissue engineering approach was utilized to develop an economical strategy for obtaining the growth factors and morphogens from BMSCs. Unerupted second molar tooth buds harvested from miniature pigs were cultured in vitro to obtain dental bud cells (DBCs). Bone marrow fluid, which contains BMSCs, was collected from the porcine mandible before operation. DBCs suspended in bone marrow fluid were seeded into a gelatin/chondoitin-6-sulfate/hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold (GCHT scaffold). The DBCs/bone marrow fluid/GCHT scaffold was autografted into the original alveolar sockets of the pigs. Radiographic and histological examinations were applied to identify the structure of regenerated tooth at 40 weeks postimplantation. The present results showed that one pig developed a complete tooth with crown, root, pulp, enamel, dentin, odontoblast, cementum, blood vessel, and periodontal ligament in indiscriminate shape. Three animals had an unerupted tooth that expressed dentin matrix protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and osteopontin; and two other pigs also had dental-like structure with dentin tubules. This study reveals that DBCs adding bone marrow fluid and a suitable scaffold can promote the tooth regeneration in autogenic cell transplantation.

  4. SDF-1α mediates wound-promoted tumor growth in a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H Stuelten

    Full Text Available Increased growth of residual tumors in the proximity of acute surgical wounds has been reported; however, the mechanisms of wound-promoted tumor growth remain unknown. Here, we used a syngeneic, orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer to study mechanisms of wound-promoted tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that exposure of metastatic mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 to SDF-1α, which is increased in wound fluid, results in increased tumor growth. Both, wounding and exposure of 4T1 cells to SDF-1α not only increased tumor growth, but also tumor cell proliferation rate and stromal collagen deposition. Conversely, systemic inhibition of SDF-1α signaling with the small molecule AMD 3100 abolished the effect of wounding, and decreased cell proliferation, collagen deposition, and neoangiogenesis to the levels observed in control animals. Furthermore, using different mouse strains we could demonstrate that the effect of wounding on tumor growth and SDF-1α levels is host dependent and varies between mouse strains. Our results show that wound-promoted tumor growth is mediated by elevated SDF-1α levels and indicate that the effect of acute wounds on tumor growth depends on the predetermined wound response of the host background and its predetermined wound response.

  5. Hedgehog signaling antagonist promotes regression of both liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a murine model of primary liver cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Philips

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic fibrosing liver injury is a major risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis in humans. Mice with targeted deletion of Mdr2 (the murine ortholog of MDR3 develop chronic fibrosing liver injury. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC emerges spontaneously in such mice by 50-60 weeks of age, providing a model of fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. We used Mdr2(-/- mice to investigate the hypothesis that activation of the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway promotes development of both liver fibrosis and HCC. METHODS: Hepatic injury and fibrosis, Hh pathway activation, and liver progenitor populations were compared in Mdr2(-/- mice and age-matched wild type controls. A dose finding experiment with the Hh signaling antagonist GDC-0449 was performed to optimize Hh pathway inhibition. Mice were then treated with GDC-0449 or vehicle for 9 days, and effects on liver fibrosis and tumor burden were assessed by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Unlike controls, Mdr2(-/- mice consistently expressed Hh ligands and progressively accumulated Hh-responsive liver myofibroblasts and progenitors with age. Treatment of aged Mdr2-deficient mice with GDC-0449 significantly inhibited hepatic Hh activity, decreased liver myofibroblasts and progenitors, reduced liver fibrosis, promoted regression of intra-hepatic HCCs, and decreased the number of metastatic HCC without increasing mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Hh pathway activation promotes liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, and inhibiting Hh signaling safely reverses both processes even when fibrosis and HCC are advanced.

  6. ICOS-expressing lymphocytes promote resolution of CD8-mediated lung injury in a mouse model of lung rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wu

    Full Text Available Acute rejection, a common complication of lung transplantation, may promote obliterative bronchiolitis leading to graft failure in lung transplant recipients. During acute rejection episodes, CD8(+ T cells can contribute to lung epithelial injury but the mechanisms promoting and controlling CD8-mediated injury in the lung are not well understood. To study the mechanisms regulating CD8(+ T cell-mediated lung rejection, we used a transgenic model in which adoptively transferred ovalbumin (OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL induce lung injury in mice expressing an ovalbumin transgene in the small airway epithelium of the lungs (CC10-OVA mice. The lung pathology is similar to findings in humans with acute lung transplant. In the presence of an intact immune response the inflammation resolves by day 30. Using CC10-OVA.RAG(-/- mice, we found that CD4(+ T cells and ICOS(+/+ T cells were required for protection against lethal lung injury, while neutrophil depletion was not protective. In addition, CD4(+Foxp3 (+ ICOS(+ T cells were enriched in the lungs of animals surviving lung injury and ICOS(+/+ Tregs promoted survival in animals that received ICOS(-/- T cells. Direct comparison of ICOS(-/- Tregs to ICOS(+/+ Tregs found defects in vitro but no differences in the ability of ICOS(-/- Tregs to protect from lethal lung injury. These data suggest that ICOS affects Treg development but is not necessarily required for Treg effector function.

  7. Hedgehog signaling antagonist promotes regression of both liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a murine model of primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, George M; Chan, Isaac S; Swiderska, Marzena; Schroder, Vanessa T; Guy, Cynthia; Karaca, Gamze F; Moylan, Cynthia; Venkatraman, Talaignair; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Syn, Wing-Kin; Jung, Youngmi; Witek, Rafal P; Choi, Steve; Michelotti, Gregory A; Rangwala, Fatima; Merkle, Elmar; Lascola, Christopher; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2011-01-01

    Chronic fibrosing liver injury is a major risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis in humans. Mice with targeted deletion of Mdr2 (the murine ortholog of MDR3) develop chronic fibrosing liver injury. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) emerges spontaneously in such mice by 50-60 weeks of age, providing a model of fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. We used Mdr2(-/-) mice to investigate the hypothesis that activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway promotes development of both liver fibrosis and HCC. Hepatic injury and fibrosis, Hh pathway activation, and liver progenitor populations were compared in Mdr2(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type controls. A dose finding experiment with the Hh signaling antagonist GDC-0449 was performed to optimize Hh pathway inhibition. Mice were then treated with GDC-0449 or vehicle for 9 days, and effects on liver fibrosis and tumor burden were assessed by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and magnetic resonance imaging. Unlike controls, Mdr2(-/-) mice consistently expressed Hh ligands and progressively accumulated Hh-responsive liver myofibroblasts and progenitors with age. Treatment of aged Mdr2-deficient mice with GDC-0449 significantly inhibited hepatic Hh activity, decreased liver myofibroblasts and progenitors, reduced liver fibrosis, promoted regression of intra-hepatic HCCs, and decreased the number of metastatic HCC without increasing mortality. Hh pathway activation promotes liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, and inhibiting Hh signaling safely reverses both processes even when fibrosis and HCC are advanced.

  8. Cell-free scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure promote bone regeneration in rabbit large bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Yang, Li; Lv, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    To promote bone healing, bone repair biomaterials are increasingly designed to incorporate growth factors. However, the impact of matrix mechanics of cell-free scaffold independent of microstructure on the osteogenic differentiation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells orchestrating bone repair and regeneration remains not to be fully understood. In our recent study, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure have been successfully fabricated by coating decellularized bone with collagen/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixture with different collagen rations. It has been demonstrated that the scaffold with optimal stiffness can induce the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and in the subcutaneous tissue. The present in vivo study further investigated the repair efficiency of these scaffolds in a rabbit radius with a critical-sized segmental defect model and its potential mechanism. Micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), X-ray and histological analysis were carried out to evaluate the repair capacity of these scaffolds. The results demonstrated that the cell-free scaffold with optimal stiffness incorporation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells significantly promoted the repair and reconstruction quality of mass bone defect. One of the crucial mechanisms was that hypoxia and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) mediated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migration by which matrix mechanics exerted influence on bone fracture healing. These findings suggested that only modulating the matrix stiffness of cell-free scaffold can be one of the most attractive strategies for promoting the progression of bone healing.

  9. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Turner, Roberta L.; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; King, Lauren B.; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward; Ornelles, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  10. Allogeneic tendon-derived stem cells promote tendon healing and suppress immunoreactions in hosts: in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Kong, Siu Kai; Lau, Pui Man; Wong, Yin Mei; Lee, Yuk Wa; Tan, Chunlai; Wong, On Tik

    2014-11-01

    The medium- to long-term healing effect and infiltration of inflammatory cells, after transplantation of allogeneic tendon-derived stem cell (TDSC) to the rat patellar tendon window wound, were examined. Allogeneic patellar TDSCs derived from a green fluorescent protein rat were used. The outcome of tendon healing and the infiltration of inflammatory cells were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry up to week 16 postinjury. The fate of the transplanted cells was examined by ex vivo fluorescent imaging and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that the transplantation of allogeneic TDSCs promoted tendon healing with no increased risk of ectopic chondro-ossification up to week 16. A low infiltration of T cells, ED1 macrophages, ED2 macrophages, and mast cells in the window wound was obtained. The transplanted TDSCs were found in the window wound at week 1 and 2, but were absent after week 4 postinjury. In conclusion, allogeneic TDSCs promoted tendon repair in the medium to long term and exhibited weak immunoreactions and anti-inflammatory effects in the hosts after transplantation in a rat model. There was no increased risk of ectopic chondro-ossification after TDSC transplantation. The decrease in the number of transplanted cells with time suggested that allogeneic TDSCs did not promote tendon repair through direct differentiation.

  11. Health Promoting Self-Care Behaviors and Its Related Factors in Elderly: Application of Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azadbakht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health beliefs significantly affect health promoting self-care behaviors. The most important model designed based on health beliefs is the Health Belief Model. This study examined the association between health belief model constructs and demographic factors with behaviors in elderly. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 465 elders referring to Tehran's cultural centers recruited with a multi-stage sampling method. Study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information, health beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting self-care behaviors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by Independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Multiple linear regression. Results: The mean (±SD age of subjects was 68.24±6.12 years and the mean of general self-care score was 1.79±0.36. Gender (P=0.011, economy (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001 and age (P=0.008 were significantly associated with self-care behaviors. Regression analysis showed that perceived barriers, self-efficacy and perceived severity were determinants of behavior (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is essential to pay special attention to self-efficacy, perceived severity and perceived barriers to design health education for elderly.

  12. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Degl'Innocenti

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice.Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice.Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J, and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections.In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12, Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a whole, our findings

  13. Modelling innovative interventions for optimising healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" phase I research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pombo Haizea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Methods and design Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs of the Basque Health Service – OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls. Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. Discussion There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1 the commitment of professional

  14. LPS promotes Th2 dependent sensitisation leading to anaphylaxis in a Pru p 3 mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Maria J.; Aranda, Ana; Fernandez, Tahia D.; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Torres, Maria J.; Gomez, Francisca; Palomares, Francisca; Perkins, James R; Rojo, Javier; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2017-01-01

    Pru p 3 is the major peach allergen in the Mediterranean area. It frequently elicits severe reactions, limiting its study in humans, raising the need for animal models to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved. However, no anaphylaxis model exists for Pru p 3. We aimed to develop a model of peach anaphylaxis by sensitising mice with Pru p 3 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of mice were sensitised intranasally: untreated; treated with Pru p 3;...

  15. LPS promotes Th2 dependent sensitisation leading to anaphylaxis in a Pru p 3 mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, María J.; Aranda, Ana; Fernández, Tahia; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Torres, María José; Gómez, Francisca; Palomares, Francisca; Perkins, James R; Rojo, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2017-01-01

    Pru p 3 is the major peach allergen in the Mediterranean area. It frequently elicits severe reactions, limiting its study in humans, raising the need for animal models to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved. However, no anaphylaxis model exists for Pru p 3. We aimed to develop a model of peach anaphylaxis by sensitising mice with Pru p 3 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of mice were sensitised intranasally: untreated; treated w...

  16. The interplay of structure and agency in health promotion: integrating a concept of structural change and the policy dimension into a multi-level model and applying it to health promotion principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The recent debate in public health about the "inequality paradox" mirrors a long-standing dispute between proponents of structuralist approaches and advocates of action theory. Both views are genuine perspectives of health promotion, but so far they have not been adequately linked by health promotion theory. Using Anthony Giddens's concepts of structure and agency seems promising, but his theory has a number of shortcomings that need to be amended if it is to be applied successfully to health promotion. After briefly assessing Giddens's theory of structuration, this paper proposes to add to it both the concept of structural change as proposed by William Sewell and the policy dimension as described by Elinor Ostrom in her distinction between "operational" and "collective choice" level. On this basis, a multi-level model of the interaction of structure and agency in health promotion is proposed. This model is then connected to central claims of the Ottawa Charter, i.e. "build healthy public policy", "create supportive environments", "strengthen community actions", and "develop personal skills". A case study from a local-level health promotion project in Germany is used to illustrate the explanatory power of the model, showing how interaction between structure and agency on the operational and on the collective choice level led to the establishment of women-only hours at the municipal indoor swimming pool as well as to increased physical activity levels and improved general self-efficacy among members of the target group.

  17. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Using Green Building As A Model For Making Health Promotion Standard In The Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Worden, Kelly; Pyke, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The built environment-the constructed physical parts of the places where people live and work-is a powerful determinant of both individual and population health. Awareness of the link between place and health is growing within the public health sector and among built environment decision makers working in design, construction, policy, and both public and private finance. However, these decision makers lack the knowledge, tools, and capacity to ensure that health and well-being are routinely considered across all sectors of the built environment. The green building industry has successfully established environmental sustainability as a normative part of built environment practice, policy making, and investment. We explore the value of this industry's experience as a template for promoting health and well-being in the built environment.

  19. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter Michael; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Poulsen, Morten; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Licht, Tine Rask

    2010-06-15

    It has been proposed that dietary non-digestible carbohydrates can improve host resistance to intestinal infections by stimulating health-promoting bacteria in the gut. However, evidence from in vivo infection studies is scarce, particularly for gram-positive infections. We studied the effect of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture of three different fluorescently labeled L. monocytogenes strains. Colonisation of L. monocytogenes in the intestine was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in faecal, ileal and caecal samples while translocation was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. XOS and GOS significantly (Pcarbohydrates can have entirely different effects on the intestinal colonisation and translocation of a pathogenic bacterium.

  20. Functional model of the system promotion affiliate program in partner networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Сергійович Міроненко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of business processes in promoting affiliate programs in the advertisement network has been done. Processes are considered according to the IDEF0 methodology. The viewpoints of advertisers, webmasters and marketers greatly experienced in affiliate marketing have been taken into account. A virtual company and the business process in it (affiliate program publication and selection, comparative analysis of the affiliate program, advertisement program start, summing up and effectiveness analysis of the affiliate programis the subject of the research. The basic and additional characteristics of the affiliate program must be considered for its effective promotion. The basic characteristics are: description, the main goal, advertiser’s commission for successful operations, test period duration, type of traffic, advertisement materials, targeting. The additional characteristics are: rated online resource, which provides goods or services as compared to the analogues, ranking by country, ranking by category, time spent on making up the internet website, number of the online resource pages, the percentage of visitors who leave the website directly at the entrance page or look through not more than one site, the visitors country of residence, the source of the traffic used by the visitors, the keywords, from which the social networking resources visitors come, interests of the visitors, Internet resources analogues, relating to Internet resource Mobile Apps. The criteria of evaluation the effectiveness of affiliate programs and advertising in general have been introduced: effective number of visitors (visitor becomes effective after the goal, an action, target number of the visitors, costs of advertising, conversion, profit and return on investment

  1. Effect of Health Belief Model based intervention on promoting nutritional behaviors about osteoporosis prevention among students of female middle schools in Isfahan, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohtasham Ghaffari; Elaheh Tavassoli; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Health Belief Model based intervention on promoting nutritional behaviors about preventive osteoporosis among the second grade middle school girl students...

  2. Developing a Taxonomy of Item Model Types to Promote Assessment Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Zhou, Jiawen; Alves, Cecila

    2008-01-01

    An item model serves as an explicit representation of the variables in an assessment task. An item model includes the "stem", "options", and "auxiliary information". The "stem" is the part of an item which formulates context, content, and/or the question the examinee is required to answer. The "options" contain the alternative answers with one…

  3. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

  4. Modelling Ball Circulation in Invasion Team Sports: A Way to Promote Learning Games through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehaigne, Jean-Francis; Caty, Didier; Godbout, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sport Education and "Tactical decision learning model" (TDLM) are two curriculum models used by physical education teachers in France to help students in the development of a tactical intelligence of game play in the didactics of team sports. Purpose: Identify prototypic configurations of play in the sense that they represent an…

  5. Promoting the Development of a Conceptual Change Model of Science Instruction in Prospective Secondary Biology Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din Yan

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of an initial teacher education program on the development of a conceptual change model of instruction in prospective biology teachers. Analyzes the performance of prospective teachers in teaching practices and achievement in the skills related to the instructional model. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. A Conceptual Model of Medical Student Well-Being: Promoting Resilience and Preventing Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Laura B.; Iglewicz, Alana; Moutier, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes and illustrates a conceptual model of medical student well-being. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical student stress, coping, and well-being and developed a model of medical student coping termed the "coping reservoir." Results: The reservoir can be replenished or drained by various aspects of…

  7. RRM: An incentive reputation model for promoting good behaviors in distributed systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; DUAN HaiXin; LIU Wu

    2008-01-01

    Reputation systems represent soft security mechanisms that complement tradi tional information security mechanisms. They are now widely used in online e-commerce markets and communities in order to stimulate good behaviors as well as to restrainadverse behaviors. This paper analyzes the limitations of the conversational reputation models and proposes an incentive reputation model called the resilient reputation model (RRM) for the distributed reputation systems. The objective of this reputation model is not only to encourage the users to provide good services and, therefore, to maximize the probability of good transaction outcomes, but also to punish those adverse users who are trying to manipulate the application systems. The simulation results indicate that the proposed reputation model (RRM) could effectively resist against the common adverse behaviors, while protecting the profits of sincere users from being blemished by those adversaries.

  8. 数学建模课程的推广对促进高校教育改革的研究%Research on the Effect of Promotion of Mathematical Modeling Course on Promoting Education Reform in University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许迅雷

    2011-01-01

    数学建模课程是培养学生数学素质的优良平台,是推动教育教学改革的先行者,也是其他理论课程改革方向的引路人.本文主要研究在高校的其他专业推广数学建模课程对促进高校教育改革的作用.%Mathematical modeling course is a good platform of training students' mathematical quality,is a pioneer of promoting the reform c education and teaching,also is a leader of other theories course's direction of reform.This article mainly studies the effect that promotion of th mathematical modeling course in other department promotes education reform in universities.

  9. The Use of Novel Therapies to Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Adrianna Vlachos, M.D...Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance, using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0177 5c...is a rare inherited red cell aplasia . Mutations have been described in ribosomal protein genes. Currently standard therapy includes corticosteroids

  10. Promoting the Development of Adaptive Expertise: Exploring a Simulation Model for Sharing a Diagnosis of Autism With Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Anne; Mylopoulos, Maria; Orsino, Angela; Jimenez, Elizabeth; McNaughton, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    To explore how a simulation model promoted the development of integrated competencies associated with adaptive expertise in senior health professions trainees as they learned to share a diagnosis of autism with parents. A qualitative instrumental case study method was used at the University of Toronto in 2014 to explore what eight developmental pediatrics residents and two clinical psychology interns learned from participating in a simulation model designed to enable trainees to practice sharing a diagnosis of autism with parents. This model incorporated variability (three cases), active experimentation in a safe environment, and feedback from multiple perspectives (peers, faculty, standardized patients, and a parent). Field notes were collected, and semistructured interviews were conducted to explore what participants learned. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify themes iteratively. Team analysis continued until a stable thematic structure was developed and applied to the entire data set. Four themes were identified. Three themes described how participating in the simulation model changed residents' and interns' approaches to sharing a diagnosis of autism with parents from using a structured, scripted framework to share the diagnosis; to being flexible within the structured framework; and, finally, to being attentive and responsive to parents by adapting and creating new approaches for sharing the diagnosis. The fourth theme described how the multiple perspectives in the simulation model prompted learners to develop adaptive approaches. This simulation model helped residents and interns move beyond use of a structured, scripted communication framework toward development of adaptive expertise.

  11. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  12. Calcitriol enhances gemcitabine antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo by promoting apoptosis in a human pancreatic carcinoma model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Flynn, Geraldine; Muindi, Josephia R; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L

    2010-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the standard care chemotherapeutic agent to treat pancreatic cancer. Previously we demonstrated that calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) has significant anti-proliferative effects in vitro and in vivo in multiple tumor models and enhances the activity of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. We therefore investigated whether calcitriol could potentiate the cytotoxic activity of gemcitabine in the human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 model system. Isobologram analysis revealed that calcitriol and gemcitabine had synergistic antiproliferative effect over a wide range of drug concentrations. Calcitriol did not reduce the cytidine deaminase activity in Capan-1 tumors nor in the livers of Capan-1 tumor bearing mice. Calcitriol and gemcitabine combination promoted apoptosis in Capan-1 cells compared with either agent alone. The combination treatment also increased the activation of caspases-8, -9, -6 and -3 in Capan-1 cells. This result was confirmed by substrate-based caspase activity assay. Akt phosphorylation was reduced by calcitriol and gemcitabine combination treatment compared to single agent treatment. However, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was not modulated by either agent alone or by the combination. Tumor regrowth delay studies showed that calcitriol in combination with gemcitabine resulted in a significant reduction of Capan-1 tumor volume compared to single agent treatment. Our study suggests that calcitriol and gemcitabine in combination promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis, which may contribute to increased anti-tumor activity compared to either agent alone. PMID:20699664

  13. The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaveisi, Masoud; Omidi, Afsar; Farokhi, Shima; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Changes in lifestyle and eating habits have put women at risk of obesity and overweight more than ever. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) to improve the nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women admitted to Fatemiyeh Hospital clinics in Hamadan, west Iran in 2015. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 108 eligible women were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. Data were gathered using three questionnaires: demographics, Pender’s HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior. The questionnaires were filled out by both groups as pre-test and two months later. A Pender’s HPM-based intervention was conducted for the experimental group. The data were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests, ANCOVA, and Spearmans’ correlation coefficient in SPSS/16. The level of significance was considered to be experimental and control groups, respectively. The difference was significant only between before and after the intervention in the experimental group (Pexperimental group: nutritional behavior, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, commitment to action, interpersonal and situational influences, behavior-related affect, and perceived barriers (Peducative model can be used by healthcare providers to improve the nutritional and other health promoting behaviors. PMID:28409170

  14. Contractor Development Models for Promoting Sustainable Building – a case for developing management capabilities of contractors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlungwana, Wilkin S

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available practices and thereby grow and prosper. Furthermore, the authors argue that improvement, adequate resourcing and the implementation of models and programmes that embrace effective contractor development can greatly enhance the management capabilities...

  15. A behavioural modelling approach to curriculum development and evaluation of health promotion for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M P; Maloney, W A

    1992-05-01

    This paper outlines the way in which two behavioural science models may be used in the processes of curriculum development and course evaluation. The models are the stress-coping paradigm associated with the work of Lazarus and the theory of self and identity developed from the work of Mead. It is suggested that a clear articulation of the underlying behavioural processes is fundamental in course design and appraisal.

  16. A Model for Health Promotion in Rural Communities through the Development of Personal Agency and Intrinsic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwin Leenen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ConBased on the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo… mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos” [I want to, I can…improve my health and exercise my rights], a pilot model was designed and implemented in three States of Mexico. This model aims to change nutrition and hygiene behaviors in the inhabitants of marginalized communities, through knowledge and psychosocial skills development facilitating personal agency and intrinsic empowerment. Evaluation of the program showed an effect on knowledge, assertive communication, personal agency and gender equity among the personnel in charge of the warehouses that provide the rural stores, and on knowledge, assertive communication, decision making and personal agency in the target population. Life skills training, knowledge and personal agency promotion enhance opportunities for poverty reduction.

  17. Identification of TNF-α-responsive promoters and enhancers in the intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mette; Coskun, Mehmet; Lilje, Berit

    2014-01-01

    genome-wide maps of active transcription start sites (TSSs), and active enhancers in Caco-2 cells with or without tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation to mimic an inflammatory state. We found 520 promoters that significantly changed their usage level upon TNF-α stimulation; of these, 52......The Caco-2 cell line is one of the most important in vitro models for enterocytes, and is used to study drug absorption and disease, including inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. In order to use the model optimally, it is necessary to map its functional entities. In this study, we have generated......% are not annotated. A subset of these has the potential to confer change in protein function due to protein domain exclusion. Moreover, we locate 890 transcribed enhancer candidates, where ∼50% are changing in usage after TNF-α stimulation. These enhancers share motif enrichments with similarly responding gene...

  18. From Aspiration to Action: A Learning Intentions Model to Promote Critical Engagement with Science in the Print-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2011-11-01

    Science programmes which prepare students to read critically and respond thoughtfully to science-based reports in the media could play an important role in promoting informed participation in the public debate about issues relating to science, technology and society. Evidence based guidance about the practice and pattern of use of science-based media in the classroom is limited. This study sought to identify learning intentions that teachers believe ought to underpin the development of programmes of study designed to achieve this end-result. Teachers' views of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to engage critically with science-based news served as a basis for this study. Teachers developed a pedagogical model by selecting appropriate statements of learning intentions, grouping these into coherent and manageable themes and coding them according to perceived level of difficulty. The model is largely compatible with current curricular provision in the UK, highlights opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and illustrates the developmental nature of the topic.

  19. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t. was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1 factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  20. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Pilat, Dominika; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  1. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Pilat, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26090236

  2. Costume Development Model for Tourism Promotion in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarobol A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study Pha Bong community’s dressing style and to develop a new ethnic costume that shows their identity to promote tourism in the province. Pha Bong Community is a community in Maehongson Province where two ethnic groups, people of Tai Yai (Shan and Sakor Karen, co-exist. The data collection methods include focus group and in-depth interview with target population, small group discussion and review of literature on costume development. The obtained data were then submitted to content analysis. First, it was found that they both have their own identity, resources, network marketing and inherited wisdom from their ancestors. Each group runs their business separately. Secondly, the research resulted in the creation of a new costume for the Pha Bong community created by members of two ethnic groups. This costume combines Karen symbol with Tai Yai (Shan clothing style. The motif and pattern of the fabric identify community members’ lifestyle, belief and value. It is recommended that development should be planned upon available resource and the need of the community. In addition, the community leader should encourage members to take parts in management and to cooperate for a sustainable development.

  3. Ganglionated plexi stimulation induces pulmonary vein triggers and promotes atrial arrhythmogenecity: In silico modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Minki; Lim, Byounghyun; Song, Jun-Seop; Yu, Hee Tae; Ryu, Ah-Jin; Lee, Young-Seon; Joung, Boyoung; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on atrial fibrillation (AF) is difficult to demonstrate in the intact human left atrium (LA) due to technical limitations of the current electrophysiological mapping technique. We examined the effects of the ANS on the initiation and maintenance of AF by employing a realistic in silico human left atrium (LA) model integrated with a model of ganglionated plexi (GPs). Methods We incorporated the morphology of the GP and parasympathetic nerves in a three-dimensional (3D) realistic LA model. For the model of ionic currents, we used a human atrial model. GPs were stimulated by increasing the IK[ACh], and sympathetic nerve stimulation was conducted through a homogeneous increase in the ICa-L. ANS-induced wave-dynamics changes were evaluated in a model that integrated a patient’s LA geometry, and we repeated simulation studies using LA geometries from 10 different patients. Results The two-dimensional model of pulmonary vein (PV) cells exhibited late phase 3 early afterdepolarization-like activity under 0.05μM acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation. In the 3D simulation model, PV tachycardia was induced, which degenerated to AF via GP (0.05μM ACh) and sympathetic (7.0×ICa-L) stimulations. Under sustained AF, local reentries were observed at the LA-PV junction. We also observed that GP stimulation reduced the complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE)-cycle length (CL, p<0.01) and the life span of phase singularities (p<0.01). GP stimulation also increased the overlap area of the GP and CFAE areas (CFAE-CL≤120ms, p<0.01). When 3 patterns of virtual ablations were applied to the 3D AF models, circumferential PV isolation including the GP was the most effective in terminating AF. Conclusion Cardiac ANS stimulations demonstrated triggered activity, automaticity, and local reentries at the LA-PV junction, as well as co-localized GP and CFAE areas in the 3D in silico GP model of the LA. PMID:28245283

  4. A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

  5. Drawing-to-learn: a framework for using drawings to promote model-based reasoning in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Kim; Thomas, Stephen

    2015-03-02

    The drawing of visual representations is important for learners and scientists alike, such as the drawing of models to enable visual model-based reasoning. Yet few biology instructors recognize drawing as a teachable science process skill, as reflected by its absence in the Vision and Change report's Modeling and Simulation core competency. Further, the diffuse research on drawing can be difficult to access, synthesize, and apply to classroom practice. We have created a framework of drawing-to-learn that defines drawing, categorizes the reasons for using drawing in the biology classroom, and outlines a number of interventions that can help instructors create an environment conducive to student drawing in general and visual model-based reasoning in particular. The suggested interventions are organized to address elements of affect, visual literacy, and visual model-based reasoning, with specific examples cited for each. Further, a Blooming tool for drawing exercises is provided, as are suggestions to help instructors address possible barriers to implementing and assessing drawing-to-learn in the classroom. Overall, the goal of the framework is to increase the visibility of drawing as a skill in biology and to promote the research and implementation of best practices.

  6. Facilitating Lewin's change model with collaborative evaluation in promoting evidence based practices of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Julianne; Gray-Miceli, Deanna L; Metcalf, Judith A; Paolini, Charlotte A; Napier, Anne H; Coogle, Constance L; Owens, Myra G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence based practices (EBPs) in clinical settings interact with and adapt to host organizational characteristics. The contextual factors themselves, surrounding health professions' practices, also adapt as practices become sustained. The authors assert the need for better planning models toward these contextual factors, the influence of which undergird a well-documented science to practice gap in literature on EBPs. The mechanism for EBP planners to anticipate contextual effects as programs Unfreeze their host settings, create Movement, and become Refrozen (Lewin, 1951) is present in Lewin's 3-step change model. Planning for contextual change appears equally important as planning for the actual practice outcomes among providers and patients. Two case studies from a Geriatric Education Center network will illustrate the synthesis of Lewin's three steps with collaborative evaluation principles. The use of the model may become an important tool for continuing education evaluators or organizations beginning a journey toward EBP demonstration projects in clinical settings.

  7. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models.

  8. NCPP's Use of Standard Metadata to Promote Open and Transparent Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshansky, A.; Barsugli, J. J.; Guentchev, G.; Rood, R. B.; DeLuca, C.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform is developing comprehensive regional and local information about the evolving climate to inform decision making and adaptation planning. This includes both creating and providing tools to create metadata about the models and processes used to create its derived data products. NCPP is using the Common Information Model (CIM), an ontology developed by a broad set of international partners in climate research, as its metadata language. This use of a standard ensures interoperability within the climate community as well as permitting access to the ecosystem of tools and services emerging alongside the CIM. The CIM itself is divided into a general-purpose (UML & XML) schema which structures metadata documents, and a project or community-specific (XML) Controlled Vocabulary (CV) which constraints the content of metadata documents. NCPP has already modified the CIM Schema to accommodate downscaling models, simulations, and experiments. NCPP is currently developing a CV for use by the downscaling community. Incorporating downscaling into the CIM will lead to several benefits: easy access to the existing CIM Documents describing CMIP5 models and simulations that are being downscaled, access to software tools that have been developed in order to search, manipulate, and visualize CIM metadata, and coordination with national and international efforts such as ES-DOC that are working to make climate model descriptions and datasets interoperable. Providing detailed metadata descriptions which include the full provenance of derived data products will contribute to making that data (and, the models and processes which generated that data) more open and transparent to the user community.

  9. TORC1 Inhibition by Rapamycin Promotes Antioxidant Defences in a Drosophila Model of Friedreich's Ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Calap-Quintana

    Full Text Available Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, the most common inherited ataxia in the Caucasian population, is a multisystemic disease caused by a significant decrease in the frataxin level. To identify genes capable of modifying the severity of the symptoms of frataxin depletion, we performed a candidate genetic screen in a Drosophila RNAi-based model of FRDA. We found that genetic reduction in TOR Complex 1 (TORC1 signalling improves the impaired motor performance phenotype of FRDA model flies. Pharmacologic inhibition of TORC1 signalling by rapamycin also restored this phenotype and increased the lifespan and ATP levels. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the altered levels of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals and total glutathione of the model flies. The rapamycin-mediated protection against oxidative stress is due in part to an increase in the transcription of antioxidant genes mediated by cap-n-collar (Drosophila ortholog of Nrf2. Our results suggest that autophagy is indeed necessary for the protective effect of rapamycin in hyperoxia. Rapamycin increased the survival and aconitase activity of model flies subjected to high oxidative insult, and this improvement was abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These results point to the TORC1 pathway as a new potential therapeutic target for FRDA and as a guide to finding new promising molecules for disease treatment.

  10. Family gym: a model to promote physical activity for families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Hoffman, Jessica A; Thomas, Jordan; DuBois, Matthew; Agrawal, Tara; Griffin, Daphne; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine Locke; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Wirth, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    This report describes Family Gym, a family-centered model that (1) provides free access to physical activity for low-income families in the inner city; (2) targets young children (3-8 years) and their families; (3) engages families together in physical activity; and (4) stimulates social interaction among families.

  11. How Career Variety Promotes the Adaptability of Managers: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaevli, Ayse; Tim Hall, Douglas T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model showing how managerial adaptability develops from career variety over the span of the person's career. By building on the literature of career theory, adult learning and development, and career adjustment, we offer a new conceptualization of managerial adaptability by identifying its behavioral, cognitive,…

  12. Obesity-initiated metabolic syndrome promotes urinary voiding dysfunction in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiqi; Babcook, Melissa A; Shukla, Sanjeev; Shankar, Eswar; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Guiming; Erokwu, Bernadette O; Flask, Chris A; Lu, Lan; Daneshgari, Firouz; MacLennan, Gregory T; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidences suggests that obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) contribute towards lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through alterations in the phenotype of bladder and prostate gland. Clinical studies indicate a link between MetS and LUTS. Nevertheless, there is lack of suitable animal model(s) which could illustrate an association linking obesity to LUTS. We examined the lower urinary tract function in an obesity-initiated MetS mouse model. Male C57BL/6N wild-type and obese B6.V-Lepob/J maintained on regular diet for 28 weeks were subjected to the assessment of body weight (BW), body length (BL), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (BG), plasma insulin (INS), plasma leptin (LEP), total cholesterol (CHO), free fatty acid (FFA), and measurement of urinary functions. Whole animal peritoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissue measurements as well as prostate and bladder volumes were analyzed by MRI followed by histological evaluation. These parameters were used to draw correlations between MetS and LUTS. Obesity parameters such as BW, WC, and BMI were significantly higher in B6.V-Lepob/J mice compared to C57BL/6N mice (P obesity and MetS. Validation of an in vivo model may lead to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of obesity-related LUTS in humans. Prostate 76:964-976, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Facebook and the Cognitive Model: A Tool for Promoting Adolescent Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Wahesh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A homework activity incorporating the social networking site Facebook is presented as a tool for teaching adolescent clients about the cognitive model and increasing their ability to identify and modify problematic thinking. The authors describe how a worksheet developed to help clients examine information presented on their Facebook profile can…

  14. Modeling the Stereoselectivity of the β-Amino Alcohol Promoted Addition of Dialkylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    The title reaction has been modeled by a Q2MM force field, allowing for rapid evaluation of several thousand TS conformations. For ten experimental systems taken from the literature, the pathway leading to the major enantiomer has been identified. Furthermore, several possible contributions to th...

  15. Facebook and the Cognitive Model: A Tool for Promoting Adolescent Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Wahesh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A homework activity incorporating the social networking site Facebook is presented as a tool for teaching adolescent clients about the cognitive model and increasing their ability to identify and modify problematic thinking. The authors describe how a worksheet developed to help clients examine information presented on their Facebook profile can…

  16. Modeling the Stereoselectivity of the β-Amino Alcohol Promoted Addition of Dialkylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    The title reaction has been modeled by a Q2MM force field, allowing for rapid evaluation of several thousand TS conformations. For ten experimental systems taken from the literature, the pathway leading to the major enantiomer has been identified. Furthermore, several possible contributions...

  17. OysterFutures: Integrating Stakeholder Objectives with Natural System Models to Promote Sustainable Natural Resource Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, E. W.; Blair, J.; Cornwell, J. C.; Freitag, A. E.; Gawde, R. K.; Hartley, T. W.; Hood, R. R.; Jones, R. M.; Miller, T. J.; Thomas, J. E.; Wainger, L. A.; Wilberg, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Achieving effective natural resource management is challenged by multiple and often competing objectives, a restricted set of policy options, and uncertainty in the performance of those options. Yet, managers need policies that allow continued use of natural resources while ensuring access for future generations and maintenance of ecosystem services. Formal approaches are needed that will assist managers and stakeholders in choosing policy options that have a high likelihood of achieving social, ecological, and economic goals. The goal of this project, OysterFutures, is to address this need by improving the use of predictive models to support sustainable natural resource policy and management. A stakeholder-centered process will be used to build an integrated model that combines estuarine physics, oyster life history, and the ecosystem services that oysters provide (e.g., harvest, water quality) to forecast outcomes under alternative management strategies. Through a series of facilitated meetings, stakeholders will participate in a science-based collaborative process which will allow them to project how well policies are expected to meet their objectives using the integrated model. This iterative process will ensure that the model will incorporate the complex human uses of the ecosystem as well as focus on the outcomes most important to the stakeholders. In addition, a study of the socioeconomic drivers of stakeholder involvement, information flow, use and influence, and policy formation will be undertaken to improve the process, enhance implementation success of recommended policies, and provide new ideas for integrating natural and social sciences, and scientists, in sustainable resource management. In this presentation, the strategy for integrating natural system models, stakeholder views, and sociological studies as well as methods for selecting stakeholders and facilitating stakeholder meetings will be described and discussed.

  18. Prolonged in vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and promotes stable subcutaneous cartilage formation in a goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Dan; Yin, Zongqi; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Guangdong

    2016-12-02

    Synthetic biodegradable scaffolds such as polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid (PLA-PGA) are especially suitable for engineering shaped cartilage such as auricle, but they induce a serious inflammatory reaction particularly in the immunologically aggressive subcutaneous site, leading to resorption of the engineered autologous cartilage. Our previous study in a rabbit model has demonstrated 2 weeks of in vitro precultivation could significantly alleviate the post-implantation inflammation induced by PLA-PGA engineered cartilaginous grafts, but reproduction of this result failed in a preclinical goat model. The aims of the current study were to investigate whether prolonged in vitro precultivation could form a mature cartilaginous graft to resist the acute host response and promote stable subcutaneous cartilage formation in a preclinical goat model. Goat chondrocytes were seeded onto PLA-PGA scaffolds, in vitro precultivated for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and then implanted subcutaneously in autologous goats for 1 and 8 weeks. The in vitro engineered cartilage (vitro-EC) was examined histologically (hematoxylin and eosin, safranin-O, collagen II). The 1 week explants were examined histologically and stained for CD3, CD68, collagen I, and apoptosis. The 8 week explants were evaluated by histology, wet weight, volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification and Young's modulus. With prolonged in vitro time, the quality of vitro-EC improved and the amount of scaffold residue decreased; more pronounced cartilage formation with fewer immune cells (CD3 and CD68 positive), apoptotic cells, and less collagen I expression were observed in explants that had been in vitro precultivated for a longer period. The subcutaneously regenerated neocartilage became more mature after prolonged implantation. These results suggested that prolonged in vitro precultivation allowed formation of a mature cartilaginous graft to resist the acute host response and promoted stable subcutaneous

  19. The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khodaveisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle and eating habits have put women at risk of obesity and overweight more than ever. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM to improve the nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women admitted to Fatemiyeh Hospital clinics in Hamadan, west Iran in 2015. Methods: n this quasi-experimental study, 108 eligible women were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. Data were gathered using three questionnaires: demographics, Pender’s HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior. The questionnaires were filled out by both groups as pre-test and two months later. A Pender’s HPM-based intervention was conducted for the experimental group. The data were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests, ANCOVA, and Spearmans’ correlation coefficient in SPSS/16. The level of significance was considered to be <0.05. Results: The mean score of nutritional behavior was 41.75±3.28 and 42.36±3.69 before the intervention and 79.09±5.27 and 49.72±9.49 after it in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The difference was significant only between before and after the intervention in the experimental group (P<0.001. Furthermore, the mean scores of the following variables were significantly different between before and after the intervention in the experimental group: nutritional behavior, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, commitment to action, interpersonal and situational influences, behavior-related affect, and perceived barriers (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that Pender’s HPM-based training improved nutritional behavior and some constructs of the model. Therefore, this educative model can be used by healthcare providers to improve the nutritional and other health promoting behaviors.

  20. Altered Micro-RNA Degradation Promotes Tumor Heterogeneity: A Result from Boolean Network Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunyi; Krueger, Gerhard R F; Wang, Guanyu

    2016-02-01

    Cancer heterogeneity may reflect differential dynamical outcomes of the regulatory network encompassing biomolecules at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In other words, differential gene-expression profiles may correspond to different stable steady states of a mathematical model for simulation of biomolecular networks. To test this hypothesis, we simplified a regulatory network that is important for soft-tissue sarcoma metastasis and heterogeneity, comprising of transcription factors, micro-RNAs, and signaling components of the NOTCH pathway. We then used a Boolean network model to simulate the dynamics of this network, and particularly investigated the consequences of differential miRNA degradation modes. We found that efficient miRNA degradation is crucial for sustaining a homogenous and healthy phenotype, while defective miRNA degradation may lead to multiple stable steady states and ultimately to carcinogenesis and heterogeneity. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Neural stem cell transplantation promotes behavioral recovery in a photothrombosis stroke model

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Junning; Gao, Junwei; Hou, Boru; Liu, Jixing; Chen, Sihua; Yan, Guizhong; Ren, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy provides a promising approach for treat stroke. Neural stem cells isolated from mice hippocampus possessing the capacity of differentiate into neurons and astrocytes both in vitro and vivo. Here, we investigated the capability of neural stem cell transplantation in photothrombosis stroke model. Nissl staining revealed that the cortical infarct significantly decreased by 16.32% (Vehicle: 27.93le: an mm3, n=6, NSC: 23.37le: ai mm3, n=6, P

  2. How career variety promotes the adaptability of managers: a theoretical model

    OpenAIRE

    Karaevli, Ayşe; Karaevli, Ayse; Hall, Douglas T. Tim

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model showing how managerial adaptability develops from career variety over the span of the person’s career. By building on the literature of career theory, adult learning and development, and career adjustment, we oVer a new conceptualization of managerial adaptability by identifying its behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional dimensions, discuss how these competencies can develop from the variety of managers’ cumulative career experiences, and propose se...

  3. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Melody; Edwards, Adrian; Marshall, Martin; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2006-06-19

    The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by practices increases.

  4. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Glyn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. Method A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. Results The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. Conclusion This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by

  5. DATA INFORMATION SYSTEM TO PROMOTE THE ORGANIZATION DATA OF COLLECTIONS – MODELING CONSIDERATIONS BY THE UNIFIED MODELIGN LANGUAGE (UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista de Moraes Barbosa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It can be argued that technological developments (e.g., measuring instruments like software, satellite and computers, as well as, the cheapening of storage media allow organizations to produce and acquire a great amount of data in a short time. Due to the data volume, research organizations become potentially vulnerable to the information explosion impacts. An adopted solution is the use of information system tools to assist data documentation, retrieval and analysis. In the scientific scope, these tools are developed to store different metadata (data about data patterns. During the development process of these tools, the adoption of standards such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML stands out, whose diagrams assist the different scopes of software modeling. The objective of this study is to present an information system tool that assists organizations in the data documentation through the use of metadata and that highlights the software modeling process, through the UML. The Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata will be approached, widely used to the dataset cataloging by scientific organizations around the world, and the dynamic and static UML diagrams like use cases, sequence and classes. The development of the information system tools can be a way to promote the scientific data organization and dissemination. However, the modeling process requires special attention during the development of interfaces that will stimulate the use of the information system tools

  6. A macrokinetic model-based comparative meta-analysis of recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris under AOX1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrigon, José Manuel; Valero, Francisco; Montesinos, José Luis

    2015-06-01

    An unstructured macrokinetic model for heterologous production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) by a Pichia pastoris PAOX1 based system was developed. Mean specific rates and state variables for various fed-batch cultures, under methanol limited and non-limited conditions were used for modeling. The most representative kinetic functions (viz., Monod, Haldane, Pirt and Luedeking-Piret) were used for the specific rates of cell growth (µ), substrate consumption (qS ) and product formation (qP ). The performance of two different process models was assessed via simulation tests, using an overall validation procedure. The best model describes the cellular growth by a non-monotonic substrate function, substrate uptake via Pirt's equation and product formation through a Luedeking-Piret equation. A comparative meta-analysis of heterologous protein production of various target proteins by Pichia pastoris under AOX1 promoter was conducted and a general strategy for improving protein production from process kinetics was developed as a key to bioprocess optimization.

  7. Phosphorylation promotes neurotoxicity in a C. elegans model of TDP-43 proteinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liachko, Nicole F.; Guthrie, Chris R.; Kraemer, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders characterized by neuronal and glial lesions containing aggregated pathological TDP-43 protein in the cytoplasm, nucleus, or neurites are collectively referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathies. Lesions containing aggregated TDP-43 protein are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). In addition, mutations in human TDP-43 cause ALS. We have developed a C. elegans model of TDP-43 proteinopathies to study the cellular, molecular, and genetic underpinnings of TDP-43 mediated neurotoxicity. Expression of normal human TDP-43 in all C. elegans neurons causes moderate motor defects, while ALS-mutant G290A, A315T, or M337V TDP-43 transgenes cause severe motor dysfunction. The model recapitulates some characteristic features of ALS and FTLD-U including age-induced decline in motor function, decreased lifespan, and degeneration of motor neurons accompanied by hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination of TDP-43 protein that accumulates in detergent insoluble protein deposits. In C. elegans, TDP-43 neurotoxicity is independent of activity of the cell death caspase CED-3. Furthermore, phosphorylation of TDP-43 at serine residues 409/410 drives mutant TDP-43 toxicity. This model provides a tractable system for further dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TDP-43 neuropathology. PMID:21123567

  8. Rural-Based Health Promotion Model for Pregnant Women in Banyumas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elviera Gamelia

    2016-08-01

    Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan pelayanan prenatal di wilayah pedesaan masih rendah yang berdampak pada perilaku buruk sehingga mengembangkan model promosi kesehatan dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan prenatal, sikap dan perilaku. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model promosi kesehatan pelayanan prenatal di wilayah pedesaan berdasarkan penilaian kebutuhan. Penelitian dilakukan pada Juni 2015 dengan pendekatan kualitatif melibatkan 16 ibu hamil pertama di trimester ketiga dengan kehamilan berisiko sebagai informan kunci dan 16 anggota keluarga yang tinggal bersama ibu hamil dan mengetahui kehidupan sehari-harinya, 27 bidan dan 3 tokoh agama sebagai informan tambahan. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah wawancara mendalam dan observasi untuk ibu hamil dan keluarga, kemudian focus group discussion untuk bidan dan tokoh agama. Analisis yang digunakan adalah model Miles dan Huberman dengan melakukan pengurangan data, tampilan data dan kesimpulan. Berdasarkan penilaian kebutuhan, media promosi kesehatan dibutuhkan melalui buku untuk ibu hamil dengan desain menarik berfitur gambar, warna dan penjelasan lengkap. Buku dipilih karena kecenderungan dan kebutuhan ibu hamil, karakteristik wilayah pedesaan dan ketersediaan infrastruktur. Bahan pelayanan prenatal perlu ditambahkan dari buku yang memuat kesehatan ibu dan anak meliputi pemeriksaan prenatal oleh bidan, tanda kehamilan berbahaya, penyebab, konsekuensi, pencegahan, makanan rekomendasi dan tidak, cara menjaga payudara dan latihan kehamilan serta perkembangan janin. Metode promosi kesehatan adalah penyampaian dan diskusi di kelas ibu hamil.

  9. Determinants of physical activity based on Health Promotion Model (HPM in diabetic women of Karaj diabetic institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Norouzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of non pharmacologic strategies influencing diabetes is physical activity which is not easy to change and maintain due to its complexity. The main objective of the present study is to identify the factors which influence physical activities on the basis of health promotion model. Methods: In this study 350 women suffering from diabetes responded to the standard questionnaires related to the perceived self efficacy (belief about capabilities for doing physical activity under different sets of conditions , perceived barrier and benefit, family and friend support and perceived health status constructs. Linear and logistic regressions, t tests, and chi square tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results of the present study indicated that self efficacy has positive and direct impacts on physical activities and the perceived benefits, the perceived health status, and the body mass index (BMI has indirect impacts on physical activities. Moreover, the perceived health status in addition to the indirect impacts has direct and positive impacts on physical activities and influence by factors such as job and duration of disease. Conclusion: The perceived health status is one of the most influential factors on physical activities of diabetic patients which is necessary to be taken into consideration especially for patients with long term disease. It is also urgent that through increasing self efficacy with using different techniques and emphasizing different aspects of physical activity benefits, resulted to promote the activity level of the patients.

  10. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

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    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  11. Modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: Environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Richards, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. Considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that CWD prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on CWD dynamics. In the present study, we use simulation models to demonstrate how indirect transmission and the duration of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces. Resulting long-term outcomes range from relatively low disease prevalence and limited host-population decline to host-population collapse and extinction. Our models suggest that disease prevalence and the severity of population decline is driven by the duration that prions remain infectious in the environment. Despite relatively low epidemic growth rates, the basic reproductive number, R0, may be much larger than expected under the direct-transmission paradigm because the infectious period can vastly exceed the host's life span. High prion persistence is expected to lead to an increasing environmental pool of prions during the early phases (i.e. approximately during the first 50 years) of the epidemic. As a consequence, over this period of time, disease dynamics will become more heavily influenced by indirect transmission, which may explain some of the observed regional differences in age and sex-specific disease patterns. This suggests management interventions, such as culling or vaccination, will become increasingly less effective as CWD epidemics progress.

  12. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: insights from lattice and all-atom models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Co, Nguyen Truong; Nguyen, Phuong H; Kolinski, Andrzej; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-04-14

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  13. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouza, Maksim, E-mail: mkouza@chem.uw.edu.pl; Kolinski, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszaw (Poland); Co, Nguyen Truong [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of HCM City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Phuong H. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: masli@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-14

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  14. Roy's Adaptation Model-Based Patient Education for Promoting the Adaptation of Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasiabifar, Ardashir; Karimi, Zohreh; Hassani, Parkhideh

    2013-07-01

    In addition to physical adaptation and psychosocial adjustment to chronic renal disease, hemodialysis (HD) patients must also adapt to dialysis therapy plan. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Roy's adaptation model-based patient education on adaptation of HD patients. This study is a semi-experimental research that was conducted with the participation of all patients with end-stage renal disease referred to the dialysis unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj city, 2010. A total of 59 HD patients were randomly allocated to two groups of test and control. Data were collected by a questionnaire based on the Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were approved. Patient education was determined by eight one-hour sessions over eight weeks. At the end of the education plan, the patients were given an educational booklet containing the main points of self-care for HD patients. The effectiveness of education plan was assessed two months after plan completion and data were compared with the pre-education scores. All analyses were conducted using the SPSS software (version 16) through descriptive and inferential statistics including correlation, t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of physiological and self-concept models between the test and control groups (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03 respectively). Also a statistical difference (P = 0.04) was observed in the mean scores of the role function mode of both groups. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of interdependence modes between the two groups. RAM based patient education could improve the patients' adaptation in physiologic and self-concept modes. In addition to suggesting further research in this area, nurses are recommended to pay more attention in applying RAM in dialysis centers.

  15. Application of the health belief model in promotion of self-care in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Shogafard, Golamreza; Sanati, Hamid Reza; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Mazloomy, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a condition due to a problem with the structure or function of the heart impairs its ability to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. In developing countries, around 2% of adults suffer from heart failure, but in people over the age of 65, this rate increases to 6-10%. In Iran, around 3.3% of adults suffer from heart failure. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the most widely used models in public health theoretical framework. This was a cohort experimental study, in which education as intervention factor was presented to case group. 180 Heart failure patients were randomly selected from patients who were referred to the Shahid Rajaee center of Heart Research in Tehran and allocated to two groups (90 patients in the case group and 90 in the control group). HBM was used to compare health behaviors. The questionnaire included 69 questions. All data were collected before and 2 months after intervention. About 38% of participants don't know what, the heart failure is and 43% don't know that using the salt is not suitable for them. More than 40% of participants didn't weigh any time their selves. There was significant differences between the mean grades score of variables (perceived susceptibility, perceived threat, knowledge, Perceived benefits, Perceived severity, self-efficacy Perceived barriers, cues to action, self- behavior) in the case and control groups after intervention that was not significant before it. Based on our study and also many other studies, HBM has the potential to be used as a tool to establish educational programs for individuals and communities. Therefore, this model can be used effectively to prevent different diseases and their complications including heart failure.

  16. Modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Almberg

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. Considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that CWD prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on CWD dynamics. In the present study, we use simulation models to demonstrate how indirect transmission and the duration of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces. Resulting long-term outcomes range from relatively low disease prevalence and limited host-population decline to host-population collapse and extinction. Our models suggest that disease prevalence and the severity of population decline is driven by the duration that prions remain infectious in the environment. Despite relatively low epidemic growth rates, the basic reproductive number, R(0, may be much larger than expected under the direct-transmission paradigm because the infectious period can vastly exceed the host's life span. High prion persistence is expected to lead to an increasing environmental pool of prions during the early phases (i.e. approximately during the first 50 years of the epidemic. As a consequence, over this period of time, disease dynamics will become more heavily influenced by indirect transmission, which may explain some of the observed regional differences in age and sex-specific disease patterns. This suggests management interventions, such as culling or vaccination, will become increasingly less effective as CWD epidemics progress.

  17. Neural stem cell transplantation promotes behavioral recovery in a photothrombosis stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junning; Gao, Junwei; Hou, Boru; Liu, Jixing; Chen, Sihua; Yan, Guizhong; Ren, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy provides a promising approach for treat stroke. Neural stem cells isolated from mice hippocampus possessing the capacity of differentiate into neurons and astrocytes both in vitro and vivo. Here, we investigated the capability of neural stem cell transplantation in photothrombosis stroke model. Nissl staining revealed that the cortical infarct significantly decreased by 16.32% (Vehicle: 27.93le: an mm(3), n=6, NSC: 23.37le: ai mm(3), n=6, Pstem cells significantly (Pstem cell is an effective therapy in ischemic stroke.

  18. Promoting culturally competent chronic pain management using the clinically relevant continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2011-06-01

    This article reviews the culture of biomedicine and current practices in pain management education, which often merge to create a hostile environment for effective chronic pain care. Areas of cultural tensions in chronic pain frequently involve the struggle to achieve credibility regarding one's complaints of pain (or being believed that the pain is real) and complying with pain medication protocols. The clinically relevant continuum model is presented as a framework allowing providers to approach care from an evidence-based, culturally appropriate (patient centered) perspective that takes into account the highest level of evidence available, provider expertise, and patient preferences and values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition: multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Wichers, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation. The present study examined positive emotion-cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from depression who had been randomly assigned to treatment with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT; n = 64) or a waitlist control condition (n = 66). We hypothesized that MBCT stimulates upward spirals by increasing positive affect and positive cognition. Experience sampling assessed changes in affect and cognition during 6 days before and after treatment, which were analyzed with a series of multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory models. Findings suggest that MBCT was associated with significant increases in trait positive affect and momentary positive cognition, which were preserved through autoregressive and cross-lagged effects driven by global emotional tone. Findings suggest that daily positive affect and cognition are maintained by an upward spiral that might be promoted by mindfulness training.

  20. Mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition: multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Wichers, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation. The present study examined positive emotion–cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from depression who had been randomly assigned to treatment with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT; n = 64) or a waitlist control condition (n = 66). We hypothesized that MBCT stimulates upward spirals by increasing positive affect and positive cognition. Experience sampling assessed changes in affect and cognition during 6 days before and after treatment, which were analyzed with a series of multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory models. Findings suggest that MBCT was associated with significant increases in trait positive affect and momentary positive cognition, which were preserved through autoregressive and cross-lagged effects driven by global emotional tone. Findings suggest that daily positive affect and cognition are maintained by an upward spiral that might be promoted by mindfulness training. PMID:25698988

  1. MCP-1 promotes mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis in the aortic ring model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Alfred C; Fogel, Eric; Nicosia, Roberto F

    2010-09-01

    Rings of rat or mouse aorta embedded in collagen gels produce angiogenic outgrowths in response to the injury of the dissection procedure. Aortic outgrowths are composed of branching endothelial tubes and surrounding mural cells. Mural cells emerge following endothelial sprouting and gradually increase during the maturation of the neovessels. Treatment of aortic cultures with angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), an angiogenic factor implicated in vascular maturation and remodeling, stimulates the mural cell recruitment process. Ang-1 induces expression of many cytokines and chemokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, a signaling molecule required for mural cell recruitment, blocks Ang1-induced MCP-1 expression. Recombinant MCP-1 dose-dependently increases mural cell number while an anti-MCP-1 blocking antibody reduces it. In addition, antibody mediated neutralization of MCP-1 abrogates the stimulatory effect of Ang-1 on mural cell recruitment. Aortic rings from genetically modified mice deficient in MCP-1 or its receptor CCR2 have fewer mural cells than controls. MCP-1 deficiency also impairs the mural cell recruitment activity of Ang-1. Our studies indicate that spontaneous and Ang1-induced mural cell recruitment in the aortic ring of model of angiogenesis are in part mediated by MCP-1. These results implicate MCP-1 as one of the mediators of mural cell recruitment in the aortic ring model, and suggest that chemokine pathways may contribute to the assembly of the vessel wall during the angiogenesis response to injury.

  2. Human Neural Precursor Cells Promote Neurologic Recovery in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a viral model of the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS, we show that intraspinal transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hNPCs results in sustained clinical recovery, although hNPCs were not detectable beyond day 8 posttransplantation. Improved motor skills were associated with a reduction in neuroinflammation, decreased demyelination, and enhanced remyelination. Evidence indicates that the reduced neuroinflammation is correlated with an increased number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs within the spinal cords. Coculture of hNPCs with activated T cells resulted in reduced T cell proliferation and increased Treg numbers. The hNPCs acted, in part, through secretion of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2. These findings indicate that the transient presence of hNPCs transplanted in an animal model of MS has powerful immunomodulatory effects and mediates recovery. Further investigation of the restorative effects of hNPC transplantation may aid in the development of clinically relevant MS treatments.

  3. Performance Task using Video Analysis and Modelling to promote K12 eight practices of science

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2015-01-01

    We will share on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of physics performance tasks taking root in some Singapore Grade 9 (Secondary 3) schools. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker help students to be like scientists in these 6 to 10 weeks where all Grade 9 students are to conduct a personal video analysis and where appropriate the 8 practices of sciences (1. ask question, 2. use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Using mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Discuss from evidence and 8. Communicating information). We will situate our sharing on actual students work and discuss how tracker could be an effective pedagogical tool. Initial research findings suggest that allowing learners conduct performance task using Tracker, a free open source video analysis and modelling tool, guided by the 8 practices of sciences and engineering, could be an innovative and effective way to mentor authent...

  4. Video Analysis and Modeling Performance Task to promote becoming like scientists in classrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to share the use of Tracker a free open source video analysis and modeling tool that is increasingly used as a pedagogical tool for the effective learning and teaching of Physics for Grade 9 Secondary 3 students in Singapore schools to make physics relevant to the real world. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker, guided by the Framework for K-12 Science Education by National Research Council, USA to help students to be more like scientists. For a period of 6 to 10 weeks, students use a video analysis coupled with the 8 practices of sciences such as 1. Ask question, 2. Use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Use mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Argue from evidence and 8. Communicate information. This papers focus in on discussing some of the performance task design ideas such as 3.1 flip video, 3.2 starting with simple classroom activities, 3.3 primer science activity, 3.4 integrative dynamics and kinematics l...

  5. A model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Anukul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the history of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand (Isan, to study the present conditions and problems of secondary school student councils in Isan and to study a model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in Isan. The study area encompassed Kalasin Province, including Somdetpittayakom School in Somdet District and Yangtaladwittayakarn School in Yangtalat District, Mahasarakham Province, including Sarakhampittayakhom School in Muang District and Kantarawichai School in Kantarawichai District, and Khon Kaen Province, including Kallayanawat School in Muang District and Nampong Suksa School in Nampong District. This research employed interview, observation and focus groups as data collection tools with a purposive sample of student councils in secondary schools in Isan. Data was verified and validated using a triangulation method and analyzed by descriptive analysis. Research results show that the student councils in the secondary schools of Isan were established to promote democracy among youth. Students gained knowledge, understanding of the democratic system, experience in student administration and governance by students for students. It was also found that student council activities in secondary schools give students opportunities to know about their roles, acceptance, respect rights and duties, use intellect to solve problems, have faith in the democratic system, develop morality and ethics and preserve and disseminate traditions and culture according to the principles of Dharma. Current problems with student councils include no student interest in duties and no relationship between the elected leaders and their constituency. Selfishness, dishonesty and ignorance are the causes of non-transparent school councils with no responsibility, no response to student needs, lack of rights, justice and effectiveness, lacking of creative

  6. Platelets promote bacterial dissemination in a mouse model of streptococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Fredrik; Hurley, Sinead; Shannon, Oonagh

    2013-01-01

    Platelets have been reported to contribute to inflammation and inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we demonstrate that platelets contribute to the acute response to bacterial infection in a mouse model of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Thrombocytopenia occurred rapidly in infected animals and this was associated with platelet activation, formation of platelet-neutrophil complexes and neutrophil activation. In order to assess the role of platelets during infection, platelets were depleted prior to infection. Platelet-depleted animals had significantly decreased platelet-neutrophil complex formation and neutrophil activation in response to infection. Importantly, significantly fewer bacteria disseminated to the blood, lungs, and spleen of platelet-depleted animals. Platelet-depleted animals did not decrease as significantly in weight as the infected control animals. The results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for platelets during the pathophysiological response to infection, whereby S. pyogenes bacteria bind to platelets and platelets facilitate bacterial dissemination.

  7. Promoting Student Autonomy and Competence Using a Hybrid Model for Teaching Physical Activity

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    Christine Bachman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For approximately twenty-years, Web-enhanced learning environments have been popular in higher education. Much research has examined how best practices can integrate technology, pedagogical theories, and resources to enhance learning. Numerous studies of hybrid teaching have revealed mostly positive effects. Yet, very little research has examined how to teach a successful physical activity course using a hybrid format. Review of the literature: We reviewed the research regarding the design and implementation of a Web-enhanced physical activity course in a college population using pedagogical principles of learning and the10 self-determination theory. Method: Data were collected from students at the beginning and end of the course. The hybrid course consisted of completing weekly online activities, and selecting and participating in a face-to-face physical activity based on student’s choice. Conclusion: The authors propose this template as a model to assist faculty in designing and implementing a blended physical activity course.

  8. Organizational climate survey: management model tool on continuous improvement promotion in Finantial Institutional Environment

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    Alex Amancio da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational climate survey has been an important tool in the corporate world, the way in which the institutions can assess and ascertain through the results, the degree of satisfaction of its employees and look through plan of action, achieve better results in both performance and production. Through an empirical research, exploratory qualitative research, with collection of secondary data, it was found that the implementation of the organizational climate survey, "Speak Frankly" from Itaú Unibanco, it could analyze data and make a plan of effective action aiming at continuous improvement in the organizational environment, serving as personnel management model. The results were favorable in the period from year 2012 to 2014 with an increase of the degree of satisfaction in four 4% and maintained excellent adherence to answer questions reaching 90% the number of employees.

  9. From research to practice: one organisational model for promoting research based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a framework used by the National Institute for Nursing in Oxford to integrate research, development and practice. With the increasing attention given to the topic of how research findings are implemented into clinical practice, it was felt important to share the challenges that have arisen in attempting to combine traditional research activities with more practice based development work. The emerging conceptual framework, structures and functions are described highlighting the variety of partnerships to be established in order to achieve the goal of integrating research into practice. While the underpinning principles of the framework--generating knowledge, implementing research into practice and evaluating the effectiveness of programmes--are not new, it is the way they have been combined within an organisational structure that could be helpful to others considering such a strategy. Both the strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed, a number of conclusions drawn as to its robustness and consideration given to its replication.

  10. Abrogated inflammatory response promotes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.

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    Sulagna Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV induces neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. The detrimental effects of inflammation on neurogenesis have been reported in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated whether JEV-induced inflammation has similar adverse effects on neurogenesis and whether those effects can be reversed using an anti-inflammatory compound minocycline. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using in vitro studies and mouse models, we observed that an acute inflammatory milieu is created in the subventricular neurogenic niche following Japanese encephalitis (JE and a resultant impairment in neurogenesis occurs, which can be reversed with minocycline treatment. Immunohistological studies showed that proliferating cells were replenished and the population of migrating neuroblasts was restored in the niche following minocycline treatment. In vitro, we checked for the efficacy of minocycline as an anti-inflammatory compound and cytokine bead array showed that production of cyto/chemokines decreased in JEV-activated BV2 cells. Furthermore, mouse neurospheres grown in the conditioned media from JEV-activated microglia exhibit arrest in both proliferation and differentiation of the spheres compared to conditioned media from control microglia. These effects were completely reversed when conditioned media from JEV-activated and minocycline treated microglia was used. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides conclusive evidence that JEV-activated microglia and the resultant inflammatory molecules are anti-proliferative and anti-neurogenic for NSPCs growth and development, and therefore contribute to the viral neuropathogenesis. The role of minocycline in restoring neurogenesis may implicate enhanced neuronal repair and attenuation of the neuropsychiatric sequelae in JE survivors.

  11. Early Ankle Mobilization Promotes Healing in a Rabbit Model of Achilles Tendon Rupture.

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    Jielile, Jiasharete; Asilehan, Batiza; Wupuer, Aikeremu; Qianman, Bayixiati; Jialihasi, Ayidaer; Tangkejie, Wulanbai; Maimaitiaili, Abudouheilil; Shawutali, Nuerai; Badelhan, Aynaz; Niyazebieke, Hadelebieke; Aizezi, Adili; Aisaiding, Amuding; Bakyt, Yerzat; Aibek, Rakimbaiev; Wuerliebieke, Jianati

    2016-01-01

    The use of early mobilization of the ankle joint without orthosis in the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture has been advocated as the optimal management. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes in a postoperative rabbit model of Achilles tendon rupture between early mobilization and immobilized animals using a differential proteomics approach. In total, 135 rabbits were randomized into the control group (n=15), the postoperative cast immobilization (PCI) group (n=60), and the early mobilization (EM) group (n=60). A rupture of the Achilles tendon was created in each animal model and repaired microsurgically, and tendon samples were removed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postoperatively. Proteins were separated using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometry, NCBI database searches, and bioinformatics analyses. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups, some of which may play an important role in Achilles tendon healing. Notable candidate proteins that were upregulated in the EM group were identified, such as CRMP-2, galactokinase 1, tropomyosin-4, and transthyretin. The healing of ruptured Achilles tendons appears to be affected at the level of protein expression with the use of early mobilization. The classic postoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with an orthosis ignored the self-protecting instinct of humans. With a novel operative technique, the repaired tendon can persist the load that comes from traction in knee and ankle joint functional movement. In addition, kinesitherapy provided an excellent experimental outcome via a mechanobiological mechanism. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

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    Campos, A C; Brant, F; Miranda, A S; Machado, F S; Teixeira, A L

    2015-03-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection that might cause permanent neurological deficits. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotomimetic compound of Cannabis sativa with neuroprotective properties. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of CBD in a murine model of CM. Female mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) and treated with CBD (30mg/kg/day - 3 or 7days i.p.) or vehicle. On 5th day-post-infection (dpi), at the peak of the disease), animals were treated with single or repeated doses of Artesunate, an antimalarial drug. All groups were tested for memory impairment (Novel Object Recognition or Morris Water Maze) and anxiety-like behaviors (Open field or elevated plus maze test) in different stages of the disease (at the peak or after the complete clearance of the disease). Th1/Th2 cytokines and neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) were measured in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of experimental groups. PbA-infected mice displayed memory deficits and exhibited increase in anxiety-like behaviors on the 5dpi or after the clearance of the parasitemia, effects prevented by CBD treatment. On 5dpi, TNF-α and IL-6 increased in the hippocampus, while only IL-6 increased in the prefrontal cortex. CBD treatment resulted in an increase in BDNF expression in the hippocampus and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6). Our results indicate that CBD exhibits neuroprotective effects in CM model and might be useful as an adjunctive therapy to prevent neurological symptoms following this disease.

  13. Injectable skeletal muscle matrix hydrogel promotes neovascularization and muscle cell infiltration in a hindlimb ischemia model

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    JA DeQuach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD currently affects approximately 27 million patients in Europe and North America, and if untreated, may progress to the stage of critical limb ischemia (CLI, which has implications for amputation and potential mortality. Unfortunately, few therapies exist for treating the ischemic skeletal muscle in these conditions. Biomaterials have been used to increase cell transplant survival as well as deliver growth factors to treat limb ischemia; however, existing materials do not mimic the native skeletal muscle microenvironment they are intended to treat. Furthermore, no therapies involving biomaterials alone have been examined. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix and examine its potential for treating PAD as a stand-alone therapy by studying the material in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. We tested the mitogenic activity of the scaffold’s degradation products using an in vitro assay and measured increased proliferation rates of smooth muscle cells and skeletal myoblasts compared to collagen. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, the femoral artery was ligated and resected, followed by injection of 150 µL of skeletal muscle matrix or collagen 1 week post-injury. We demonstrate that the skeletal muscle matrix increased arteriole and capillary density, as well as recruited more desmin-positive and MyoD-positive cells compared to collagen. Our results indicate that this tissue-specific injectable hydrogel may be a potential therapy for treating ischemia related to PAD, as well as have potential beneficial effects on restoring muscle mass that is typically lost in CLI.

  14. Wound Dressing Model of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Alginates Complex Promotes Skin Wound Healing by Paracrine Signaling

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    Song Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To probe growth characteristics of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs cultured with alginate gel scaffolds, and to explore feasibility of wound dressing model of hUCMSCs-alginates compound. Methods. hUCMSCs were isolated, cultured, and identified in vitro. Then cells were cultivated in 100 mM calcium alginate gel, and the capacity of proliferation and migration and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF were investigated regularly. Wound dressing model of hUCMSCs-alginate gel mix was transplanted into Balb/c mice skin defects. Wound healing rate and immunohistochemistry were examined. Results. hUCMSCs grew well but with little migration ability in the alginate gel. Compared with control group, a significantly larger cell number and more VEGF expression were shown in the gel group after culturing for 3–6 days (P < 0.05. In addition, a faster skin wound healing rate with more neovascularization was observed in the hUCMSCs-alginate gel group than in control groups at 15th day after surgery (P < 0.05. Conclusion. hUCMSCs can proliferate well and express massive VEGF in calcium alginate gel porous scaffolds. Wound dressing model of hUCMSCs-alginate gel mix can promote wound healing through paracrine signaling.

  15. Nuclear geyser model of the origin of life: Driving force to promote the synthesis of building blocks of life

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    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose the nuclear geyser model to elucidate an optimal site to bear the first life. Our model overcomes the difficulties that previously proposed models have encountered. Nuclear geyser is a geyser driven by a natural nuclear reactor, which was likely common in the Hadean Earth, because of a much higher abundance of 235U as nuclear fuel. The nuclear geyser supplies the following: (1 high-density ionizing radiation to promote chemical chain reactions that even tar can be used for intermediate material to restart chemical reactions, (2 a system to maintain the circulation of material and energy, which includes cyclic environmental conditions (warm/cool, dry/wet, etc. to enable to produce complex organic compounds, (3 a lower temperature than 100 °C as not to break down macromolecular organic compounds, (4 a locally reductive environment depending on rock types exposed along the geyser wall, and (5 a container to confine and accumulate volatile chemicals. These five factors are the necessary conditions that the birth place of life must satisfy. Only the nuclear geyser can meet all five, in contrast to the previously proposed birth sites, such as tidal flat, submarine hydrothermal vent, and outer space. The nuclear reactor and associated geyser, which maintain the circulations of material and energy with its surrounding environment, are regarded as the nuclear geyser system that enables numerous kinds of chemical reactions to synthesize complex organic compounds, and where the most primitive metabolism could be generated.

  16. The Collective Impact Model and Its Potential for Health Promotion: Overview and Case Study of a Healthy Retail Initiative in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Johnna; Minkler, Meredith; Lavery, Susana Hennessey; Estrada, Jessica; Falbe, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    As resources for health promotion become more constricted, it is increasingly important to collaborate across sectors, including the private sector. Although many excellent models for cross-sector collaboration have shown promise in the health field, collective impact (CI), an emerging model for creating larger scale change, has yet to receive…

  17. Predictive Ability of Pender's Health Promotion Model for Physical Activity and Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, John P.; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) as a motivational model for exercise/physical activity self-management for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Quantitative descriptive research design using hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) was used. A total of 126 individuals with SCI were recruited…

  18. Caloric restriction promotes cell survival in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Kimura, Atsuko; Azuchi, Yuriko; Akiyama, Goichi; Noro, Takahiko; Harada, Chikako; Namekata, Kazuhiko; Harada, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. We previously reported that loss of glutamate transporters (EAAC1 or GLAST) in mice leads to RGC degeneration that is similar to normal tension glaucoma and these animal models are useful in examining potential therapeutic strategies. Caloric restriction has been reported to increase longevity and has potential benefits in injury and disease. Here we investigated the effects of every-other-day fasting (EODF), a form of caloric restriction, on glaucomatous pathology in EAAC1−/− mice. EODF suppressed RGC death and retinal degeneration without altering intraocular pressure. Moreover, visual impairment was ameliorated with EODF, indicating the functional significance of the neuroprotective effect of EODF. Several mechanisms associated with this neuroprotection were explored. We found that EODF upregulated blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels and increased histone acetylation in the retina. Furthermore, it elevated retinal mRNA expression levels of neurotrophic factors and catalase, whereas it decreased oxidative stress levels in the retina. Our findings suggest that EODF, a safe, non-invasive, and low-cost treatment, may be available for glaucoma therapy. PMID:27669894

  19. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

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    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  20. PUMA promotes apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors driving leukemic progression in a mouse model of myelodysplasia.

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    Guirguis, A A; Slape, C I; Failla, L M; Saw, J; Tremblay, C S; Powell, D R; Rossello, F; Wei, A; Strasser, A; Curtis, D J

    2016-06-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with resultant cytopenias. Increased apoptosis and aberrantly functioning progenitors are thought to contribute to this phenotype. As is the case for other malignancies, overcoming apoptosis is believed to be important in progression toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mouse model of MDS, we previously reported that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2, blocked apoptosis and improved cytopenias, paradoxically, delaying leukemic progression. To further understand this surprising result, we examined the role of p53 and its pro-apoptotic effectors, PUMA and NOXA in NHD13 mice. The absence of p53 or PUMA but not NOXA reduced apoptosis and expanded the numbers of MDS-repopulating cells. Despite a similar effect on apoptosis and cell numbers, the absence of p53 and PUMA had diametrically opposed effects on progression to AML: absence of p53 accelerated leukemic progression, while absence of PUMA significantly delayed progression. This may be explained in part by differences in cellular responses to DNA damage. The absence of p53 led to higher levels of γ-H2AX (indicative of persistent DNA lesions) while PUMA-deficient NHD13 progenitors resolved DNA lesions in a manner comparable to wild-type cells. These results suggest that targeting PUMA may improve the cytopenias of MDS without a detrimental effect on leukemic progression thus warranting further investigation.

  1. Frequency-dependent selection by wild birds promotes polymorphism in model salamanders

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    Shook Kim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-occurrence of distinct colour forms is a classic paradox in evolutionary ecology because both selection and drift tend to remove variation from populations. Apostatic selection, the primary hypothesis for maintenance of colour polymorphism in cryptic animals, proposes that visual predators focus on common forms of prey, resulting in higher survival of rare forms. Empirical tests of this frequency-dependent foraging hypothesis are rare, and the link between predator behaviour and maintenance of variation in prey has been difficult to confirm. Here, we show that predatory birds can act as agents of frequency-dependent selection on terrestrial salamanders. Polymorphism for presence/absence of a dorsal stripe is widespread in many salamander species and its maintenance is a long-standing mystery. Results We used realistic food-bearing model salamanders to test whether selection by wild birds maintains a stripe/no-stripe polymorphism. In experimental manipulations, whichever form was most common was most likely to be attacked by ground-foraging birds, resulting in a survival advantage for the rare form. Conclusion This experiment demonstrates that frequency-dependent foraging by wild birds can maintain colour polymorphism in cryptic prey.

  2. High-fat Diet Promotes Cardiac Remodeling in an Experimental Model of Obesity

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    Fernando Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity.Objective:To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet.Methods:Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g and an obese (OB group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g. The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed.Results:High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained.Conclusion:It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.

  3. Syndecan-1 deficiency promotes tumor growth in a murine model of colitis-induced colon carcinoma

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    Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Hermano, Esther; Weizman, Barak; Meirovitz, Amichay; Vlodavsky, Israel; Götte, Martin; Elkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is an important member of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan family, highly expressed by epithelial cells in adult organisms. Sdc1 is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, growth-factor, chemokine and integrin activity, and implicated in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. Gastrointestinal tract represents an important anatomic site where loss of Sdc1 expression was reported both in inflammation and malignancy. However, the biological significance of Sdc1 in chronic colitis-associated tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to test the effects of Sdc1 loss on colorectal tumor development in inflammation-driven colon tumorigenesis. Utilizing a mouse model of colitis-related colon carcinoma induced by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), followed by the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we found that Sdc1 deficiency results in increased susceptibility to colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Importantly, colitis-associated tumors developed in Sdc1-defficient mice were characterized by increased local production of IL-6, activation of STAT3, as well as induction of several STAT3 target genes that act as important effectors of colonic tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results highlight a previously unknown effect of Sdc1 loss in progression of inflammation-associated cancer and suggest that decreased levels of Sdc1 may serve as an indicator of colon carcinoma progression in the setting of chronic inflammation. PMID:28350804

  4. High-fat Diet Promotes Cardiac Remodeling in an Experimental Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernando; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Pagan, Luana Urbano; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio Assis de

    2015-11-01

    Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity. To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet. Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C) group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g) and an obese (OB) group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g). The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed. High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained. It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.

  5. Intravesical application of rebamipide promotes urothelial healing in a rat cystitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshida, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Takai, Shun; Gotoh, Momokazu

    2014-12-01

    Rebamipide is used as a topical therapeutic agent for various organs. We examined the healing effects of intravesical rebamipide on damaged urothelium in a rat model of chemically induced cystitis. Hydrochloride was injected in the bladder of female Sprague Dawley® rats to induce cystitis. On days 1 and 4 rebamipide (1 or 10 mM) or vehicle was administered in the bladder and maintained for 1 hour. Histopathology, urothelial permeability, cystometrogram and nociceptive behaviors were evaluated on day 7. Also, tissue rebamipide concentrations after the 1-hour bladder instillation were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Intravesically administered rebamipide permeated the bladder, particularly in hydrochloride treated rats, and the pharmacologically effective tissue dose remained for greater than 6 hours. Bladder histological evaluation revealed polymorphological inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased positive staining for uroplakin 3A in hydrochloride treated rats. Scanning electron microscopy showed damaged tight junctions in the hydrochloride group. Evans blue absorption in the bladder wall was increased in hydrochloride treated rats. These findings, which were associated with urothelial injury and increased permeability, were dependently suppressed by the rebamipide treatment dose. Cystometrogram demonstrated that the intercontraction interval was shorter in hydrochloride treated rats but prolonged by rebamipide. The increased nociceptive behaviors observed after intravesical resiniferatoxin administration were also suppressed by rebamipide. Intravesical rebamipide accelerated the repair of damaged urothelium, protected urothelial barrier function and suppressed bladder overactivity and nociception. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase in promoting nitrogen fixation in model systems.

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    Ross, E J; Kramer, S B; Dalton, D A

    1999-12-01

    Ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase are important antioxidants that are abundant in N2-fixing legume root nodules. Antioxidants are especially critical in root nodules because leghemoglobin, which is present at high concentrations in nodules, is prone to autoxidation and production of activated oxygen species such as O2.- and H2O2. The merits of ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase for maintaining conditions favorable for N2 fixation were examined in two model systems containing oxygen-binding proteins (purified myoglobin or leghemoglobin) and N2-fixing microorganisms (free-living Azorhizobium or bacteroids of Bradyrhizobium japonicum) in sealed vials. The inclusion of ascorbate alone to these systems led to enhanced oxygenation of hemeproteins, as well as to increases in nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity. The inclusion of both ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase resulted in even greater positive responses, including increases of up to 4.5-fold in nitrogenase activity. In contrast, superoxide dismutase did not provide beneficial antioxidant action and catalase alone provided only very marginal benefit. Optimal concentrations were 2 mM for ascorbate and 200 micrograms/ml for ascorbate peroxidase. These concentrations are similar to those found in intact soybean nodules. These results support the conclusion that ascorbate and ascorbate peroxidase are beneficial for maintaining conditions favorable for N2 fixation in nodules.

  7. Coadsorption, promotion, and poisoning effects: Analytic modeling based on bond-order conservation

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    Shustorovich, Evgeny

    1986-10-01

    Our bond-order conservation model [ J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106 (1984) 6479; Surface Sci. 150 (1985) L115, 163 (1985) L645, L730] has been extended to treat effects of an atomic modifier D, either electronegative or electropositive, on coadsorbed atoms A and diatomic molecules AB. Taking a fcc(100) surface as an example, explicit formulas have been obtained for the relevant heats of chemisorption QA and QAB as a function of the D coverage θ D when D occupies the hollow site, for three typical cases: (i) a single D; (ii) a p(2 × 2) structure, θ D = {1}/{4}; (iii) a c(2 × 2) structure, θ D = {1}/{2}. The values of QA and ( QAB) been estimated for various on-top, bridge, and hollow sites for a realistic range of the parameter r = {Q D}/{Q A} (Q AB) . Possible corrections due to direct D-A and D-AB interactions, both attractive and repulsive, are discussed. We consider coadsorption effects on the stretch frequency ν AB and dissociation activation barrier Δ E∗AB and project a variety of patterns depending on the nature of D, coverages θ D and θ AB, and some other parameters. The results obtained are in encouraging agreement with experiment. The complex nature of coadsorption effects is stressed.

  8. Obesity, diabetes, and leptin resistance promote tau pathology in a mouse model of disease.

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    Platt, T L; Beckett, T L; Kohler, K; Niedowicz, D M; Murphy, M P

    2016-02-19

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) convey an increased risk for developing dementia. The microtubule-associated protein tau is implicated in neurodegenerative disease by undergoing hyperphosphorylation and aggregation, leading to cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Enzymes involved in the regulation of tau phosphorylation, such as GSK3β, are tightly associated with pathways found to be dysregulated in T2DM. We have shown previously that leptin-resistant mice, which develop obesity and a diabetic phenotype, display elevated levels of tau phosphorylation. Here we show cells cultured with leptin, an adipokine shown to have neuroprotective effects, reduces tau phosphorylation. To explore how this mechanism works in vivo we transduced an existing diabetic mouse line (Lepr(db/db)) with a tau mutant (tau(P301L)) via adeno-associated virus (AAV). The resulting phenotype included a striking increase in tau phosphorylation and the number of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) found within the hippocampus. We conclude that leptin resistance-induced obesity and diabetes accelerates the development of tau pathology. This model of metabolic dysfunction and tauopathy provides a new system in which to explore the mechanisms underlying the ways in which leptin resistance and diabetes influence development of tau pathology, and may ultimately be related to the development of NFTs.

  9. Calpains promote neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in an acute bacterial peritonitis model.

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    Kumar, Vijay; Everingham, Stephanie; Hall, Christine; Greer, Peter A; Craig, Andrew W B

    2014-03-01

    Activation of the innate immune system is critical for clearance of bacterial pathogens to limit systemic infections and host tissue damage. Here, we report a key role for calpain proteases in bacterial clearance in mice with acute peritonitis. Using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase primarily in innate immune cells (fes-Cre), we generated conditional capns1 knockout mice. Consistent with capns1 being essential for stability and function of the ubiquitous calpains (calpain-1, calpain-2), peritoneal cells from these mice had reduced levels of calpain-2/capns1, and reduced proteolysis of their substrate selenoprotein K. Using an acute bacterial peritonitis model, we observed impaired bacterial killing within the peritoneum and development of bacteremia in calpain knockout mice. These defects correlated with significant reductions in IL-1α release, neutrophil recruitment, and generation of reactive oxygen species in calpain knockout mice with acute bacterial peritonitis. Peritoneal macrophages from calpain knockout mice infected with enterobacteria ex vivo, were competent in phagocytosis of bacteria, but showed impaired clearance of intracellular bacteria compared with control macrophages. Together, these results implicate calpains as key mediators of effective innate immune responses to acute bacterial infections, to prevent systemic dissemination of bacteria that can lead to sepsis.

  10. Circadian desynchrony promotes metabolic disruption in a mouse model of shiftwork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L Barclay

    Full Text Available Shiftwork is associated with adverse metabolic pathophysiology, and the rising incidence of shiftwork in modern societies is thought to contribute to the worldwide increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but may involve direct physiological effects of nocturnal light exposure, or indirect consequences of perturbed endogenous circadian clocks. This study employs a two-week paradigm in mice to model the early molecular and physiological effects of shiftwork. Two weeks of timed sleep restriction has moderate effects on diurnal activity patterns, feeding behavior, and clock gene regulation in the circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In contrast, microarray analyses reveal global disruption of diurnal liver transcriptome rhythms, enriched for pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and correlating with first indications of altered metabolism. Although altered food timing itself is not sufficient to provoke these effects, stabilizing peripheral clocks by timed food access can restore molecular rhythms and metabolic function under sleep restriction conditions. This study suggests that peripheral circadian desynchrony marks an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with chronic shiftwork. Thus, strengthening the peripheral circadian system by minimizing food intake during night shifts may counteract the adverse physiological consequences frequently observed in human shift workers.

  11. The S100A4 Oncoprotein Promotes Prostate Tumorigenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Hifzur R; Adhami, Vaqar M; Parray, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, is known for its role in the metastatic spread of tumor cells, a late event of cancer disease. This is the first report showing that S100A4 is not merely a metastatic protein but also an oncoprotein that plays a critical role in the development of tumors. We...... earlier showed that S100A4 expression progressively increases in prostatic tissues with the advancement of prostate cancer (CaP) in TRAMP, an autochthonous mouse model. To study the functional significance of S100A4 in CaP, we generated a heterozygously deleted S100A4 (TRAMP/S100A4(+/-)) genotype...... by crossing TRAMP with S100A4(-/-) mice. TRAMP/S100A4(+/-) did not show a lethal phenotype, and transgenes were functional. As compared to age-matched TRAMP littermates, TRAMP/S100A4(+/-) mice exhibited 1) an increased tumor latency period (P

  12. Heterozygosity for Pten promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse model of medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Castellino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent publications have described an important role for cross talk between PI-3 kinase and sonic hedgehog signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We crossed mice with constitutive activation of Smoothened, SmoA1, with Pten deficient mice. Both constitutive and conditional Pten deficiency doubled the incidence of mice with symptoms of medulloblastoma and resulted in decreased survival. Analysis revealed a clear separation of gene signatures, with up-regulation of genes in the PI-3 kinase signaling pathway, including downstream activation of angiogenesis in SmoA1+/-; Pten +/- medulloblastomas. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced or absent Pten, Akt activation, and increased angiogenesis in Pten deficient tumors. Down-regulated genes included genes in the sonic hedgehog pathway and tumor suppressor genes. SmoA1+/-; Pten +/+ medulloblastomas appeared classic in histology with increased proliferation and diffuse staining for apoptosis. In contrast, Pten deficient tumors exhibited extensive nodularity with neuronal differentiation separated by focal areas of intense staining for proliferation and virtually absent apoptosis. Examination of human medulloblastomas revealed low to absent PTEN expression in over half of the tumors. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed worse overall survival in patients whose tumor exhibited low to absent PTEN expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This suggests that PTEN expression is a marker of favorable prognosis and mouse models with activation of PI-3 kinase pathways may be important tools for preclinical evaluation of promising agents for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  13. Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Promotes Tissue Remodeling, Arteriogenesis, and Perfusion in a Rat Hindlimb Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Ungerleider, BS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surgical and endovascular revascularization can be performed in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, 40% of patients with critical limb ischemia do not have a revascularization option. This study examines the efficacy and mechanisms of action of acellular extracellular matrix-based hydrogels as a potential novel therapy for treating PAD. We tested the efficacy of using a tissue-specific injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized porcine skeletal muscle (SKM and compared this to a new human umbilical cord-derived matrix (hUC hydrogel, which could have greater potential for tissue regeneration because of the younger age of the tissue source. In a rodent hindlimb ischemia model, both hydrogels were injected 1-week post-surgery and perfusion was regularly monitored with laser speckle contrast analysis to 35 days post-injection. There were significant improvements in hindlimb tissue perfusion and perfusion kinetics with both biomaterials. Histologic analysis indicated that the injected hydrogels were biocompatible, and resulted in arteriogenesis, rather than angiogenesis, as well as improved recruitment of skeletal muscle progenitors. Skeletal muscle fiber morphology analysis indicated that the muscle treated with the tissue-specific SKM hydrogel more closely matched healthy tissue morphology. Whole transcriptome analysis indicated that the SKM hydrogel caused a shift in the inflammatory response, decreased cell death, and increased blood vessel and muscle development. These results show the efficacy of an injectable ECM hydrogel alone as a potential therapy for treating patients with PAD. Our results indicate that the SKM hydrogel improved functional outcomes through stimulation of arteriogenesis and muscle progenitor cell recruitment.

  14. Communicating personal amnesty: a model for health promotion in an Australian disability context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpoel, Nicholas; Gattenhof, Sandra; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Currently pathological and illness-centric policy surrounds the evaluation of the health status of a person experiencing disability. In this research partnerships were built between disability service providers, community development organizations and disability arts organizations to build a translational evaluative methodology prior to implementation of an arts-based workshop that was embedded in a strengths-based approach to health and well-being. The model consisted of three foci: participation in a pre-designed drama-based workshop program; individualized assessment and evaluation of changing health status; and longitudinal analysis of participants changing health status in their public lives following the culmination of the workshop series. Participants (n = 15) were recruited through disability service providers and disability arts organizations to complete a 13-week workshop series and public performance. The study developed accumulative qualitative analysis tools and member-checking methods specific to the communication systems used by individual participants. Principle findings included increased confidence for verbal and non-verbal communicators; increased personal drive, ambition and goal-setting; increased arts-based skills including professional engagements as artists; demonstrated skills in communicating perceptions of health status to private and public spheres. Tangential positive observations were evident in the changing recreational, vocational and educational activities participants engaged with pre- and post- the workshop series; participants advocating for autonomous accommodation and health provision and changes in the disability service staff's culture. The research is an example of translational health methodologies in disability studies. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Large strain stimulation promotes extracellular matrix production and stiffness in an elastomeric scaffold model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D׳Amore, Antonio; Soares, Joao S; Stella, John A; Zhang, Will; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Mayer, John E; Wagner, William R; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical conditioning of engineered tissue constructs is widely recognized as one of the most relevant methods to enhance tissue accretion and microstructure, leading to improved mechanical behaviors. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rather limited, restricting the development of in silico models of these phenomena, and the translation of engineered tissues into clinical application. In the present study, we examined the role of large strip-biaxial strains (up to 50%) on ECM synthesis by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) micro-integrated into electrospun polyester urethane urea (PEUU) constructs over the course of 3 weeks. Experimental results indicated that VSMC biosynthetic behavior was quite sensitive to tissue strain maximum level, and that collagen was the primary ECM component synthesized. Moreover, we found that while a 30% peak strain level achieved maximum ECM synthesis rate, further increases in strain level lead to a reduction in ECM biosynthesis. Subsequent mechanical analysis of the formed collagen fiber network was performed by removing the scaffold mechanical responses using a strain-energy based approach, showing that the denovo collagen also demonstrated mechanical behaviors substantially better than previously obtained with small strain training and comparable to mature collagenous tissues. We conclude that the application of large deformations can play a critical role not only in the quantity of ECM synthesis (i.e. the rate of mass production), but also on the modulation of the stiffness of the newly formed ECM constituents. The improved understanding of the process of growth and development of ECM in these mechano-sensitive cell-scaffold systems will lead to more rational design and manufacturing of engineered tissues operating under highly demanding mechanical environments.

  16. Colitis promotes adaptation of an intestinal nematode: a Heligmosomoides polygyrus mouse model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin α1 chain, actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD.

  17. Promoting the Understanding of Scientific Reasoning, Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis: A Course for Astrophysics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NSF-supported “AstroCom NYC” program, a collaboration of the City University of New York, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and Columbia University has the explicit goal of increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics by providing pedagogical mentoring and research experiences to undergraduate students. To supplement AstroCom scholars' undergraduate course work, and as a gateway to summer astrophysics research opportunities, we implemented a course called “Methods of Scientific Research” (MSR). The semester-long MSR course emphasizes the study of data using computers and other digital tools in a laboratory environment that encourages collaborative and active learning. We enroll early physical science majors and deliberately seek to inculcate habits of mind needed for science research, including assigning physical meaning to variables and measurements; engaging in mathematical modeling; quantifying error; eliminating bias; proposing hypotheses; creating predictions; testing predictions. Using laptop computers interfaced with probeware, students collect and analyze data using graphing software. Students study concepts such as motion, temperature, magnetism, electricity, gas pressure, and force with open-ended investigations where large data sets can be readily collected and replicated during a course meeting. Students are guided to examine data for patterns and trends, to make meaning of descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values, correlation coefficients and root mean square error values, and in general to understand, judge, and describe the studied phenomena based on data. A secondary goal of the course is to familiarize students with the facilities at AMNH, where they will do summer research as part of AstroCom NYC, in an effort to build a sense of belonging and to help them begin to self-identify as a scientist. We will discuss some our activities and

  18. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  19. A modified collagen gel dressing promotes angiogenesis in a preclinical swine model of chronic ischemic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgharably, Haytham; Ganesh, Kasturi; Dickerson, Jennifer; Khanna, Savita; Abas, Motaz; Ghatak, Piya Das; Dixit, Sriteja; Bergdall, Valerie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2014-01-01

    We recently performed proteomic characterization of a modified collagen gel (MCG) dressing and reported promising effects of the gel in healing full-thickness excisional wounds. In this work, we test the translational relevance of our aforesaid findings by testing the dressing in a swine model of chronic ischemic wounds recently reported by our laboratory. Full-thickness excisional wounds were established in the center of bipedicle ischemic skin flaps on the backs of animals. Ischemia was verified by laser Doppler imaging, and MCG was applied to the test group of wounds. Seven days post wounding, macrophage recruitment to the wound was significantly higher in MCG-treated ischemic wounds. In vitro, MCG up-regulated expression of Mrc-1 (a reparative M2 macrophage marker) and induced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and of fibroblast growth factor-basic (β-FGF). An increased expression of CCR2, an M2 macrophage marker, was noted in the macrophages from MCG treated wounds. Furthermore, analyses of wound tissues 7 days post wounding showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, von Willebrand's factor, and collagen type I expression in MCG-treated ischemic wounds. At 21 days post wounding, MCG-treated ischemic wounds displayed higher abundance of proliferating endothelial cells that formed mature vascular structures and increased blood flow to the wound. Fibroblast count was markedly higher in MCG-treated ischemic wound-edge tissue. In addition, MCG-treated wound-edge tissues displayed higher abundance of mature collagen with increased collagen type I : III deposition. Taken together, MCG helped mount a more robust inflammatory response that resolved in a timely manner, followed by an enhanced proliferative phase, angiogenic outcome, and postwound tissue remodeling. Findings of the current study warrant clinical testing of MCG in a setting of ischemic chronic wounds. © 2014 by the Wound

  20. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger–Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR, consistent with their Pelger–Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbric/+, and the (NZW×B6.LbricF1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.LbricF1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Faslpr mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.LbricF1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO or proteinase 3 (PR3, was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  1. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Johnstone, Duncan B.; Martin, Kayla A.; Tempera, Italo; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger–Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR), consistent with their Pelger–Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW) was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbric/+), and the (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Faslpr mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  2. High Fat, High Calorie Diet Promotes Early Pancreatic Neoplasia in the Conditional KrasG12D Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David W.; Hertzer, Kathleen; Moro, Aune; Donald, Graham; Chang, Hui-Hua; Go, Vay Liang; Pandol, Steven J.; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Li, Gang; Hines, Oscar J.; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2013-01-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that obesity increases the risk of cancers. Several underlying mechanisms, including inflammation and insulin resistance, are proposed. However, the driving mechanisms in pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to develop a model of diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer development in a state-of-the-art mouse model, which resembles important clinical features of human obesity, e.g. weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Offspring of Pdx-1-Cre and LSL-KrasG12D mice were allocated to either a diet high in fats and calories (HFCD; ~4,535 kcal/kg; 40% of calories from fats) or control diet (CD; ~3,725 kcal/kg; 12% of calories from fats) for 3 months. Compared to control animals, mice fed the HFCD significantly gained more weight and developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and elevated levels of IGF-1. The pancreas of HFCD-fed animals showed robust signs of inflammation with increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages and T-cells), elevated levels of several cytokines and chemokines, increased stromal fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in fats and calories leads to obesity and metabolic disturbances similar to humans and accelerates early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model. This model and findings will provide the basis for more robust studies attempting to unravel the mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting properties of obesity as well as to evaluate dietary- and chemo-preventive strategies targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer development. PMID:23943783

  3. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Angiogenesis and Skeletal Muscle Fiber Remodeling in a Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Peng Diao; Feng-Kui Cui; Sheng Yan; Zuo-Guan Chen; Li-Shan Lian; Li-Long Guo; Yong-Jun Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic angiogenesis has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and improve tissue perfusion.Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to play an important role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis.This study aimed to investigate the effects of NGF on angiogenesis and skeletal muscle fiber remodeling in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia and study the relationship between NGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis.Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly allocated to normal control group (n =6), blank control group (n =6), VEGF gene transfection group (n =6), and NGF gene transfection group (n =6).The model of left hindlimb ischemia model was established by ligating the femoral artery.VEGF165 plasmid (125 μg) and NGF plasmid (125 μg) was injected into the ischemic gastrocnemius of mice from VEGF group and NGF group, respectively.Left hindlimb function and ischemic damage were assessed with terminal points at 21th day postischemia induction.The gastrocnemius of four groups was tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and CD34 immunohistochemistry staining, and myosin ATPase staining.NGF and VEGF protein expression was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: On the 21th day after surgery, the functional assessment score and skeletal muscle atrophy degree of VEGF group and NGF group were significantly lower than those of normal control group and blank control group.The endothelial cell proliferation index and the capillary density of VEGF group and NGF group were significantly increased compared with normal control group and blank control group (P < 0.05).The NGF and VEGF protein expression of NGF group showed a significant rise when compared with blank control group (P < 0.05).Similarly, the VEGF protein expression of VEGF group was significantly higher than that of blank control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference of the NGF protein

  4. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters...... and their features, helping researchers who are investigating functional categories of promoters and their modes of regulation. Additional features of promoters that are being characterized include types of histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, RNA polymerase pausing and novel small RNAs. In this Review, we...... discuss recent findings relating to metazoan promoters and how these findings are leading to a revised picture of what a gene promoter is and how it works....

  5. A model of Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) for promoting and controlling health and safety in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, S; Rajalakshmi, R; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    The development of Occupational Safety and Health Management System in textile industry will rejuvenate the workers and energize the economy as a whole. In India, especially in Tamil Nadu, approximately 1371 textile business is running with the help of 38,461 workers under Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Garment and Dyeing sectors. Textile industry of contributes to the growth of Indian economy but it fails to foster education and health as key components of human development and help new democracies. The present work attempts to measure and develop OSHMS which reduce the hazards and risk involved in textile industry. Among all other industries textile industry is affected by enormous hazards and risk because of negligence by management and Government. It is evident that managements are not abiding by law when an accident has occurred. Managements are easily deceiving workers and least bothered about the Quality of Work Life (QWL). A detailed analysis of factors promoting safety and health to the workers has been done by performing confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating Risk Priority Number and the framework of OHMS has been conceptualized using Structural Equation Model. The data have been collected using questionnaire and interview method. The study finds occupation health for worker in Textile industry is affected not only by safety measure but also by technology and management. The work shows that difficulty in identifying the cause and effect of hazards, the influence of management in controlling and promoting OSHMS under various dimensions. One startling fact is existence of very low and insignificance correlation between health factors and outcome.

  6. Psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration in colon tissue through adrenergic signaling in DSS-induced colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Que; Chen, Hongyu; Liu, Yanjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Guo, Liang; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Xiang; Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaomeng; Xie, Shuai; Qi, Siyong; Yin, Zhaoyang; Gao, Jiangping; Chen, Xintian; Wang, Jiangong; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Shi, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition. Psychological stress has been postulated to affect the clinical symptoms and recurrence of IBD. The exact molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration into colon tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. The psychological stress resulted in abnormal expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-22) and neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) and overactivation of the STAT3 inflammatory signaling pathway. Under chronic unpredictable stress, the adrenergic nervous system was markedly activated, as the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, in bone marrow and colonic epithelium was enhanced, especially in the myenteric ganglia. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol mimicked the effects of psychological stress on neutrophilia, neutrophil infiltration, and colonic damage in DSS-induced colitis. The β1-AR/β2-AR inhibitor propranolol reduced the numbers of the neutrophils in the circulation, suppressed neutrophil infiltration into colonic tissues, and attenuated the colonic tissue damage promoted by chronic stress. Propranolol also abolished stress-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil chemokines. Our data reveal a close linkage between the β1-AR/β2-AR activation and neutrophil trafficking and also suggest the critical roles of adrenergic nervous system in exacerbation of inflammation and damage of colonic tissues in experimental colitis. The current study provides a new insight into the mechanisms underlying the association of psychological stress with excessive inflammatory response and pathophysiological consequences in IBD. The findings also suggest a potential application of neuroprotective agents to prevent relapsing immune activation in the treatment of IBD.

  7. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  8. Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2013-01-01

    Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

  9. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: part 1 - using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Carol Merry; Stephenson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  10. Predicting Oral Health Behavior using the Health Promotion Model among School Students: a Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Charkazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available teeth and T=permanent teeth has been increasing from 1957 to 2015 years in Iran. The current survey aimed to test the power of health promotion model for predicting the oral health behavior among high-school students.  Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 482 high school students in Gorgan city, Iran. Multi-cluster sampling was used to recruit the samples. A researcher-made questionnaire based on HPM was implemented to collect data. To analyze, SPSS-18 and statistical tests, including t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and univariate and multivariate regression models were used. Results: A total of 482 high-school students including 255 (52.9% male and 227 (47.1% with mean age of 16.02 ± 0.5 were investigated. The highest and lowest prevalent positive oral health behavior were tooth brushing (73% and using fluidized oral irrigator (3.6%, respectively. Except for perceived barriers (with negative correlation, all constructs of HBM were positively related to oral health behaviors. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of oral health behavior (β=0.653 (r=0.541, P

  11. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  12. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student...... health promotion workers should ideally act as health promotion role models. This claim leads to a series of educational and morally anchored dilemmas and challenges. Inspired by Foucault and others who have developed this line of thinking (eg. Signild Vallgårde) health promotion is viewed as a heartfelt...

  14. A Systematic Review of Exercise Training To Promote Locomotor Recovery in Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Robert J.; Callister, Robin; Galea, Mary P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the early 1980s experiments on spinalized cats showed that exercise training on the treadmill could enhance locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, we summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of exercise training aimed at promoting locomotor recovery in animal models of SCI. We performed a systematic search of the literature using Medline, Web of Science, and Embase. Of the 362 studies screened, 41 were included. The adult female rat was the most widely used animal model. The majority of studies (73%) reported that exercise training had a positive effect on some aspect of locomotor recovery. Studies employing a complete SCI were less likely to have positive outcomes. For incomplete SCI models, contusion was the most frequently employed method of lesion induction, and the degree of recovery depended on injury severity. Positive outcomes were associated with training regimens that involved partial weight-bearing activity, commenced within a critical period of 1–2 weeks after SCI, and maintained training for at least 8 weeks. Considerable heterogeneity in training paradigms and methods used to assess or quantify recovery was observed. A 13-item checklist was developed and employed to assess the quality of reporting and study design; only 15% of the studies had high methodological quality. We recommend that future studies include control groups, randomize animals to groups, conduct blinded assessments, report the extent of the SCI lesion, and report sample size calculations. A small battery of objective assessment methods including assessment of over-ground stepping should also be developed and routinely employed. This would allow future meta-analyses of the effectiveness of exercise interventions on locomotor recovery. PMID:22401139

  15. Osteogenesis and mineralization in a rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model is promoted by the human LMP-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowen; Chen, Yanzhe; Fan, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Hao; Kun, Lu

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effects of LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) on bone regeneration in the distraction zone based on gene transduction, 36 New Zealand white rabbits underwent mandibular lengthening with a distraction rate of 2 mm/day. The animals were then randomly divided into group A and group B (n = 18, each). At the end of the distraction, Ad5-EGFP viruses and Ad5-LMP-1/EGFP viruses were injected into the distraction gaps in groups A and B, respectively. Seven days later, five randomly selected animals from each group were sacrificed to evaluate the survival of the virus. Four and 8 weeks after distraction osteogenesis (DO), six samples randomly selected from each group underwent CT scanning and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry detection. Eight weeks after DO, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the distracted mandibles were harvested. Six animals from each group processed for radiography, micro-CT, histology, and the rest samples were taken three-point bend testing. Using this model, better bone formation and mineralization in the distracted callus were observed in group B when compared with those in group A. The results suggest local transduction with LMP-1 gene promotes osteogenesis and mineralization in DO.

  16. Sleep-promoting effects of a GABA/5-HTP mixture: Behavioral changes and neuromodulation in an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-04-01

    This study was to investigate the sleep promoting effects of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), by examining neuronal processes governing mRNA level alterations, as well as assessing neuromodulator concentrations, in a fruit fly model. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. Also, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. Subjective nighttime activity and sleep patterns of individual flies significantly decreased with 1% GABA treatment in conjunction with 0.1% 5-HTP treatment (pHTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to sleep patterns (40%, pHTP mixture significantly increased GABA levels 1h and 12h following treatment (2.1 fold and 1.2 fold higher than the control, respectively) and also increased 5-HTP levels (0 h: 1.01 μg/protein, 12h: 3.45 μg/protein). In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mindfulness Training Promotes Upward Spirals of Positive Affect and Cognition: Multilevel and Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Garland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation. The present study examined positive emotion-cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from depression who had been randomly assigned to treatment with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT; n = 64 or a wait-list control condition (n = 66. We hypothesized that MBCT stimulates upward spirals by increasing positive affect and positive cognition. Experience sampling assessed changes in affect and cognition during 6 days before and after treatment, which were analyzed with a series of multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory models. Findings suggest that MBCT was associated with significant increases in trait positive affect and momentary positive cognition, which were preserved through autoregressive and cross-lagged effects driven by global emotional tone. Findings suggest that daily positive affect and cognition are maintained by an upward spiral that might be promoted by mindfulness training.

  18. Kinin Peptides Enhance Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Promoting Apoptosis in a Parkinson’s Disease Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Niewiarowska-Sendo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinin peptides ubiquitously occur in nervous tissue and participate in inflammatory processes associated with distinct neurological disorders. These substances have also been demonstrated to promote the oxidative stress. On the other hand, the importance of oxidative stress and inflammation has been emphasized in disorders that involve the neurodegenerative processes such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the increased expression of kinin receptors in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the effect of bradykinin and des-Arg10-kallidin, two representative kinin peptides, was analyzed with respect to inflammatory response and induction of oxidative stress in a PD cellular model, obtained after stimulation of differentiated SK-N-SH cells with a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Kinin peptides caused an increased cytokine release and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and NO by cells. These changes were accompanied by a loss of cell viability and a greater activation of caspases involved in apoptosis progression. Moreover, the neurotoxin and kinin peptides altered the dopamine receptor 2 expression. Kinin receptor expression was also changed by the neurotoxin. These results suggest a mediatory role of kinin peptides in the development of neurodegeneration and may offer new possibilities for its regulation by using specific antagonists of kinin receptors.

  19. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to identify promising message strategies to promote healthy sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention.

  20. Analogy for Drude’s free electron model to promote students’ understanding of electric circuits in lower secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José BM de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude’s free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first school contacts with electric phenomena, one can promote students’ understanding of concepts such as electric current, the role of generators, potential difference effects, energy transfer, open and closed circuits, resistances, and their combinations in series and parallel. One believes that through this analogy well-known previous misconceptions of young students about electric circuit behaviors can be overcome. Furthermore, students’ understanding will enable them to predict, and justify with self-constructed arguments, the behavior of different elementary circuits. The students’ predictions can be verified—as a challenge of self-produced understanding schemes—using laboratory experiments. At a preliminary stage, our previsions were confirmed through a pilot study with three classrooms of 9th level Portuguese students.

  1. Animal-assisted dyadic therapy: A therapy model promoting development of the reflective function in the parent-child bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Liat

    2017-01-01

    Animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) inherently incorporates standpoints, interventions, and ways of action promoting the development of the reflective function and mentalization, and thus has special value for parent-child psychotherapy. Two central tools in AAP contribute to this process. The first is the ethical stance of the therapist, who sees the animals as full partners in the therapy situation, respecting them as subjects with needs, desires, and thoughts of their own. The second tool combines nonverbal communication with animals together with the relating, in the here and now, to the understanding and decoding of body language of everyone in the setting. Nonverbal communication in AAP enables access to implicit communication patterns occurring between parent and child. This article provides a survey of theoretical development and research constituting a basis for the development of therapeutic approaches for the improvement of parent-children dynamics, followed by a description of a dyadic therapy model of a mentalization-based treatment originating from a psychoanalytic-relational orientation. Clinical examples are provided to illustrate AAP processes in parent-child psychotherapy (consent was received for examples that were not aggregated).

  2. Cancer-associated fibroblast promote transmigration through endothelial brain cells in three-dimensional in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Lee, Joo Hyun; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kim, Baek Gil; Kang, Suki; Kim, Se Hoon; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Brain metastases are associated with high morbidity as well as with poor prognosis and survival in breast cancer patients. Despite its clinical importance, metastasis of breast cancer cells through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is poorly understood. The objective of our study was to investigate whether cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play crucial roles in breast cancer brain metastasis. Using a cell adhesion assays, in vitro BBB permeability and transmigration assays and soft agar colony formation assays, we investigated the physical roles of CAFs in breast cancer brain metastasis. We also performed immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis, Droplet Digital PCR and Simon™ Simple Western System to confirm changes in expression levels. We established two novel three-dimensional (3D) culture systems using a perpendicular slide chamber and applying 3D embedded culture method to reflect brain metastasis conditions. With a newly developed device, CAFs was proven to promote cell adhesion to human brain microvascular endothelial cells, in vitro BBB permeability and transmigration and colony formation of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, CAFs enhanced the invasive migration of breast cancer cells in two kinds of 3D cultures. These 3D models also reliably recapitulate the initial steps of BBB transmigration, micro-metastasis and colonization. Expression of integrin α5β1 and αvβ3, c-MET and α2,6-siayltransferase was increased in breast cancer cells that migrated through the BBB. In conclusion, based on our in vitro BBB and co-culture models, our data suggest that CAFs may play a role in breast cancer brain metastasis.

  3. A Novel Antihepatitis Drug, Bicyclol, Prevents Liver Carcinogenesis in Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Mice Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicyclol, an antihepatitis drug developed by Chinese scientists, has been shown to prevent the malignant transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. This study provides further evidence on its role as a chemopreventive agent in experimental mice with diethylnitrosamine- (DEN- initiated and phenobarbital- (PB- promoted liver carcinoma. Liver tissue and serum were collected. In the two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, oral administration of bicyclol (100, 200 mg/kg before DEN injection showed significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular foci, nodules, or carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed that there was no hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and hepatoma formation in the mice pretreated with bicyclol (200 mg/kg at week 20, while the mice treated with DEN/PB developed 33.3% HCC and 55.6% hepatoma. Furthermore, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and α-fetal protein (AFP in serum significantly increased in the DEN/PB model group in comparison with the control group. Pretreatment with bicyclol showed a marked reduction in the above condition. Bicyclol also decreased the expression of AFP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level in the liver tissue and attenuated the decrease in body weight. In this study, we also found that 10 weeks after stopping the administration of PB and drugs, the control and bicyclol-treated (200 mg/kg animals showed no HCC and hepatoma formation at the time of termination whereas DEN/PB-induced mice developed 100% hepatoma and 50% HCC. These results further indicate that bicyclol has the chemopreventive potential for liver carcinogenesis induced by carcinogens.

  4. Structured model Consumer-based Brand Equity based on Promotional-mix elements(Case Study: Food Active Industries of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Rezvani

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationships among Promotional-mix elements and Customer-based Brand Equity. Then, a model is developed to examine the relationships Promotional-mix elements and Customer-based brand equity in Food Industries of Tehran. The sample size is 240. Data are collected by questionnaire designed. The collected data is estimated using Lizrel and SEM method. The test results show that four dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand loyalty and brand Image positively affect on Customer-based brand equity and all promotional-mix elements (except sales promotion positively affect the Customer-based brand equity. In addition, among dimensions of brand equity, image brand has the most positive effect on brand equity and among elements of Promotional-mix, sell promotion has the most negative effect on brand equity. In the end, among the brands, Kalleh brand has the most Brand Equity and MiMas brand has the least Brand Equity.

  5. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring.

  6. The Effects of Consultation on Individualized Education Program Outcomes for Young Children with Autism: The Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; Dalrymple, Nancy J.; McGrew, John H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a teacher consultation intervention were examined--namely, the collaborative model for promoting competence and success (COMPASS), which was designed to improve objectives of individualized education programs for children with autism. The intervention consists of an initial parent-teacher consultation, followed by four teacher…

  7. Using the Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) Group Model to Promote Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement for English as a Second Language (ESL) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Steen, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group model is used to promote self-esteem and academic performance of English as a second language (ESL) students. The findings from the preliminary data indicated that the participants' self-esteem was significantly improved after participation in the group. There was no significant improvement in the total…

  8. Identification of TNF-alpha-Responsive Promoters and Enhancers in the Intestinal Epithelial Cell Model Caco-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mette; Coskun, Mehmet; Lilje, Berit;

    2014-01-01

    promoters. As a case example, we characterize an enhancer regulating the laminin-5 γ2-chain (LAMC2) gene by nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding. This report is the first to present comprehensive TSS and enhancer maps over Caco-2 cells, and highlights many novel inflammation-specific promoters and enhancers....... genome-wide maps of active transcription start sites (TSSs), and active enhancers in Caco-2 cells with or without tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation to mimic an inflammatory state. We found 520 promoters that significantly changed their usage level upon TNF-α stimulation; of these, 52...

  9. Coating with a modular bone morphogenetic peptide promotes healing of a bone-implant gap in an ovine model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Yan; Lee, Jae Sung; Nemke, Brett; Graf, Ben K; Royalty, Kevin; Illgen, 3rd, Richard; Vanderby, Jr, Ray; Markel, Mark D; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potential for growth factor delivery strategies to promote orthopedic implant healing, there is a need for growth factor delivery methods that are controllable and amenable to clinical translation...

  10. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Langsdorffia hypogaea-Rhizosphere-Host Biological Interface: A Neglected Model of Bacterial Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felestrino, Érica B.; Santiago, Iara F.; Freitas, Luana da Silva; Rosa, Luiz H.; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Moreira, Leandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of this study was to prospect the bacterial microbiota of holoparasitic plant L. hypogaea, its plant host and corresponding rhizosphere of IQ soil, and to analyze the potential of these isolates as PGPB. We obtained samples of 11 individuals of L. hypogaea containing fragments of host and rhizosphere remnants, resulting in 81 isolates associated with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. The ability to produce siderophores, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), nitrogen (N2) fixation, hydrolytic enzymes secretion and inhibition of enteropathogens, and phytopathogens were evaluated. Of the total isolates, 62, 86, and 93% produced, respectively, siderophores, IAA, and were able to fix N2. In addition, 27 and 20% of isolates inhibited the growth of enteropathogens and phytopathogens, respectively, and 58% were able to produce at least one hydrolytic activity investigated. The high number of isolates that produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid suggests that this microbiota may be important for adaptation of plants to IQ. The results demonstrate for the first time the biological importance of Brazilian IQ species as reservoirs of specific microbiotas that might be used as PGPB on agricultural land or antropized soils that needs to be reforested. PMID:28239369

  11. APOBEC3D and APOBEC3F potently promote HIV-1 diversification and evolution in humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Sato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several APOBEC3 proteins, particularly APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3G, induce G-to-A hypermutations in HIV-1 genome, and abrogate viral replication in experimental systems, but their relative contributions to controlling viral replication and viral genetic variation in vivo have not been elucidated. On the other hand, an HIV-1-encoded protein, Vif, can degrade these APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Although APOBEC3 proteins have been widely considered as potent restriction factors against HIV-1, it remains unclear which endogenous APOBEC3 protein(s affect HIV-1 propagation in vivo. Here we use a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 with mutations in Vif motifs that are responsible for specific APOBEC3 interactions, DRMR/AAAA (4A or YRHHY/AAAAA (5A, and demonstrate that endogenous APOBEC3D/F and APOBEC3G exert strong anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. We also show that the growth kinetics of 4A HIV-1 negatively correlated with the expression level of APOBEC3F. Moreover, single genome sequencing analyses of viral RNA in plasma of infected mice reveal that 4A HIV-1 is specifically and significantly diversified. Furthermore, a mutated virus that is capable of using both CCR5 and CXCR4 as entry coreceptor is specifically detected in 4A HIV-1-infected mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APOBEC3D/F and APOBEC3G fundamentally work as restriction factors against HIV-1 in vivo, but at the same time, that APOBEC3D and APOBEC3F are capable of promoting viral diversification and evolution in vivo.

  12. Deregulation of energy metabolism promotes antifibrotic effects in human hepatic stellate cells and prevents liver fibrosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Swathi; Potter, James J; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Sur, Surojit; Hamilton, James P; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Mezey, Esteban; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-15

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis result from uncontrolled secretion and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are activated by liver injury and inflammation. Despite the progress in understanding the biology liver fibrogenesis and the identification of potential targets for treating fibrosis, development of an effective therapy remains elusive. Since an uninterrupted supply of intracellular energy is critical for the activated-HSCs to maintain constant synthesis and secretion of ECM, we hypothesized that interfering with energy metabolism could affect ECM secretion. Here we report that a sublethal dose of the energy blocker, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) facilitates phenotypic alteration of activated LX-2 (a human hepatic stellate cell line), into a less-active form. This treatment-dependent reversal of activated-LX2 cells was evidenced by a reduction in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen secretion, and an increase in activity of matrix metalloproteases. Mechanistically, 3-BrPA-dependent antifibrotic effects involved down-regulation of the mitochondrial metabolic enzyme, ATP5E, and up-regulation of glycolysis, as evident by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, lactate production and its transporter, MCT4. Finally, the antifibrotic effects of 3-BrPA were validated in vivo in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Results from histopathology & histochemical staining for collagen and α-SMA substantiated that 3-BrPA promotes antifibrotic effects in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that sublethal, metronomic treatment with 3-BrPA blocks the progression of liver fibrosis suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic for treating liver fibrosis.

  13. Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Amitani

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H(2 acts as a therapeutic antioxidant. However, there are few reports on H(2 function in other capacities in diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of H(2 in glucose transport by studying cultured mouse C2C12 cells and human hepatoma Hep-G2 cells in vitro, in addition to three types of diabetic mice [Streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice, high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice, and genetically diabetic db/db mice] in vivo. The results show that H(2 promoted 2-[(14C]-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG uptake into C2C12 cells via the translocation of glucose transporter Glut4 through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K, protein kinase C (PKC, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, although it did not stimulate the translocation of Glut2 in Hep G2 cells. H(2 significantly increased skeletal muscle membrane Glut4 expression and markedly improved glycemic control in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice after chronic intraperitoneal (i.p. and oral (p.o. administration. However, long-term p.o. administration of H(2 had least effect on the obese and non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mouse models. Our study demonstrates that H(2 exerts metabolic effects similar to those of insulin and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus that can be administered orally.

  14. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Promotion and prevention regulatory foci have been established as self-regulation systems with implications for the study of change.Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change.Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data.Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  15. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  16. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification.

  17. Promoter-region hypermethylation and expression downregulation of Yy1 (Yin yang 1) in preneoplastic liver lesions in a thioacetamide rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Ogawa, Takashi; Wang, Liyun [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kimura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Morita, Reiko [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in early hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc{sup +} foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21{sup Cip1+} foci in Yy1{sup −} or GST-P{sup +} foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5{sup −} foci was increased in Yy1{sup −} foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1{sup −}/GST-P{sup +} foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci, while cleaved caspase-3{sup +} cells were unchanged between Yy1{sup –}/GST-P{sup +} and Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P{sup +} foci were Wdr45b{sup –} and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. - Highlights: • Epigenetically downregulated genes were searched in TAA-promnoted rat livers. • Yy1 and Wdr45b showed promoter-region hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation. • TAA promoted

  18. Identification of TNF-α-responsive promoters and enhancers in the intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mette; Coskun, Mehmet; Lilje, Berit;

    2014-01-01

    promoters. As a case example, we characterize an enhancer regulating the laminin-5 γ2-chain (LAMC2) gene by nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding. This report is the first to present comprehensive TSS and enhancer maps over Caco-2 cells, and highlights many novel inflammation-specific promoters and enhancers....... genome-wide maps of active transcription start sites (TSSs), and active enhancers in Caco-2 cells with or without tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation to mimic an inflammatory state. We found 520 promoters that significantly changed their usage level upon TNF-α stimulation; of these, 52......% are not annotated. A subset of these has the potential to confer change in protein function due to protein domain exclusion. Moreover, we locate 890 transcribed enhancer candidates, where ∼50% are changing in usage after TNF-α stimulation. These enhancers share motif enrichments with similarly responding gene...

  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes motor reinnervation of the musculocutaneous nerve in an experimental model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čelakovský Pavel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to repair nerve if proximal stump is unavailable or autogenous nerve grafts are insufficient for reconstructing extensive nerve damage. Therefore, alternative methods have been developed, including lateral anastomosis based on axons' ability to send out collateral sprouts into denervated nerve. The different capacity of a sensory or motor axon to send a sprout is controversial and may be controlled by cytokines and/or neurotrophic factors like ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess collateral sprouts sent out by intact motor and sensory axons in the end-to-side neurorrhaphy model following intrathecal administration of CNTF in comparison with phosphate buffered saline (vehiculum and Cerebrolysin. The distal stump of rat transected musculocutaneous nerve (MCN was attached in an end-to-side fashion with ulnar nerve. CNTF, Cerebrolysin and vehiculum were administered intrathecally for 2 weeks, and all animals were allowed to survive for 2 months from operation. Numbers of spinal motor and dorsal root ganglia neurons were estimated following their retrograde labeling by Fluoro-Ruby and Fluoro-Emerald applied to ulnar and musculocutaneous nerve, respectively. Reinnervation of biceps brachii muscles was assessed by electromyography, behavioral test, and diameter and myelin sheath thickness of regenerated axons. Results Vehiculum or Cerebrolysin administration resulted in significantly higher numbers of myelinated axons regenerated into the MCN stumps compared with CNTF treatment. By contrast, the mean diameter of the myelinated axons and their myelin sheath thickness in the cases of Cerebrolysin- or CNTF-treated animals were larger than were those for rats treated with vehiculum. CNTF treatment significantly increased the percentage of motoneurons contributing to reinnervation of the MCN stumps (to 17.1% when compared with vehiculum or Cerebrolysin treatments (at

  20. An evaluation of a model for the systematic documentation of hospital based health promotion activities: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Christensen, Mette E; Groene, Oliver;

    2007-01-01

    The first step of handling health promotion (HP) in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) is a systematic documentation and registration of the activities in the medical records. So far the possibility and tradition for systematic registration of clinical HP activities in the medical records and in pat......The first step of handling health promotion (HP) in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) is a systematic documentation and registration of the activities in the medical records. So far the possibility and tradition for systematic registration of clinical HP activities in the medical records...

  1. Inhibitory effect of α-lipoic acid on thioacetamide-induced tumor promotion through suppression of inflammatory cell responses in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuta; Segawa, Risa; Kimura, Masayuki; Wang, Liyun; Ishii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Morita, Reiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-09-25

    To investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (a-LA) on the hepatocarcinogenic process promoted by thioacetamide (TAA), we used a two-stage liver carcinogenesis model in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and TAA-promoted rats. We examined the modifying effect of co-administered a-LA on the liver tissue environment surrounding preneoplastic hepatocellular lesions, with particular focus on hepatic macrophages and the mechanism behind the decrease in apoptosis of cells surrounding preneoplastic hepatocellular lesions during the early stages of hepatocellular tumor promotion. TAA increased the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) liver cell foci and the numbers of proliferating and apoptotic cells in the liver. Co-administration with a-LA suppressed these effects. TAA also increased the numbers of ED2(+), cyclooxygenase-2(+), and heme oxygenase-1(+) hepatic macrophages as well as the number of CD3(+) lymphocytes. These effects were also suppressed by a-LA. Transcript levels of some inflammation-related genes were upregulated by TAA and downregulated by a-LA in real-time RT-PCR analysis. Outside the GST-P(+) foci, a-LA reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells, active caspase-8(+) cells and death receptor (DR)-5(+) cells. These results suggest that hepatic macrophages producing proinflammatory factors may be activated in TAA-induced tumor promotion. a-LA may suppress tumor-promoting activity by suppressing the activation of these macrophages and the subsequent inflammatory responses. Furthermore, a-LA may suppress tumor-promoting activity by suppressing the DR5-mediated extrinsic pathway of apoptosis and the subsequent regeneration of liver cells outside GST-P(+) foci.

  2. An Impact Analysis of Fiscal Measures to Promote Self-Sustained Economic Development in Okinawa using a Multi-regional CGE Model (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OKIYAMA Mitsuru; IKEGAWA Maria; Tokunaga, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effective allocation of a comprehensive package of grants to the production activity sectors for the purpose of promoting self-sustained economic development in Okinawa prefecture. We find the following results by using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model comprised of six regions including Okinawa. First, the economic welfare of Okinawa increased by 123.2 billion yen due to a public fiscal transfer of 98.7 billion yen based on the comprehensive packag...

  3. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyi Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. METHODS: A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: All three models significantly increased the participants' knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670 of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002 compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12 or three-stage model (P=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

  5. A Flow Model of the U.S. Army Field Grade Officer Corps to Produce the Five Year Promotion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    vacancies at all grades. This has 17 been shown to be important so that ambitious young officers have a secure career expectation . The term used by the...and sometimes had a significant impact on career expectation . In order to reduce the complexity of this cumbersome system, DOPMA provides for a single...the intermediate ranks as character- ized by extremely long promotion list durations. The concern is that this may have an adverse impact on the career

  6. Acceptability and feasibility of a social entrepreneurship testing model to promote HIV self-testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, F; Tang, W; Cheng, W; Lin, P; Wu, Q; Cai, Y; Tang, S; Fan, L; Zhao, Y; Chen, X; Mao, J; Meng, G; Tucker, J D; Xu, H

    2017-05-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) offers an opportunity to increase HIV testing among people not reached by facility-based services. However, the promotion of HIVST is limited as a consequence of insufficient community engagement. We built a social entrepreneurship testing (SET) model to promote HIVST linkage to care among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou. The SET model includes a few key steps. Each participant first completed an online survey, and paid a US$23 (refundable) deposit to receive an HIVST kit and a syphilis self-testing (SST) kit. After the testing, the results were sent to the platform by the participants and interpreted by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff. Meanwhile, the deposit was returned to each participant. Finally, the Community based organizations (CBO) contacted the participants to provide counselling services, confirmation testing and linkage to care. During April-June 2015, a total of 198 MSM completed a preliminary survey and purchased self-testing kits. The majority were aged < 34 years (84.4%) and met partners online (93.1%). In addition, 68.9% of participants had ever been tested for HIV, and 19.5% had ever performed HIVST. Overall, feedback was received from 192 participants (97.0%). Of these participants, 14 people did not use the kits; among those who did use the kits, the HIV and syphilis prevalences were 4.5% (eight of 178) and 3.7% (six of 178), respectively. All of the screened HIV-positive individuals sought further confirmation testing and were linked to care. Using an online SET model to promote HIV and syphilis self-testing among Chinese MSM is acceptable and feasible, and this model adds a new testing platform to the current testing service system. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  7. Applying an Educational-participatory Program based on the PRECEDE Model for Promoting Self-esteem and Mental Health of Students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, Mahdi; Atarodi, B Alireza; Moslem, Alireza; Taheri, Mahdokht

    2012-04-01

    The students' vulnerability to different problems can have an impact on their mental health. Regarding the lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventional programs based on health education planning models in this area in developing countries, an educational-participatory program based on the PRECEDE model was used, to promote the medical science students' self-esteem and mental health status, in Iran. In this experimental study, 154 students from the universities of medical sciences in the north east of Iran were selected by stratified random sampling method. Then, they were randomly assigned to two groups of case and control. The questionnaires, including the enabling, reinforcing, and predisposing factors, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the GHQ-28 were used for data collection. Then, an intervention plan, including focus group discussions and training of selected life skills, based on the PRECEDE model, was conducted for the case group. The predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and the self-esteem and mental health of the students showed a significant difference between the case and control groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was a correlation between mental health and knowledge (P =0.008), between self-esteem and knowledge (P =0.02), self-esteem and attitude (P =0.01), and mental health and attitude (P = 0.03). Health promotion planning by using life skills training based on the PRECEDE model can result in participation and empowerment, in order to promote the self-esteem and mental health of the students.

  8. TMPRSS2/ERG promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through the ZEB1/ZEB2 axis in a prostate cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Leshem

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatologic malignancy in men in the Western world. Recently, a frequent chromosomal aberration fusing androgen regulated TMPRSS2 promoter and the ERG gene (TMPRSS2/ERG was discovered in prostate cancer. Several studies demonstrated cooperation between TMPRSS2/ERG and other defective pathways in cancer progression. However, the unveiling of more specific pathways in which TMPRSS2/ERG takes part, requires further investigation. Using immortalized prostate epithelial cells we were able to show that TMPRSS2/ERG over-expressing cells undergo an Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, manifested by acquisition of mesenchymal morphology and markers as well as migration and invasion capabilities. These findings were corroborated in vivo, where the control cells gave rise to discrete nodules while the TMPRSS2/ERG-expressing cells formed malignant tumors, which expressed EMT markers. To further investigate the general transcription scheme induced by TMPRSS2/ERG, cells were subjected to a microarray analysis that revealed a distinct EMT expression program, including up-regulation of the EMT facilitators, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and down-regulation of the epithelial marker CDH1(E-Cadherin. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of TMPRSS2/ERG to the promoter of ZEB1 but not ZEB2. However, TMPRSS2/ERG was able to bind the promoters of the ZEB2 modulators, IL1R2 and SPINT1. This set of experiments further illuminates the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion affects prostate cancer progression and might assist in targeting TMPRSS2/ERG and its downstream targets in future drug design efforts.

  9. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  10. Ras dependent paracrine secretion of osteopontin by Nf1+/- osteoblasts promote osteoclast activation in a neurofibromatosis type I murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Qi; Jing, Yongmin; Chen, Shi; Song, Zhaohui; Yan, Jincheng; Li, Yan; Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xianghong; Zhang, Yingze; Case, Jamie; Yu, Menggang; Ingram, David A; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2009-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a pandemic genetic disorder characterized by malignant and nonmalignant manifestations, including skeletal abnormalities, such as osteoporosis, scoliosis, short stature, and pseudarthrosis. Recent studies in genetically inbred mice and from human patients with NF1 have identified multiple gains in osteoclast (OCL) functions both in vitro and in vivo. Given that osteoblasts secrete cytokines that promote OCL maturation/activation, we sought to identify whether haploinsufficiency of Nf1 (Nf1+/-) osteoblasts and their precursors secrete cytokines that have a central role in this process. Osteoblast conditioned media (OBCM) from Nf1+/- osteoblasts promoted OCL migration and bone resorption compared with WT OBCM. Osteopontin (OPN), a matrix protein found in mineralized tissues and pivotal in modulating OCL functions, was present in increased concentrations in Nf1+/- osteoblasts. Addition of OPN neutralizing antibody to Nf1+/- OBCM diminished the gain in bioactivity on OCL functions, including OCL migration and bone resorption. Our study identifies an important paracrine loop whereby elevated secretion of OPN by osteoblasts activate Nf1+/- OCLs that already have an intrinsic propensity for bone resorption leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol Protects against Fe-NTA-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Early Tumor Promotional Events in Rat Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Jahangir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been widely used as protective agents against a wide variety of processes and compounds that damage tissues via free radical mechanisms. Perillyl alcohol (PA is a naturally occurring monoterpene found in the essential oils of numerous species of plants including mints, cherries and celery seeds. This monocyclic monoterpene has shown antioxidant and therapeutic activity in various studies against various xenobiotics. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of PA against single intraperitoneal dose of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (9 mg iron per kg body weight-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events. The pretreatment of Fe-NTA-treated rats with 0.5% per kg body weight dose and 1% per kg body weight dose of PA for seven consecutive days significantly reversed the Fe-NTA-induced malondialdehyde formation, xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.001, ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001 and 3[H]thymidine incorporation in renal DNA (P < 0.001 with simultaneous significant depletion in serum toxicity markers blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (P < 0.001. Significant restoration at both the doses was recorded in depleted renal glutathione content, and its dependent enzymes with prophylactic treatment of PA. Present results suggest that PA potentially attenuates against Fe-NTA-induced oxidative damage and tumor promotional events that preclude its development as a future drug to avert the free radical-induced toxicity.

  12. Long-term anodal block stimulation at sacral anterior roots promoted recovery of neurogenic bladder function in a rabbit model of complete spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoran Wang; Yongjie Wang; Jihu Lian; Chaoling Shi; Yao Wang; Li Fan; Qi Gao; Xiaoyu Yang; Weihua Wang; Xinquan Gu; Guifeng Liu; Peng Yan; Ge Gao; Xin Yu

    2012-01-01

    A complete spinal cord injury model was established in experimental rabbits using the spinal cord clip compression method. Urodynamic examination was performed 2 weeks later to determine neurogenic bladder status. The rabbits were treated with anodal block stimulation at sacral anterior roots for 4 weeks. Electrical stimulation of sacral anterior roots improved urodynamic parameters of neurogenic bladder in rabbit models of complete spinal cord injury, effectively promoted urinary function, and relieved urinary retention. Immunohistochemistry results showed that a balance was achieved among expression of muscarinic receptor subunits M2, M3, ATP-gated ion channel P2X3 receptors, and β2-adrenergic receptor, and nerve growth factor expression decreased. These results suggested that long-term sacral anterior root stimulation of anodal block could be used to treat neurogenic bladder in a rabbit model of complete spinal cord injury.

  13. A Study of Classics-Reading Curriculum, Classics-Reading Promotion, and Classics-Reading Effect Modeling Exploration in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-An Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to test reliabilities and validities of classics-reading curriculum (CRC scale, classics-reading promotion (CRP scale, and classics-reading effect (CRE scale and to examine the relationships between CRC, CRP, and CRE in elementary schools through applying CORPS framework. The pilot sample and formal sample contain 141 and 500 participants from elementary school faculties and classics-reading volunteers in the north, central, south, and east regions of Taiwan. The findings indicate that Cronbach α coefficients of curriculum cognition (CC, curriculum teaching (CT, inside-school promotion (IP, outside-school promotion (EP, learning effect (LE, and class management effect (CME subscales are .88, .85, .93, .91, .91, .94, respectively, through exploratory factor analysis and they have good internal reliabilities and construct validities, respectively, through confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, CC, CT, IP, and EP have positive influences on LE (standardized coefficients .34, .25, .14, and .22 and on CME (standardized coefficients .41, .14, .14, and .20, respectively. CC, CT, IP, and EP can explain 69% of LE and 61% of CME. The model is supported by the data. Lastly, this study proposes some suggestions regarding the classics-reading education for elementary schools.

  14. [Structural Equation Modeling on Self-Care Behavior and Quality of Life in Older Adults with Diabetes Using Citizen Health Promotion Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Songheun; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model for Diabetes self-management (DSM) behavior and Quality of life (QoL) in older adults with diabetes who use Citizen Health Promotion Centers. The theory used this study was a combination of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Model (IMB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to reflect autonomous characteristics of participants. Data were collected from April 20 to August 31, 2015 using a self-report questionnaire. The sample was 205 patients with type 2 Diabetes who regularly visited a Citizen Health Promotion Center. SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs were used to analyze the efficiency of the hypothesized model and calculate the direct and indirect effects of factor affecting the participants' DSM behavior and QoL. The supported hypotheses were as follows; 1) The variable that had a direct effect on QoL was health behavior adherence (γ=.55, p=.007). 2) The variables that had a direct effect on DSM behavior were DSM information (γ=.15, p=.023), DSM confidence (γ=.25, pbehavior, and integrative intervention strategies which include knowledge, experience and psychosocial support are essential for older adults with diabetes to continue DSM behavior and improve QoL.

  15. bFGF promotes the differentiation and effectiveness of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rotenone model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nian; Yang, Hecheng; Liu, Ling; Xiong, Jing; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jia, Min; Huang, Jinsha; Zhang, Zhentao; Mohamed, Asrah A; Lin, Zhicheng; Wang, Tao

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) engraftment could alleviate motor dysfunction in parkinsonian animal models, but with limited efficacy and few engrafted cells surviving. On the other side, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) reportedly displays many effects including neuroprotection and promoting multipotent cells to expand and differentiate. In this study, we assessed whether a combination of bFGF and human BMSCs (HBMSCs) therapy could enhance the treatment effectiveness in Parkinson's disease (PD) rat models. Specifically, bFGF promoted HBMSCs to transdifferentiate toward neural-like lineages in vitro. In addition, HBMSCs transplantation alleviated the motor functional asymmetry, as well as prevented dopaminergic neuron loss in a PD model, while bFGF administration enhances its neurodifferentiation capacity and therapeutic effect. In conclusion, optimizing culture condition like supplementation of bFGF could significantly improve the output of HBMSCs in vitro, and HBMSCs transplantation with bFGF might represent an improved transplantation approach for PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A dual and opposite effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract: chemoprotector and promoter in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Farias, L M; Pérez-Carreón, J I; Arce-Popoca, E; Fattel-Fazenda, S; Alemán-Lazarini, L; Hernández-García, S; Salcido-Neyoy, M; Cruz-Jiménez, F G; Camacho, J; Villa-Treviño, S

    2006-02-01

    Calendula officinalis extracts have protective and cytotoxic effects. We previously reported the dual activity of C. officinalis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. At nM concentrations it was anti-genotoxic while at microM concentrations it exhibited genotoxic effects. Here we tested the activity of Calendula officinalis in vivo in male Fischer 344 rats initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine, promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 70 % partially hepatectomized. Liver gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase positively altered hepatocyte foci 25 days after initiation were our end point. The protective effect of C. officinalis started at 0.1 mg/kg concentration, increased at 0.5 mg/kg and reached its maximum at 2.5 mg/kg, when it decreased the area and number of altered foci by 55 % and 49 %, respectively, in comparison with rats treated only with carcinogen. At 5 mg/kg the number and area of altered hepatocyte foci were still lower, but almost reached the figures of carcinogen-treated rats. Ten and 20 mg/kg doses produced a notorious increment in the area and number of altered hepatic foci, and at 40 mg/kg of extract the increment was 40 % and 53 %, respectively. Additionally, when 2-acetylaminofluorene was substituted by a 40 mg/kg C. officinalis extract, a promoting effect was observed with increments of 175 % and 266 % in area and number of altered hepatocyte foci with respect to controls. When N-nitrosodiethylamine was substituted by 40 mg/kg of extract, the latter did not show initiator activity. In summary, we showed a protecting activity of C. officinalis at low doses, but doses above 10 mg/kg increased altered hepatocyte foci. This dual effect is an example of the phenomenon of hormesis. Furthermore, 40 mg/kg of dry weight extract administered instead of 2-acetylaminofluorene induced a clear promoting activity. These in vivo results are similar and consistent with those reported by us in primary rat liver cell cultures.

  17. Derivation of Context-free Stochastic L-Grammar Rules for Promoter Sequence Modeling Using Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    2008-01-01

    Formal grammars can used for describing complex repeatable structures such as DNA sequences. In this paper, we describe the structural composition of DNA sequences using a context-free stochastic L-grammar. L-grammars are a special class of parallel grammars that can model the growth of living organisms, e.g. plant development, and model the morphology of a variety of organisms. We believe that parallel grammars also can be used for modeling genetic mechanisms and sequences su...

  18. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  19. Assessing stimulus control and promoting generalization via video modeling when teaching social responses to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, JoAnna; Lerman, Dorothea C; Lechago, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We taught social responses to young children with autism using an adult as the recipient of the social interaction and then assessed generalization of performance to adults and peers who had not participated in the training. Although the participants' performance was similar across adults, responding was less consistent with peers, and a subsequent probe suggested that the recipient of the social behavior (adults vs. peers) controlled responding. We then evaluated the effects of having participants observe a video of a peer engaged in the targeted social behavior with another peer who provided reinforcement for the social response. Results suggested that certain irrelevant stimuli (adult vs. peer recipient) were more likely to exert stimulus control over responding than others (setting, materials) and that video viewing was an efficient way to promote generalization to peers.

  20. Direct Lentiviral-Cyclooxygenase 2 Application to the Tendon-Bone Interface Promotes Osteointegration and Enhances Return of the Pull-Out Tensile Strength of the Tendon Graft in a Rat Model of Biceps Tenodesis: e98004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles H Rundle; Shin-Tai Chen; Michael J Coen; Jon E Wergedal; Virginia Stiffel; Kin-Hing William Lau

    2014-01-01

      This study sought to determine if direct application of the lentiviral (LV)-cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) vector to the tendon-bone interface would promote osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis...

  1. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  2. Learning with Interactive Whiteboards: Determining the Factors on Promoting Interactive Whiteboards to Students by Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Eylem; Güler, Çetin; Çelik, H. Eray; Tatli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which might affect the intention to use interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by university students, using Technology Acceptance Model by the structural equation modeling approach. The following hypothesis guided the current study: H1. There is a positive relationship between IWB…

  3. Thermomineral water promotes axonal sprouting but does not reduce glial scar formation in a mouse model of spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubravka Aleksi; Milan Aksi; Nevena Divac; Vidosava Radonji; Branislav Filipovi; Igor Jakovevski

    2014-01-01

    Thermomineral water from the Atomic Spa Gornja Trepča has been used for a century in the treatment of neurologic disease. The thermomineral water contains microelements, including lithium and magnesium, which show neural regeneration-promoting effects after central nervous system injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral intake of thermomineral water from the Atomic Spa Gornja Trepča on nerve regeneration in a 3-month-old mouse model of spinal cord injury. The mice receiving oral intake of thermomineral water showed better locomo-tor recovery than those without administration of thermomineral water at 8 and 12 weeks after lower thoracic spinal cord compression. At 12 weeks after injury, sprouting of catecholaminergic axons was better in mice that drank thermomineral water than in those without administration of thermomineral water, but there was no difference in glial reaction to injury between mice with and without administration of thermomineral water. These ifndings suggest that thermomineral water can promote the nerve regeneration but cannot reduce glial scar formation in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.

  4. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    -saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation......Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...

  5. A Model for Health Promotion in Rural Communities through the Development of Personal Agency and Intrinsic Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Pick Steiner, Susan; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); García Rodríguez, Georgina; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); Leenen, Iwin; Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo… mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos” [I want to, I can…improve my health and exercise my rights], a pilot model was designed and implemented in three States of Mexico. This model aims to change nutrition and hygiene behaviors in the inhabitants of marginalized communities, through knowledge and psychosocial skills development facilitating personal agency and intrinsic empowerment. Evaluation of the program showed an effect on knowledge, assertive...

  6. Photobiomodulation with low-level diode laser promotes osteoblast migration in an in vitro micro wound model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschon, Matilde; Incerti-Parenti, Serena; Cepollaro, Simona; Checchi, Luigi; Fini, Milena

    2015-07-01

    Laser photobiomodulation can improve bone healing, but well-defined treatment parameters are lacking. Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells were subjected to an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay and irradiated by a 915-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser for 0, 48, 96, and 144 s using doses of, respectively, 0, 5, 10, and 15 J/cm2. Wound area was measured after 4, 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability, DNA content, gene expression, and release of bone-related proteins were evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Laser significantly improved wound healing compared with nonirradiated controls. Cells treated with laser doses of 5 and 10 J/cm2 reached wound closure after 72 h, followed by 15 J/cm2 after 96 h. With the cell proliferation inhibitor Mitomycin C, the doses of 10 and 15 J/cm2 maintained an improved wound healing compared with controls. Laser increased collagen type 1 gene expression with higher doses inducing a longer-lasting effect, whereas transforming growth factor-beta 1 showed comparable or decreased levels in irradiated versus nonirradiated groups, with no effect on protein release. This study demonstrated that laser photobiomodulation at 915 nm promoted wound healing mainly through stimulation of cell migration and collagen deposition by osteoblasts.

  7. Long-term High Fat Ketogenic Diet Promotes Renal Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D; Kasprowska, Daniela; Wojakowska, Anna; Polański, Krzysztof; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-02-19

    Nutritional imbalance underlies many disease processes but can be very beneficial in certain cases; for instance, the antiepileptic action of a high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Besides this therapeutic feature it is not clear how this abundant fat supply may affect homeostasis, leading to side effects. A ketogenic diet is used as anti-seizure therapy i.a. in tuberous sclerosis patients, but its impact on concomitant tumor growth is not known. To examine this we have evaluated the growth of renal lesions in Eker rats (Tsc2+/-) subjected to a ketogenic diet for 4, 6 and 8 months. In spite of existing opinions about the anticancer actions of a ketogenic diet, we have shown that this anti-seizure therapy, especially in its long term usage, leads to excessive tumor growth. Prolonged feeding of a ketogenic diet promotes the growth of renal tumors by recruiting ERK1/2 and mTOR which are associated with the accumulation of oleic acid and the overproduction of growth hormone. Simultaneously, we observed that Nrf2, p53 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase α dependent antitumor mechanisms were launched by the ketogenic diet. However, the pro-cancerous mechanisms finally took the ascendency by boosting tumor growth.

  8. Coating with a modular bone morphogenetic peptide promotes healing of a bone-implant gap in an ovine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available Despite the potential for growth factor delivery strategies to promote orthopedic implant healing, there is a need for growth factor delivery methods that are controllable and amenable to clinical translation. We have developed a modular bone growth factor, herein termed "modular bone morphogenetic peptide (mBMP", which was designed to efficiently bind to the surface of orthopedic implants and also stimulate new bone formation. The purpose of this study was to coat a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant with mBMP and evaluate bone healing across a bone-implant gap in the sheep femoral condyle. The mBMP molecules efficiently bound to a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant and 64% of the initially bound mBMP molecules were released in a sustained manner over 28 days. The results demonstrated that the mBMP-coated implant group had significantly more mineralized bone filling in the implant-bone gap than the control group in C-arm computed tomography (DynaCT scanning (25% more, histological (35% more and microradiographic images (50% more. Push-out stiffness of the mBMP group was nearly 40% greater than that of control group whereas peak force did not show a significant difference. The results of this study demonstrated that mBMP coated on a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant stimulates new bone formation and may be useful to improve implant fixation in total joint arthroplasty applications.

  9. CD34 Promotes Pathological Epi-Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Siemerink

    Full Text Available The sialomucins CD34 and podocalyxin (PODXL are anti-adhesive molecules expressed at the luminal membrane of endothelial cells of small blood vessels and facilitate vascular lumen formation in the developing mouse aorta. CD34 transcript and protein levels are increased during human angiogenesis, its expression is particularly enriched on endothelial tip cell filopodia and CD34 is a marker for tip cells in vitro. Here, we investigated whether CD34 merely marks endothelial tip cells or has a functional role in tip cells and angiogenesis. We assessed that silencing CD34 in human microvascular endothelial cells has little effect on endothelial cell migration or invasion, but has a significant effect on vascular-endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenic sprouting activity in vitro. In vivo, the absence of CD34 reduced the density of filopodia on retinal endothelial tip cells in neonatal mice, but did not influence the overall architecture of the retinal vascular network. In oxygen-induced retinopathy, Cd34-/- mice showed normal intra-retinal regenerative angiogenesis but the number of pathological epi-retinal neovascular tufts were reduced. We conclude that CD34 is not essential for developmental vascularization in the retina, but its expression promotes the formation of pathological, invasive vessels during neovascularization.

  10. CD34 Promotes Pathological Epi-Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martin J.; Dallinga, Marchien G.; Gora, Tomek; Cait, Jessica; Vogels, Ilse M. C.; Yetin-Arik, Bahar; Van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Klaassen, Ingeborg; McNagny, Kelly M.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2016-01-01

    The sialomucins CD34 and podocalyxin (PODXL) are anti-adhesive molecules expressed at the luminal membrane of endothelial cells of small blood vessels and facilitate vascular lumen formation in the developing mouse aorta. CD34 transcript and protein levels are increased during human angiogenesis, its expression is particularly enriched on endothelial tip cell filopodia and CD34 is a marker for tip cells in vitro. Here, we investigated whether CD34 merely marks endothelial tip cells or has a functional role in tip cells and angiogenesis. We assessed that silencing CD34 in human microvascular endothelial cells has little effect on endothelial cell migration or invasion, but has a significant effect on vascular-endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenic sprouting activity in vitro. In vivo, the absence of CD34 reduced the density of filopodia on retinal endothelial tip cells in neonatal mice, but did not influence the overall architecture of the retinal vascular network. In oxygen-induced retinopathy, Cd34-/- mice showed normal intra-retinal regenerative angiogenesis but the number of pathological epi-retinal neovascular tufts were reduced. We conclude that CD34 is not essential for developmental vascularization in the retina, but its expression promotes the formation of pathological, invasive vessels during neovascularization. PMID:27352134

  11. Glucose-regulated protein 78 may play a crucial role in promoting the pulmonary microvascular remodeling in a rat model of hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiying; Lv, Minli; Zhao, Zhongfu; Jia, Jiantao; Zhang, Lili; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Limin; Li, Chen; Ji, Jingquan; Tian, Xiaoxia; Li, Xujiong; Fan, Yimin; Lai, Lina; Liu, Yan; Li, Baohong; Zhang, Cuiying; Liu, Mingshe; Guo, Jianhong; Han, Dewu; Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is to investigate the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the pulmonary microvascular remodeling during hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) development. Methods The rat models with liver cirrhosis and HPS were induced by multiple pathogenic factors for 4 to 8 wk. The concentrations of alanine transferase (ALT) and endotoxin in plasma were detected in the models, followed by the detection of GRP78 expression. RT-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of a specific vascular marker, factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg), and several cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins, including CHOP/GADD153, caspase-12, Bcl-2 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results The levels of endotoxin and ALT in plasma were gradually increased as the disease progressed, so did GRP78, which were in a positive correlation. The expression levels of VEGF (both mRNA and protein) and FVIII-RAg were significantly elevated in the HPS models, indicating active angiogenesis, which was also positively correlated with GRP78 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins of CHOP/GADD153 and caspase-12 were dramatically decreased, while the anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 and NF-κB were significantly elevated, in the HPS models. There were also close correlations between these proteins and GRP78. Conclusions Over-expression of GRP78 in lungs may be the critical pathogenic factor for HPS. Through promoting cell proliferation and survival and inhibiting apoptosis, GRP78 may promote the pulmonary microvascular remodeling in HPS pathogenesis. Our results provide a potential therapeutic target for clinical prevention and treatment for HPS and related complications. PMID:24768185

  12. Surface Topography and Mechanical Strain Promote Keratocyte Phenotype and Extracellular Matrix Formation in a Biomimetic 3D Corneal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Backman, Ludvig J; Malm, Adam D; Danielson, Patrik

    2017-03-01

    The optimal functionality of the native corneal stroma is mainly dependent on the well-ordered arrangement of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the pressurized structure. In order to develop an in vitro corneal model, it is crucial to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of the cornea. In this study, the influence of surface topography and mechanical strain on keratocyte phenotype and ECM formation within a biomimetic 3D corneal model is studied. By modifying the surface topography of materials, it is found that patterned silk fibroin film with 600 grooves mm(-1) optimally supports cell alignment and ECM arrangement. Furthermore, treatment with 3% dome-shaped mechanical strain, which resembles the shape and mechanics of native cornea, significantly enhances the expression of keratocyte markers as compared to flat-shaped strain. Accordingly, a biomimetic 3D corneal model, in the form of a collagen-modified, silk fibroin-patterned construct subjected to 3% dome-shaped strain, is created. Compared to traditional 2D cultures, it supports a significantly higher expression of keratocyte and ECM markers, and in conclusion better maintains keratocyte phenotype, alignment, and fusiform cell shape. Therefore, the novel biomimetic 3D corneal model developed in this study serves as a useful in vitro 3D culture model to improve current 2D cultures for corneal studies.

  13. Organization-based self-development prescriptive model for the promotion of professional development of Iranian clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimaghaee, Flora; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Salavati, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Professional development is reiterated in the new definition of modern organizations as a serious undertaking of organizations. This article aims to present and describe a prescriptive model to increase the quality of professional development of Iranian nurses within an organization-based framework. This article is an outcome of the results of a study based on grounded theory describing how Iranian nurses develop. The present study adopted purposive sampling and the initial participants were experienced clinical nurses. Then, the study continued by theoretical sampling. The present study involved 21 participants. Data were mainly collected through interviews. Analysis began with open coding and continued with axial coding and selective coding. Trustworthiness was ensured by applying Lincoln and Guba criteria such as credibility, dependability, and conformability. Based on the data gathered in the study and a thorough review of related literature, a prescriptive model has been designed by use of the methodology of Walker and Avant (2005). In this model, the first main component is a three-part structure: Reformation to establish a value-assigning structure, a position for human resource management, and a job redesigning. The second component is certain of opportunities for organization-oriented development. These strategies are as follows: Raising the sensitivity of the organization toward development, goal setting and planning the development of human resources, and improving management practices. Through this model, clinical nurses' professional development can transform the profession from an individual, randomized activity into more planned and systematized services. This model can lead to a better quality of care.

  14. Periodontitis contributes to adipose tissue inflammation through the NF-B, JNK and ERK pathways to promote insulin resistance in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanli; Zeng, Jin; Chen, Guoqing; Xie, Xudong; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which periodontitis affects the inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance in the white adipose and liver tissues in an obese rat model. The obese model was generated by feeding rats a high fat diet. The periodontitis model was induced by ligatures and injection of "red complex", which consisted of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, for two weeks. When compared with rats without periodontitis, fasting glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment index were significantly increased in rats with periodontitis, suggesting that periodontitis promotes the development of insulin resistance in obese rats. Gene and protein expression analysis in white adipose and liver tissue revealed that experimental periodontitis stimulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factors-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4. Signals associated with inflammation and insulin resistance, including nuclear factor- B, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and extracellular-signal regulated kinase were significantly activated in the white adipose tissue from obese rats with periodontitis compared to obese rats without periodontitis. Taken together, these findings suggest that periodontitis plays an important role in aggravating the development of local white adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in rat models. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the critical therapeutic entity in secreted Hsp90α that promotes wound healing in newly re-standardized healthy and diabetic pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn; Bhatia, Ayesha; Tsen, Fred; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex K; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Chronic and non-healing skin wounds represent a significant clinical, economic and social problem worldwide. Currently, there are few effective treatments. Lack of well-defined animal models to investigate wound healing mechanisms and furthermore to identify new and more effective therapeutic agents still remains a major challenge. Pig skin wound healing is close to humans. However, standardized pig wound healing models with demonstrated validity for testing new wound healing candidates are unavailable. Here we report a systematic evaluation and establishment of both acute and diabetic wound healing models in pigs, including wound-creating pattern for drug treatment versus control, measurements of diabetic parameters and the time for detecting delayed wound healing. We find that treatment and control wounds should be on the opposite and corresponding sides of a pig. We demonstrate a strong correlation between duration of diabetic conditions and the length of delay in wound closure. Using these new models, we narrow down the minimum therapeutic entity of secreted Hsp90α to a 27-amino acid peptide, called fragment-8 (F-8). In addition, results of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal more organized epidermis and dermis in Hsp90α-healed wounds than the control. Finally, Hsp90α uses a similar signaling mechanism to promote migration of isolated pig and human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. This is the first report that shows standardized pig models for acute and diabetic wound healing studies and proves its usefulness with both an approved drug and a new therapeutic agent.

  16. Identification of the critical therapeutic entity in secreted Hsp90α that promotes wound healing in newly re-standardized healthy and diabetic pig models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn O'Brien

    Full Text Available Chronic and non-healing skin wounds represent a significant clinical, economic and social problem worldwide. Currently, there are few effective treatments. Lack of well-defined animal models to investigate wound healing mechanisms and furthermore to identify new and more effective therapeutic agents still remains a major challenge. Pig skin wound healing is close to humans. However, standardized pig wound healing models with demonstrated validity for testing new wound healing candidates are unavailable. Here we report a systematic evaluation and establishment of both acute and diabetic wound healing models in pigs, including wound-creating pattern for drug treatment versus control, measurements of diabetic parameters and the time for detecting delayed wound healing. We find that treatment and control wounds should be on the opposite and corresponding sides of a pig. We demonstrate a strong correlation between duration of diabetic conditions and the length of delay in wound closure. Using these new models, we narrow down the minimum therapeutic entity of secreted Hsp90α to a 27-amino acid peptide, called fragment-8 (F-8. In addition, results of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal more organized epidermis and dermis in Hsp90α-healed wounds than the control. Finally, Hsp90α uses a similar signaling mechanism to promote migration of isolated pig and human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. This is the first report that shows standardized pig models for acute and diabetic wound healing studies and proves its usefulness with both an approved drug and a new therapeutic agent.

  17. Implementing an ally development model to promote safer schools for LGB youth: a trans-disciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammitt, Kimberly A; Pepperell, Jennifer; Coe, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students experience ongoing bullying, harassment, and lack of safety in school. Specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs), such as school counselors, school social workers, and school psychologists, are in a unique position to advocate for LGB students and to implement an ally development model. The purpose of this article is to describe the current climate for LGB students, to discuss the current barriers facing SISPs in advocating for change, and to provide a model of ally development for use at each level of the K-12 system.

  18. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  19. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  20. MS PHD'S: A Successful Model Promoting Inclusion, Preparation and Engagement of Underrepresented Minorities within the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.

  1. Upregulated TLR3 Promotes Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Autophagy in Rat With L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijia; Lu, Zhijun

    2016-12-21

    Microglia, rapidly activated following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), accumulate within the spinal cord and adopt inflammation that contributes to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Microglia express functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play pivotal roles in regulating inflammatory processes. However, little is known about the role of TLR3 in regulating neuropathic pain after PNI. Here TLR3 expression and autophagy activation was assayed in dorsal root ganglions and in microglia following PNI by using realtime PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of TLR3/autophagy signaling in regulating tactile allodynia was evaluated by assaying paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold allodynia after intrathecal administration of Poly (I:C) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). We found that L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induces the expression of TLR3 in dorsal root ganglions and in primary rat microglia at the mRNA and protein level. Meanwhile, L5 SNL results in an increased activation of autophagy, which contributes to microglial activation and subsequent inflammatory response. Intrathecal administration of Poly (I:C), a TLR3 agonist, significantly increases the activation of microglial autophagy, whereas TLR3 knockdown markedly inhibits L5 SNL-induced microglial autophagy. Poly (I:C) treatment promotes the expression of proinflammatory mediators, whereas 3-MA (a specific inhibitor of autophagy) suppresses Poly (I:C)-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Autophagy inhibition further inhibits TLR3-mediated mechanical and cold hypersensitivity following SNL. These results suggest that inhibition of TLR3/autophagy signaling contributes to alleviate neurophathic pain triggered by SNL.

  2. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  3. A Coral Reef as an Analogical Model to Promote Collaborative Learning on Cultural & Ethnic Diversity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…

  4. Modeling the effects of promotional efforts on aggregate pharmaceutical demand : What we know and challenges for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Osinga, E.C.; Conde, E.R.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Stern, P.; Ding, M.; Eliashberg, J.; Stremersch, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing is becoming an important area of research in its own right, as evidenced by the steady increase in relevant papers published in the major marketing journals in recent years. These papers utilize different modeling techniques and types of data. In this chapter we focus on

  5. TORC1 Inhibition by Rapamycin Promotes Antioxidant Defences in a Drosophila Model of Friedreich’s Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calap-Quintana, Pablo; Soriano, Sirena; Llorens, José Vicente; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Botas, Juan; Moltó, María Dolores; Martínez-Sebastián, María José

    2015-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in the Caucasian population, is a multisystemic disease caused by a significant decrease in the frataxin level. To identify genes capable of modifying the severity of the symptoms of frataxin depletion, we performed a candidate genetic screen in a Drosophila RNAi-based model of FRDA. We found that genetic reduction in TOR Complex 1 (TORC1) signalling improves the impaired motor performance phenotype of FRDA model flies. Pharmacologic inhibition of TORC1 signalling by rapamycin also restored this phenotype and increased the lifespan and ATP levels. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the altered levels of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals and total glutathione of the model flies. The rapamycin-mediated protection against oxidative stress is due in part to an increase in the transcription of antioxidant genes mediated by cap-n-collar (Drosophila ortholog of Nrf2). Our results suggest that autophagy is indeed necessary for the protective effect of rapamycin in hyperoxia. Rapamycin increased the survival and aconitase activity of model flies subjected to high oxidative insult, and this improvement was abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These results point to the TORC1 pathway as a new potential therapeutic target for FRDA and as a guide to finding new promising molecules for disease treatment. PMID:26158631

  6. A Coral Reef as an Analogical Model to Promote Collaborative Learning on Cultural & Ethnic Diversity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…

  7. Translation of an Action Learning Collaborative Model Into a Community-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Butcher, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Sharon; Li, Zhigang; Bazos, Dorothy A

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating. The intervention used QI tools (e.g., progress monitoring) and team-based activities and was implemented in three communities through nine monthly meetings. To assess process and outcomes, we used a longitudinal repeated-measures and mixed-methods triangulation approach with a quasi-experimental design including objective measures at three time points. Most of the 97 participants were female (85.4%), White (93.8%), and non-Hispanic/Latino (95.9%). Average age was 52 years; 28.0% had annual household income of $20,000 or less; and mean body mass index was 35. Through mixed-effects models, we found some physical activity outcomes improved. Other outcomes did not significantly change. Although participants favorably viewed the QI tools, components of the QI process such as sharing goals and data on progress in teams and during meetings were limited. Participants' requests for more education or activities around physical activity and healthy eating, rather than progress monitoring and data sharing required for QI activities, challenged ALC model implementation. An ALC model for community-based obesity prevention may be more effective when applied to preexisting teams in community-based organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Administrator Strategies that Support High Fidelity Implementation of the Pyramid Model for Promoting Social-Emotional Competence & Addressing Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincic, Melissa; Smith, Barbara J.; Strain, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the Pyramid Model with fidelity and achieving positive outcomes for children and their families requires that administrators understand their roles in the implementation process. Every administrative decision impacts program quality and sustainability. This Policy Brief underscores the importance of facilitative administrative…

  9. Incorporating Modeling and Simulations in Undergraduate Biophysical Chemistry Course to Promote Understanding of Structure-Dynamics-Function Relationships in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    A project-based biophysical chemistry laboratory course, which is offered to the biochemistry and molecular biology majors in their senior year, is described. In this course, the classroom study of the structure-function of biomolecules is integrated with the discovery-guided laboratory study of these molecules using computer modeling and…

  10. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  11. Analogy for Drude's Free Electron Model to Promote Students' Understanding of Electric Circuits in Lower Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria José B. M.; Salvador, Andreia; Costa, Maria Margarida R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude's free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first…

  12. Peptides modeled after the alpha-domain of metallothionein induce neurite outgrowth and promote survival of cerebellar granule neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Johanne Wirenfeldt; Ambjørn, Malene; Bock, Elisabeth;

    2009-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein capable of preventing oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in the central nervous system of mammals, and hence is of putative therapeutic value in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that a peptide modeled...

  13. Educational Mixology: A Pedagogical Approach to Promoting Adoption of Technology to Support New Learning Models in Health Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paige L.; Lyons, Laurie B.; Straker, Howard O.; Barnett, Jacqueline S.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Cotton, Linda; Corcoran, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    For disciplines heavily reliant upon traditional classroom teaching, such as medicine and health sciences, incorporating new learning models may pose challenges for students and faculty. In an effort to innovate curricula, better align courses to required student learning outcomes, and address the call to redesign health professions education,…

  14. Promoting Fitness and Safety in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on nutrition, physical fitness, and safety knowledge and skills. Methods: Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned…

  15. Promoting collaboration and cultural competence for physician assistant and physical therapist students: a cross-cultural decentralized interprofessional education model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen De Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As the United States health care model progresses towards medical teams and the country’s population continues to diversify, the need for health professional education programs to develop and implement culturally specific interprofessional education (IPE becomes increasingly imperative. A wide range of models exists for delivering and implementing IPE in health education, but none have included the cultural components that are vital in educating the health professional. Methods: A cross-cultural decentralized IPE model for physician assistant (PA and physical therapy (PT students was developed. This three-part IPE series was created using an established cultural curricular model and began with the exploration of self, continued with the examination of various dimensions of culture, and concluded with the exploration of the intersection between health and culture. We assessed student satisfaction of the IPE experiences and students’ engagement and attitudes towards IPE using a three-item open-ended questionnaire administered after each cross-cultural activity and the Interprofessional Education Series Survey (IESS upon the completion of the series. Results: IESS responses showed that PA and PT students reported benefits in interprofessional collaboration and cultural awareness and expressed overall satisfaction with the series. Qualitative analysis revealed growth in student response depth consistent with the scaffolded focus of each IPE module in the series. Conclusion: The trends in this three-part series suggest that institutions looking to develop culturally inclusive IPE educational initiatives may have success through a decentralized model mirroring the effective cultural progression focused on addressing exploration of self, examination of various dimensions of culture, and exploration of the intersection between health and culture.

  16. The novel adjuvant dmLT promotes dose sparing, mucosal immunity and longevity of antibody responses to the inactivated polio vaccine in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Bauer, David L; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Lawson, Louise B; Clements, John D

    2015-04-15

    One option for achieving global polio eradication is to replace the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), which has the risk of reversion to wild-type virulence, with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) vaccine. Adjuvants and alternate routes of immunization are promising options that may reduce antigen dose in IPV vaccinations, potentially allowing dose sparing and cost savings. Use of adjuvants and alternate routes of immunization could also help promote mucosal immunity, potentially mimicking the protection against intestinal virus shedding seen with OPV. In the current study, we examined the impact of combining the novel adjuvant dmLT with trivalent IPV for dose sparing, induction of mucosal immunity and increasing longevity of anti-poliovirus (PV) responses in a mouse model following either intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) delivery. We found that non-adjuvanted ID delivery was not superior to IM delivery for fractional dose sparing, but was associated with development of mucosal immunity. Vaccination with IPV+dmLT promoted serum anti-PV neutralizing antibodies with fractional IPV doses by either IM or ID delivery, achieving at least five-fold dose sparing above non-adjuvanted fractional doses. These responses were most noticeable with the PV1 component of the trivalent vaccine. dmLT also promoted germinal center formation and longevity of serum anti-PV neutralizing titers. Lastly, dmLT enhanced mucosal immunity, as defined by fecal and intestinal anti-PV IgA secretion, when included in IPV immunization by ID or IM delivery. These studies demonstrate that dmLT is an effective adjuvant for either IM or ID delivery of IPV. Inclusion of dmLT in IPV immunizations allows antigen dose sparing and enhances mucosal immunity and longevity of anti-PV responses.

  17. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue

    2014-02-01

    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning.

  18. PROFITABILITY OF INCREMENTAL EXPENDITURE ON FIBRE PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Debbie J.; Piggott, Roley R.; Griffith, Garry R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the impact of changes in wool promotion expenditure and changes in expenditure on the promotion of competing fibres are examined using an equilibrium displacement model. The emphasis is on examining impacts on producer profits net of promotion expenditure and on benefit-cost ratios measuring changes in producer surplus relative to changes in promotion expenditure. It was found, for example, that incremental expenditure on apparel wool promotion on the domestic market is unprofit...

  19. The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: promotion of children's health, development, and safety, and prevention of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect is by far the most prevalent form of child maltreatment. There is a need to try to prevent this problem, and pediatric primary care offers an excellent opportunity. This article describes one such approach, the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model. SEEK enables practitioners to identify and help address psychosocial problems facing many families. These include parental depression, substance abuse, major stress, intimate partner violence, harsh punishment, and food insecurity--problems that have been associated with neglect. Two large randomized, controlled trials yielded promising findings. Materials are now available to help practitioners implement this evidence-based practical model, thereby enhancing the primary care provided to children and their families.

  20. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the "Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers" (GGRETA) project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Governments of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, jointly with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP) are undertaking an assessment of the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS). The importance of the STAS to the region draws from the fact that it is the only permanent and dependable water resource in the area, which covers 87000 km2 from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa's Northern Cape Province. The first phase of the project (2013-2015) focused on an assessment of the STAS which allowed establishing a shared science based understanding of the resource. The activities of the second phase of the project (2016-2018) will consolidate the technical results achieved and the tools developed in the first phase, and will strengthen capacity on groundwater governance at the national and transboundary levels to support the process of establishment of a multi-country cooperation mechanism (MCCM). The establishment of the STAS MCCM would be the first example of a mechanism for the management and governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa. The joint development of a numerical model is crucial to foster such cooperation as it provides a baseline for the formulation of sound policies for the governance of the STAS. The model is being developed through the application of the FREEWAT platform (within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The FREEWAT project aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of water-related regulations through the use of modeling environments and GIS tools for storage, management and

  1. The DOE s In-Plant Training (INPLT) Model to Promote Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; De Fontaine, Mr. Andre [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Industrial Technology Program; Schoeneborn, Fred C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In-Plant Training (INPLT) is a new model for developing energy efficiency expertise within the US manufacturing companies participating in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program-a nationwide initiative to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity in 10 years. INPLTs are designed to fill a market niche by providing hands on training in a real world manufacturing plant environment. Through INPLTs, participants from multiple manufacturing plants, supply chains, utilities, and other external stakeholders learn how to conduct energy assessments, use energy analysis tools to analyze energy saving opportunities, develop energy management systems, and implement energy savings projects. Typical INPLT events are led by DOE-certified Energy Experts and range from 2-4 days. Topics discussed include: identification of cross-cutting or system specific opportunities; introduction to ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems; and energy project implementation and replication. This model is flexible, and can be tailored to suit the needs of specific industries. The INPLTs are a significant departure from the traditional single plant energy assessment model previously employed by DOE. INPLTs shift the focus from the concept of a single-plant s energy profile to a broader focus on training and capacity building among multiple industrial participants. The objective is to enable trainees to identify, quantify, implement and replicate future energy saving projects without continued external assistance. This paper discusses the INPLT model and highlights some of the initial outcomes from the successfully delivered INPLTs and the overall impact in terms of numbers of plants/participants trained, impacted energy footprints, and potential replication of identified opportunities.

  2. Establishment of Lymphangioma Model and a Study on the Promoting Effect of Murine Melanoma Cell B16-F1 on the Lymphangiogenesis In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Siyuau; CHEN Aijun; HUANG Chaugzheng; QIAN Yue; LIU Zhixiang; WU Yan; TU Yating

    2007-01-01

    To establish an animal model of benign lymphangiomas of C57BL/6 mouse in vitro and to observe the effect of mouse ascites melanoma cell B16-F1 on the lymphangiogenesis, 16 C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks were given two intraperitoneal injections of incomplete Freund's adjuvant at a15-day interval. The induced neoplasms were studied histopathologically and thhe neoplasms speci- mens were immunohistochemically examined for the expressions of VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor-C) and Fit-4 (VEGFR-3, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3). The neoplasms were harvested and embedded in fibrin gel for culture in conditioned medium of B16-F1 cells in vitro and observed under inverted microscope. Our results showed that white solid tumor masses devel- oped in peritoneal cavity after the induction. The tumors were confirmed to be lymphangioma by gross and histological examination. The tumor cells expressed both VEGF-C and Flt-4. Lymphatic capillaries coming from lymphangioma specimen grew into the gel and the conditioned medium of B16-F1 cells was found to be able to promote the growth of the vessels. It is concluded that intrap- eritoneal injection of incomplete Freund's adjuvant is a good method for inducing benign lymphan- giomas in mouse and B16-F1 cells can promote lymphangiogenesis.

  3. In vivo Antitumor Effect of an HPV-specific Promoter driving IL-12 Expression in an HPV 16-positive Murine Model of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Fierros-Zarate, Geny; García-Meléndrez, Celina; Alcocer-Gonzalez, Juan Manuel; Morales-Ortega, Ausencio; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects epithelial cells and has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer. Few therapeutic strategies have been designed for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor of cervical cancer. In these early stages, the HPV E2 protein is the most important viral factor involved in viral gene expression and plays crucial roles during the vegetative viral cycle in epithelial cells. Papillomavirus E2 binds specifically to palindromic ACCN6GGT sequences, referred to as the E2 binding sites (E2BS), which are concentrated within the viral long control region, and which are responsible for regulation of the HPV protein's expression. Here, we consider E2BS as a candidate sequence to induce the expression of antiviral therapeutic genes selectively in HPV-infected cells expressing the E2 protein. This study focuses on the use of an HPV-specific promoter comprised of four E2BS to drive the expression of IL-12, leading to an antitumor effect in an HPV-positive murine tumor model. The therapeutic strategy was implemented via viral gene therapy using adenoviral vectors with recombinant E2 and IL-12 genes and E2BS-IL-12. We demonstrate that the HPV-specific promoter E2BS is functional in vitro and in vivo through transactivation of HPV E2 transcription factor. PMID:27877210

  4. Cancer associated fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis by modulating the tumor immune microenvironment in a 4T1 murine breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local inflammation associated with solid tumors commonly results from factors released by tumor cells and the tumor stroma, and promotes tumor progression. Cancer associated fibroblasts comprise a majority of the cells found in tumor stroma and are appealing targets for cancer therapy. Here, our aim was to determine the efficacy of targeting cancer associated fibroblasts for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that cancer associated fibroblasts are key modulators of immune polarization in the tumor microenvironment of a 4T1 murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Elimination of cancer associated fibroblasts in vivo by a DNA vaccine targeted to fibroblast activation protein results in a shift of the immune microenvironment from a Th2 to Th1 polarization. This shift is characterized by increased protein expression of IL-2 and IL-7, suppressed recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells, T regulatory cells, and decreased tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, the vaccine improved anti-metastatic effects of doxorubicin chemotherapy and enhanced suppression of IL-6 and IL-4 protein expression while increasing recruitment of dendritic cells and CD8(+ T cells. Treatment with the combination therapy also reduced tumor-associated Vegf, Pdgfc, and GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that cancer associated fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis through their role as key modulators of immune polarization in the tumor microenvironment and are valid targets for therapy of metastatic breast cancer.

  5. Targeting RPTPσ with lentiviral shRNA promotes neurites outgrowth of cortical neurons and improves functional recovery in a rat spinal cord contusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Chang; Liang, Zhi-Pin; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Tian-Yi; Chu, Tian-Ci; Lu, Lu; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Kong, Xiao-Hong; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2014-10-24

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), the rapidly upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), the prominent chemical constituents and main repulsive factors of the glial scar, play an important role in the extremely limited ability to regenerate in adult mammals. Although many methods to overcome the inhibition have been tested, no successful method with clinical feasibility has been devised to date. It was recently discovered that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) is a functional receptor for CSPGs-mediated inhibition. In view of the potential clinical application of RNA interference (RNAi), here we investigated whether silencing RPTPσ via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference can promote axon regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Neurites of primary rat cerebral cortical neurons with depleted RPTPσ exhibited a significant enhancement in elongation and crossing ability when they encountered CSPGs in vitro. A contusion model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats (the New York University (NYU) impactor) was used for in vivo experiments. Local injection of lentivirus encoding RPTPσ shRNA at the lesion site promoted axon regeneration and synapse formation, but did not affect the scar formation. Meanwhile, in vivo functional recovery (motor and sensory) was also enhanced after RPTPσ depletion. Therefore, strategies directed at silencing RPTPσ by RNAi may prove to be a beneficial, efficient and valuable approach for the treatment of SCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R

    2013-10-15

    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  7. Can theory be embedded in visual interventions to promote self-management? A proposed model and worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; McGhee, J

    2012-12-01

    Nurses are increasingly involved in a range of strategies to encourage patient behaviours that improve self-management. If nurses are to be involved in, or indeed lead, the development of such interventions then processes that enhance the likelihood that they will lead to evidence that is both robust and usable in practice are required. Although behavioural interventions have been predominantly based on written text or the spoken word increasing numbers are now drawing on visual media to communicate their message, despite only a growing evidence base to support it. The use of such media in health interventions is likely to increase due to technological advances enabling easier and cheaper production, and an increasing social preference for visual forms of communication. However, the development of such media is often highly pragmatic and developed intuitively rather than with theory and evidence informing their content and form. Such a process may be at best inefficient and at worst potentially harmful. This paper performs two functions. Firstly, it discusses and argues why visual based interventions may be a powerful media for behaviour change; and secondly, it proposes a model, developed from the MRC Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions, to guide the creation of theory informed visual interventions. It employs a case study of the development of an intervention to motivate involvement in a lifestyle intervention among people with increased cardiovascular risk. In doing this we argue for a step-wise model which includes: (1) the identification of a theoretical basis and associated concepts; (2) the development of visual narrative to establish structure; (3) the visual rendering of narrative and concepts; and (4) the assessment of interpretation and impact among the intended patient group. We go on to discuss the theoretical and methodological limitations of the model.

  8. Physical health promotion for young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis: An application of the COM-B model and behaviour-change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Rebekah; Bradshaw, Tim; Yung, Alison R

    2016-12-01

    People with psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, have high rates of unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as smoking and physical inactivity. Young people who seek help for mental health care, particularly those at high risk for psychosis, often also display high rates of these unhealthy behaviours. Although healthy living interventions have been applied to people with established psychosis, no attempt has been made to offer them to young people at risk for developing psychosis, despite potential benefits to mental and physical health. We propose that the COM-B model (consisting of capability, opportunity and motivation) and behaviour-change wheel might be an appropriate framework that mental health nurses and other health professionals could apply. Using a systematic and theoretically-based approach to intervention development could result in effective methods of health promotion in this group. Further training and development for mental health nurses could encourage a greater integration of mental and physical health care.

  9. Does Implementation Follow Design? A Case Study of a Workplace Health Promotion Program Using the 4-S Program Design and the PIPE Impact Metric Evaluation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äikäs, Antti Hermanni; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Hirvensalo, Mirja Hannele; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the content of a multiyear market-based workplace health promotion (WHP) program and to evaluate design and implementation processes in a real-world setting. Data was collected from the databases of the employer and the service provider. It was classified using the 4-S (Size, Scope, Scalability, and Sustainability) and PIPE Impact Metric (Penetration, Implementation) models. Data analysis utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. Program design covered well the evidence-informed best practices except for clear path toward sustainability, cooperation with occupational health care, and support from middle-management supervisors. The penetration rate among participants was high (99%) and majority (81%) of services were implemented as designed. Study findings indicate that WHP market would benefit the use of evidence-based design principles and tendentious decisions to anticipate a long-term implementation process already during the planning phase.

  10. Development of a Self-Consistent Model of Plutonium Sorption: Quantification of Sorption Enthalpy and Ligand-Promoted Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Arai, Yuji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Becker, Udo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ewing, Rod [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    This university lead SBR project is a collaboration lead by Dr. Brian Powell (Clemson University) with co-principal investigators Dan Kaplan (Savannah River National Laboratory), Yuji Arai (presently at the University of Illinois), Udo Becker (U of Michigan) and Rod Ewing (presently at Stanford University). Hypothesis: The underlying hypothesis of this work is that strong interactions of plutonium with mineral surfaces are due to formation of inner sphere complexes with a limited number of high-energy surface sites, which results in sorption hysteresis where Pu(IV) is the predominant sorbed oxidation state. The energetic favorability of the Pu(IV) surface complex is strongly influenced by positive sorption entropies, which are mechanistically driven by displacement of solvating water molecules from the actinide and mineral surface during sorption. Objectives: The overarching objective of this work is to examine Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to pure metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals and sediments using variable temperature batch sorption, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and quantum-mechanical and empirical-potential calculations. The data will be compiled into a self-consistent surface complexation model. The novelty of this effort lies largely in the manner the information from these measurements and calculations will be combined into a model that will be used to evaluate the thermodynamics of plutonium sorption reactions as well as predict sorption of plutonium to sediments from DOE sites using a component additivity approach.

  11. IL-7 inhibits tumor growth by promoting T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in Meth A model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Cai; Shen, Guo-Bo; Wang, Shi-Min; Wan, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Immune suppression is well documented during tumor progression, which includes loss of effect of T cells and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-7 plays a key role in the proliferation, survival and homeostasis of T cells and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of IL-7 in Meth A model. IL-7 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice with corresponding increases in the frequency of CD4 and CD8 T cells, Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)), Tc1 (CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)) and T cells cytolytic activity against Meth A cells. Neutralization of CD4 or CD8 T cells reversed the antitumor benefit of IL-7. Furthermore, IL-7 decreased regulatory T Foxp3 as well as cells suppressive activity with a reciprocal increase in SMAD7. In addition, we observed an increase of the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and a significant decrease of TGF-β and IL-10 after IL-7 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-7 augments T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and improves the effect of antitumor in Meth A model.

  12. Ceria promoted deoxygenation and denitrogenation of Thalassiosira weissflogii and its model compounds by catalytic in-situ pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, egg white powder, palm-jojoba oils mixtures Thalassiosira weissflogii model compounds was performed with CeO2 at 500°C, to evaluate its catalytic upgrading mechanism. Light organics, aromatics and aliphatics were originated from carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, respectively. Dehydration and decarboxylation were the main reactions involved in the algae and model compounds deoxygenation, while nitrogen was removed as NH3 and HCN. CeO2 increased decarbonylation reactions compared to in absence of catalyst, with production of ketones. The results showed that the catalysts had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products composition of T. weissflogii. CeO2, NiCeAl2O3 and MgCe/Al2O3 catalysts increased the aliphatics and decreased the oxygen content in bio-oils to 6-7 wt% of the algae starting O2 content. Ceria catalysts were also able to consistently reduce the N-content in the bio-oil to 20-38% of that in the parent material, with NiCe/Al2O3 being the most effective.

  13. ESC-Derived BDNF-Overexpressing Neural Progenitors Differentially Promote Recovery in Huntington's Disease Models by Enhanced Striatal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zimmermann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is characterized by fatal motoric failures induced by loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. Neuronal cell death has been linked to impaired expression and axonal transport of the neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor. By transplanting embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors overexpressing BDNF, we combined cell replacement and BDNF supply as a potential HD therapy approach. Transplantation of purified neural progenitors was analyzed in a quinolinic acid (QA chemical and two genetic HD mouse models (R6/2 and N171-82Q on the basis of distinct behavioral parameters, including CatWalk gait analysis. Explicit rescue of motor function by BDNF neural progenitors was found in QA-lesioned mice, whereas genetic mouse models displayed only minor improvements. Tumor formation was absent, and regeneration was attributed to enhanced neuronal and striatal differentiation. In addition, adult neurogenesis was preserved in a BDNF-dependent manner. Our findings provide significant insight for establishing therapeutic strategies for HD to ameliorate neurodegenerative symptoms.

  14. Models for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A legal comparing investigation of models for the promotion of renewable enegy sources by the example of Poland and Germany; Modelle zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Eine rechtsvergleichende Untersuchung von Modellen zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energietraeger am Beispiel Polens und Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowska, Dorota

    2008-04-08

    Energy sources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum, and nuclear fission have long been established on the marketplace and considered competitive. However, a comprehensive restructuring of energy generation is necessary, as conventional energy generation pollutes the environment. Therefore environmentally friendly energy sources, such as solar, wind or water power need to be promoted. However, regenerative energy sources are still not capable of competing with conventional energy. Marketability of renewable energy sources can only be achieved through government-sponsored promotion and regulation. Such measures include fixed price and fixed quantity models with green certificates. The support schemes for renewable energy sources are characterized by their wide-ranging adaptability. The various elements of a scheme must be adapted to a given country's set goals and specific circumstances. There is no universally applicable model. Based on given goals and opportunities, every domestic legislator faces the challenge of choosing the best scheme or developing a mixed model that combines various elements. The aim of this study is to provide a legal analysis of regulations concerning the support schemes for renewable energy sources within the framework of EU and international law. Furthermore, the study aimed at comparing support schemes implemented in Poland and Germany. In the EU, the electricity directive from 1996 and 2003, the directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources from 2003 and 2008, non-binding documents, such as the ''green and white book'', as well as the ''ALTENER'' program, successfully contributed to establishing the topic of renewable energies. Regarding international law, it is primarily the Kyoto protocol that has to be mentioned as a basis for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Poland introduced a fixed quantity model with green certificates. Separated reimbursements for

  15. Increased Orexin Expression Promotes Sleep/Wake Disturbances in the SOD1-G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Liu; Zhao-Fu Sheng; Bing Cai; Yong-He Zhang; Dong-Sheng Fan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Sleep/wake disturbances in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are well-documented,however,no animal or mechanistic studies on these disturbances exist.Orexin is a crucial neurotransmitter in promoting wakefulness in sleep/wake regulation,and may play an important role in sleep disturbances in ALS.In this study,we used SOD1-G93A transgenic mice as an ALS mouse model to investigate the sleep/wake disturbances and their possible mechanisms in ALS.Methods:Electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings were performed in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and their littermate control mice at the ages of 90 and 120 days,and the samples obtained from these groups were subjected to quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction,western blotting,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:For the first time in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice,we observed significantly increased wakefulness,reduced sleep time,and up-regulated orexins (prepro-orexin,orexin A and B) at both 90 and 120 days.Correlation analysis confirmed moderate to high correlations between sleep/wake time (total sleep time,wakefulness time,rapid eye movement [REM] sleep time,non-REM sleep time,and deep sleep time) and increase in orexins (prepro-orexin,orexin A and B).Conclusion:Sleep/wake disturbances occur before disease onset in this ALS mouse model.Increased orexins may promote wakefulness and result in these disturbances before and after disease onset,thus making them potential therapeutic targets for amelioration of sleep disturbances in ALS.Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in the future.

  16. Can social psychological models be used to promote bicycle helmet use among teenagers? A comparison of the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Timo; Räsänen, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    The bicycle helmet use rate is still low among teenagers despite the cumulating evidence that bicycle helmets can prevent cyclists from serious injuries and death. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the Health Belief Model (HBM; Health Education Monographs, 2 (1974) (1), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Open University Press, Milton Keynes) and Locus of Control model (LC; Psychological Monographs, (1966) (80) in understanding the intention to use bicycle helmet use among bicycle helmet owners. Data were collected at two schools in Helsinki, Finland. Students (N=965) completed a questionnaire including three social psychological models applied to helmet use. Models were compared by structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that the TPB and LC model fitted the data well, whereas fit of the HBM model was lower than the fit of TPB and LC models. All components of TPB and external LC orientation were significantly related to the intention to use a helmet. TPB together with LC model provide a promising theoretical framework for helmet use promotion campaigns. Practical suggestions for future bicycle helmet campaigns were provided.

  17. Model of Physical Health Promotion for Adolescents In China%我国青少年体质健康促进模型构建的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲鲁平; 欧高志; 李宗浩; 谭思洁; 王健

    2015-01-01

    采用专家访谈法和量表测量法,运用Spss19.0和Amos16.0,从生物、社会和心理等要素入手系统构建我国青少年体质健康促进模型,旨在丰富健康促进的理论体系,为青少年体质健康促进和制定干预方案提供理论支撑。结果表明:①青少年体质健康促进模型主要包括自我效能、知觉利益、知觉障碍、人际影响、体育活动和体质健康;②青少年参与体育活动对体质健康具有直接的促进作用;③自我效能和知觉利益直接影响体育活动,并间接促进体质健康;④人际影响对体育活动的直接影响较少,人际影响可以通过影响自我效能和知觉利益间接影响体育活动,进而促进体质健康。%The present study was to develop a model of physical health promotion for adolescents using expert consultation and the questionnaire and the core elements including biological ,social and psychological factors .The purposes were to enrich health promotion theories and reference for improvement of adolescent physical health in China .The main findings were summarized as following .(1) The 6‐factors of model were interpersonal influence ,self‐efficacy ,perceptive benefits , perceptive barriers ,physical activities ,and physical health ;(2) Physical activities of adolescents directly promoted their physical health level ;(3) Self‐efficacy and perceptive benefits directly affected physical activity level and indirectly promo‐ted physical health through physical activities ;(4)Interpersonal influence indirectly affected physical activities and subse‐quently physical health through self‐efficacy and perceptive benefits .

  18. A national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media: modelling the health gain, health equity and cost-utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Leung, William; Nair, Nisha; Deen, Frederieke S van der; Blakely, Tony; Wilson, Nick

    2017-07-24

    Mass media campaigns and quitlines are both important distinct components of tobacco control programmes around the world. But when used as an integrated package, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are not well described. We therefore aimed to estimate the health gain, health equity impacts and cost-utility of the package of a national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media. We adapted an established Markov and multistate life-table macro-simulation model. The population was all New Zealand adults in 2011. Effect sizes and intervention costs were based on past New Zealand quitline data. Health system costs were from a national data set linking individual health events to costs. The 1-year operation of the existing intervention package of mass media promotion and quitline service was found to be net cost saving to the health sector for all age groups, sexes and ethnic groups (saving $NZ84 million; 95%uncertainty interval 60-115 million in the base-case model). It also produced greater per capita health gains for Māori (indigenous) than non-Māori (2.2 vs 0.73 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per 1000 population, respectively). The net cost saving of the intervention was maintained in all sensitivity and scenario analyses for example at a discount rate of 6% and when the intervention effect size was quartered (given the possibility of residual confounding in our estimates of smoking cessation). Running the intervention for 20 years would generate an estimated 54 000 QALYs and $NZ1.10 billion (US$0.74 billion) in cost savings. The package of a quitline service and its promotion in the mass media appears to be an effective means to generate health gain, address health inequalities and save health system costs. Nevertheless, the role of this intervention needs to be compared with other tobacco control and health sector interventions, some of which may be even more cost saving. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  19. An evaluation of orthopaedic nurses’ participation in an educational intervention promoting research utilization – A triangulation convergence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-01-01

    is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. Design...... A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Methods Data were collected from 2013–2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus......Aims and objectives To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. Background One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice...

  20. Lanthanum cobalt oxides as models for La-promoted Co/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansteen, Ole Henrik

    1998-12-31

    Cobalt supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have for a long time been interesting catalysts for the synthesis of hydrocarbons by hydrogenation of carbonmonoxide, the so-called Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The reduction and catalytic properties of these catalysts are largely improved by addition of promotors like rhenium and lanthanum. This thesis attempts to provide additional knowledge to the nature of the reduction processes from metal oxides via partially reduced phases into metal and to the large degree of interaction/reaction between the catalyst components. It focuses on detailed studies of model oxides in the La-Co-O and Co-Al-O systems under reducing conditions typically used for the synthesis of the catalysts. 132 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. A novel community-based model to enhance health promotion, risk factor management and chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shannon Ryan; Carr, Caroline; Kohler, Graeme; Edwards, Lynn; Gibson, Rick; Sampalli, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is a highly expensive but preventable problem to the healthcare system. Evidence suggests that impacting modifiable behaviours and risk management factors in the areas of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress and obesity can alleviate the burden of chronic disease problem to a large extent. Despite this recognition, the challenge is embedding these recognized priorities into the community and in primary care in a sustainable and meaningful manner. Primary Health Care in Capital Health responded to this challenge by developing and implementing a free, interprofessional and community-based service, namely, the Community Health Teams (CHTs), that offers health and wellness, risk factor management, wellness navigation and behaviour-based programming. In this paper, the development and implementation of the CHTs are discussed. Preliminary outcomes for the model are significant and promising. Formal and large-scale studies are planned to validate these outcomes with additional research rigour.

  2. Monitoring of Tumor Promotion and Progression in a Mouse Model of Inflammation-Induced Colon Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Young

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of precancerous tissue has significantly improved survival of most cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC. Animal models designed to study the early stages of cancer are valuable for identifying molecular events and response indicators that correlate with the onset of disease. The goal of this work was to investigate magnetic resonance (MR colonography in a mouse model of CRC on a clinical MR imager. Mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium were imaged by serial MR colonography (MRC from initiation to euthanasia. Magnetic resonance colonography was obtained with both T1- and T2-weighted images after administration of a Fluorinert enema to remove residual luminal signal and intravenous contrast to enhance the colon wall. Individual tumor volumes were calculated and validated ex vivo. The Fluorinert enema provided a clear differentiation of the lumen of the colon from the mucosal lining. Inflammation was detected 3 days after dextran sulfate sodium exposure and subsided during the next week. Tumors as small as 1.2 mm3 were detected and as early as 29 days after initiation. Individual tumor growths were followed over time, and tumor volumes were measured by MR imaging correlated with volumes measured ex vivo. The use of a Fluorinert enema during MRC in mice is critical for differentiating mural processes from intraluminal debris. Magnetic resonance colonography with Fluorinert enema and intravenous contrast enhancement will be useful in the study of the initial stages of colon cancer and will reduce the number of animals needed for preclinical trials of prevention or intervention.

  3. The antineoplastic antibiotic taurolidine promotes lung and liver metastasis in two syngeneic osteosarcoma mouse models and exhibits severe liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Matthias J E; Walters, Denise K; Banke, Ingo J; Steinmann, Patrick; Puskas, Gabor J; Bertz, Josefine; Rentsch, Katharina M; Ehrensperger, Felix; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Despite multiagent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Moreover, currently used chemotherapeutics have severe toxic side effects. Thus, novel agents with improved antimetastatic activity and reduced toxicity are needed. Taurolidine, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, has recently been shown to have antineoplastic properties against a variety of tumors and low systemic toxicity. Consequently, we investigated in our study the antineoplastic potential of taurolidine against OS in two different mouse models. Although both OS cell lines, K7M2 and LM8, were sensitive for the compound in vitro, intraperitoneal application of taurolidine failed to inhibit primary tumor growth. Moreover, it enhanced the metastatic load in both models 1.7- to 20-fold and caused severe liver deformations and up to 40% mortality. Thus, systemic toxicity was further investigated in tumor-free mice histologically, by electron microscopy and by measurements of representative liver enzymes. Taurolidine dose-dependent fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and adhesions and atrophies of the liver lobes were comparable in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Liver toxicity was further indicated by up to eightfold elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and GLDH in the circulation. Ultrastructural analysis of affected liver tissue showed swollen mitochondria with cristolysis and numerous lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The findings of our study question the applicability of taurolidine for OS treatment and may suggest the need for caution regarding the widespread clinical use of taurolidine as an antineoplastic agent.

  4. Effect of the Intervention based on Partnership Care Model on Self-Concept Promotion in Patients with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajjadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a chronic worldwide spreading disease, diabetes negatively affects the persons’ self-concept. Since self-concept plays an important role in daily life, it should be under consideration especially in the patients with chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of the partnership-care model intervention on self-concept enhancement in persons with type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: In the controlled randomized clinical trial, 60 patients with type II diabetes referred to Imam Zaman Hospital were studied in Mashhad in 2015. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were divided into two groups including control and experimental groups. Data was collected using a three-section questionnaire including demographic information, the disease information, and Beck self-concept test sections. The self-concept of the subjects having been determined, seven 90-minute partnership-care intervention sessions were conducted in experimental group. Then, the self-concept was measured in both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20 software using paired T, independent T, and Chi-square tests. Findings: Before and after the intervention, the mean self-concept scores were not significantly different in control group (p=0.066. However, the difference was significant in experimental group (p<0.001. In addition, the mean scores of control and experimental groups were not significantly different before the intervention (p=0.537. Nevertheless, the mean self-concept scores of the groups were significantly different after the intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The intervention based on the partner-ship care model enhances the self-concept in patients with type II diabetes.

  5. Jagged1 upregulation in prostate epithelial cells promotes formation of reactive stroma in the Pten null mouse model for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qingtai; Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Li; Dang, Truong; Rowley, David; Ittmann, Michael; Xin, Li

    2016-01-01

    The role of Notch signaling in prostate cancer has not been defined definitively. Several large scale tissue microarray studies revealed that the expression of some Notch signaling components including the Jagged1 ligand are upregulated in advanced human prostate cancer specimens. Jagged1 expressed by tumor cells may activate Notch signaling in both adjacent tumor cells and cells in tumor microenvironment. However, it remains undetermined whether increased Jagged1 expression reflects a cause for or a consequence of tumor progression in vivo. To address this question, we generated a novel R26-LSL-JAG1 mouse model that enables spatiotemporal Jagged1 expression. Prostate specific upregulation of Jagged1 neither interferes with prostate epithelial homeostasis nor significantly accelerates tumor initiation or progression in the prostate-specific Pten deletion mouse model for prostate cancer. However, Jagged1 upregulation results in increased inflammatory foci in tumors and incidence of intracystic adenocarcinoma. In addition, Jagged1 overexpression upregulates Tgfβ signaling in prostate stromal cells and promotes progression of a reactive stromal microenvironment in the Pten null prostate cancer model. Collectively, Jagged1 overexpression does not significantly accelerate prostate cancer initiation and progression in the context of loss-of-function of Pten, but alters tumor histopathology and microenvironment. Our study also highlights an understudied role of Notch signaling in regulating prostatic stromal homeostasis. PMID:27345403

  6. Brh2 and Rad51 promote telomere maintenance in Ustilago maydis, a new model system of DNA repair proteins at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Young; Kojic, Milorad; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies implicate a number of DNA repair proteins in mammalian telomere maintenance. However, because several key repair proteins in mammals are missing from the well-studied budding and fission yeast, their roles at telomeres cannot be modeled in standard fungi. In this report, we explored the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis as an alternative model for telomere research. This fungus, which belongs to the phylum Basidiomycota, has a telomere repeat unit that is identical to the mammalian repeat, as well as a constellation of DNA repair proteins that more closely mimic the mammalian collection. We showed that the two core components of homology-directed repair (HDR) in U. maydis, namely Brh2 and Rad51, both promote telomere maintenance in telomerase positive cells, just like in mammals. In addition, we found that Brh2 is localized to telomeres in vivo, suggesting that it acts directly at chromosome ends. We surveyed a series of mutants with DNA repair defects, and found many of them to have short telomeres. Our results indicate that factors involved in DNA repair are probably also needed for optimal telomere maintenance in U. maydis, and that this fungus is a useful alternative model system for telomere research.

  7. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  8. To What Degree Does Handling Concrete Molecular Models Promote the Ability to Translate and Coordinate between 2D and 3D Molecular Structure Representations? A Case Study with Algerian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Salah, Boukhechem; Alain, Dumon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess whether the handling of concrete ball-and-stick molecular models promotes translation between diagrammatic representations and a concrete model (or vice versa) and the coordination of the different types of structural representations of a given molecular structure. Forty-one Algerian undergraduate students were requested…

  9. Vitamin D deficiency promotes growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer in a rodent model of osteosclerotic bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Li Laine; Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Trivedi, Trupti; Conigrave, Arthur D; Seibel, Markus J; Dunstan, Colin R

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer metastases to bone are common in advanced stage disease. We have recently demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency enhances breast cancer growth in an osteolytic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on tumor growth in an osteosclerotic model of intra-skeletal breast cancer in mice. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] on proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and changes in the expression of genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway (VDR, 1α- and 24-hydroxylase) were examined in vitro. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were injected intra-tibially into vitamin D deficient and vitamin D sufficient mice co-treated with and without osteoprotegerin (OPG). The development of tumor-related lesions was monitored via serial X-ray analysis. Tumor burden and indices of proliferation and apoptosis were determined by histology along with markers of bone turnover and serum intact PTH levels. In vitro, MCF-7 cells expressed critical genes for vitamin D signalling and metabolism. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibited cell growth and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. In vivo, osteosclerotic lesions developed faster and were larger at endpoint in the tibiae of vitamin D deficient mice compared to vitamin D sufficient mice (1.49±0.08 mm(2) versus 1.68±0.15 mm(2), Pbone turnover and caused an increase in PTH levels, while tumor burden was reduced by 90.4% in vitamin D sufficient mice and by 92.6% in vitamin D deficient mice. Tumor mitotic activity was increased in the tibiae of vitamin D deficient mice and apoptosis was decreased, consistent with faster growth. Vitamin D deficiency enhances both the growth of tumors and the tumor-induced osteosclerotic changes in the tibiae of mice following intratibial implantation of MCF-7 cells. Enhancement of tumor growth appears dependent on increased bone resorption rather than increased bone formation induced by these

  10. Allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) combined with an osteoconductive scaffold to promote lumbar interbody spine fusion in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Donna L; Fredericks, Douglas C; Dryer, Randall F; Bae, Hyun W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in immunomagnetic cell sorting have enabled isolation and purification of pleuripotent stem cells from marrow aspirates and have expanded stem cell therapies to include allogeneic sources. This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) combined with an osteoconductive scaffold in lumbar interbody spinal fusion using an ovine model. Thirty-two skeletally mature ewes underwent a single-level interbody fusion procedure using a Polyetheretherketone fusion cage supplemented with either iliac crest autograft (AG) or an osteconductive scaffold (Mastergraft Matrix, Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) with 2.5×10(6) MPCs, 6.25×10(6) MPCs, or 12.5×10(6) MPCs. Plain radiographs and computed tomography scans were scored for bridging bone at multiple points during healing and at necropsy. The biomechanical competency of fusion was scored by manual palpation and quantified using functional radiographs at necropsy. Postnecropsy histopathology and histomorphometric analysis assessed the local response to MPC treatment and quantified the volume and connectivity of newly formed bridging bone. Safety was assessed by serum biochemistry, hematology, and organ histopathology. Mesenchymal precursor cell treatment caused no adverse systemic or local tissue responses. All analyses indicated MPCs combined with an osteoconductive scaffold achieved similar or better fusion success as AG treatment after 16 weeks, and increasing the MPC dose did not enhance fusion. Manual palpation of the fusion site indicated more than 75% of MPC-treated and 65% of AG-treated animals achieved rigid fusion, which was corroborated with functional radiography. Computed tomography fusion scores indicated all animals in the MPC- and AG-treatment groups were fused at 16 weeks, yet X-ray scores indicated only 67% of the AG-treated animals were fused. Histomorphometry analyses showed equivalent outcomes for fusion connectivity and bony fusion area for

  11. Lack of high-dose radiation mediated prostate cancer promotion and low-dose radiation adaptive response in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M D; Ormsby, R J; Blyth, B J; Bezak, E; England, G; Newman, M R; Tilley, W D; Sykes, P J

    2013-10-01

    Cancer of the prostate is a highly prevalent disease with a heterogeneous aetiology and prognosis. Current understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the responses of prostate tissue to ionizing radiation exposure, including cancer induction, is surprisingly limited for both high- and low-dose exposures. As population exposure to radiation increases, largely through medical imaging, a better understanding of the response of the prostate to radiation exposure is required. Low-dose radiation-induced adaptive responses for increased cancer latency and decreased cancer frequency have been demonstrated in mouse models, largely for hematological cancers. This study examines the effects of high- and low-dose whole-body radiation exposure on prostate cancer development using an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer: TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP). TRAMP mice were exposed to single acute high (2 Gy), low (50 mGy) and repeated low (5 × 50 mGy) doses of X rays to evaluate both the potential prostate cancer promoting effects of high-dose radiation and low-dose adaptive response phenomena in this prostate cancer model. Prostate weights and histopathology were examined to evaluate gross changes in cancer development and, in mice exposed to a single 2 Gy dose, time to palpable tumor was examined. Proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis, DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and transgene expression (large T-antigen) were examined within TRAMP prostate sections. Neither high- nor low-dose radiation-induced effects on prostate cancer progression were observed for any of the endpoints studied. Lack of observable effects of high- or low-dose radiation exposure suggests that modulation of tumorigenesis in the TRAMP model is largely resistant to such exposures. However, further study is required to better assess the effects of radiation exposure using alternative prostate cancer models that incorporate normal prostate and in those that are not driven by SV40 large T

  12. The antifibrotic drug pirfenidone promotes pulmonary cavitation and drug resistance in a mouse model of chronic tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahidjo, Bintou A; Maiga, Mariama C; Ihms, Elizabeth A; Maiga, Mamoudou; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Cheung, Laurene S; Beck, Sarah; Andrade, Bruno B; Jain, Sanjay; Bishai, William R

    2016-09-08

    Pirfenidone is a recently approved antifibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by granulomatous inflammation in conjunction with parenchymal destruction and replacement fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the addition of pirfenidone as an adjunctive, host-directed therapy provides a beneficial effect during antimicrobial treatment of TB. We hypothesized that pirfenidone's antiinflammatory and antifibrotic properties would reduce inflammatory lung damage and increase antimicrobial drug penetration in granulomas to accelerate treatment response. The effectiveness of adjunctive pirfenidone during TB drug therapy was evaluated using a murine model of chronic TB. Mice treated with standard therapy 2HRZ/4HR (H, isoniazid; R, rifampin; and Z, pyrazinamide) were compared with 2 alternative regimens containing pirfenidone (Pf) (2HRZPf/4HRPf and 2HRZPf/4HR). Contrary to our hypothesis, adjunctive pirfenidone use leads to reduced bacterial clearance and increased relapse rates. This treatment failure is closely associated with the emergence of isoniazid monoresistant bacilli, increased cavitation, and significant lung pathology. While antifibrotic agents may eventually be used as part of adjunctive host-directed therapy of TB, this study clearly demonstrates that caution must be exercised. Moreover, as pirfenidone becomes more widely used in clinical practice, increased patient monitoring would be required in endemic TB settings.

  13. Amidated and ibuprofen-conjugated kyotorphins promote neuronal rescue and memory recovery in cerebral hypoperfusion dementia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia eSá Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic brain ischemia is a prominent risk factor for neurological dysfunction and progression for dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In rats, permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO causes a progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, learning deficits and memory loss as it occurs in AD. Kyotorphin (KTP is an endogenous antinociceptive dipeptide whose role as neuromodulator/neuroprotector has been suggested. Recently, we designed two analgesic KTP-derivatives, KTP-amide (KTP-NH2 and KTP-NH2 linked to ibuprofen (IbKTP-NH2 to improve KTP brain targeting. This study investigated the effects of KTP-derivatives on cognitive/behavioral functions (motor/spatial memory/nociception and hippocampal pathology of female rats in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (2VO-rat model. 2VO-animals were treated with KTP-NH2 or IbKTP-NH2 for 7 days at weeks 2 and 5 post-surgery. After behavioral testing (week 6, coronal sections of hippocampus were H&E-stained or immunolabeled for the cellular markers GFAP (astrocytes and NFL (neurons. Our findings show that KTP-derivatives, mainly IbKTP-NH2, enhanced cognitive impairment of 2VO-animals and prevented neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield, suggesting their potential usefulness for the treatment of dementia.

  14. Enhancement of the pro-apoptotic properties of Newcastle disease virus promotes tumor remission in syngeneic murine cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Ayllon, Juan; Mansour, Mena; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Jordan, Stefan; Tripathi, Shashank; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Villar, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is considered a promising agent for cancer therapy due to its oncolytic properties. These include preferential replication in transformed cells, induction of innate and adaptive immune responses within tumors and cytopathic effects in infected tumor cells due to the activation of apoptosis. In order to enhance the latter and thus possibly enhance the overall oncolytic activity of NDV, we generated a recombinant NDV encoding the human TNF receptor Fas (rNDV-B1/Fas). rNDV-B1/Fas replicates to similar titers as its wild type (rNDV-B1) counterpart, however overexpression of Fas in infected cells leads to higher levels of cytotoxicity correlated with faster and increased apoptosis responses in which both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are activated earlier. Furthermore, in vivo studies in syngeneic murine melanoma model show an enhancement of the oncolytic properties of rNDV-B1/Fas, with major improvements in survival and tumor remission. Altogether, our data suggest that up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic function of NDV is a viable approach to enhance its anti-tumor properties, and adds to the currently known, rationally-based strategies to design optimized therapeutic viral vectors for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25761895

  15. Islands of spatially discordant APD alternans underlie arrhythmogenesis by promoting electrotonic dyssynchrony in models of fibrotic rat ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Engels, Marc C.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis and altered gap junctional coupling are key features of ventricular remodelling and are associated with abnormal electrical impulse generation and propagation. Such abnormalities predispose to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. In the absence of tissue heterogeneity, high-frequency impulse generation can also induce dynamic electrical instabilities leading to reentrant arrhythmias. However, because of the complexity and stochastic nature of such arrhythmias, the combined effects of tissue heterogeneity and dynamical instabilities in these arrhythmias have not been explored in detail. Here, arrhythmogenesis was studied using in vitro and in silico monolayer models of neonatal rat ventricular tissue with 30% randomly distributed cardiac myofibroblasts and systematically lowered intercellular coupling achieved in vitro through graded knockdown of connexin43 expression. Arrhythmia incidence and complexity increased with decreasing intercellular coupling efficiency. This coincided with the onset of a specialized type of spatially discordant action potential duration alternans characterized by island-like areas of opposite alternans phase, which positively correlated with the degree of connexinx43 knockdown and arrhythmia complexity. At higher myofibroblast densities, more of these islands were formed and reentrant arrhythmias were more easily induced. This is the first study exploring the combinatorial effects of myocardial fibrosis and dynamic electrical instabilities on reentrant arrhythmia initiation and complexity.

  16. "THE EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCTION IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF HAIRDRESSERS ABOUT HEPATITIS B BASED ON HEALTH BELIEF MODEL "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Baghiani Moghadam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HB is an infectious disease occurring worldwide which can be transferred by some professions, including hairdressers. Health education is an essential component of public health campaign about this disease. The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the health belief model (HBM in understanding and predicating the intention of hairdressers in prevention of HB in their clients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to 140 hairdressers (70 men and 70 women in Yazd, Iran. All subjects were divided into two groups: case group (35 men and 35 women and control group (35 men and 35 women. A researcher designed questionnaire according to the framework of HBM was developed, pilot-tested and then completed before and after intervention. There was significant difference between the mean grade scores of knowledge of case group before and after intervention (P < 0.0001. The perceived threat of case group were also increased from 9.8 to 10.61 after intervention, but the perceived threat of control group were decreased from 9.97 to 9. The HBM may offer an effective foundation for development of an educational intervention program in hairdressers for prevention of HB in their clients.

  17. NGF promotes hemodynamic recovery in a rabbit hindlimb ischemic model through trkA- and VEGFR2-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzas, Andreas; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Lilis, Ioannis; Papadaki, Helen; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Lecht, Shimon; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Siablis, Dimitris; Lelkes, Peter I; Lazarovici, Philip; Tsopanoglou, Nikos E

    2013-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to play an important role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NGF may induce the formation of functional blood vessels in a hindlimb ischemic rabbit model. Hindlimb ischemia was induced in 34 rabbits bilaterally by endovascular embolization of femoral arteries. On the 7th, 14th, and 20th postembolization days, NGF was injected intramuscularly, in 1 ischemic limb, and vehicle was injected in the contralateral control limb. On the 40th day, newly developed collateral vessels (diameter >500 μm) were quantified by transauricular intraarterial subtraction angiography. Perfusion analysis of an in vivo dynamic computed tomography study was performed to the limbs to investigate the hemodynamic recovery of the distal ischemic tissues. Functional estimation of limb perfusion showed a statistically significant increase of blood flow and blood volume for NGF. However, the increase of the collateral vessels was not detectable angiographically, providing evidence for the existence of a NGF-stimulated capillary angiogenic network but not increase of arteriogenesis. The combination of NGF with either tropomyosin-related kinase type A or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antagonists abolished the NGF-induced hemodynamic recovery. These findings provide new insights into understanding the involvement of NGF in vascular formation and its applications in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  18. CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists promote analgesia through synergy in a murine model of tumor pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasabova, Iryna A; Gielissen, James; Chandiramani, Anisha; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Odeh, Desiree Abu; Simone, Donald A; Seybold, Virginia S

    2011-09-01

    In light of the adverse side-effects of opioids, cannabinoid receptor agonists may provide an effective alternative for the treatment of cancer pain. This study examined the potency and efficacy of synthetic CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in a murine model of tumor pain. Intraplantar injection of the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ED(50) of 18.4 μg) reduced tumor-related mechanical hyperalgesia by activation of peripheral CB1 but not CB2 receptors. Similar injection of the CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 (ED50 of 19.5 μg) reduced mechanical hyperalgesia by activation of peripheral CB2 but not CB1 receptors. Both agonists had an efficacy comparable with that of morphine (intraplantar), but their analgesic effects were independent of opioid receptors. Isobolographic analysis of the coinjection of arachidonylcyclopropylamide and AM1241 determined that the CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists interacted synergistically to reduce mechanical hyperalgesia in the tumor-bearing paw. These data extend our previous findings that the peripheral cannabinoid receptors are a promising target for the management of cancer pain and mixed cannabinoid receptor agonists may have a therapeutic advantage over selective agonists.

  19. The antifibrotic drug pirfenidone promotes pulmonary cavitation and drug resistance in a mouse model of chronic tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahidjo, Bintou A.; Maiga, Mariama C.; Ihms, Elizabeth A.; Maiga, Mamoudou; Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Cheung, Laurene S.; Beck, Sarah; Andrade, Bruno B.; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Pirfenidone is a recently approved antifibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by granulomatous inflammation in conjunction with parenchymal destruction and replacement fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the addition of pirfenidone as an adjunctive, host-directed therapy provides a beneficial effect during antimicrobial treatment of TB. We hypothesized that pirfenidone’s antiinflammatory and antifibrotic properties would reduce inflammatory lung damage and increase antimicrobial drug penetration in granulomas to accelerate treatment response. The effectiveness of adjunctive pirfenidone during TB drug therapy was evaluated using a murine model of chronic TB. Mice treated with standard therapy 2HRZ/4HR (H, isoniazid; R, rifampin; and Z, pyrazinamide) were compared with 2 alternative regimens containing pirfenidone (Pf) (2HRZPf/4HRPf and 2HRZPf/4HR). Contrary to our hypothesis, adjunctive pirfenidone use leads to reduced bacterial clearance and increased relapse rates. This treatment failure is closely associated with the emergence of isoniazid monoresistant bacilli, increased cavitation, and significant lung pathology. While antifibrotic agents may eventually be used as part of adjunctive host-directed therapy of TB, this study clearly demonstrates that caution must be exercised. Moreover, as pirfenidone becomes more widely used in clinical practice, increased patient monitoring would be required in endemic TB settings. PMID:27699232

  20. NAD+ salvage pathway proteins suppress proteotoxicity in yeast models of neurodegeneration by promoting the clearance of misfolded/oligomerized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Alejandro; Liu, Jingjing; Barrientos, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    Increased levels of nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) act as a powerful suppressor of Wallerian degeneration and ataxin- and tau-induced neurodegeneration in flies and mice. However, the nature of the suppression mechanism/s remains controversial. Here, we show that in yeast models of proteinopathies, overexpression of the NMNAT yeast homologs, NMA1 and NMA2, suppresses polyglutamine (PolyQ) and α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicities. Unexpectedly, overexpression of other genes in the salvage pathway for NAD(+) biosynthesis, including QNS1, NPT1 and PNC1 also protected against proteotoxicity. Our data revealed that in all cases, this mechanism involves extensive clearance of the non-native protein. Importantly, we demonstrate that suppression by NMA1 does not require the presence of a functional salvage pathway for NAD(+) biosynthesis, SIR2 or an active mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Our results imply the existence of histone deacetylase- and OXPHOS-independent crosstalk between the proteins in the salvage pathway for NAD(+) biosynthesis and the proteasome that can be manipulated to achieve cellular protection against proteotoxic stress.

  1. CCR2 and CD44 promote inflammatory cell recruitment during fatty liver formation in a lithogenic diet fed mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E Egan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a common disease with a spectrum of presentations. The current study utilized a lithogenic diet model of NAFLD. The diet was fed to mice that are either resistant (AKR or susceptible (BALB/c and C57BL/6 to hepatitis followed by molecular and flow cytometric analysis. Following this, a similar approach was taken in congenic mice with specific mutations in immunological genes. The initial study identified a significant and profound increase in multiple ligands for the chemokine receptor CCR2 and an increase in CD44 expression in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6 but not resistant AKR mice. Ccr2(-/- mice were completely protected from hepatitis and Cd44(-/- mice were partially protected. Despite protection from inflammation, both strains displayed similar histological steatosis scores and significant increases in serum liver enzymes. CD45(+CD44(+ cells bound to hyaluronic acid (HA in diet fed B6 mice but not Cd44(-/- or Ccr2(-/- mice. Ccr2(-/- mice displayed a diminished HA binding phenotype most notably in monocytes, and CD8(+ T-cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that absence of CCR2 completely and CD44 partially reduces hepatic leukocyte recruitment. These data also provide evidence that there are multiple redundant CCR2 ligands produced during hepatic lipid accumulation and describes the induction of a strong HA binding phenotype in response to LD feeding in some subsets of leukocytes from susceptible strains.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Kitao, Tomoe; Ivey, Melissa L.; Davis, Michael R.; Grahl, Nora; Hogan, Deborah A.; Rahme, Laurence G.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus. Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO), and rhamnolipids—each required for efficient killing of S. aureus. These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureus. PMID:28325763

  3. An evaluation of orthopaedic nurses' participation in an educational intervention promoting research usage--a triangulation convergence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-03-01

    To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Data were collected from 2013-2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus group sessions. Data were first analysed using descriptive statistics (stata 12.0) and qualitative manifest content analysis. Second, the results were compared, contrasted and interpreted using international literature. The nurses experienced the intervention as a new way to focus on nursing research in practice. However, some nurses were not able to see the relevance of research usage in clinical practice. Nursing research was not a top priority for the nurses and their personal barriers for research usage during their working day were prioritising patients' and colleagues' well-being. Their colleagues' and head section nurses' lack of acceptance regarding participation in the teaching session was a contextual barrier for the nurses. The nurses were interested in participating in the intervention. However, some felt restricted by the research-practice gap and by diverse personal and contextual barriers. The knowledge derived from this study has high clinical and practical relevance and is currently used to facilitate the nurses' research usage in the orthopaedic department setting, by working around the

  4. Social media and internet driven study recruitment: evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Chetan; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Bhangu, Aneel; Fitzgerald, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study. Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score. Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%). Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%). Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%), followed by Facebook (11.9%), Twitter (4.8%) and YouTube (1.5%). A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48%) of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout) score of 42/100 was obtained during this period. Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for maximising cost

  5. Postconditioning with inhaled hydrogen promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobing; Wu, Jiangchun; Chen, Zeli; Xia, Fangzhou; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of various ocular diseases. Intraperitoneal injection or ocular instillation with hydrogen (H2)-rich saline was recently shown to be neuroprotective in the retina due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Our study aims to explore whether postconditioning with inhaled H2 can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat model of retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was performed on the right eyes of rats and was followed by inhalation of 67% H2 mixed with 33% oxygen immediately after ischemia for 1h daily for one week. RGC density was counted using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and retrograde labeling with cholera toxin beta (CTB). Visual function was assessed using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP) and pupillary light reflex (PLR). Potential biomarkers of retinal oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were measured, including the expression of 4-Hydroxynonenalv (4-HNE), interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). HE and CTB tracing showed that the survival rate of RGCs in the H2-treated group was significantly higher than the rate in the I/R group. Rats with H2 inhalation showed better visual function in assessments of FVEP and PLR. Moreover, H2 treatment significantly decreased the number of 4-HNE-stained cells in the ganglion cell layer and inhibited the retinal overexpression of IL1-β and TNF-α that was induced by retinal I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that postconditioning with inhaled high-dose H2 appears to confer neuroprotection against retinal I/R injury via anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis pathways.

  6. Sprouty2 and -4 hypomorphism promotes neuronal survival and astrocytosis in a mouse model of kainic acid induced neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrong, Sitthisak; Hausott, Barbara; Marvaldi, Letizia; Agostinho, Alexandra S; Zangrandi, Luca; Burtscher, Johannes; Fogli, Barbara; Schwarzer, Christoph; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins play a key role as negative feedback inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MAPK/ERK pathway downstream of various receptor tyrosine kinases. Among the four Sprouty isoforms, Spry2 and Spry4 are expressed in the hippocampus. In this study, possible effects of Spry2 and Spry4 hypomorphism on neurodegeneration and seizure thresholds in a mouse model of epileptogenesis was analyzed. The Spry2/4 hypomorphs exhibited stronger ERK activation which was limited to the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and to the hilar region. The seizure threshold of Spry2/4(+/-) mice was significantly reduced at naive state but no difference to wildtype mice was observed 1 month following KA treatment. Histomorphological analysis revealed that dentate granule cell dispersion (GCD) was diminished in Spry2/4(+/-) mice in the subchronic phase after KA injection. Neuronal degeneration was reduced in CA1 and CA3 principal neuron layers as well as in scattered neurons of the contralateral CA1 and hilar regions. Moreover, Spry2/4 reduction resulted in enhanced survival of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y expressing interneurons. GFAP staining intensity and number of reactive astrocytes markedly increased in lesioned areas of Spry2/4(+/-) mice as compared with wildtype mice. Taken together, although the seizure threshold is reduced in naive Spry2/4(+/-) mice, neurodegeneration and GCD is mitigated following KA induced hippocampal lesions, identifying Spry proteins as possible pharmacological targets in brain injuries resulting in neurodegeneration. The present data are consistent with the established functions of the ERK pathway in astrocyte proliferation as well as protection from neuronal cell death and suggest a novel role of Spry proteins in the migration of differentiated neurons.

  7. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections.

  8. A Modified Collagen Gel Dressing Promotes Angiogenesis in a Pre-Clinical Swine Model of Chronic Ischemic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgharably, Haytham; Ganesh, Kasturi; Dickerson, Jennifer; Khanna, Savita; Abas, Motaz; Ghatak, Piya Das; Dixit, Sriteja; Bergdall, Valerie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2015-01-01

    We recently performed proteomic characterization of a modified collagen gel (MCG) dressing and reported promising effects of the gel in healing full-thickness excisional wounds. In this work, we test the translational relevance of our aforesaid findings by testing the dressing in a swine model of chronic ischemic wounds recently reported by our laboratory. Full thickness excisional wounds were established in the center of bi- pedicle ischemic skin flaps on the backs of animals. Ischemia was verified by Laser Doppler imaging and MCG was applied to the test group of wounds. Seven days post- wounding, macrophage recruitment to the wound was significantly higher in MCG- treated ischemic wounds. In vitro, MCG up-regulated expression of Mrc-1 (a reparative M2 macrophage marker) and induced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and of β-FGF. An increased expression of CCR2, a M2 macrophage marker, was noted in the macrophages from MCG treated wounds. Furthermore, analyses of wound tissues 7 days post wounding showed up-regulation of TGF-β, VEGF, vWF, and collagen type I expression in MCG-treated ischemic wounds. At 21 days post-wounding, MCG-treated ischemic wounds displayed higher abundance of proliferating endothelial cells that formed mature vascular structures and increased blood flow to the wound. Fibroblast count was markedly higher in MCG-treated ischemic wound-edge tissue. In addition, MCG-treated wound-edge tissues displayed higher abundance of mature collagen with increased collagen type I:III deposition. Taken together, MCG helped mount a more robust inflammatory response which resolved in a timely manner, followed by an enhanced proliferative phase, angiogenic outcome and post-wound tissue remodeling. Findings of the current study warrant clinical testing of MCG in a setting of ischemic chronic wounds. PMID:25224310

  9. Social media and internet driven study recruitment: evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Khatri

    Full Text Available A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study.Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score.Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%. Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%. Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%, followed by Facebook (11.9%, Twitter (4.8% and YouTube (1.5%. A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48% of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout score of 42/100 was obtained during this period.Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for

  10. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu, E-mail: xuyu1001@gmail.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Liu, Zhengchun, E-mail: l135027@126.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Kong, Haiyan, E-mail: suppleant@163.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wendy11240325@163.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Liao, Zhengkai, E-mail: fastbeta@gmail.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhou, Fuxiang, E-mail: happyzhoufx@sina.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xie, Conghua, E-mail: chxie_65@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071 (China); and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  11. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoli, Dominique H; Whitfield, Gregory B; Kitao, Tomoe; Ivey, Melissa L; Davis, Michael R; Grahl, Nora; Hogan, Deborah A; Rahme, Laurence G; Howell, P Lynne; O'Toole, George A; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2017-03-21

    While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO), and rhamnolipids-each required for efficient killing of S. aureus These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureusIMPORTANCE Numerous deep-sequencing studies have revealed the microbial communities present during respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are diverse, complex, and dynamic. We now face the challenge of determining

  13. High-fat, high-calorie diet promotes early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David W; Hertzer, Kathleen; Moro, Aune; Donald, Graham; Chang, Hui-Hua; Go, Vay Liang; Pandol, Steven J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Li, Gang; Hines, Oscar J; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2013-10-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that obesity increases the risk of cancers. Several underlying mechanisms, including inflammation and insulin resistance, are proposed. However, the driving mechanisms in pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to develop a model of diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer development in a state-of-the-art mouse model, which resembles important clinical features of human obesity, for example, weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Offspring of Pdx-1-Cre and LSL-KrasG12D mice were allocated to either a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD; ∼4,535 kcal/kg; 40% of calories from fats) or control diet (∼3,725 kcal/kg; 12% of calories from fats) for 3 months. Compared with control animals, mice fed with the HFCD significantly gained more weight and developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The pancreas of HFCD-fed animals showed robust signs of inflammation with increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages and T cells), elevated levels of several cytokines and chemokines, increased stromal fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions. Our results show that a diet high in fats and calories leads to obesity and metabolic disturbances similar to humans and accelerates early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model. This model and findings will provide the basis for more robust studies attempting to unravel the mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting properties of obesity, as well as to evaluate dietary- and chemopreventive strategies targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer development.

  14. GDF-15 secreted from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells delivered through the cerebrospinal fluid promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic activity in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Dahm; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jung Won; Kim, Ju-Yeon; Kyung, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Jeong Su; Shim, Sang Mi; Na, Duk Lyul; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook

    2015-10-15

    Our previous studies demonstrated that transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the hippocampus of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and enhanced cognitive function through paracrine action. Due to the limited life span of hUCB-MSCs after their transplantation, the extension of hUCB-MSC efficacy was essential for AD treatment. In this study, we show that repeated cisterna magna injections of hUCB-MSCs activated endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis and significantly reduced Aβ42 levels. To identify the paracrine factors released from the hUCB-MSCs that stimulated endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we cocultured adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) with hUCB-MSCs and analyzed the cocultured media with cytokine arrays. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) levels were significantly increased in the media. GDF-15 suppression in hUCB-MSCs with GDF-15 small interfering RNA reduced the proliferation of NSCs in cocultures. Conversely, recombinant GDF-15 treatment in both in vitro and in vivo enhanced hippocampal NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Repeated administration of hUBC-MSCs markedly promoted the expression of synaptic vesicle markers, including synaptophysin, which are downregulated in patients with AD. In addition, in vitro synaptic activity through GDF-15 was promoted. Taken together, these results indicated that repeated cisterna magna administration of hUCB-MSCs enhanced endogenous adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic activity through a paracrine factor of GDF-15, suggesting a possible role of hUCB-MSCs in future treatment strategies for AD.

  15. The Chinese herbal formula Tongluo Jiunao promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B pathways in a rat model of ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiman Alesheikh; Yangyang Yan; Huiling Tang; Pengtao Li; Wei Zhang; Yanshu Pan; Arezou Mashoufi; Liyun Zhao; Runjun Wang; Bo Di

    2011-01-01

    The neurotrophin-Trk receptor pathway is an intrinsic pathway to relieve damage to the central nervous system. The present study observed the effects of Tongluo Jiunao (TLJN), which comprises Panax Notoginseng and Gardenia Jasminoides, on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemic injury. Xue Sai Tong (XST), comprising Panax Notoginseng, served as the positive control. Mechanisms of neuroprotection were analyzed following TLJN injection. Following establishment of the middle cerebral artery occlusion models, TLJN and XST were intraperitoneally injected, and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining results revealed that TLJN injection reduced infarct volume, suggesting that TLJN exerted a neuroprotective effect. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that TLJN elevated BDNF and growth associated protein-43 expression in ischemic brain tissues, as well as serum BDNF levels. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot results showed that TLJN injection did not affect TrkB expression in the ischemic brain tissues of rats. These results suggested that TLJN injection reduced damage to ischemic brain tissues and increased BDNF expression. In addition, TLJN injection resulted in better promoting effects on neurotrophic factor expression compared with XST.

  16. Breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro and enhances Th2 inflammation in murine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian xu; Shou-jie CHAI; Ying-ying QIAN; Min ZHANG; Kai WANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the roles of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) in regulating dendritic cell maturation and in pathology of acute asthma.Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were prepared,and infected with adenovirus over-expressing BRP-39.Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of acute asthma was made in female BALB/c mice by sensitizing and challenging with chicken OVA and Imject Alum.The transfected BMDCs were adoptively transferred into OVA-treated mice via intravenous injection.Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR),inflammation and pulmonary histopathology were characterized.Results: The expression of BRP-39 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in lung tissues of OVA-treated mice.The BMDCs infected with adenovirus BRP-39 exhibited greater maturation and higher activity in vitro.Adoptive transfer of the cells into OVA-treated mice significantly augmented OVA-induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation.Meanwhile,BRP-39 further enhanced the production of OVA-induced Th2 cytokines IL-4,IL-5,and IL-13,but significantly attenuated OVA-induced IFN-γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.Conclusion: In OVA-induced murine model of acute asthma,BRP-39 is over-expressed in lung tissue and augments Th2 inflammatory response and AHR.BRP-39 promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro.Therefore,BRP-39 may be a potential therapeutic target of asthma.

  17. Human neural stem cells genetically modified to overexpress brain-derived neurotrophic factor promote functional recovery and neuroprotection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong J; Lim, In J; Lee, Min C; Kim, Seung U

    2010-11-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a lethal stroke type; mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, so an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) selectively migrate to the brain and promote functional recovery in rat ICH model, and others have shown that intracerebral infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing BDNF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs and increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. The HB1.F3.BDNF (F3.BDNF) human NSC line produces sixfold higher amounts of BDNFF over the parental F3 cell line in vitro, induces behavioral improvement, and produces a threefold increase in cell survival at 2 weeks and 8 weeks posttransplantation. Brain transplantation of human NSCs overexpressing BDNF provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results indicate that the F3.BDNF human NSCs should be of great value as a cellular source for experimental studies involving cellular therapy for human neurological disorders, including ICH.

  18. AAV-mediated expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA promote neuronal survival and axonal sprouting in a rat model of rubrospinal tract injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Malleswari; Koch, Jan Christoph; Ribas, Vinicius Toledo; Michel, Uwe; Kügler, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Thomas; Bradke, Frank; Müller, Hans Werner; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2015-07-01

    A lesion to the rat rubrospinal tract is a model for traumatic spinal cord lesions and results in atrophy of the red nucleus neurons, axonal dieback, and locomotor deficits. In this study, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated over-expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA in the red nucleus to trace [by co-expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)] and treat the rubrospinal tract after unilateral dorsal hemisection. We investigated the effects of targeted gene therapy on neuronal survival, axonal sprouting of the rubrospinal tract, and motor recovery 12 weeks after unilateral dorsal hemisection at Th8 in rats. In addition to the evaluation of BAG1 and ROCK2 as therapeutic targets in spinal cord injury, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and the limits of an AAV-mediated protein over-expression versus AAV.shRNA-mediated down-regulation in this traumatic CNS lesion model. Our results demonstrate that BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA both promote neuronal survival of red nucleus neurons and enhance axonal sprouting proximal to the lesion.

  19. Promoting exclusive {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth upon high-temperature oxidation of NiCrAl alloys: experiment versus model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijdam, T.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft (Netherlands); Jeurgens, L.P.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft (Netherlands); Sloof, W.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: w.g.sloof@tnw.tudelft.nl

    2005-04-15

    The relationships between the compositional changes in the alloy and the morphology and phase constitution of the developing oxide scale are established as a function of oxidation time for the thermal oxidation of a {gamma}-Ni-27Cr-9Al (at.%) alloy at 1373 K and a high and low partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}) of 2 x 10{sup 4} and 0.1 Pa, respectively. Based on experimental observations, and model calculations using a coupled thermodynamic-kinetic oxidation model, four successive growth stages can be identified for the oxidation of a {gamma}-Ni-27Cr-9Al alloy at 1373 K. It is shown that the exclusive growth of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is promoted for oxidation at low pO{sub 2} by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of Al in the alloy at the oxide/metal interface during the initial stages of fast oxide-scale growth.

  20. PTC124 is an orally bioavailable compound that promotes suppression of the human CFTR-G542X nonsense allele in a CF mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ming; Liu, Xiaoli; Welch, Ellen M.; Hirawat, Samit; Peltz, Stuart W.; Bedwell, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Nonsense mutations inactivate gene function and are the underlying cause of a large percentage of the individual cases of many genetic disorders. PTC124 is an orally bioavailable compound that promotes readthrough of premature translation termination codons, suggesting that it may have the potential to treat genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. Using a mouse model for cystic fibrosis (CF), we show that s.c. injection or oral administration of PTC124 to Cftr−/− mice expressing a human CFTR-G542X transgene suppressed the G542X nonsense mutation and restored a significant amount of human (h)CFTR protein and function. Translational readthrough of the premature stop codon was demonstrated in this mouse model in two ways. First, immunofluorescence staining showed that PTC124 treatment resulted in the appearance of hCFTR protein at the apical surface of intestinal glands in Cftr−/− hCFTR-G542X mice. In addition, functional assays demonstrated that PTC124 treatment restored 24–29% of the average cAMP-stimulated transepithelial chloride currents observed in wild-type mice. These results indicate that PTC124 can effectively suppress the hCFTR-G542X nonsense mutation in vivo. In light of its oral bioavailability, safety toxicology profile in animal studies, and efficacy with other nonsense alleles, PTC124 has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for the treatment of inherited diseases caused by nonsense mutations. PMID:18272502

  1. A Decision Model for Promotion Time in Multi-products Price Promotion Based on the Profit of Retailers%多产品协同促销模式下的零售商促销时间决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李季; 周李超; 王汉生

    2013-01-01

    本文利用某大型连锁超市的销售数据,从零售商整体利润的角度对价格促销进行研究.构建了多产品协同促销模式下的促销时间决策模型,将多种不同产品及其促销时间同时纳入模型进行研究.结果表明,零售商对多个产品所进行的价格促销能够显著地影响其整体利润.而且,价格促销的效果随着促销时间的延续而降低,周末时的促销效果明显优于工作日.因此,在多产品协同促销模式下,利用本文构建的决策模型,零售商可以根据不同产品对企业整体利润的贡献来决定其促销时间,从而合理规划促销组合.%In the mounting competition of the retailing business,price promotion is one of the frequently used strategies and becomes the major part of retailers' marketing budget.Previous researches on price promotion often focus on particular brands or products from manufacturers' perspect.Few are conducted for retailers.To fill the gap in price promotion literature,the present study developed this multi-products promotion model to evaluate the the effects of price promotion on the profit of retailers by simultaneously taking multiple products and their promotion time into consideration.The multi-products promotion model is as followed:Yi =ω0 + ωWi + γ0 ∑jp=1Xij + γ1 ∑jp=1 XijTij + γ2 ∑jp=1XijP1j + γ3 ∑jp=1XijP2j +γ4 ∑jp=1XijP3j + γ5∑jp=1XijD1j +γ6∑jp=1XijD2j+γ7∑jp=1XijWi+ μi where Yi is the retailer' s profit in day i,Xi =(Xi1,Xi2,…,Xip) and Xij is the promotion degree of j th product in day i,p is the total number of products.Tij is the total promotion days ofj th product from the beginning to day i,P1j,P2j,P3j are catagory characteristics varibles,D1j,D2j are product specific varibles,Wi is a dummy variable to denote whether day i is weekend.ω0,ω,γ0,γ1,γ2,γ3,γ4,γ5,γ6,γ7 are the parameters to be estimated.This paper used the daily sales records in 159 days from a large chain supermarket for

  2. Protection against Chlamydia promoted by a subunit vaccine (CTH1 compared with a primary intranasal infection in a mouse genital challenge model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Weinreich Olsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chlamydial proteins CT443 (OmcB and CT521 (rl16 have previously been identified as human B and/or T cell targets during a chlamydial infection in humans. Here we compare the protective effector mechanism promoted by a fusion protein composed of CT521 and CT443 (CTH1 with a primary intranasal Chlamydia muridarum infection known to provide high levels of protection against a genital chlamydial challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fusion protein CTH1, adjuvanted with a strong Th1 inducing cationic adjuvant (CAF01, significantly reduced the bacterial shedding compared to a control group in both a C. trachomatis Serovar D and C. muridarum challenge model. The CTH1/CAF01 vaccine was found to induce polyfunctional T cells consisting of TNFalpha/IL-2 and TNFalpha/IL-2/IFN-gamma positive cells and high titers of CTH1 specific IgG2a and IgG1. By depletion experiments the protection in the C. muridarum challenge model was demonstrated to be mediated solely by CD4(+ T cells. In comparison, an intranasal infection with C. muridarum induced a T cell response that consisted predominantly of TNFalpha/IFN-gamma co-expressing effector CD4(+ T cells and an antibody response consisting of C. muridarum specific IgG1, IgG2a but also IgA. This response was associated with a high level of protection against challenge-a protection that was only partially dependent on CD4(+ T cells. Furthermore, whereas the antibody response induced by intranasal infection was strongly reactive against the native antigens displayed in the chlamydial elementary body, only low levels of antibodies against this preparation were found after CTH1/CAF01 immunization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that CTH1 vaccination promotes a CD4(+ T cell dependent protective response but compared with intranasal C. muridarum infection lacks a CD4 independent protective mechanism for complete protection.

  3. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Encheng; Xu, Zhiyun; Zhao, Hui; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-04-20

    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis.

  4. Fining Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeimouZheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types.It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box.The other type may be called TATA-less signal,and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition.While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot,their TATA-less signals are significantly different.A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming.By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature,an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  5. Promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-21

    Genes in eukaryotic cells are typically regulated by complex promoters containing multiple binding sites for a variety of transcription factors, but how promoter dynamics affect transcriptional dynamics has remained poorly understood. In this study, we analyze gene models at the transcriptional regulation level, which incorporate the complexity of promoter structure (PS) defined as transcriptional exits (i.e., ON states of the promoter) and the transition pattern (described by a matrix consisting of transition rates among promoter activity states). We show that multiple exits of transcription are the essential origin of generating multimodal distributions of mRNA, but promoters with the same transition pattern can lead to multimodality of different modes, depending on the regulation of transcriptional factors. In turn, for similar mRNA distributions in the models, the mean ON or OFF time distributions may exhibit different characteristics, thus providing the supplemental information on PS. In addition, we demonstrate that the transcriptional noise can be characterized by a nonlinear function of mean ON and OFF times. These results not only reveal essential characteristics of promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics but also provide signatures useful for inferring PS based on characteristics of transcriptional outputs. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Promotion Signal: Proxy for a Price Cut?

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, J Jeffrey; McAlister, Leigh; Hoyer, Wayne D.

    1990-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some consumers react to promotion signals without considering relative price information. We adopt Petty and Cacioppo's Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to explain this behavior in terms of the ELM's peripheral route to pursuasion in which the promotion signal is taken as a cue for a price cut. Experimental results show that low need for cognition individuals react to the simple presence of a promotion signal whether or not the price of the promoted brand is reduced, ...

  7. Baicalin promotes hippocampal neurogenesis via SGK1- and FKBP5-mediated glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Pan, Xing; Wang, Fang; Ma, Jie; Su, Guangyue; Dong, Yingxu; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressants increase hippocampal neurogenesis by activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but excessive GR activation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, suggesting that normal GR function is crucial for hippocampal neurogenesis. Baicalin was reported to regulate the expression of GR and facilitate hippocampal neurogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we used the chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced mouse model of anxiety/depression to assess antidepressant-like effects of baicalin and illuminate possible molecular mechanisms by which baicalin affects GR-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that oral administration of baicalin (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg) for 4 weeks alleviated several chronic CORT-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Baicalin also increased Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells to restore chronic CORT-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, baicalin normalized the chronic CORT-induced decrease in GR protein levels, the increase in GR nuclear translocation and the increase in GR phosphorylation at Ser203 and Ser211. Finally, chronic CORT exposure increased the level of FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) and of phosphorylated serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) at Ser422 and Thr256, whereas baicalin normalized these changes. Together, our findings suggest that baicalin improves anxiety/depression-like behaviors and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis. We propose that baicalin may normalize GR function through SGK1- and FKBP5-mediated GR phosphorylation. PMID:27502757

  8. Sequencing and G-quadruplex folding of the canine proto-oncogene KIT promoter region: might dog be used as a model for human disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Da Ros

    Full Text Available Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2 were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations.

  9. Modeling for Fidelity: virtual mentorship by scientists fosters teacher self-efficacy and promotes implementation of novel high school biomedical curricula.