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Sample records for kahili ginger hedychium

  1. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is an invasive weed in tropical forests in Hawaii and elsewhere. Bacterial wilt caused by the ginger strain of Ralstonia(=Pseudomonas) solanacearum systemically infects edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ornamental gingers (Hedychium spp.), causing wilt in infected plants. The suitability of R. solanacearum as a biological control agent for kahili ginger was investigated by inoculating seedlings and rooted cuttings of native forest plants, ornamental ginger, and solanaceous species to confirm host specificity. Inoculation via stem injection or root wounding with a bacterial–water suspension was followed by observation for 8 weeks. Inoculations on H. gardnerianum were then carried out in ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) wet forests of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to determine the bacterium's efficacy in the field. No native forest or solanaceous species developed wilt or other symptoms during the study. The bacterium caused limited infection near the inoculation site on H. coronarium, Z. zerumbet, Heliconia latispatha, and Musa sapientum. However, infection did not become systemic in any of these species, and normal growth resumed following appearance of initial symptoms. All inoculated H. gardnerianum plants developed irreversible chlorosis and severe wilting 3–4 weeks following inoculation. Systemic infection also caused death and decay of rhizomes. Most plants were completely dead 16–20 weeks following inoculation. The destructiveness of the ginger strain of R. solanacearum to edible ginger has raised questions regarding its use for biological control. However, because locations of kahili ginger infestations are often remote, the risk of contaminating edible ginger plantings is unlikely. The ability of this bacterium to cause severe disease in H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent.

  2. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  3. Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

  4. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  5. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  6. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Wei Chiang Chan; Siu Kuin Wong

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yel ow or white with a yel ow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest global y. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-al ergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.

  7. An Efficient In Vitro Regeneration System for Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved and efficient regeneration protocol was established for Hedychium via somatic embryogenesis. The plant material used consisted of 11 species and 9 cultivars of Hedychium. The explants consisted of young leaves taken from lateral or terminal shoots of mature greenhouse grown plants. These...

  8. High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...

  9. Evaluation of the Biopesticidal Potential of Hedychium Species for Pests and Disease Control in Organic Vegetable Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Hedychium belongs to the ginger family and consists of about 80 species, which are used for various purposes. Hedychium has become increasingly popular as an ornamental because of the showy and aromatic inflorescences of many of its species, which are also cultivated for their perfume esse...

  10. In Vitro Assisted Breeding of Hedychium J. Koenig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium J. Koenig, one of the largest genera of Zingiberaceae, consists of species mostly native to central and southeastern Asia, southern China and the Himalayan region. These gingers are cultivated for their perfume essences. The essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticid...

  11. Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

  12. First Report of Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from Shoot Apex-derived Callus of Hedychium muluense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense R.M. Smith, an important monocotyledonous ornamental ginger plant. Callus was induced on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 9.05 µM 2-4, D and 4.6µM kinetin. ...

  13. Two New Diterpenoids from Hedychium forrestii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing ZHAO; Xin HONG; Yun Song WANG; Cheng ZOU; Xiao Jiang HAO

    2003-01-01

    Two new labdane diterpenes isolated from the rhizomes of Hedychium forrestii were determined by spectroscopic evidence to be labda-8(17), 11, 13-trien-7β-hydroxyl-15(16)-olide (1, hedyforrestin B) and labda-8(17), 11, 13-trien-7β,16-dihydroxyl-16(15)-olide (2, hedyforrestin C).

  14. Storage and Viability of Hedychium Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species generally flower in the summer and fall, but some bloom in winter and spring times. The different flowering times of the species implies that there is a need to find a way for storing and conserving viable pollen. The maintenance of pollen viability depends on several factors, incl...

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  16. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  17. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  18. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonel, Magali; Suman, Priscila Aparecida; Garcia, Emerson Loli

    2015-01-01

    Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar...

  19. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar. A suspension of ginger rhizomes with 12% of starch was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis process to obtain hydrolyzed with 85.6% of glucose. After the alcoholic fermentation the wine was obtained with 40.3% ethanol. The acetic fermentation process of ginger alcoholic solution followed a completely randomized design in a factorial for three factors at two levels. The independent variables were: temperature, nutrients and proportion of "strong vinegar" and alcoholic solution (initial acidity. Results showed variation from 2.74 to 3.70% for dry extract and 2.13 to 2.83 % for ash in vinegars. The profile of organic acids of ginger vinegars showed the presence of acetic, citric, malic and succinic acids in all treatments. The condition of 20°C, initial acidity 1:1,with addition of nutrients allow obtaining good quality vinegars and higher GK yields

  20. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Viability Assays for Storage of Ornamental Giner (Hedychium spp.) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, Hedychium plants are mostly grown in the southern part of the country where they generally flower in the summer and fall, but some species bloom in winter and spring times. This asynchronous flowering could constitute an impediment for breeders of that region to fully take adv...

  2. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  3. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W; Kjaer, S K; Dahl, C

    1991-01-01

    Thirty women participated in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial of the efficacy of a natural product, the powdered root of ginger (Zingiber officinale), and placebo in hyperemesis gravidarum. Three patients had to be withdrawn. Each woman swallowed capsules containing either 250 mg ginger...

  4. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Morphology, distribution, and chromosome counts of two varieties of Hedychium villosum (Zingiberaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei YU; W. John KRESS; Jiang-Yun GAO

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy is a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. Two varieties of Hedychium villosum, var. villosum and var. tenuiflorum, primarily differ in plant and flower size. Chromosome number suggests that var. tenuiflorum is diploid (2n = 34) and var. villosum is tetraploid (2n = 68). Although the flowers of the two varieties do not have any difference in floral shape, each can be easily distinguished morphologically because the shoots, leaves, and flowers of the tetraploid var. villosum are consistently larger than the diploid var. tenuiflorum. The two varieties each possess distinct geographic ranges and habitats, and no sympatric distribution has been found.The tetraploid var. villosum has a broader geographic distribution range and more diverse ecological habitats than the diploid var. tenuiflorum. The two varieties are also completely reproductively isolated due to the non-overlap of their flowering times. The two varieties should be recognized as two distinct species as they fulfill the requirements of various species concepts. Thus, we suggested that the tetraploid var. villosum should be kept as Hedychium villosum and the diploid var. tenuiflorum should be renewed to Hedychium tenuiflorum.

  6. Zerumbone from Ginger (Monoterpenoid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoichi; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have been regarded as safe and have been shown to have anticancer activities against a variety of cancer cell types. Zerumbone was initially isolated from the rhizome of a subtropical wild shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet Smith) and was determined to be an anti-inflammatory agent. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the transformation, survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The pathways associated with this process have been linked to inflammation. Zerumbone inhibits carcinogenesis via reduction of inflammatory signaling, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In various cancers, zerumbone inhibits tumor proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis by reducing NF-κB activity. In the near future, we should focus on both careful and accurate characterization of zerumbone and better elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in their actions. Furthermore, we should determine the efficacy of zerumbone by in vivo studies using proper animal models of cancer and demonstrate their safety and effectiveness in clinical trials.

  7. PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Hedychium coronarium RHIZOMES AND STARCH CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE RIZOMAS E AMIDO DO LÍRIO-DO-BREJO (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez ascheri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition of Hedychium coronarium rhizomes and isolate and characterize their starch by conducting physical and physicochemical analyses. The chemical composition of isolated starch granules was also determined, as well as shape, size, particle distribution size by laser diffraction, paste viscosity by rapid visco-analysis, swelling power, water solubility index, thermal property by differential scanning calorimetry, and crystallinity by X-ray diffraction. Rhizomes presented high water content and low lipids, carbohydrates, ash, protein and fiber levels. Due to its low dry matter content (17.3%, with 21.97% of starch, as well as long fibers and latex, which hamper starch extraction, the white ginger lily rhizomes are not interesting as a starch source. The isolated starch showed 99.2% purity, with 37.2% of amylase content. The starch granules presented an irregular polyhedral shape and average size of 38.2 ?m. The crystalline structure of the starch granules was type A, which is maintained by strong internal associative forces that reduce water solubility. The starch gelatinization temperature occurs between 73.1ºC and 78.7°C. The starch paste viscosity profile showed high stability at 95°C and high tendency to retrograde, suggesting its use in adhesive and food industries

  8. First record of herbivory of the invasive macrophyte Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Wagner Antonio Chiba de; Moitas,Marcel Loyo; Lobato,Gabriela Monteiro; Cunha-Santino,Marcela Bianchessi da; Matos,Dalva Maria da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species can cause structural and functional changes in their non-native habitats, such as changes in the trophic chain. We describe ramet herbivory of butterfly ginger, an aggressive aquatic weed in Brazil, by capybaras in a floodplain area of a Cerrado reserve. This is the first record of herbivory of H. coronarium in invaded areas. Capybaras could be using the butterfly ginger as habitat and as a food resource, which could cause changes in apparent competition between these invasiv...

  9. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) ... steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and ... proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction

  10. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Cíntia A SF; Cardoso, Maria G; Mansanares, Mariana E; Gomes, Marcos S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium c...

  11. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  12. Ginger: is it ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Gary D

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of substantial preclinical data showing the preventive efficacy of ginger and its constituents in vitro and in animal models, as well as a phase I pilot trial indicating that ginger extract is well tolerated in humans, Citronberg and colleagues conducted a pilot trial of ginger extract (2 g/day for 28 days) on biomarkers of cell proliferation [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), MIB-1], differentiation (p21waf1/cip1), and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2) in colonic mucosa from individuals at high-risk for colorectal cancer. Results from the trial suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis relative to proliferation, especially in the differentiation zone of colon crypts. The authors suggest that these results support a larger study to confirm the pilot data. Before proceeding with a larger trial, however, it seems prudent to confirm ginger as a chemopreventive for colorectal cancer in animals, particularly when tested in postinitiation protocols and to identify reliable molecular biomarkers of effect that could be evaluated in clinical trials. Pharmacokinetic studies to examine the distribution and localization of ginger compounds and metabolites in the differentiation and proliferative zones of colonic crypts in animals and humans would also be informative. Finally, because the effects of ginger on normal colonic mucosa seem minimal, consideration should be given to the conduct of future trials in humans with premalignant colorectal disease.

  13. Analysis on Nutrients Change of Fresh Ginger after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the composition of ginger and fresh ginger and efficacy differences, this study uses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the ginger and fresh ginger supercritical CO2 extract of the chemical composition and relative content. The results showed that the extraction rate of ginger and fresh ginger oleoresin is respectively 5.15±0.12% and 4.67±0.15%, the chemical composition of both contained basically the same, mainly zingiberene &alpha-, &beta -half times the water Qinene, &beta-myrrhene, &alpha-farnesene, &alpha-curcumene, 6-gingerol, 6 zingiberene phenol and decomposition zingerone etc., but significant differences relative content. In the aroma of terpene compounds, ginger relative amount of the compound 1, 8-cineole, &beta- fragrant small chestnut, citral, geraniol, geranyl acetate and &alpha-zingiberene other significant lower than fresh ginger and &gamma-Selinene and large myrcene D detected only in fresh ginger, ginger and the relative content of &alpha-curcumene significantly higher than fresh ginger. The relative amounts of the total ginger gingerol compounds than fresh ginger high of 7.86%, in particular 6-and 10-zingiberene relative content of phenol phenol zingiberene high 15.49 and 30.51%, respectively, compared with fresh ginger.

  14. Analysis on Nutrients Change of Fresh Ginger after Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Xingcui Wang; Bili Cao; Qiqin Xue; Yong-guang Liu; Ning Qiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the composition of ginger and fresh ginger and efficacy differences, this study uses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the ginger and fresh ginger supercritical CO2 extract of the chemical composition and relative content. The results showed that the extraction rate of ginger and fresh ginger oleoresin is respectively 5.15±0.12% and 4.67±0.15%, the chemical composition of both contained basically the same, mainly zingiberene &alpha-, &beta -half times the ...

  15. Cancer chemoprevention activity of labdane diterpenes from rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise C. Endringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig, Zingiberaceae, is a medicinal plant popularly used to treat inflammatory conditions in different countries. Three labdane diterpenes [isocoronarin D (1, methoxycoronarin D (2, ethoxycoronarin D (3] and benzoyl eugenol (4 were isolated from rhizomes and their chemopreventive potential was evaluated using in vitro assays, namely the inhibition of NF-κB, COX-1 and -2, the induction of antioxidant response element (ARE, and the inhibition of cell proliferation. Diterpene 1 activated ARE (EC50 57.6 ± 2.4 µM, while 2, 3 and 4 significantly inhibited NF-κB (IC50 of 7.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 0.3 and 32.5 ± 4.9 µM, respectively. In addition, 2 and 3 selectively inhibited COX-1 (IC50 values of 0.9 ± 0.0 and 3.8 ± 0.0 µM, respectively. These data support the potential chemopreventive activity of constituents from H. coronarium rhizomes.

  16. Ginger and its health claims: molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef

    2011-05-01

    Recent research has rejuvenated centuries-old traditional herbs to cure various ailments by using modern tools like diet-based therapy and other regimens. Ginger is one of the classic examples of an herb used for not only culinary preparations but also for unique therapeutic significance owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential. The pungent fractions of ginger, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and volatile constituents like sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, are mainly attributed to the health-enhancing perspectives of ginger. This review elucidates the health claims of ginger and the molecular aspects and targets, with special reference to anticancer perspectives, immunonutrition, antioxidant potential, and cardiovascular cure. The molecular targets involved in chemoprevention like the inhibition of NF-κB activation via impairing nuclear translocation, suppresses cIAP1 expression, increases caspase-3/7 activation, arrests cell cycle in G2 + M phases, up-regulates Cytochrome-c, Apaf-1, activates PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK, suppresses cell proliferation, and inducts apoptosis and chromatin condensation. Similarly, facts are presented regarding the anti-inflammatory response of ginger components and molecular targets including inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis and suppression of 5-lipoxygenase. Furthermore, inhibition of phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also discussed. The role of ginger in reducing the extent of cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, and digestive problems has also been described in detail. Although, current review articles summarized the literature pertaining to ginger and its components. However, authors are still of the view that further research should be immediately carried out for meticulousness.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10141 - Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. 721... Substances § 721.10141 Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum (PMN...

  18. A Study of Ginger Herbal Pharmacopuncture for Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Woo Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to present the standard for practical application of ginger herbal pharmacopuncture Material and Methods : We refer to ancient literatures and the recent papers for ginger. Conclusions : The following results have been obtained 1. The effect of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe is to "release exterior", "balance nutrient & defe nsive qi", "resolve phlegm", "arrest coughing", "warm the lungs". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating fever, chilling sign, headchae, snuffle and gasping cough due to cold affection and treating the symptoms like sputum and asthma that be revealed by pulmonary disease. 2. The effect of ginger is to "warm spleen and stomach", "arrest vomiting" "promote normal flow of water". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea due to phlegm & dampness and treating edema. 3. The effect of ginger is to eliminate blood stasis. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating contusion, blood stasis, sprain and gynecologic disease. 4. Ginger can treat myalgia and pain due to wind-damp and have anti-inflammatory effect in pharmacology. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating disease of joint, ligament and muscle. 5. Ginger can resolve phlegm and resuscitate. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating unconsciousness. But, treating incipient cardiovascular accident, it needs to call your special attention to the danger of blood pressure increase. 6. In pharmacology, ginger is effective for antitumor, antioxidant effects and activating immunocyte. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating broadly varieties of tumor and allergic disease.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF GINGER OLEORESIN USING ULTRASOUND

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    Normalina Arpi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasound in extraction process creates novel and interesting methodologies, which are oftencomplementary to conventional extraction methods. In the present study, the use of ultrasound to extract oleoresin fromginger (Zingiber officinale R. was investigated. The extraction was performed by using ethanol as solvent in thepresence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at frequency of 42 kHz at extraction temperature of 60 oC. The oleoresinextracted was in the form of dark thick liquid with specific ginger flavor. Based on GC-MS analysis, the use ofultrasound was not give an effect on alteration of main component in ginger oleoresin. The main component inextracted ginger oleoresin was zingerone. Gingerol as one of the pungent principle of the ginger oleoresin was notdetected due to decomposition of gingerol at a temperature above 45 oC. Extraction rate of ultrasound-assistedextraction was about 1.75 times more rapid than a conventional system based on soxhlet. The scanning electronmicroscopy images provided more evidence for the mechanical effects of ultrasound, mainly appearing on cells’ wallsand shown by the destruction of cells, facilitating the release of their contents.

  20. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM MERISTEM EXPLANTS OF GINGER

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    OTIH ROSTIANA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of planting materials from in vitro culture, especially derived from somatic em -bryos has some advantages such as genetically stable and pathogen-free. Meristem culture of ginger through somatic embryogenesis could be a potential method for producing pathogen-free planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis on ginger was performed to obtain vigorous plantlets having the same rhizome size as the mother plant. Callus was induced from meristem tissue of inner bud of Indonesian ginger rhizome Var. Cimanggu-1 and consecutively subcultured into certain media at each steps of experiments. The vigorous embryogenic calli were observed on MS medium containing 100 mgl-1 glutamine and 2% sucrose with addition of 1.0 mgl-1 2,4-D + 3.0 mgl-1 BA. The highest number of somatic embryos (about 82.0.g-1 friable calli was achieved on that medium, 4 weeks after culturing. Furthermore, the optimum growth of embryogenic calli containing somatic embryo was obtained on MS medium enriched with 6% sucrose. The high-est number of mature somatic embryos (57.2 embryos was achieved on MS medium, 18 days after incubation. The regeneration potency of somatic embryos obtained from ginger meristem was 51.20%.g-1 friable callus. The valuable result of this study was the achievement of normal rhizome size of regenerated plantlets, instead of micro rhizome.

  1. Molecular Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum Isolated from Ginger in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Alvarez, A M; Moore, P H; Zee, F; Kim, M S; de Silva, A; Hepperly, P R; Ming, R

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing on the island of Hawaii was determined by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Initially 28 strains of R. solanacearum collected from five host plant species worldwide were analyzed by AFLP. A second analysis was conducted on 55 R. solanacearum strains collected from three ginger farms along the Hamakua Coast of Hawaii, the principle area of ginger cultivation in the state. From the initial analysis, R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii showed a high degree of similarity at 0.853. In contrast, the average genetic similarity between R. solanacearum strains from heliconia and ginger was only 0.165, and strains from ginger showed little similarity with strains from all other hosts. The second analysis of 55 strains from ginger on different Hawaiian farms confirmed that they were distinct from race 1 strains from tomato. Strains from ginger also showed greater diversity among themselves in the second analysis, and the greatest diversity occurred among strains from a farm where ginger is frequently imported and maintained. Our results provide evidence that R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii are genetically distinct from local strains from tomato (race 1) and heliconia (race 2).

  2. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  3. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  4. FLORAL ANATOMY OF ALPINIA SPECIOSA AND HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM (ZINGIBERACEAE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE NATURE OF LABELLUM AND EPIGYNOUS GLANDS

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    SHARAWY Sherif Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The floral anatomy of Alpinia speciosa Schum. and Hedychium coronarium Koenig. (Zingiberaceae was investigated for an understanding of the structure and nature of the labellum and epigynous glands. The observation presented in this study supported the classical view of the labellum as a double structure rather than a triple or five-parted structure, as were proposed previously. The dorsal carpellary bundles in the studied species only continue into the style, fade out in the stigmatic tissue without feeding sepals or labellum as suggested in the previous studies. The glands in both studied species are found with very prominent masses of vascular tissue. The presence of vascular tissue seems to be connected with the more organized nature of the gland. Furthermore, the present study appears that the glands are not merely epidermal emergence of the ovary and similar to nectarines which may be vascularized.

  5. Ginger extract inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger's ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39-56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor.

  6. Development and Characterization of a Carbonated Ginger Drink

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    Saka Ambali ABDULKAREEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread of effort in developing countries like Nigeria to develop carbonated drink from the locally source materials. To achieve this aim, ginger has been consider as an alternative material for the production of carbonated drink, this is because ginger and its by-products have a lot of applications in confectionaries, pharmaceuticals and beverages production. Apart from the applications of ginger listed above, ginger is also a very important and highly valuable crop in most part of West African, Japan, and China. In this study, ginger soft drink was developed by a combination of fresh ginger rhizome and Carbon dioxide (CO2. The CO2 gas volume was steadily increased to make three (3 samples B, C, and D, while sample A is the non-carbonated sample. All the samples were characterized according to chemical and microbiological analysis of the final product and values obtained from the analysis of the developed ginger soft drink are within the range of standard values for carbonated drink. Shelf-life analysis was carried out on the final product and it corresponds to the Shelf-life of a standard carbonated drink. Sample D with the highest gas volume of 2.8 cm3 has the best Shelf-life. Results obtained from the various analysis conducted indicates that the production of a carbonated ginger soft drink from fresh ginger rhizome is practically possible, cost effective and has numerous advantages when compared with other available carbonated drinks.

  7. Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, A; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to prepare ginger powder using various drying methods and their nutritional evaluation was carried out. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was dried using shade, solar, oven and microwave drying methods. All the samples were ground in grinder to make fine powder. Sensory analysis indicated that acceptability of all types of ginger powders were in the range of 'liked very much' to 'liked moderately' by the panelists. The mean score obtained for colour was higher in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 8.20 as compared to oven dried (7.60), solar dried (7.70) and microwave dried ginger powder (7.80). Moisture content ranged from 3.55 % in solar dried ginger powder to 3.78 % in shade dried ginger powder. Slightly higher moisture content was found in shade dried ginger powder. Protein, crude fiber, fat and ash contents ranged from 5.02 to 5.82, 4.97 to 5.61, 0.76 to 0.90 and 3.38 to 3.66 %, respectively. β-carotene and ascorbic acid content was found maximum in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 0.81 mg/100 g and 3.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Polyphenol content was almost similar in all the samples whereas calcium was slightly higher in the shade dried ginger powder i.e., 69.21 mg/100 g. Results have shown that ginger powder prepared from various drying methods had good sensory and nutritional profile.

  8. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  9. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathilake KDPP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available KDPP Gunathilake,1 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a globally known food and flavoring ingredient which is also reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits. Over the last 2 decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify bioactive constituents and medicinal potential of ginger. This review deliberates chemical composition as well as the most recent research findings on potential health benefits of ginger, including its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antiplatelet aggregation, chemopreventive, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic properties. Keywords: ginger, gingerols, medicinal properties, Zingiber officinale, health

  10. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Riva, A; Bianchi Porro, G; Rondanelli, M

    2015-04-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a spice traditionally used to treat indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Ginger extracts accelerate gastric emptying and stimulate gastric antral contractions. These effects are mainly due to the presence of gingerols and shogaols and their activity on cholinergic M receptors and serotonergic 5-HT and 5-HT receptors. Various researches on this subject have led to controversial results, due to the chemical instability of ginger extracts and particularly of gingerols, which are readily-oxidizable substances. A systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies highlighted the potential efficacy of ginger on the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various origins, even though additional controlled studies are needed. This review focuses on pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting and on chemotherapy induced nausea, and hypothesizes a therapeutic role for ginger extracts in case of side effects, as an alternative to traditional prokinetic drugs such as domperidone, levosulpiride or metoclopramide.

  11. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

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    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  12. An antifungal protein from ginger rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-10-14

    There are very few reports on antifungal proteins from rhizomes and there is none from the family of Zingiberaceae. An antifungal protein with a novel N-terminal sequence was isolated from ginger rhizomes utilizing a protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 32kDa and exerted antifungal activity toward various fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola.

  13. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  15. The comparative reproductive biology of a tetraploid species, Hedychium villosum, and its diploid progenitor H. tenuiflorum (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J Y; Liu, Q; Li, Q J

    2014-05-01

    The evolutionary advantages of polyploidy may result from a number of changes in floral traits and breeding system, which may enable polyploids to exploit new habitats and become widespread. In this study, we comparatively investigated the floral biology of the tetraploid species Hedychium villosum and its diploid progenitor H. tenuiflorum, to assess reproductive divergence between the two species. The results showed that flowers of the tetraploid species last longer and produce more nectar than did diploid species. The flowering times of the two species did not overlap at all. Observations of floral visitors in natural populations demonstrated that butterflies and hawkmoths were effective pollinators of both species, but there was a significant difference in butterfly and hawkmoth assemblages between the two species. The hand-pollination experiments and pollen tube growth experiments suggested that diploid H. tenuiflorum was self-incompatible, while tetraploid H. villosum was completely self-compatible. H. villosum has a much wider distribution range and occupies more diverse habitats than H. tenuiflorum. Polyploidisation may enable tetraploid H. villosum to exploit new habitats previously unavailable to diploid H. tenuiflorum.

  16. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  17. [RP-HPLC fingerprint evaluating different ginger juice as processing material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao; Gao, Hui-Min

    2008-05-01

    To establish a method for comparing the differences between fresh and dried ginger juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprint method was performed on an Alltech C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with mobile phase in gradient elution composed of A-acetonitrie and B-water at a flow rate: 0.8 mL x min(-1). The detecting wavelength was 280 nm, and the column temperature 25 degrees C. There was no significant difference among the same breed ginger juice of different batches. But there was significant difference between crushed ginger juice and the boiled juice. Trytophan, 6-gingerol were common constituents of the three kinds of ginger juice, the fresh ginger and the dry ginger. Besides, 6-shogaol emerged in the boiled juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprints spectrum can be used to distinguish different ginger juices. And the crushed juice of fresh ginger have the same chemical consititents with the fresh ginger.

  18. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rupasinghe, Vasantha; Gunathilake, KDPP

    2015-01-01

    .... The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits...

  19. Ginger Helps Reduce Nausea from Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger helped prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea when taken with traditional anti-nausea drugs by patients with cancer, researchers have found. The results are from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest study to examine the potential effects of ginger on chemotherapy-related nausea. The study will be presented May 30 at the ASCO annual meeting in Orlando, FL. |

  20. Effect of Oven Drying On Proximate Composition of Ginger

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    C.S Agu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginger root (ZingiberOfficinale was analyzed to identify its proximate composition. The effects of drying as a processing technique on ginger were investigated with respect to the proximate composition of the produce. Ginger rhizomes were collected, sorted, sliced and dried using the oven at 500C for five (5 hours. Fresh ginger slices were successfully dried from initial moisture content of 70% to 18 %. Ginger composition before drying were 1.81% ash, 7.85% fat, 3.06% protein, 9% fiber, and 8.18% carbohydrate. The analysis of the results of proximate composition showed that the moisture content of ginger reduced after oven drying while the ash, protein, crude fiber increased after drying. On the other hand, the ash content, crude fiber, protein, fat and carbohydrates were 2.35%, 11%, 13.13%, 8.20% and47.32% respectively. The oven-drying technique however was a better option for the drying process as it was more effective in removing sufficient moisture and more so enhanced some nutritional parameter of the produce.

  1. Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2015-09-01

    Gingerols are the major pungent compounds present in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and are renowned for their contribution to human health and nutrition. Medicinal properties of ginger, including the alleviation of nausea, arthritis and pain, have been associated with the gingerols. Gingerol analogues are thermally labile and easily undergo dehydration reactions to form the corresponding shogaols, which impart the characteristic pungent taste to dried ginger. Both gingerols and shogaols exhibit a host of biological activities, ranging from anticancer, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic to various central nervous system activities. Shogaols are important biomarkers used for the quality control of many ginger-containing products, due to their diverse biological activities. In this review, a large body of available knowledge on the biosynthesis, chemical synthesis and pharmacological activities, as well as on the structure-activity relationships of various gingerols and shogaols, have been collated, coherently summarised and discussed. The manuscript highlights convincing evidence indicating that these phenolic compounds could serve as important lead molecules for the development of therapeutic agents to treat various life-threatening human diseases, particularly cancer. Inclusion of ginger or ginger extracts in nutraceutical formulations could provide valuable protection against diabetes, cardiac and hepatic disorders.

  2. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Ram Paudel; Mani Shrestha; Adrian G Dyer; Qing-Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies...

  3. Preliminary assessment of Hedychium coronarium essential oil on fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activity induced by Bothrops and Lachesis snake venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium coronarium. Methods The essential oils of leaves and rhizomes from H. coronarium were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their potential inhibitory effects on the coagulant and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by the venoms of Lachesis muta, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni were analyzed. Citrated human plasma was used to evaluate the clotting time whereas changes in fibrinogen molecules were visualized by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The experimental design used for testing coagulation inhibition was randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (concentration × essential oils), with three replications. The essential oils were compared since they were extracted from different organs of the same botanical species, H. coronarium. Results The results suggest that the oils interact with venom proteases and plasma constituents, since all oils evaluated, when previously incubated with venoms, were able to inhibit the clotting effect, with less inhibition when oils and plasma were preincubated prior to the addition of venoms. Conclusions Thus, after extensive characterization of their pharmacological and toxicological effects, the essential oils can be used as an alternative to complement serum therapy, especially considering that these plant metabolites generally do not require specific formulations and may be used topically immediately after extraction. PMID:26413083

  4. Development and Efficient In Vitro Clonal Propagation of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species are multipurpose plants which are used as ornamentals, for making perfumes because of their scented flowers, and raw material for manufacturing paper. They are also used in ethnomedicine because of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, they are not generally suite...

  5. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis. Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis. Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. Results: The IC50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Conclusion: Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole. PMID:27981254

  6. Isolation of Some Glucosides as Aroma Precursors from Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwa, Y; Mizuno, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A; Koshino, H

    1999-01-01

    A glycosidically bound fraction was prepared by adsorbing a 80% methanol extract from fresh rhizomes of ginger onto a column of Amberlite XAD-2 resin and successively eluting with ethyl acetate or methanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this fraction with an acetone powder prepared from fresh ginger and commercial glycosidase liberated such alcohols as geraniol, 2-heptanol, α-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and citronellol, suggesting that fresh ginger included glycosides and glycosidase. The ethyl acetate eluate was chromatographed by an ODS flash column and then HPLC to isolate the β-glucopyranosides of 5-hydroxyborneol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthan-3-ol, (2E, 6E)- and (2E, 6Z)-3,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyoctadien-1-ol, 2-heptanol, geraniol, nerol, (R)-linalool, and citronellol. All the glucosides, except for 5-hydroxybornyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, were identified for the first time in the rhizome of ginger, and many of their aglycons were major constituents of the essential oil. The results indicate that these glucosides are aroma precursors of fresh ginger.

  7. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer nontoxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable to individual phytochemicals, rather may be ascribed to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03 to 0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE's antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management.

  8. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yong-liang; XIE Qiang-min; ZHAO Jun-ming; ZHANG Lin-hui; SUN Bao-shan; BAO Meng-jing; LI Fen-fen; SHEN Jian; SHEN Hui-jun; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the "acetic acid" and "hot-plate" test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.

  9. en flores de ginger (Alpinia purpurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de 3 condiciones de luz (completa-548,63 W m-2, media luz-280,02 W m-2, sombra-76,38 W m-2, el uso de repelentes (ajo más chile, neem y pichichío y el uso de bolsas de exclusión, en el daño de Cholus pilicauda a las flores de ginger rosado (Alpinia purpurata en una plantación asociada con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana. El embolse de las flores redujo significativamente el número de flores dañadas, independientemente de la intensidad lumínica. No se encontró diferencias entre el número de flores dañadas con el uso de Azatina®

  10. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  11. Enhancement of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Keizo; Ohtani, Atsuko; Kusano, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    Antidiabetic and hypoglycemic drugs have been reported to enhance adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We previously reported that ginseng (active constituents: ginsenosides) enhanced the differentiation [1]. In this experiment, effect of some ginger group food extracts on the adipocyte differentiation was investigated using cultured mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were grown as monolayer cultures at 37 degrees C in DMEM supplemented by 10% FBS under the atmosphere of 5% CO(2)-95% air. Ginger extracts were found to enhance the adipocyte differentiation. Active constituent was purified and identified as gingerol. In the gingerol-treated cells, insulin-sensitive glucose uptake was increased. It is expected that ginger enhance the insulin-sensitivity, and improve chronic disease, such as diabetes.

  12. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Folmer, V N; Bliddal, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral ginger for symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by carrying out a systematic literature search followed by meta-analyses on selected studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing...... oral ginger treatment with placebo in OA patients aged >18 years. Outcomes were reduction in pain and reduction in disability. Harm was assessed as withdrawals due to adverse events. The efficacy effect size was estimated using Hedges' standardized mean difference (SMD), and safety by risk ratio (RR...... intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Following ginger intake, a statistically significant pain reduction SMD = -0.30 ([95% CI: [(-0.50, -0.09)], P = 0.005]) with a low degree of inconsistency among trials (I(2) = 27%), and a statistically significant reduction in disability SMD = -0.22 ([95% CI: ([-0.39, -0...

  13. Ginger--chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1982-01-01

    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns, and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physico-chemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-fingerprints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, and correlation of instrumental and sensory data, are discussed and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research are needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of the components stimulating flavor; and structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  14. Ginger-chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1982-01-01

    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement, and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show the prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physicochemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards, can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-finger prints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, correlation of instrumental and sensory data are discussed, and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research is needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of components stimulating flavor; structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  15. Ginger as a miracle against chemotherapy-induced vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Sedighi, Sanambar; Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hosein Salehi; Madani, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vomiting is one of the most prevalent side effects of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginger plant on chemotherapy-induced vomiting, since the previous studies were somehow imperfect and have provided controversial results. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and suffering from vomiting in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between July and December 2009. During a convenience sampling the participants were randomly allocated into treatment and placebo groups after taking a written informed consent. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic risk of chemotherapy drugs. The treatment group received 250 mg ginger powder capsules (Zintoma) and placebo group 250 mg starch capsules 4 times a day (1 g/day) for 6 days since 3 days before chemotherapy session. A two-part self-made questionnaire was used to assess the effect of ginger. Patients completed the instrument every day. Then by STATA software version 8, the gathered data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-square tests. Results: The 2 groups had no significant age differences and were matched (ginger: 41.8±8.4 vs placebo: 45.1±10, P = 0.1). Vomiting cases were significantly lower in ginger group at anticipatory (P = 0.04), acute (P = 0.04), and delayed (P = 0.003) phases. Also, heartburn was the only and venial reported side effect (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Taking ginger capsules (for 6 days since 3 days before chemotherapy) accompanied by the routine antiemetic treatment could relieve chemotherapy-induced vomiting in all phases. PMID:23853643

  16. Product Standarization of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum Simplicia through Washing Time, Slice Thickness and Raw Materials Drying Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On this study has been conducted product standardization of ginger and red ginger simplicias as one of post-harvest processed form. To get ginger and red ginger simplicia product with high quality, has been done the optimization on the stage of washing, slicing, and drying process. Optimization has done in a range of 1-3 minutes washing time and raw material sliced thickness of 0.15 cm and 0.30 cm. In addition, the production of the entire simplicia has done with three drying methods, including sundried, sunlight through the intermediary of black fabric and dried by the oven. Specifically for the dried by the oven, has conducted optimization on the drying temperatures of 70° C; 85° C; 100˚C; and 115˚C. The analysis results of active compound content in the simplicia product indicates that the product of ginger and red ginger simplicia with optimum quality has obtained from the production process by washing time for 1 minute, slicing thickness of 0.15 cm, and oven drying method using temperature of 115° C. The ginger and red ginger simplicia product with optimum active compound content obtained by drying time, each for 310 minutes and 280 minutes. The ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 1.7%; 0.86%; 56.90%; 42.50%; and 21.54%. Meanwhile, the red ginger simplicia products contain essential oils, oleoresins, zingiberene in essential oils, gingerol and shogaol in the oleoresins, each by 2.11%; 0.88%; 78.60%; 80.06%; and 8.02%. Thus, it can be said that, overall, red ginger simplicia product contains an active compound higher than the ginger simplicia product.

  17. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  18. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  19. Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Ginger and its Active Constituents: Potential for New Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.

  20. Determination of flavonoids, phenolic acid and polyalcohol in Butea monosperma and Hedychium coronarium by semi-preparative HPLC Photo Diode Array (PDA Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi preparative HPLC method with PDA Detector was proposed for the determination of one phenolic acid, three flavonoids and one polyalcohol from Butea monosperma and Hedychium coronarium in gradient elution system. The influence of composition of the mobile phase concentration of the mix modifier and temperature on the separation of gallic acid, quercetin, iso-butrin, butrin and eugenol for 90 min was studied. Two different gradient programmes were used to separate these components. The lower limit of quantification of phenolic acid, flavonoids and eugenol is 0.050–0.150 μg/mL and was determined by the least square method and a good correlation was obtained for all separated components.

  1. Study on domestication and artificial breeding on Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Smith%草果药驯化及人工育苗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠荣; 刘健君; 吴银梅; 刘磊; 熊汝琴

    2015-01-01

    The artificial domestication cultivation of wild Hedychium spicatum can put off the flowering phase. The roots and stems could be used for asexual reproduction, and the germination of seed was inhibited because of some factors. GA3 could break the dormancy and promote germination, and eighty percent of the germination rate could be induced by the solution of 1/2 MS+GA3 35 mg/L.%对野生草果药进行人工驯化栽培,驯化后花期后延。根茎可用于无性繁殖,种子萌发存在抑制因素,GA3有打破休眠促进萌发的作用,1/2 MS+GA335 mg/L处理诱导种子萌发率达80%。

  2. Cytotoxic Labdane-type Diterpenes and Diterpene Derivative from Hedychium villosum%毛姜花中的细胞毒活性二萜成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆; 邹澄; 余琴; 赵声定; 何红平; 郝小江

    2012-01-01

    从毛姜花(Hedychium villosum Wall.)中分离得到1个新二萜(1)和1个已知二萜(3).新二萜命名为Villosumcoronarin,该化合物在氯仿或甲醇溶液中发生异构化,部分转化为其差向异构体1’;其平面结构经质谱、红外光谱、氧谱、碳谱及无畸变极化转移增强技术(DEPT)、氢氧相关谱(1H-1H COSY)和异核多键相关谱(HMBC)等方法确证;其相对构型由氢谱、ROESY及量化计算确证.化合物3用琼斯试剂氧化后得到化合物4.生物活性筛选结果表明,化合物1对人白血病细胞株(HL-60)和肝癌细胞株( SMMC-7721)具有强的细胞毒活性,其活性超过阳性对照顺铂(DDP).化合物4对HL-60和SMMC-7721细胞具有显著的细胞毒活性.%Research on active components from rhizomes of Hedychium genus has led to isolation of some diterpenes with significant cytotoxic activities against Chinese hamsler V-79 cells, KB cells, K562 cells, A549 cells, etc. . Hedychium viUosum Wall, is a perennial rhizomatous herb distributed in China and partially in Southeast Asia, which is used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. A new labdane-type diterpene(l), together with a known one(3), were isolated from Hedychium villosum. The new diterpene was named as vil-losumcoronarin, which partially isomerized to its epimer 1' in solution, e. G. , chloroform or methanol. The gross structures of compounds 1 and 1' were elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C-DEPT NMR, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC. The relative configuration was determined by 1H NMR, ROESY and computational methods. Compound 1 was identified as( 115, 15R)-ll-hydroxy-8( 17) , 12(E)-labdadien-l5 ,16-dial 11,15-hemiacetal. The known compound 3 was oxidized by Jones reagent to get diterpene derivative 4. Bioassays revealed that compound 1 had strong cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and SMMC-7721 cells with IC50 values of 0. 74 and 4. 48μmol/L, respectively, the activities were stronger than the positive control, cis

  3. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application.

  4. New farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, and inhibitors of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells from the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Yasuko; Ueda, Kazuho; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-08-01

    Two new farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh rhizome of Hedychium coronarium KOEN. cultivated in Japan. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of isolated constituents on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells were examined, and hedychilactone A and coronarin D were found to show the inhibitory activity.

  5. Use of gemcitabine and ginger extract infusion may improve the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... carcinoma cell line, HeLa with ethanolic ginger extract in combination with gemcitabine resulted in significant ..... Efficacy and safety profile of gemcitabine in non-small-cell lung cancer: a ... Leukemia 17: 1058-1067. Dash PR ...

  6. Study of assessment of quality and maturity of fresh ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinad Noypitak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research studied evaluative method of physiological properties of three stages of fresh gingers including immature stage, early mature stage and mature stage to be alternative for quality checking of maturity fresh ginger. The classification models were built based on both destructive method and non-destructive methods. The destructive variables were texture parameters, crude fiber and moisture content and the non-destructive variables were specific gravity, color (L*, a*, b*, gloss and light reflection in range 400-700 nm. The results showed that increasing of ginger harvesting date significantly affected physiological properties. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was performed to create a classifying model for harvesting date of fresh ginger. The 55.56% and 100% best accuracy of classification into three stages of maturity could be achieved by the destructive model and the non-destructive model, respectively. The best applicable variables in building the non-destructive model were light reflection at 420, 450, 490, 530, 570, 590, 680 nm and the specific gravity.

  7. Pressurized liquidextraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquidextraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches...

  8. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  9. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Zainab M; Thomson, Martha; Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Peltonen-Shalaby, Riitta; Ali, Muslim

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were studied in rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood serum was analysed for blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The STZ-injected rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. The ginger treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in urine protein levels. In addition, the ginger-treated diabetic rats sustained their initial weights during the treatment period. Moreover, ginger decreased both water intake and urine output in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present results indicate that raw ginger possesses hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic potential. Additionally, raw ginger is effective in reversing the diabetic proteinuria observed in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be of great value in managing the effects of diabetic complications in human subjects.

  10. Comparison ginger and resistance training on primary dysmenorrhea in female students of Shiraz university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Saadat nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some remedies have been suggested for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, some free of side effects treatment methods such as herbal drugs and exercise are especially important .The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ginger and resistance training on physical and psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: 60 nonathletic female collegiate students of Shiraz university participated in this study voluntarily and were divided randomly to 4 groups including 15 persons ( exercise +placebo, exercise + ginger, ginger, and placebo. Ginger groups were prescribed 250 mg of ginger, four times a day for 3 days from beginning of menstruation and placebo groups were recommended the same prescription with 250 mg of placebo drug. Exercise with ginger or placebo groups participated in 2 months of progressive resistance training (3 times a week besides consuming Ginger or placebo drugs. Menstrual symptoms were recorded with using validated questionnaire, before intervention and during two consecutive periods of menstruation. The analysis was performed with using Covariate analysis of variance with repeated measures by SPSS version 16 . Results: A significant reduction was found in physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea in groups of Ginger but no significant statistically changes were found within other groups. Comparison of four groups indicated more significant reduction of physical symptoms in ginger groups compared with other groups. There were no significant difference in psychologic symptoms within and between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Ginger is recommended for treatment of physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

  11. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Yadav, Pooja; Tandon, Vibha; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Prakash, Satya; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural 'milieu' preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R.; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural ‘milieu’ preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents. PMID:24431413

  13. Effect of Drying and Hydrodistillation Time on the Amount of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Hasmita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the effect of drying and hydrodistillation time on the amount of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil. For this purpose, a hydrodistillation laboratory-scale extraction unit was employed. The fresh ginger were dried by air drying for 1, 2 and 4 days at ambient temperature. In general, ginger oil obtained in the form of bright yellow liquid with a distinctive aroma of ginger. The experimental results showed that the yields of the ginger essential oils were affected by the drying time of raw material and hydrodistillation times. The obtained essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 12 compounds were identified. The major compounds of ginger essential oil were 1,8-cineole, geranial, geraniol, camphene and neral.

  14. 干姜的镇静作用研究%Study on Sedation of Dried Ginger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲; 梁鹏

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to explore sedation of dried ginger. [Method] By compared the experimental results before and after intragastric administration, the influences of decoction of dried ginger at different concentrations (1, 2,3 mg/ml) on locomotor activities of white mice. [Result]When the decoction of dried ginger was 1 g/ml, the time of free movements and the number of raising forelimbs of mice were obviously detained (2.5 h after intragastric administration). When the decoction of dried ginger was 2 g/ml, the time of free movements and the number of raising forelimbs of mice were obviously influenced however the inhibition time is short than that of 1 g/ml. When the decoction of dried ginger was 3 g/ml, the inhibition is not obvious. [Conclusion] Dried ginger had some sedation effect which was related to its dosage.

  15. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  16. Ginger effects on control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meisam Ebrahimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN in the anticipatory and acute phase is the most common side effect in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger capsules on the alleviation of this problem. Methods : This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 women with breast cancer between August till December 2009 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. These patients underwent one-day chemotherapy regime and suffering from chemotherapy-induced nausea. After obtaining written consent, samples were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic effects of chemotherapy drugs used. The intervention group received ginger capsules (250 mg, orally four times a day (1 gr/d and the same samples from the placebo group received starch capsules (250 mg, orally for three days before to three days after chemotherapy. To measure the effect of capsules a three-part questionnaire was used, so the samples filled every night out these tools. After collecting the information, the gathered data were analyzed by statistical tests like Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square using version 8 of STATA software. Results : The mean ± SD of age in the intervention and placebo groups were 41.8 ± 8.4 and 45.1 ± 10 years, respectively. Results indicated that the severity and number of nausea in the anticipatory phase were significantly lower in the ginger group compared with placebo group (P=0.0008, P=0.0007, respectively. Also, the intensity (P=0.0001 and number (P=0.0001 of nausea in the acute phase were significantly lower in the ginger group. On the other hand, taking ginger capsules compared with placebo did not result in any major complications. Conclusion: Consuming ginger root powder capsules (1 gr/d from three days before chemotherapy till three days after it in combination with the standard anti-emetic regimen can

  17. POSSIBLE HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECT OF GINGER AND ROSEMARY OILS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Fatma A; Choudhry, Hani; Abdulaal, Wesam H; Baothman, Othman A; Zeyadi, Mustafa; Moselhy, Said S; Zamzami, Mazin A

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of ginger oil alone or combined with rosemary oil as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet. Healthy female albino rats (n=80) weighting about (150-180 g) were included in this study divided into two equal groups; Group (I): were fed on the basal diet. Group (I) were divided into 4 subgroups each 10: Group (Ia): negative control. Group (Ib): Rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of ginger oil. Group (Ic): rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of rosemary oil. Group (Id): Rats received i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of ginger oil and rosemary oil (1:1). The second main groups; Group (II): high fat diet (HFD) were fed on the basal diet plus cholesterol (1%), bile salt (0.25%) and animal fat (15%) to induce hypercholesterolemia for six weeks. Group (II) was divided into 4subgroups: Group (IIa): HFD. Group (IIb): HFD were treated with i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w ginger oil. Group (IIc): (n=10) HFD were treated with i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w rosemary oil. Group (IId): (n=10) HFD were treated with i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of oils. It was found that HFD rats showed a significant elevation in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase and a reduction in serum HDL-c compared with negative control. Treatment with ginger oil, rosemary oil and their mixture modulated the elevation of these parameters. Histopathological examination of the liver tissue of HFD rats showed a lipid deposition and macrophage infiltration and stenosis of hepatic vein. Treatment with mixture oils preserves normal structure of liver. It was concluded that, hypocholesterolemic effect was related to the active oil content as Rosemary oil contain - α-pinene, Camphor, cineole, borneol and Ginger oil contain Linalool, Terpineol, Borneol, Eucalyptol.

  18. Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangprayool, Thitiya; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-09-01

    The extract of ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess anti-hyperactivity and anti-inflammation on airway. The present study described brochodilatory activity of ginger oil and identified its active compound. Ginger oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. The compositions of ginger oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Citral, eucalyptol and camphene were found to be the major components. Ginger oil and citral, but not camphene, suppressed rat tracheal contraction induced by carbachol (CCh). Consistent with previous report, eucalyptol showed a relaxing effect on rat airway. Since the content of eucalyptol in ginger oil was relatively low, the contribution of eucalyptol to the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil was small. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the myorelaxing effect, propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) and L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) were used to block the inhibitory effects of ginger oil and citral. It was found that propranolol, but not indomethacin and L-NAME, reversed bronchodilatory effects of both ginger oil and citral, suggesting that a possible mechanism involved β-adrenergic receptor. This study provides the pharmacological basis supporting the therapeutic potential of Z. officinale rhizomes as a bronchodilator.

  19. Ultrasonic enhancement of the supercritical extraction from ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Kentish, S E; Mawson, R; Ashokkumar, M

    2006-09-01

    This work examines the concurrent use of power ultrasound during the extraction of pungent compounds from a typical herb (ginger) with supercritical CO(2). A power ultrasonic transducer with an operating frequency of 20 kHz is connected to an extraction vessel and the extraction of gingerols from freeze-dried ginger particles (4-8 mm) is monitored. In the presence of ultrasound, we find that both the extraction rate and the yield increase. The higher extraction rate is attributed to disruption of the cell structures and an increase in the accessibility of the solvent to the internal particle structure, which enhances the intra-particle diffusivity. While cavitation would readily account for such enhancement in ambient processes, the absence of phase boundaries should exclude such phenomena above the critical point. Possible alternate mechanisms for the cell structure damage are discussed.

  20. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  1. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    .... The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods...

  2. 浅谈姜制法与姜的药对配伍%On Ginger Processing Method and Couplet Medicine Compatibility of Ginger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁

    2013-01-01

    We have explored the relationship between ginger processing methods and couplet medicines compatibility of ginger through analyzing the effects of ginger processing method on the function of herbs and the role of ginger played in couplet medicine compatibility in order to further know the relationship between ginger processing method and couplet medicine of ginger, which could show the relationship between couplet medicine compatibility, therefore to provide reference for prescription compatibility and making more herbs with ginger.%通过分析姜制法对中药作用的影响以及生姜药对配伍中生姜的作用,探讨姜制法与姜的药对配伍关系.以便进一步深入了解姜制法与生姜药对的关系,揭示方剂中药物配伍与炮制的关系,从而为临床合理调配方剂、制作更多姜制中药提供借鉴.

  3. Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Prasanthi; Chagani, Sharmeen; Gundala, Sushma R; Rida, Padmashree C G; Asif, Ghazia; Sharma, Vibhuti; Gupta, Meenakshi V; Aneja, Ritu

    2012-02-01

    It is appreciated far and wide that increased and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked with noteworthy anticancer benefits. Extensively consumed as a spice in foods and beverages worldwide, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an excellent source of several bioactive phenolics, including non-volatile pungent compounds such as gingerols, paradols, shogaols and gingerones. Ginger has been known to display anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, indicating its promising role as a chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that whole ginger extract (GE) exerts significant growth-inhibitory and death-inductory effects in a spectrum of prostate cancer cells. Comprehensive studies have confirmed that GE perturbed cell-cycle progression, impaired reproductive capacity, modulated cell-cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced a caspase-driven, mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Remarkably, daily oral feeding of 100 mg/kg body weight of GE inhibited growth and progression of PC-3 xenografts by approximately 56 % in nude mice, as shown by measurements of tumour volume. Tumour tissue from GE-treated mice showed reduced proliferation index and widespread apoptosis compared with controls, as determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods. Most importantly, GE did not exert any detectable toxicity in normal, rapidly dividing tissues such as gut and bone marrow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of whole GE for the management of prostate cancer.

  4. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  5. Efficacy of Oral Ginger (Zingiber officinale for Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X. Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review examines the efficacy of oral ginger for dysmenorrhea. Key biomedical databases and grey literature were searched. We included randomized controlled trials comparing oral ginger against placebo or active treatment in women with dysmenorrhea. Six trials were identified. Two authors independently reviewed the articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus with a third reviewer. We completed a narrative synthesis of all six studies and exploratory meta-analyses of three studies comparing ginger with placebo and two studies comparing ginger with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. Ginger appeared more effective for reducing pain severity than placebo. The weighted mean difference on a 10 cm visual analogue scale was 1.55 cm (favoring ginger (95% CI 0.68 to 2.43. No significant difference was found between ginger and mefenamic acid (an NSAID. The standardized mean difference was 0 (95% CI −0.40 to 0.41. Available data suggest that oral ginger could be an effective treatment for menstrual pain in dysmenorrhea. Findings, however, need to be interpreted with caution because of the small number of studies, poor methodological quality of the studies, and high heterogeneity across trials. The review highlights the need for future trials with high methodological quality.

  6. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea‐ginger extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Sanni, David Morakinyo

    2015-01-01

    ...‐ginger (2:1) powder. Color indices, pH , and redox potential of the tea‐ginger powder were also measured and used as independent variables for the prediction of antioxidant properties of the extract using ordinary least square ( OLSR...

  7. In vitro propagation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through direct organogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, Thayamini H

    2013-12-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial herb. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and commercially cultivated in most tropical regions of the world. The underground rhizomes are the planting materials in a conventional propagation of ginger however it has a low multiplication rate. It is known that there are possible methods are available for rapid vegetative propagation of ginger through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions but it is necessary to find the best protocol for in vitro multiplication of ginger. Limited studies on the tissue culture technology of ginger are available in Sri Lanka. However, significant efforts have been made in the procedure for in vitro micropropagation in the other ginger growing countries. The available literature with respect to in vitro plant regeneration has been perused and this review mainly focused on the in vitro propagation via direct organogenesis from rhizome buds or shoot tips of ginger often used as explants. This review article may be an appropriate and effective guidance for establishing in vitro cultures and subsequent production of in vitro plantlets in clonal propagation of ginger.

  8. Screening edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-two edible ginger and turmeric cultivars were screened for resistance or tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita. Plants were raised in 66 L grow bags in greenhouses in Hawaii according to established practices for producing bacterial wilt-free ginger. Three months after planting, each grow bag ...

  9. [Comparison of the antiradical activity of ionol, components of fresh ginger, and its extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Burlakova, E B

    2012-01-01

    The antiradical properties of three samples of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.)-juice from fresh rhizome, essential oil, and extracts (oleoresin)-were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (butylatedhydroxy-toluene, BHT). Reaction antioxidants with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrozyl radicals were used as model systems. DPPH equivalents per gram of ginger sample, EC50, and antiradical efficiency (AE) were determined. The EC50 and AE values for ginger oleoresin and BHT were similar. They were the same as those of highly active natural antioxidants, and the values for essential oil and ginger juice were lower by two orders of magnitude. On the base of kinetic parameters, the ginger samples may belong to antiradical compounds with prolonged action.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients.

  11. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  12. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoki, Rumi, E-mail: yamaoki@gly.oups.ac.j [Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Kimura, Shojiro [Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Ohta, Masatoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Igarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  13. Effect of Two Ginger Varieties on Arginase Activity in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an herbal therapy for treating several cardiovascular diseases, however, information on its mechanism of action is limited. The present study assessed the effect of two ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa) on the arginase activity, atherogenic index, levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma lipids in rats fed with a high-cholesterol (2%) diet for 14 days. Following the treatment period, it was found that feeding a high-cholesterol diet to rats caused significant (p ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) caused significant (p ginger and turmeric) inhibited arginase activity and prevented hypercholesterolemia in rats that received a high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these activities of ginger and turmeric represent possible mechanisms underlying its use in herbal medicine to treat several cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Quality Evaluation of Ginger and Ginger Skins in Different Regions%不同地区姜与姜皮的质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓娟; 程松; 潘英妮; 刘晓秋

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较不同地区姜与姜皮中水溶性浸出物、挥发油、6-姜辣素的含量。方法:按《中华人民共和国药典》一部附录,浸出物测定法、挥发油测定法甲法、HPLC 法对姜和姜皮中相应成分进行测定。结果:不同地区姜与姜皮中水溶性浸出物分别为29.0%~39.7%和21.6%~34.0%;挥发油分别为1.96%~3.03%和1.80%~2.81%;6-姜辣素分别为0.67%~1.53%和0.51%~1.30%。结论:不同地区姜和姜皮中水溶性浸出物、挥发油、6-姜辣素的含量虽有所不同,但是它们在姜与姜皮中的含量相差却不大;由此,可以说明吃姜莫去皮是有一定理论依据的。%Obj ective:To compare the content of water-soluble extracts,volatile oil,6-gingerol in gin-ger and ginger skins of different regions.Methods:According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia in 2010 edi-tion of an Appendix XA extract,appendix XD volatile oil and HPLC determination method to deter-mine the corresponding components in ginger and ginger skins.Results:The content of water-soluble extracts in ginger and ginger skins of different regions is 29.0%~39.7% and 21.6%~34.0%;the content of volatile oil is 1.96%~3.03% and 1.80%~2.81%;the content of 6-gingerol is 0.67%~1.53% and 0.51%~1.30%.Conclusion:The content of water-soluble extracts,volatile oil and 6-ginerol in ginger and ginger skins of different regions is different,but the difference of their content between ginger and ginger skins is not large;thus it can be explained that eating ginger with its peel is of a certain theoretical basis.

  15. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  16. Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhakala, Nopparat; Talubmook, Chusri; Sriyotha, Poonsook; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2008-03-01

    Solvent extracts of ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), have been extensively studied for their pharmacological activities in smooth muscles. However, the effects of ginger essential oil on smooth muscle contractility have not been elucidated. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of ginger oil on rat myometrial contractility. We particularly examined the effects on phasic contractions arising either spontaneously or with PGF (2) (alpha) stimulation. Ginger oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its constituents analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Rats were humanely killed by asphyxiation with CO (2), and longitudinal uterine smooth muscles were isolated. Isometric force was measured and the effects of ginger oil studied. It was found that citral was the main constituent of ginger oil (24 %). Ginger oil inhibited spontaneous contractions with an IC (50) of 50 microL/100 mL (10 - 150 microL/100 mL). The PGF (2) (alpha)-induced contractions were also significantly reduced by ginger oil. Increases in external calcium concentration completely reversed the relaxant effects of ginger oil. This was the case for both spontaneous and PGF (2) (alpha)-induced contractions. The effects of ginger oil were indistinguishable from those of pure citral. In conclusion, ginger oil is a potent inhibitor of phasic activity in rat uterus, irrespective of how it was produced. Our data suggest that the effects are largely due to citral, and could be via inhibition of L-type Ca channels.

  17. Ginger DNA transposons in eukaryotes and their evolutionary relationships with long terminal repeat retrotransposons

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    Bao Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons such as Copia, BEL and Gypsy integrate their DNA copies into the host genome using a particular type of DDE transposase called integrase (INT. The Gypsy INT-like transposase is also conserved in the Polinton/Maverick self-synthesizing DNA transposons and in the 'cut and paste' DNA transposons known as TDD-4 and TDD-5. Moreover, it is known that INT is similar to bacterial transposases that belong to the IS3, IS481, IS30 and IS630 families. It has been suggested that LTR retrotransposons evolved from a non-LTR retrotransposon fused with a DNA transposon in early eukaryotes. In this paper we analyze a diverse superfamily of eukaryotic cut and paste DNA transposons coding for INT-like transposase and discuss their evolutionary relationship to LTR retrotransposons. Results A new diverse eukaryotic superfamily of DNA transposons, named Ginger (for 'Gypsy INteGrasE Related' DNA transposons is defined and analyzed. Analogously to the IS3 and IS481 bacterial transposons, the Ginger termini resemble those of the Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. Currently, Ginger transposons can be divided into two distinct groups named Ginger1 and Ginger2/Tdd. Elements from the Ginger1 group are characterized by approximately 40 to 270 base pair (bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs, and are flanked by CCGG-specific or CCGT-specific target site duplication (TSD sequences. The Ginger1-encoded transposases contain an approximate 400 amino acid N-terminal portion sharing high amino acid identity to the entire Gypsy-encoded integrases, including the YPYY motif, zinc finger, DDE domain, and, importantly, the GPY/F motif, a hallmark of Gypsy and endogenous retrovirus (ERV integrases. Ginger1 transposases also contain additional C-terminal domains: ovarian tumor (OTU-like protease domain or Ulp1 protease domain. In vertebrate genomes, at least two host genes, which were previously thought to be derived from

  18. Two new species of Gingers (Zingiberaceae from Myanmar

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    Vinita Gowda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of gingers (Zingiberaceae, Globba sherwoodiana W.J. Kress & V. Gowda sp. nov., and Curcuma arracanensis W.J. Kress & V. Gowda sp. nov., from Myanmar are described. The new species of Globba is currently only known in cultivation and is commonly grown and sold in markets in Myanmar. In contrast C. arracanensis has been collected from a single restricted region in the cloud forests of the Rakhine Yoma above the Bay of Bengal in western Myanmar. Three-locus DNA barcodes were generated as aids for the identification of the two new species.

  19. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  20. Caracterização anatômica e fitoquímica de folhas e rizomas de Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae Anatomical and phytochemical characterization of leaves and rhizomes from Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae

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    M.B.G Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a grande potencialidade na utilização de Hedychium coronarium, na medicina popular e também como biorremediadora no tratamento de efluentes, objetivou-se uma diagnose dos órgãos, folha e rizoma, para elucidar resultados estruturais e fitoquímicos. A folha é anfiestomática, com predominância de estômatos na face abaxial. Em ambas as superfícies foliares há projeções de cera epicuticular sobre as paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas. O mesofilo dorsiventral apresenta hipoderme multisseriada (3 camadas em ambos os lados. O parênquima clorofiliano é diferenciado em paliçádico (1-2 camadas e lacunoso (4-5 camadas com muitos espaços intercelulares e ocorrência de idioblastos cristalíferos. Na nervura central, o aerênquima ocorre em único arco na região abaxial. Os feixes vasculares distribuem-se aleatoriamente e são de diferentes tamanhos, pequenos, médios e grandes, envolvidos por fibras. Os feixes menores localizam-se no lado abaxial da nervura. A triagem fitoquímica das folhas mostrou a presença de saponinas e ausência de taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides e flavonóides. Por meio de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada foram identificadas as presenças de cariofileno e mirceno no óleo essencial bruto obtido a partir das folhas de H. coronarium.Due to the great potentiality regarding the use of Hedychium coronarium in folk medicine and also as a bioremediator in effluent treatment, this study aimed to diagnose leaf and rhizome in order to elucidate structural and phytochemical results. Hedychium coronarium leaf is amphistomatal, with predominance of stomata on the abaxial surface. On both leaf surfaces, there are epicuticular wax projections over the anticlinal walls from epidermal cells. The dorsiventral mesophyll presents multiseriate (3 layers hypoderm on both sides. The chlorophyllian parenchyma is differentiated into palisade (1-2 layers and spongy (4-5 layers with many intercellular spaces and some

  1. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

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    Wolfgang Marx

    Full Text Available The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date.Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome.Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings.Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases.The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  2. Is ginger (Zingiber officinale mouthwash a convenient therapeutic for denture stomatitis?

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    Hosein Eslami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Denture stomatitis is the most common type of chronic oral candidiasis. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is an herbal plant with profound antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antifungal effects with possible effects on Candida albicans. In this study, we aimed at comparing the efficacy of ginger and nystatin mouthwashes on denture stomatitis.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with type II denture stomatitis were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 received ginger mouthwash (20 ml, 3 times a day for 20 days, while group 2 used nystatin mouthwash (500000 IU, 3 times a day for 20 days. The patients were visited on days 5, 10, 15, 20. In each follow-up visit, the length and width of erythema were measured using a digital caliper. Patients’ satisfaction with the treatment was evaluated at the end of the study.Results: During a 20-day treatment period, both treatments significantly reduced the width and length of the erythema (P<0.001; but the changes between groups were not significant (P=0.9 for both measurements. Patients receiving ginger mouthwash were significantly more satisfied with the outcome compared to those receiving nystatin mouthwash (86.7% vs. 13.3%, P<0.001.Conclusion: Although both mouthwashes have acceptable efficacy on denture stomatitis, patients were more satisfied with ginger use. Therefore, ginger mouthwash is recommended as an alternative to nystatin mouthwash in treatment of denture stomatitis. Keywords: Denture stomatitis; Ginger; Nystatin; Mouthwash

  3. Ginger pharmacopuncture improves cognitive impairment and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittiwat, Jinatta; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2012-12-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that acupuncture and ginger can each improve memory impairment following cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that ginger pharmacopuncture, a combination of these two treatments, could increase the beneficial effects. Due to the limitation of supporting evidence, we aimed to determine whether ginger pharmacopuncture could improve cognitive function and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion (Rt. MCAO) and subjected to either acupuncture or ginger pharmacopuncture once daily over a period of 14 days after Rt. MCAO. Cognitive function was determined every 7 days, using escape latency and retention time as indices, and the oxidative stress status of the rats was determined at the end of the study. Rats subjected either to acupuncture or to ginger pharmacopuncture at GV20 demonstrated enhanced spatial memory, and the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were improved. Elevation of superoxide dismutase activity was observed only in the hippocampus. Cognitive enhancement was observed sooner with ginger pharmacopuncture than with acupuncture. The cognitive enhancing effect of acupuncture and ginger pharmacopuncture is likely to be at least partially attributable to decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also be involved, and this requires further study.

  4. Protective effect of ginger against toxicity induced by chromate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Meriem; Messaadia, Amira; Maidi, Imen; Aouacheri, Ouassila; Saka, Saad

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the effect of ginger on the modulation of toxic effects induced by chromate is the objective of our study. 50 male rats Albinos Wistar were divided to five groups as follow: group I (T) is served as control, received a mineral water by gavage (per os); group II (G) received an experimental diet with 2% of ginger; group III (Cr) received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (15 mg/kg) and normal diet; group IV (CrG): received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (15 mg/kg) and an experimental diet containing 2% ginger; and group V (Cr(+)G) received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (25 mg/kg) and an experimental diet with 2% of ginger. The results of this study indicate that the chromate provoked a haematoxic effect (anemia), nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and also a perturbation in lipids profile. In addition, chromate has a pro-oxidant effect, which was indicated by decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in different tissues. However, the administration of ginger revealed a reduction of the intensity of oxidative stress induced by the chromate resulting in the decrease of the majority of the previous parameters concentrations. In conclusion we demonstrated that ginger has potent antioxidants activity, revealed by the amelioration of chromate's toxic effects. We can say that ginger has a protective effect towards damages induced by the chromate.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of ginger in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Kholy, Wael

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in neuronal damage caused by increased intracellular glucose leading to oxidative stress. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress markers. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time, whether the antioxidant properties of ginger has beneficial effects on the structural brain damage associated with diabetes. We investigated the observable neurodegenerative changes in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum after 4, 6, and 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and the effect(s) of ginger (500 mg/kg/day). Sections of frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using light microscopy. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical assessments of the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Ki67 were performed. Our results revealed a protective role of ginger on the diabetic brain via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In addition, this study revealed that the beneficial effect of ginger was also mediated by modulating the astroglial response to the injury, reducing AChE expression, and improving neurogenesis. These results represent a new insight into the beneficial effects of ginger on the structural alterations of diabetic brain and suggest that ginger might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic-induced damage in brain.

  6. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghbooli, Mehdi; Golipour, Farhad; Moghimi Esfandabadi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehran

    2014-03-01

    Frequency and torment caused by migraines direct patients toward a variety of remedies. Few studies to date have proposed ginger derivates for migraine relief. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ginger in the ablation of common migraine attack in comparison to sumatriptan therapy. In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who had acute migraine without aura were randomly allocated to receive either ginger powder or sumatriptan. Time of headache onset, its severity, time interval from headache beginning to taking drug and patient self-estimation about response for five subsequent migraine attacks were recorded by patients. Patients(,) satisfaction from treatment efficacy and their willingness to continue it was also evaluated after 1 month following intervention. Two hours after using either drug, mean headaches severity decreased significantly. Efficacy of ginger powder and sumatriptan was similar. Clinical adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan. Patients' satisfaction and willingness to continue did not differ. The effectiveness of ginger powder in the treatment of common migraine attacks is statistically comparable to sumatriptan. Ginger also poses a better side effect profile than sumatriptan.

  7. Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra chari, K L; Manasa, D; Srinivas, P; Sowbhagya, H B

    2013-08-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used in various foods and beverages. 6-Gingerol is the major bioactive constituent responsible for the antiinflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant activities of ginger. The effect of application of α-amylase, viscozyme, cellulase, protease and pectinase enzymes to ginger on the oleoresin yield and 6-gingerol content has been investigated. Pre-treatment of ginger with α-amylase or viscozyme followed by extraction with acetone afforded higher yield of oleoresin (20%±0.5) and gingerol (12.2%±0.4) compared to control (15%±0.6 oleoresin, 6.4%±0.4 gingerol). Extraction of ginger pre-treated with enzymes followed by extraction with ethanol provided higher yield of gingerol (6.2-6.3%) than the control (5.5%) with comparable yields of the oleoresin (31-32%). Also, ethanol extract of cellulase pre-treated ginger had the maximum polyphenol content (37.5 mg/g). Apart from 6-gingerol, 6-paradol along with 6- and 8-methyl shogaols were the other important bio-active constituents in the oleoresin from cellulase-treated ginger.

  8. Short Communication: Variation in isozymic pattern of germplasm from three ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties

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    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Wiryanto, Suranto, Bermawie N. 2014. Variation in isozymic pattern of germplasm from three of ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 86-93. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has long been as spices, flavoring agent and raw material for herbal medicines. In Indonesia, there were three varieties based on color and size of the rhizome, i.e. gajah (big-white ginger, merah (red ginger, and emprit (small-white ginger. This research was conducted to find out: (i isozymic pattern of three ginger varieties, and (ii phylogenetic relationship of those three varieties. The plant materials were gathered from Wonogiri, Surakarta and Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta. Two enzyme systems, namely esterase (EST and peroxidase (PER, PRX were used in this study. The relationship among ginger varieties was determined by UPGMA. The result indicated that EST showed two bands (i.e. Rf 0.04 and 0.10, and PRX showed six bands (i.e. Rf 0.04, 0.05, 0.09, 0.10, 0.11, and 0.15. Peroxidase produce more numerous and more diverse isozymic bands than esterase, resulting in a more complex relationship. The data used to compile dendrogram affect the grouping; the more data used, the more obvious clustering of accessions in a population. Dendrogam generated from esterase and peroxidase banding patterns produced distinct clusters based on varieties and location.

  9. [Comparison of Coptidis Rhizoma processed with different ginger juice based on metabolomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-Yun; Su, Dan; Zhu, Jing; Deng, Yu-Fen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of two different ginger juices on the medicinal properties of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) by using UPLC-MS-TOF. The rats were fed with decoction of raw CR (RCR), CR processed with ginger juice from fresh ginger(CRGJFG), CR processed with ginger juice from Zinger (CRGJZ), ginger juice from fresh ginger (GJFG) and ginger juice from Zinger (GJZ), and then their urine was collected at different time points for metabolomics analysis. PeakviewTM 1.7 software was applied to analyze the total ion current under positive ion mode; MarkerviewTM 2.0 software was applied for principal component analysis (PCA). The possible biomarkers were screened and their content changes were described according to the searching results in Scifinder and Chemspider databases and related literature reports. The results showed that CR processed with different ginger juice would produce different effects on energy metabolism. Nine possible biomarkers relating to medicinal properties were found as sarcosine, hippuric acid, creatinine, kynurenine, tyrosine, L-tryptophan, nicotinic acid, arachidonic acid and L-proline. L-tryptophan, kynurenine and nicotinic acid were involved in the metabolism of tryptophan; sarcosine, creatinine, L-proline and tyrosine were involved in arginine and proline metabolism; the content of arachidonic acid in urine, precursor of leukotrienes B4, from high to low were CRGJZ, CRGJFG and RCR. The contents of all biomarkers in GJZ group were higher than those in GJFG group, indicating the cold nature of CR was gradually decreased in the following order: RCR, CRGJZ and CRGJFG, and resulting in different anti-inflammatory effects of samples. The results were in consistent with the conclusion that GJFG had hot nature and GJZ had warm nature. The study provided the scientific basis for proper use of different ginger juice as processing assistants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.

  11. TREATMENT OF 29 CASES OF LUMBAR INTERVETEBRAL DISC PROTRUSION WITH GINGER-SEPARATED MOXIBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lixin; LI Wanting

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion for treatment of lumbar intervertebrai disc prolapse. Methods: 29 Iumbar intervertebral disc protrusion patients including 21 males and 8 females were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion of Ashi-point and Jiaji (EX-B 2 , the affected region), 5 - 6 cones every time, once every other day, continuously for 5 times. Then the therapeutic effect was analyzed. Results: After treatment, of the 29 cases, 23(79.3% ) were cured, and the rest 6(20.7% ) experienced improvement. Conclusion: Ginger-separated moxibustion is fairly effective and safe in treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion.

  12. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.

  13. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive, non-native plants (or environmental weeds) have long been recognized as a major threat to the native biodiversity of oceanic islands (Cronk & Fuller, 1995; Denslow, 2003). Globally, several hundred non-native plant species have been reported to have major impacts on natural areas on oceanic islands (Kueffer et al., 2009). In Hawaii, at least some 50 non-native plant species reach dominance in natural areas (Kueffer et al., 2009) and many of them are known to impact ecosystem processes or biodiversity. One example is the invasive Australian tree fern (Cyathea cooperi), which has been shown to be very efficient at utilizing soil nitrogen and can grow six times as rapidly in height, maintain four times more fronds, and produce significantly more fertile fronds per month than the native Hawaiian endemic tree ferns, Cibotium spp. (Durand & Goldstein, 2001a, b). Additionally, while native tree ferns provide an ideal substrate for epiphytic growth of many understory ferns and flowering plants, the Australian tree fern has the effect of impoverishing the understory and failing to support an abundance of native epiphytes (Medeiros & Loope, 1993). Other notorious examples of invasive plant species problematic for biodiversity and ecosystem processes in Hawaii include miconia (Miconia calvescens), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), albizia (Falcataria moluccana), firetree (Morella faya), clidemia (Clidemia hirta), kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), and fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to name just a few. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis) is a recent example of a seriously problematic invasive species for Hawaii’s agriculture and is damaging certain high-elevations native ecosystems as well.

  14. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30 d (Diab + Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  15. Ginger-derived phenolic substances with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Besides its food-additive functions, ginger has a long history of medicinal use for the treatment of a variety of human ailments including common colds, fever, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal complications, motion sickness, diabetes, cancer, etc. Ginger contains several nonvolatile pungent principles viz. gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone, which account for many of its health beneficial effects. Studies conducted in cultured cells as well as in experimental animals revealed that these pungent phenolics possess anticarcinogenic properties. This chapter summarizes updated information on chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of ginger-derived phenolic substances and their underlying mechanisms.

  16. Clinical Observation of 82 Cases of Enuresis Treated by Ginger-partitioned Moxibustion plus Cupping Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect in the treatment of enuresis by ginger-partitioned moxibustion plus cupping therapy. Methods: Ginger-par -titioned moxibustion was applied on Guanyuan (CV 4)and bilateral Zusanli (ST 36) and cupping therapy was applied on Shenque (CV 8) in the treatment of 82 cases of enuresis, in comparison with 76 cases treated by Chinese herbal medicine. Results: The effective rate was 84.1% in the treatment by ginger-partitioned moxibustion plus cupping therapy and was 64.5% in the treatment by Chinese herbal medicine. Conclusion: Ginger-partitio -ned moxibustion plus cupping therapy was better than Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of enuresis (P <0.05).

  17. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  18. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  19. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale (ginger has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  20. Comparison the effects of Ginger and Curcumin in treatment of premenstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira khayat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most women at reproductive ages experience the premenstrual syndrome (PMS. Different methods have been suggested for the treatment of this syndrome and one of them is using herbal medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ginger and curcumin on severity of symptoms of PMS. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 105 students with PMS symptoms were randomly assigned to ginger, curcumin and placebo groups. Participants received two capsules daily from seven days before menstruation to three days after menstruation for three cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP questionnaire. Data of before interventions and 1, 2 and 3 months after interventions were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA and indepented t-test. SPSS-18 software was used for analyses and P<0/05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of PMS symptoms severity were similar in three groups before the intervention [( 110/2±30/7 in ginger group, 103/6±39/1 in curcumin group and106/7±44/65 in placebo group p=0/79], but after interventions there were significant differences between groups [(47/06 ±33/4 in ginger group, 29/74±11/6 in curcumin group and106±48/7 in placebo group P<0/0001]. Also, there was a significant difference between effects of curcumin and ginger (P=0/008. Conclusion: Ginger and curcumin are effective in reduction of severity of psychological, physical and behavioral symptoms of PMS and the effect of curcumin is more than ginger. Results of present study suggest curcumin and ginger as treatment for PMS.

  1. Cultivation and management techniques for ginger production%生姜栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建民

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the cultivation and management techniques for ginger production were summarized,and the condi-tion of demonstration plots and results under formula fertilization on ginger also were introduced.%总结了生姜的栽培管理技术,并介绍了生姜测土配方施肥示范片情况及其结果。

  2. Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Smith, Mike K; Brooks, Lyndon O; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N

    2006-02-22

    Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a reputation for possessing a particular "lemony" aroma, due to its high content of the isomers neral and geranial, often collectively referred to as citral. Fresh rhizomes of 17 clones of Australian ginger, including commercial cultivars and experimental tetraploid clones, were steam distilled 7 weeks post-harvest, and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of 16 of the 17 clones, including the tetraploid clones and their parent cultivar, were found to be of substantially similar composition. These oils were characterized by very high citral levels (51-71%) and relatively low levels of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons typical of ginger oil. The citral levels of most of these oils exceeded those previously reported for ginger oils. The neral-to-geranial ratio was shown to be remarkably constant (0.61 +/- 0.01) across all 17 clones. One clone, the cultivar "Jamaican", yielded oil with a substantially different composition, lower citral content and higher levels of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Because this cultivar also contains significantly higher concentrations of pungent gingerols, it possesses unique aroma and flavor characteristics, which should be of commercial interest.

  3. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-06-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans.

  4. Suites of terpene synthases explain differential terpenoid production in ginger and turmeric tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jo Koo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale and turmeric (Curcuma longa contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+-germacrene D synthase and (S-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (--caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+-α-turmerone and (+-β-turmerone, are produced from (--α-zingiberene and (--β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

  5. Effects of ginger and its pungent constituents on transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-12-01

    Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, [6]-gingerol, zingerone and [6]-shogaol. In particular, [6]-shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by [6]-shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that [6]-shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.

  6. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties.

  7. The efficacy of ginger added to ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory surgery

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    Pragnadyuti Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many costly antiemetic drugs and regimens. Objective: The study was carried out to compare the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale added to Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. From March 2008 to July 2010, 100 adult patients of either sex, aged 20-45, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A[(n = 50 receiving (IV Ondansetron (4 mg and two capsules of placebo] and Group B[(n = 50 receiving IV Ondansetron (4 mg and two capsules of ginger] simultaneously one hour prior to induction of general anaesthesia (GA in a double-blind manner. One ginger capsule contains 0.5 gm of ginger powder. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 18h post- operatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: Statistically significant difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05, was found showing that ginger ondansetron combination was superior to plain Ondansetron as antiemetic regimen for both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of ginger and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to ondansetron alone in patients undergoing day care surgery under general anaesthesia.

  8. Surface characterization of ginger powder examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ao, Qiang; Du, Fangling; Zhu, Junqing; Liu, Jie

    2010-09-01

    The surface composition of five types of ginger powders with the particle sizes of 300, 149, 74, 37 and 8.34 microm was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical-chemical characteristics regarding material particle size distributions, discoloration and chemical composition. The results show that the color differences are greater for superfine ground ginger than for conventional comminuted ones; the values of crude fibre, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) decrease with decreasing ginger particle size. However, no relationship with the surface fat, crude protein, ash and total solids exists. With superfine grinding the XPS O/C ratios of the five ginger powders were similar since the surfaces were not oxidized. Correlations were observed between the XPS N/C ratios and the high resolution XPS N 1s spectra. SEM observations revealed that the surface of ginger powder with a particle size of 300 microm is rougher, while superfine ground powders with particle sizes of 149, 74, 37 and 8.34 microm are similar to each other. This roughness difference between these surfaces correlates with the differences in their O/C ratios and the surface morphology of five ginger powders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed Hassan; Nauman, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Hussain, Shahzad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2010-07-28

    Spices are the building blocks of flavor in foods. This research work was focused on two important spices, i.e., ginger and cumin. Ginger and cumin both are recognized for their antioxidant properties. So, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). The highest yield for volatile oil was obtained by the cumin sample, which was 2.52 +/- 0.11%, while the fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.31 +/- 0.08%). The analysis of volatile oils of fresh and dried ginger showed camphene, p-cineole, alpha-terpineol, zingiberene and pentadecanoic acid as major components, while the major components in cumin volatile oil were cuminal, gamma-terpinene and pinocarveol. In nonvolatile extracts the highest yield was obtained by the methanol extract of cumin (4.08 +/- 0.17% w/w), while the n-hexane extract of fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.52 +/- 0.03% w/w). Maximum total phenolic contents were observed in the methanol extract of fresh ginger (95.2 mg/g dry extract) followed by the hexane extract of fresh ginger (87.5 mg/g dry extract). The hexane extract of cumin showed the lowest total phenolic content (10.6 mg/g dry extract). The DPPH method showed the highest antioxidant activity for cumin essential oil (85.44 +/- 0.50%) followed by dried ginger essential oil (83.87 +/- 0.50%) and fresh ginger essential oil (83.03 +/- 0.54%). The FRAP of essential oils showed almost comparative results with DPPH. Cumin essential oil was found best in reducing Fe(3+) ions, followed by dried and fresh ginger. Our results suggest that both ginger and cumin can be used as potential sources of natural antioxidants in foods.

  10. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for related publications using “ginger” and “anti-oxidative” and “ginger” and “anti-inflammatory” as keywords. This search had considered Papers that had been published between 2000 and 201...

  11. Ginger: Measuring Gravitomagnetic Effects by Means of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    GINGER is a proposal for a new experiment aimed to the detection of the gravito-magnetic Lense-Thirring effect at the surface of the Earth. A three-dimensional set of ring lasers will be mounted on a rigid "monument". In a ring laser a light beam traveling counterclockwise is superposed to another beam traveling in the opposite sense. The anisotropy in the propagation leads to standing waves with slightly different frequencies in the two directions; the resulting beat frequency is proportional to the absolute rotation rate in space, including the gravito-magnetic drag. The experiment is planned to be built in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy and is based on an international collaboration among four Italian groups, the Technische Universität München and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch (NZ).

  12. Bioactive ginger constituents alleviate protein glycation by trapping methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Pei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-09-21

    Considerable evidence suggests that long-term pathological diabetes is a result of the accumulation of tissue macromolecules that have been progressively modified by nonenzymatic glycation of protein. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive endogenous dicarbonyl metabolite derived from multiple sources such as glucose and lipids and is thought to contribute greatly to protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that both [6]-shogaol (6S) and [6]-gingerol (6G), the major active components in ginger, markedly trapped MGO in vitro and consequently formed mono-MGO adducts, 6S-MGO and 6G-MGO, which were purified from the respective chemical reaction and characterized as novel compounds by NMR experiments and LC-MS/MS approaches. We revealed that the α-carbon of the carbonyl group in the side chain of 6S or 6G is the major active site for trapping MGO. We also demonstrated that 6S and 6G could effectively inhibit the formation of MGO-induced AGEs via trapping MGO in a time-dependent manner in the human serum albumin (HSA)-MGO system. Mono-MGO adducts, 6S-MGO and 6G-MGO, were determined to be the major conjugates in 6S- and 6G-treated HSA-MGO assays, respectively, using LC-ESI-MS techniques. These findings showed the potential effects of 6S and 6G on the prevention of protein glycation, suggesting regular consumption of ginger root extract may attenuate the progression of MGO-associated diabetic complications in patients.

  13. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  14. Protective Effects of Ginger ( Extract against Diabetes-Induced Heart Abnormality in Rats

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    Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic cardiomyopathy is an important causal factor in morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients, and currently, no effective means are available to reverse its pathological progress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on apolipoproteins (apo A and B, hyperhomocysteinemia, cathepsin G and leptin changes, as well as cardiac fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo.MethodsTwenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: control, non-treated diabetic, and ginger extract-treated diabetic groups. The ginger extract-treated diabetic group received a 50 mg daily dose of ginger extract intragastrically for 6 weeks.ResultsThe results revealed concurrent significant increases in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine (Hcy, cathepsin G and apoB levels and decreases in apoA and leptin levels in the non-treated diabetic group compared to the control group. Moreover, heart structural changes, including fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation, were observed in non-treated diabetic rats compared to the control rats. Significant amelioration of changes in the heart structure together with restoration of the elevated levels of Hcy and CRP, leptin, cathepsin G, and apoA and B were found in the ginger extract-treated diabetic group compared to the non-treated diabetic group.ConclusionThe findings indicated that ginger extract significantly reduces heart structural abnormalities in diabetic rats and that these effects might be associated with improvements in serum apo, leptin, cathepsin G, and Hcy levels and with the antioxidant properties of ginger extract.

  15. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p < 0.005), improved 48 h post-exercise only in the ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p < 0.001) and was not influenced by ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS.

  16. Larsenianthus, a new Asian genus of Gingers (Zingiberaceae with four species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Larsenianthus W.J.Kress & Mood, gen. nov. is described with one new combination and three new species. Larsenianthus careyanus (Benth. W.J.Kress & Mood, comb. nov., is widespread in India and present-day Bangladesh; L. wardianus W.J.Kress, Thet Htun & Bordelon, sp. nov., is from upper Myanmar in Kachin State; L. assamensis S.Dey, Mood, & S.Choudhury, sp. nov., is restricted to Assam, India; and L. arunachalensis M.Sabu, Sanoj & T.Rajesh Kumar, sp. nov., has only been found in Arunachal Pradesh, India. A phylogenetic analysis using the plastid trnK intron and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data indicates that the four species of Larsenianthus form a monophyletic lineage that is sister to Hedychium, a geographically widespread genus of about 50 species in tribe Zingibereae of subfamily Zingiberoideae. A dichotomous key and three-locus DNA barcodes are provided as aids for the identification of the four species of Larsenianthus.

  17. Hypoglycemic Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus norvagicus

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    Saghir Ahmad Jafri*, Sohail Abass and Muhammad Qasim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger aqueous extract at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight (BW once a day for six weeks. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (65mg/kg BW once which induced diabetes in albino rats after 8 days. Albino rats (n=24 each weighing 150-180g were divided in 3 equal groups. Group A served as control, group B was diabetic and was not given ginger whereas group C rats were diabetic and given ginger extract (500mg/kg BW. Serum of each rat was analyzed by enzymatic kits to estimate serum glucose on 1st day (after making them diabetic, 21st and 42nd day. Blood glucose level remained unaltered in group A and B over time. However, group C, given ginger extract, showed significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum glucose level after day 21 and 42 post treatment. It may be concluded that ginger extract has hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats.

  18. Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of ginger

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    Poonam Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties. Objective: This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GR, quinine reductase (QR, and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain. Results: Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats. Conclusions: The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.

  19. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Luen Hu; Christophan K Rayner; Keng-Liang Wu; Seng-Kee Chuah; Wei-Chen Tai; Yeh-Pin Chou; Yi-Chun Chiu; King-Wah Chiu; Tsung-Hui Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying,abdominal symptoms,and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia.METHODS:Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner.After an 8-h fast,the patients ingested three capsules that contained ginger(total 1.2 g)or placebo,followed after 1 h by 500 mL low-nutrient soup.Antral area,fundus area and diameter,and the frequency of antral contractions were measured using ultrasound at frequent intervals,and the gastric half-emptying time was calculated from the change in antral area.Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires,and blood was taken for measurement of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1),motilin and ghrelin concentrations,at intervals throughout the study.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was more rapid after ginger than placebo [median(range)half-emptying time 12.3(8.5-17.0)min after ginger,16.1(8.3-22.6)min after placebo,P ≤ 0.05].There was a trend for more antral contractions(P = 0.06),but fundus dimensions and gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ,nor did serum concentrations of GLP-1,motilin and ghrelin.CONCLUSION:Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia,but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

  20. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Syaripah; Azian Morad, Noor; Iwai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  1. X-ray FEL Simulation with the MPP version of the GINGER Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawley, William

    2001-06-01

    GINGER is a polychromatic, 2D (r-z) PIC code originally developed in the 1980's to examine sideband growth in FEL amplifiers. In the last decade, GINGER simulations have examined various aspects of x-ray and XUV FEL's based upon initiation by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Recently, GINGER's source code has been substantially updated to exploit many modern features of the Fortran90 language and extended to exploit multiprocessor hardware with the result that the code now runs effectively on platforms ranging from single processor workstations in serial mode to MPP hardware at NERSC such as the Cray-T3E and IBM-SP in full parallel mode. This poster discusses some of the numerical algorithms and structural details of GINGER which permitted relatively painless porting to parallel architectures. Examples of some recent SASE FEL modeling with GINGER will be given including both existing experiments such as the LEUTL UV FEL at Argonne and proposed projects such as the LCLS x-ray FEL at SLAC.

  2. Anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of fresh ginger is attributed mainly to 10-gingerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Chang, Ku-Shang; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Despite the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of ginger, the corresponding active constituents are unclear. This study analyzed the composition of fresh ginger ethanolic extract by using LC-MS. Inhibitory activities of fresh ginger extract and seven gingerol-related compounds on the neuro-inflammation were also evaluated by using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture model. Except for zingerone and 6-gingerol, other gingerols and shogaols at a concentration of 20 μM inhibited the production of nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as their mRNA levels in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Blocking NF-κB activation was the underlying mechanism responsible for inhibiting the proinflammatory gene expression. Increasing the alkyl chain length enhanced the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of gingerols yet, conversely, attenuated those of shogaols. 6-Gingerol was the most abundant compound in the fresh ginger extract, followed by 10-gingerol. Furthermore, fresh ginger extract exhibited a significant anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which was largely owing to 10-gingerol, but not 6-gingerol.

  3. Comparison of the Effect of 2% Ginger Mouthwash and Nystatin Mouthwash on Denture Stomatitis

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    Zahra Alizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is the chronic inflammation of mucus along with the presence and activity of Candida albicans. Ginger, which is a herb with antibacterial and antifungal proportion, has shown proven effects against Candida albicans. In this study the effects of ginger mouthwashes and nystatin mouthwashes on the treatment of denture stomatitis have been compared. This study was conducted in a doubled_ blind clinical trial on 50 patients with denture stomatitis. Given consent, the patients were categorized into two groups and one group was given the ginger mouthwash and another one was given the nystatin mouthwash for two weeks. At the end of the first and second week the erythematous zone was examined and its type of denture stomatitis was specified. Furthermore, in the first session and the end of the treatment sample were taken from the palate with in order to carry out microbial culture and colony count. The data was analyzed by SPSS 21 and the results were compared with Chisquare test. During the two-week treatment, both treatments resulted in the recovery of denture stomatitis significantly. However, the mentioned treatments did not have any clinically significant differences. No significant difference in the reduction of the number of colonies was seen between the two groups. Moreover, the level of the patient's satisfaction with the two treatments was similar. Considering the similar effectiveness of ginger and nystatin in the treatment of denture stomatitis and also patients similar satisfaction with both mouthwashes, the ginger mouthwashes can be an alternative treatment for nystatin.

  4. Analysis of ginger drying inside a natural convection indirect solar dryer: An experimental study

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    S. K. Sansaniwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a natural convection indirect solar cabinet dryer has been fabricated to study the drying behaviour of ginger rhizomes in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db. Various experiments were conducted during the months of March and April 2014 at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar (29o5’5’’N, 75o45’55’’E, India. Experimental data obtained were used to evaluate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. Considering these constants, the average value of convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained and observed to decrease with increase in mass of ginger samples and progression of drying days with variation from 0.59 to 5.42 W/m2˚C for different mass of ginger samples. The moisture removing rate was reported to increase with increase in mass of ginger samples and decreases significantly with the progression of drying days. The average collector efficiency was also observed to vary from 14.97 to 16.14% under increasing and decreasing trends of solar radiations from morning to noon and noon to evening respectively. Modified page model was reported best for describing the drying behaviour of different mass of ginger samples. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty ranged from 29.19 to 46.25%.

  5. Combination of Antioxidants from Different Sources Could Offer Synergistic Benefits: A Case Study of Tea and Ginger Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon A; Enujiugha, Victor N; Omoba, Olufunmilayo S; Sanni, David M

    2015-11-01

    Tea and ginger are plants with high antioxidant potential. Combinations of antioxidants from different sources could also produce synergistic antioxidant effects. This study investigated the influence of solvent on antioxidant content of tea, ginger, and tea + ginger blends. Under the investigated extraction conditions, water was the most effective extraction solvent to maximise peroxide scavenging and iron chelating activity of tea, ginger, and their blends. Aqueous ethanol was the most effective solvent to maximise ABTS radical scavenging activity and ethanol was the best solvent to maximise DPPH radical scavenging activity. A good multivariate regression model that explains the relationship between the total flavonoid content of the extracts and their antioxidant activities was obtained (R2 and Q2 of 0.93 and 0.83, respectively). Extracts of tea-ginger blends exhibited synergistic effects in their ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  6. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015 and protocol two (P = 0.029. There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017 but not for protocol two (P = 0.210. Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

  7. Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Iranian Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Darvishi, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Barani, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Asia. Cinnamon (containing cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde) is used as spices and as a pharmacological agent in ancient medicine. Intense exercise can result in oxidative damage to cellular compounds and also muscle soreness. Efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as antioxidant agents and their effectiveness in exercise performance and reducing muscle soreness have been investigated in limited studies on humans. So we studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the 6 week investigation and randomly categorized in three groups (cinnamon, ginger, or placebo) and received three grams of ginger, cinnamon, or placebo powder each day depending on the group they belonged. Human malondialdehyde (MDA) level, exercise performance, and body composition were evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the 6 weeks intervention. There was minor decrease in MDA in cinnamon and ginger group compared with the placebo group and significant increase in exercise performance in ginger group (P < 0.01), and considerable increase in skin fold in cinnamon groups (P < 0.01), whereas there were significant accretion in BMI for ginger group (P < 0.1) and cinnamon group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in MDA, EP, and BMI were observed between groups over time. But there were specific changes in skin fold between cinnamon and placebo group (P < 0.05) and cinnamon and ginger groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with

  8. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzilah, R. Hanum; Sobhana, B. Arianto; Mahfud, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed to extract essential oil from ginger. The optimal condition for microwave assisted extraction of ginger were determined by resposnse surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables. The variables is were microwave power 400 - 800W as X1, feed solvent ratio of 0.33 -0.467 as X2 and feed size 1 cm, 0.25 cm and less than 0.2 cm as X3. The correlation analysis of mathematical modelling indicated that quadratic polynomial could be employed to optimize microwave assisted extraction of ginger. The optimal conditions to obtain highest yield of essential oil were : microwave power 597,163 W : feed solvent ratio and size of feed less than 0.2 cm.

  9. Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, MI; Akanji, MA; Hafizur, Rahman M; Choudhary, MI

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and antiglycation potential of polyphenols from three spices; alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg. Methods Polyphenol extracts of these spices were subjected to brine-shrimp lethality assay, phytotoxicity test, DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging as well as BSA-glucose antiglycation assay. Results Results obtained showed that polyphenol extract of ginger has the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 0.075 and 0.070 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while alligator pepper displayed highest antiglycation activity with IC50 0.125 mg/mL. However, nutmeg extract exhibited weakest cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential with LD50 4359.70 and 1490 µg/mL respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential and are safe for consumption. PMID:23570003

  10. Zhang Zhongjing's use of ginger%张仲景对姜的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施亚芹

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a flavoring used by most people in daily life,at the same time,it is also a kind of important traditional Chinese medicine.In traditional Chinese medicine,ginger has a very wide range of applications.In this paper,the author gives a brief introduction of Zhang Zhongjing's use of ginger,to provide discuss for clinic.%目的:姜是一种人们在日常生活中常用的调味品,同时,它也是一种重要的中药,在传统中医中,姜有着非常广泛的应用。本文简要介绍张仲景对姜的运用,为临床提供探讨。

  11. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  12. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  13. Properties of Ginger Starch%生姜淀粉的基本性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嫒; 乔旭光

    2011-01-01

    研究生姜淀粉糊的相关性质。结果表明:生姜淀粉中直链淀粉含量为27.47%,糊化温度为84.98℃;随着淀粉乳质量分数、淀粉乳pH值的增加,淀粉糊黏度增大;随着剪切速率的增加,存在剪切稀化的现象;淀粉糊溶解度、膨胀度均较小,且都随着温度的增加而增加;透明度为8.20%;具有触变性;凝沉体积为73%;冻融稳定性不强,蔗糖添加量较大时能增强生姜淀粉糊的冻融稳定性。%The present study was conducted to investigate properties of ginger starch.The results showed that the amylase content of ginger starch was 27.47% and the pasting temperature 84.98 ℃.Ginger starch paste revealed an increase in its viscosity as its concentration and pH increased.Thinning behavior and thixotropy were observed with increasing shear rate.Both solubility and swelling power of ginger starch paste exhibited a low value,which increased with increasing temperature.The transparency and sedimentation volume of ginger starch paste were 8.20% and 73%,respectively.Poor freeze-thaw stability was found for ginger starch paste and the addition of large amounts of sucrose could enhance its freeze-thaw stability.

  14. PENGERINGAN KEMOREAKSI DENGAN KAPUR API (CaO) UNTUK MENCEGAH KEHILANGAN MINYAK ATSIRI PADA JAHE (Chemoreaction Drying Using Quicklime (CaO) to Prevent Loss of Essential Oil in Ginger)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Julianti; Ridwansyah,; Mimi Nurminah

    2010-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinalis Rosc) has been widely used in various pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foods and beverages. Harvesting time, handling and drying methods are important factors in producing best quality of dried ginger. The objectives of this study were to examine : 1) the optimum harvesting time, 2) chemoreaction drying capacity using quicklime in ginger drying, 3) the effect of sliced ginger thickness on drying time and essential oil content of ginger and 4) the effect of blanching ...

  15. Functional Ginger Extracts from Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide Extraction via In Vitro and In Vivo Assays: Antioxidation, Antimicroorganism, and Mice Xenografts Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chen Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger. We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements.

  16. Functional ginger extracts from supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction via in vitro and in vivo assays: antioxidation, antimicroorganism, and mice xenografts models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chiou, Li-Yu; Wang, Jheng-Yang; Chou, Sin-You; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Huang, Kuo-Chuan; Wang, Hui-Min

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger). We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements.

  17. Characteristic fingerprint based on gingerol derivative analysis for discrimination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) according to geographical origin using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudthavorasit, Soparat; Wongravee, Kanet; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun

    2014-09-01

    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues.

  18. Essential oil composition of two unique ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars from Sikkim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Indu; Venugopal, V V; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oils from two most popular cultivars from Sikkim namely, Bhaisa and Majulay, were isolated, characterised by analytical GC and GC-MS. Sixty constituents accounting for 94.9% and 92.6% of the Bhaisa and Majulay oils were identified. The major compounds of Bhaisa oil were geranyl acetate (18.8%), zingiberene (16.3%) and geranial (8.2%) and those of Majulay oil were zingiberene (19.8%) and geranial (16.5%). Compared to other ginger cultivar oils, the Bhaisa oil had higher content of oxygenated compounds (43.1%). This is the first report on the essential oils from Sikkim ginger cultivars.

  19. Pungent ginger components modulates human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mian; Chen, Pei-zhan; Yue, Qing-xi; Jing-quan LI; Chu, Rui-Ai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ginger rhizome is used worldwide as a spicy flavor agent. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of pungent ginger components, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol, on human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of many prescription drugs. Methods: The activities of human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were analyzed using Vivid P450 assay kits. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was measured using q...

  20. Ginger Café——与Ginger来一场恋爱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivi; Ying

    2007-01-01

    Ginger Café,从复兴西里的老教堂里走了出来,这一次藏身于新天地的写字楼里,来自新加坡的主人Betty国在那里研习Food&Table Stylist,对饮食的热爱,一并倾注在她以Ginger为主题的概念咖啡馆上,设计上,则与设计师Km Tan不谋而合,很小承了复兴西里第一家Ginger Café的风格,

  1. PENGERINGAN KEMOREAKSI DENGAN KAPUR API (CaO UNTUK MENCEGAH KEHILANGAN MINYAK ATSIRI PADA JAHE (Chemoreaction Drying Using Quicklime (CaO to Prevent Loss of Essential Oil in Ginger

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    Elisa Julianti*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinalis Rosc has been widely used in various pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foods and beverages. Harvesting time, handling and drying methods are important factors in producing best quality of dried ginger. The objectives of this study were to examine : 1 the optimum harvesting time, 2 chemoreaction drying capacity using quicklime in ginger drying, 3 the effect of sliced ginger thickness on drying time and essential oil content of ginger and 4 the effect of blanching pretreatment on the quality of dried ginger. There were three kinds of ginger used in this study i.e. red, big white and small white ginger.The results showed that the optimum harvesting time for the red and small white ginger was 10 months while that for the big white ginger was 9 months.The optimum thickness for sliced ginger drying was 2,5 mm. The efficient weight ratio of quicklime to ginger for drying was 3 : 1 and the final moisture content were 7,34% wb, 5,53% wb and 6,57% wb for red, big white and small white ginger respectively. The moisture content of ginger has complied with the quality standard of as herbal materials, i.e. 10%, while the essential oil for red, big white and small white ginger were 3,39%, 3,12% and 3,16% respectively, and the drying time was 45 hours.

  2. Propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium Thermodynamic properties of water adsortion of the starch of rhizome of swamp lily (Hedychium coronarium

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    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as propriedades termodinâmicas (entalpia diferencial, entropia diferencial, entalpia integral e entropia integral do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium por meio de isotermas de adsorção de água. As isotermas foram determinadas em atividades de água no intervalo de 0,11 a 0,84, sob temperaturas que variaram de 30 a 50 °C. A Equação de GAB, que se ajustou bem às isotermas experimentais, foi utilizada para estimar as propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção. As isotermas apresentaram ligeira inversão, indicando a precença de amido danificado. A entalpia diferencial e a entropia diferencial aumentaram com a diminuição da umidade de equilíbrio e correlacionaram entre si confirmando a compensação química linear. Um modelo exponencial do tipo Y = b.e(a/Xe descreveu adequadamente a dependência destas propriedades diferenciais ao teor de umidade de equilíbrio. A entalpia integral e a entropia integral aumentaram continuamente com o teor de umidade de equil��brio, porém com valores negativos para a entropia integral. Estas propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água demonstraram que o amido extraído dos rizomas do lírio-do-brejo possui baixa higrocopicidade apesar da ocorrência de grânulos de amido danificados.Thermodynamic properties where determined (differential enthalpy, of differential entropy, integral enthalpy, and integral entropy of the starch of rhizomes of swamp lily through water adsorption isotherms. The isotherms were determined in water activities in the range of 0.11 to 0.84, in temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C. The GAB equation which fits well to the experimental isotherms was used to estimate the properties of thermodynamic adsorption. The slight reversal of the isotherms indicates damaged starch. The enthalpy and entropy differential gap increased with the decrease in moisture and correlated to each other confirming the chemical linear compensation. An

  3. An impression on current developments in the technology, chemistry, and biological activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubra, I Rahath; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely cultivated as a spice for its aromatic and pungent components. The essential oil and oleoresins from ginger are valuable products responsible for the characteristic flavor and pungency. Both are used in several food products such as soft beverages and also in many types of pharmaceutical formulations. More than 100 compounds have been reported from ginger, some of which are isolated and characterized, others are tentatively identified by GC-MS and / or LC-MS. [6]-Gingerol, the major gingerol in ginger rhizomes, has been found to possess many interesting pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and cardiotonic effects. Ginger is considered as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA. Due to all these properties, ginger has gained considerable attention in developed countries in recent years, especially for its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present review is a persuasive presentation of the current information on processing, chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal uses of ginger. Further studies are required for the validation of the beneficial uses. Formulation for novel products and new usages may emerge in the years to come, based on the revealed results of various studies.

  4. Ameliorating Effect of Ginger Extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on Liver Marker Enzymes, Lipid Profile in Aluminium chloride Induced Male Rats

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    A Kalaiselvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, aluminium (Al exposure has been increasing and it has the potential to be toxic in animal and humans. In recent years, ginger has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health. The purpose of the present study to investigate the effect of ginger extract on serum biochemical parameters of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 induced male rats. 24 Wistar rats (6 in each group distributed into 4 groups. Control group received distilled water as vehicle; In E1 group, animal received AlCl3 orally (100 mg/kg bw, E2 group received AlCl3 (100 mg/kg bw and simultaneously with ginger extract (50 mg/kg bw and E3 group received ginger extract alone (50 mg/kg bw for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected for separating the serum for biochemical analyses. The results showed that oral administration of aluminium revealed a significant increase in the levels of serum glucose, total protein, globulin, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, lipid profile and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP and no change was noted in bilirubin. The extract of ginger decreased the activities serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, lipid profile and all the parameter studied. It was concluded that the consumption of ginger protects the liver and kidney against the Aluminium toxicity. In addition, ginger is capable of improving hyperlipidemia and the impaired kidney functions.

  5. The Optimization Design of Ginger GUI Base Class Menu%Ginger GUI基类菜单的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛

    2011-01-01

    Ginger GUI是美国卓然公司推出的DVD OSD系统,功能强大,易于实现,但其菜单设计中存在一些缺陷,当有多个菜单时可能出现系统错误,文章分析了系统基类菜单存在的问题,并针对问题提出了优化解决方案.

  6. Influence of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Inflammation and Muscle Soreness Endued by Exercise in Iranian Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Barani, Azam; Taghiyar, Maryam; Shiranian, Afshin; Hajishafiee, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger rhizomes (rich in gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone) have been used in Asia for the treatment of asthma, diabetes, and pain, and have shown potent anti-inflammatory attributes. Common spices such as Cinnamon (including cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehydeis) are used in food and many studies have focused on its anti-inflammatory components. Intense exercise can result in an inflammatory response to cell damage and also muscle soreness. The efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as anti-inflammatory agents and their effectiveness in reducing muscle soreness has been investigated in limited studies on humans. Therefore, we have studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on inflammation and muscle soreness in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy, trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the six-week investigation and randomly categorized into three groups (cinnamon, ginger or placebo) and received 3 g of ginger, cinnamon or placebo powder each day, depending on the group they belonged to. The IL-6 level and Likert Scale of Muscle Soreness were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the six-week intervention. There were no significant changes in the IL-6 cinnamon and ginger group when compared with the placebo group, whereas, there was a significant fall in muscle soreness in the cinnamon group and placebo (P < 0.1) and ginger group and placebo (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups. PMID:23717759

  7. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Choi, Haymie

    2008-03-01

    To compare the anti-diabetic effects of dietary ginger and garlic, 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (HF) diet (22% fat) for 2 weeks and then randomly divided into six groups of eight animals: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Ginger Low (GNL), Ginger High (GNH), Garlic Low (GRL), and Garlic High (GRH) groups. "Low" and "High" indicate addition of 0.5% and 2.0% freeze-dried ginger or garlic powder in their respective diets. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg of body weight) in all groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks of feeding of experimental diets, food intake was significantly (P GRH group. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the NC and GNH groups compared to the DBC, GNL, and GRL groups, while no significant difference was observed for the GRH group. Better glucose tolerance was observed in the GNH group compared to the DBC and all other ginger- and garlic-fed groups. Final body weight, fasting blood glucose, blood glycated hemoglobin, liver weight, liver glycogen levels, and serum lipid profiles were not influenced by the ginger- or garlic-containing diet. Data of this study suggest that ginger and garlic are insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic while overall anti-diabetic effects of ginger are better than those of garlic, at least in this experimental condition. Much better anti-diabetic effects of ginger and garlic may be obtained when feeding is with a normal rather than a HF-containing diet.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats

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    Ahmad Sameer Al-Noory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results : It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups.

  9. Herb-Drug Interaction: A Case Study of Effect of Ginger on the Pharmacokinetic of Metronidazole in Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, J. M.; Uboh, M.; Obonga, W. O.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ginger on the pharmacokinectic of metronidazole was studied using rabbits in a crossover study method. The relevance of this study borders on the wide use of ginger for culinary and phytotherapeutic purposes, and metronidazole that is commonly used for every gastrointestinal complain in our communities without prescription. Ginger significantly increased the absorption and plasma half-life, and significantly decreased the elimination rate constant and clearance of metronidazole (P<0.05). Thus, in clinical practice, the patients should be advised on the serious implication of using both items together. PMID:20046719

  10. Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Porouhan, Pezhman; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

  11. Herb-drug interaction: A case study of effect of ginger on the pharmacokinetic of metronidazole in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonta J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ginger on the pharmacokinectic of metronidazole was studied using rabbits in a crossover study method. The relevance of this study borders on the wide use of ginger for culinary and phytotherapeutic purposes, and metronidazole that is commonly used for every gastrointestinal complain in our communities without prescription. Ginger significantly increased the absorption and plasma half-life, and significantly decreased the elimination rate constant and clearance of metronidazole ( P< 0.05. Thus, in clinical practice, the patients should be advised on the serious implication of using both items together.

  12. HEMATOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOBIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GREEN TEA AND GINGER EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkirdasy, Ahmed; Shousha, Saad; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen H; Arshad, M Faiz

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the extract of green tea and/or ginger on some hematological and immunobiochemical profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The results revealed that treatment of diabetic animals with extract of green tea and/or ginger elevated the decreased HDL-c and LDL-c but significantly decreased triglycerides, the elevated glucose and GOT concentrations. The result also displayed a non-significant increase in the levels of CRP and fibrinogen. The experiment also revealed that the elevated MDA and GSH level fell down to the normal control group. The result also showed that after green tea and/or ginger extract treatment, the lowered RBC, WBC counts, PCV, percentage of neutrophils were increased and the elevated MCV, MCH, and MCHC of diabetic rabbits were decreased to normal levels. Thus, the overall results may indicate that green tea and/or ginger extracts have a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits. In addition, the extracts may be capable of improving hyperlipidemia, the impaired kidney function and hemogram in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  13. A clinical comparative study of oral and topical ginger on severity and duration of primary dysmenorrhea

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    P. Shirooye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Primary dysmenorrhea has remained a health problem. This study has compared the effect of oral and topical ginger on severity and duration of primary dysmenorrhea.  Methods: A single-blind randomized trial was conducted on 70 female students with moderate and severe primary dysmenorrhea. The participants were stratified randomized between two groups of oral and topical ginger. The oral group received 250 mg capsules of ginger powder and the topical group applied five drops of ginger oil topically every 6 hours from two days before through the first three days of menstruation for three cycles. The severity and duration of pain, and the number of mefenamic acid consumption were assessed in each cycle. Before-after changes were evaluated in each group and were compared between two groups. Results: The reduction of pain severity was 3(±3.2 in the topical compared to 2.6(±3.4 in the oral group (p

  14. Effects of ginger and expectations on symptoms of nausea in a balanced placebo design.

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    Katja Weimer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ginger effects on (experimental nausea have been described, but also strong placebo effects and sex differences when nausea is involved. The "balanced placebo design" has been proposed to allow better separation of drug and placebo effects. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women were randomly assigned to receive an antiemetic ginger preparation or placebo, and half of each group was told to have received drug or placebo. They were exposed to 5×2 min body rotations to induce nausea. Subjective symptoms and behavioral (rotation tolerance, head movements and physiological measures (electrogastrogram, cortisol were recorded. Groups were balanced for sex of participants and experimenters. RESULTS: Ginger and the information given did not affect any outcome measure, and previous sex differences could not be confirmed. Adding the experimenters revealed a significant four-factorial interaction on behavioral but not on subjective or physiological measures Men who received placebo responded to placebo information when provided by the male experimenter, and to ginger information when provided by the female experimenter. This effect was not significant in women. CONCLUSION: The effects of an antiemetic drug and provided information interact with psychosocial variables of participants and experimenters in reports of nausea.

  15. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  16. Evaluation of edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for root-knot nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible ginger and turmeric roots are important agricultural commodities for the State of Hawaii. Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. are major factors hindering optimum production. An evaluation of tolerance and resistance to M. incognita was undertake...

  17. Ginger-Mechanism of action in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Ried, Karin; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Liz

    2017-01-02

    Despite advances in antiemetic therapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still poses a significant burden to patients undergoing chemotherapy. Nausea, in particular, is still highly prevalent in this population. Ginger has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal complaints and has been suggested as a viable adjuvant treatment for nausea and vomiting in the cancer context. Substantial research has revealed ginger to possess properties that could exert multiple beneficial effects on chemotherapy patients who experience nausea and vomiting. Bioactive compounds within the rhizome of ginger, particularly the gingerol and shogaol class of compounds, interact with several pathways that are directly implicated in CINV in addition to pathways that could play secondary roles by exacerbating symptoms. These properties include 5-HT3, substance P, and acetylcholine receptor antagonism; antiinflammatory properties; and modulation of cellular redox signaling, vasopressin release, gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate. This review outlines these proposed mechanisms by discussing the results of clinical, in vitro, and animal studies both within the chemotherapy context and in other relevant fields. The evidence presented in this review indicates that ginger possesses multiple properties that could be beneficial in reducing CINV.

  18. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  19. Treatment of 28 Chronic Diarrhea Patients by Ginger-partitioned Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Min-wei; WANG Si-you

    2003-01-01

    Tianshu (ST 25), Zhongwan ( CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), Zusanli ( ST 36) and etc were selected to treat chronic diarrhea. The curative effect between ginger moxibustion and acupuncture was compared. The effective rate of two groups was respectively 93% and 82%.

  20. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  1. GINGER-SEPARATED MOXIBUSTION OF GUANYUAN POINT FOR TREATMENT OF 117 CASES OF PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永树

    2001-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the author of the present paper treated 117 cases of hypertension patients using ginger-separated moxibustion of Guanyuan (CV 4) during working in the Central Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Djakarta and achieved satisfactory results. Here is the report

  2. Ginger Supplementation Enhances Working Memory of the Post-Menopause Women

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    Naritsara Saenghong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cognitive impairment is one important problem in post-menopausal women. Although hormone therapy can improve this condition, it also produces adverse effect. Recent findings showed that this condition could be mitigated by the herb. Ginger or Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a plant in a family of Zingiberaceae, was previously demonstrated the neuroprotection and cognitive enhancing effects. Therefore, this study was set up to determine whether ginger rhizome extract could improve attention and working memory of the post-menopausal women. Approach: Sixty healthy post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 3 months. After the assessment of biographic information, they were evaluated the working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery test and the auditory oddball paradigm of event related potential before and after 3-month of intervention. Results: The ginger treated group decreased N100 and P300 latencies but increased N100 and P300 amplitudes in accompany with the enhanced working memory including the power of attention, continuity of attention, speed and quality of memory. Conclusion: Our results suggested that ginger is the potential cognitive enhancer for post-menopausal women. However, further researches are still required.

  3. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Babu Ram; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G; Li, Qing-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors. We found that R. alpina have autonomous selfing and pollinator-mediated crossing, but lack apomixis. We observed that a beetle (Mylabris sp.), and a moth (Macroglossum nycteris) visit the flowers of R. alpina for pollen and nectar feeding respectively. Our field observations, the stigmatic pollen count and fruit set data indicated that the visit by the beetle was legitimate, while that of the moth was illegitimate. Emasculated flowers visited by beetles set as many fruits and seeds/fruit as auto-selfed and naturally pollinated flowers, while emasculated flowers excluded from beetle visits did not set fruit and seed; indicating that a single visit of a beetle to the flowers of R. alpina can facilitate pollination. We found that flower spectral signal of R. alpina does not fit typical spectra previously reported for beetle or bee-visited flowers. Our results suggest that, to ensure reproductive success in alpine habitat, R. alpina has evolved autonomous selfing as a predominant mode of reproduction, while beetle pollination would promote genetic diversity of this plant species. The visitation of beetles to the flowers of R. alpina, despite floral signal mismatch with the classically associated beetle vision, suggests that a different visual processing may operate in this plant-pollinator interaction at high altitudes.

  4. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Li, Qing-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors. We found that R. alpina have autonomous selfing and pollinator-mediated crossing, but lack apomixis. We observed that a beetle (Mylabris sp.), and a moth (Macroglossum nycteris) visit the flowers of R. alpina for pollen and nectar feeding respectively. Our field observations, the stigmatic pollen count and fruit set data indicated that the visit by the beetle was legitimate, while that of the moth was illegitimate. Emasculated flowers visited by beetles set as many fruits and seeds/fruit as auto-selfed and naturally pollinated flowers, while emasculated flowers excluded from beetle visits did not set fruit and seed; indicating that a single visit of a beetle to the flowers of R. alpina can facilitate pollination. We found that flower spectral signal of R. alpina does not fit typical spectra previously reported for beetle or bee-visited flowers. Our results suggest that, to ensure reproductive success in alpine habitat, R. alpina has evolved autonomous selfing as a predominant mode of reproduction, while beetle pollination would promote genetic diversity of this plant species. The visitation of beetles to the flowers of R. alpina, despite floral signal mismatch with the classically associated beetle vision, suggests that a different visual processing may operate in this plant-pollinator interaction at high altitudes. PMID:28723912

  5. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Four Plants in Hedychium%4种姜花属植物花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊友华; 闫建勋; 刘念

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为姜花属植物种间有性杂交育种提供理论依据.[方法]采用TIC法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定4种姜花属植物白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性.[结果]4种植物花粉活力在89.7%~97.8%,其中红姜花的花粉活力最高,然后依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花和金姜花:4种植物的柱头可授性在91.3%-98.7%,其大小依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花.[结论]4种姜花属植物都具有较高的花粉活力和柱头可授性,其中白姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性均最高.%[ Objective ] The basis of the sexual hybridization breeding among the species from Hedychium was provided. [ Method] In order to evaluated The pollen viability and stigma receptivity of four Hedychium plants: H. coronarium, H. coccineum, H. gardnerianum, and H. forrestii were measured with the method of TTC and Benzidine-H2O2. [ Results] The results showed that the pollen viability of four plants were in the range from 89.7% to 97.8%, among which, the pollen viability of H. gardnerianum was highest and then the order of pollen viability was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. forrestii. The stigma receptivity was in the range from 91.3% to 98.7% and the order of the stigma receptivity was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. gardnerianum > H. forrestii. [ Conclusion] All the four plants had high pollen viability and stigma receptivity, among which, the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of H. coronarium were highest.

  6. 姜汁酸奶的研制%Study on Ginger Juice Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筠; 张翠翠; 高秀平

    2015-01-01

    生姜是常用的中药,酸奶是一种营养价值很高的食品。利用天然具有公认食疗作用的生姜作为原料和具有丰富营养价值的酸奶研制生产姜汁酸奶,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了姜汁生产的最佳工艺,优选出了姜汁酸奶的最佳配方组合。试验结果如下:(1)用抗坏血酸对姜汁护色的最佳添加量为0.05%;(2)酸奶的最佳配方为牛奶80%,姜汁9%,蔗糖6.5%,稳定剂0.1%;(3)以最佳配方生产的酸奶的理化指标为酸度84°T,粘度4089 mP/s,持水力71.4%,且均符合酸奶的国家标准。%Ginger is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine,and yogurt is a kind of high nutritional value of food. Ginger mixed with yogurt can produce ginger juice yogurt. Through the single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment,the optimum technology and the better combination of good formula were determined. The consequence of the tentative are as folow:(1)the optimal quantity of the antiscorbic acid for protecting the colour of the ginger is 0.05%,(2)the best formula for ginger juice yogurt is milk 80%,ginger juice 9%,sucrose 6.5%,stabilizer 0.1%,(3)the physical and chemical indicators of the ginger juice yogurt are degree of acidity 84 °T,viscosity 4 089 mP/s,keeping water-power 71.4%,and they al up to the national standard of the yogurt.

  7. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Powder Supplement on Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: a Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited evidence that ginger (Zingiber Officinale powder consumption is effective to relieve the pain and inflammation due to special phytichemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger powder supplementation in pain improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 outpatients with knee osteoarthritis of moderate pain. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: receiving ginger powder supplement and placebo. Ginger and placebo groups received two identical capsules per day for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg ginger powder or starch. Pain severity was measured by VAS (Visual Analog Scale at first and after 3 months. A responder was defined as a reduction in pain of > 1.5 cm on a visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in severity of pain. However, after ginger supplementation, pain score decreased in ginger group. After 12 weeks, Pain reduction was more significant in ginger group than placebo. Response to intervention was 88% and 14% in ginger and placebo groups, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between both groups in response to intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ginger powder supplementation was effective in reducing pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, therefore it is recommended as a safe supplement for these patients

  8. Bioflavonoids Effects of Ginger on Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

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    Hajhosieni Laleh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ginger is a strong antioxidant and long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic animals, and it has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Prevalence oxidative stress among urban life and changes in antioxidant capacity are considered asplay an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n = 40 were divided into three groups, control group (n = 10 and Ginger Quercetin group that received 100 mg/kg (gavage, (n = 10, and diabetic group, which received 55 mg/kg intra peritoneal (IP STZ (n = 20, which was subdivided to two groups of 10; STZ group and treatment group. Treatment group received 55 mg/kg (IP STZ plus100 mg/kg ginger, daily for, 8 weeks, respectively; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (IP. Diabetes was induced by a single (IP injection of STZ (55 mg/kg. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28 day after inducing diabetic 5 cc blood were collected for total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein levels and kidney tissues of rat in whole groups were removed then prepared for apoptosis analysis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL method. Results: Apoptotic cells significantly decreased in group that has received 100 mg/kg ginger (P < 0.05 in comparison to experimental groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Since in our study 100 mg/kg ginger have significantly preventive effect on kidney cells damages by reducing number of apoptotic cells in kidney and hence it seems that using it can be effective for treatment in diabetic rat.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF GINGER PRODUCTION IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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    Job NdaNmadu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the profitability and efficiency of small scale ginger production in selected Local Government Areas of Kaduna State using data collected through personal interview schedules with structured questionnaire. Results from the study showed that majority (96.0% of ginger farmers are male with an average age and farming experience of 42 and 27 years respectively. Majority of the respondents (82.5% are married and possess an average farm size of 3.09hectares. The average household size is 7 and up to 46% of them acquired secondary education. The results also revealed that labor, seed, fertilizer and capital inputs were significant in explaining the output. The mean technical efficiency of 0.799 indicate that an average ginger farmer in the study area will enjoy an output increase of 18.55% if management techniques are improved and he attains the level of the most efficient ginger farmer. Among the various factors affecting inefficiency, farm size and extension contact accentuated inefficiency while access to credit suppressed inefficiency. This might be an indication that the two parameters that encouraged inefficiency were overemployed. Hence, in order to attain the production frontier of the most efficient farmer, farm size should be scaled down or additional quantity of other inputs should be employed. Price fluctuation, unavailability of farm input, poor remunerative price and poor access to credit are the major constraints faced by ginger farmers in the study area. There is need for policies aimed at encouraging extension education, commercial farming, access to credit, and transport facilities.

  10. Antischistosomal activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Schistosoma mansoni harbored in C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; Eid, Refaat A; Adly, Mohamed A

    2011-08-01

    The repeated chemotherapy of schistosomiasis has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant schistosome strains. The development of such resistance has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. Many medicinal plants were studied to investigate their antischistosomal potency. The present work aimed to evaluate antischistosomal activity of crude aqueous extract of ginger against Schistosoma mansoni. Sixteen mice of C57 strain were exposed to 100 ± 10 cercariae per mouse by the tail immersion method; the mice were divided into two groups: untreated group and ginger-treated one. All mice were sacrificed at the end of 10th week post-infection. Worm recovery and egg counting in the hepatic tissues and faeces were determined. Surface topography of the recovered worms was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological examination of liver and intestine was done using routine histological procedures. The worm burden and the egg density in liver and faeces of mice treated with ginger were fewer than in non-treated ones. Scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms recovered from mice treated with ginger lost their normal surface architecture, since its surface showed partial loss of tubercles' spines, extensive erosion in inter-tubercle tegumental regions and numerous small blebs around tubercles. Histopathological data indicated a reduction in the number and size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver and intestine of treated mice compared to non-treated mice. The results of the present work suggested that ginger has antischistosomal activities and provided a basis for subsequent experimental and clinical trials.

  11. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  12. Inhibitory potential of ginger extracts against enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, inflammation and induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M Priya; Padmakumari, K P; Sankarikutty, B; Cherian, O Lijo; Nisha, V M; Raghu, K G

    2011-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking spice and herbal medicine around the world. Gingerols, the major pungent components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes, including the effect of enhancement against insulin sensitivity. In the current study, ginger sequentially extracted with different solvents-namely, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70% methanol-water and water-were screened to determine the variations in phenolic-linked active constituents. The potential of these extracts to inhibit key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and inflammation was studied. Phenolic compounds-namely, gingerols and shoagols-were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl acetate extract showed higher activity compared with other extracts. These studies indicate that ginger has very good potential for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition relevant for type 2 diabetes management and cyclooxygenase inhibition for inflammation.

  13. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects...

  14. Effect of ginger and cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female athletes

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    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with the placebo group.

  15. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahnama, Parvin; Montazeri, Ali; Huseini, Hassan Fallah; Kianbakht, Saeed; Naseri, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    .... The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals...

  16. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  17. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Jalil; Mardi Mamaghani, Azar; Hosseinifar, Hani; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Dadkhah, Farid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group). Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02) in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5) in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39) was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13) after three month of treatment (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009). There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men. PMID:27679829

  18. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group. Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02 in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5 in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39 was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13 after three month of treatment (p=0.02. In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men.

  19. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats

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    Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i control (given normal rat chow, ii olive oil, iii ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight, iv choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight. Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFκB and TNF-α. RESULTS: The expression of NFκB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 ± 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFκB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 ± 1.34% (p<0.05. In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 ± 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-α, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 ± 1.32% (p<0.05 when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFκB and TNF-α in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α.

  20. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  1. Dose-dependent effect in the inhibition of oxidative stress and anticlastogenic potential of ginger in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Nirmala; Panpatil, Virendra Vasant; Kaleb, Rajakumar; Varanasi, Bhaskar; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2012-12-15

    Ginger is an important medicinal herb has numerous bioactive components and is used in the management, control and/or treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to see the dose-response effect of ginger and evaluate the possible protective effects of dietary ginger on oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Inbred male Wistar/NIN rats of 8-9 weeks old were treated with 30 mg/kg of STZ. Rats were divided into different groups of control, diabetic non-treated, and diabetic treated with ginger powder at 0.5%, 1% and 5% respectively. After feeding for a month, blood and tissues were collected to see the effect of ginger on antioxidant status, DNA damage and bone marrow genotoxicity. In this study ginger exerted a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes by modulating antioxidant enzymes and glutathione and down regulating lipid and protein oxidation and inhibition in genotoxicity in a dose-response manner.

  2. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  3. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.

  4. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  5. Additive potential of ginger starch on antifungal potency of honey against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Hammoudi SM; Aissat Saad; Akila Bourabeh; Hemida Houari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the additive action of ginger starch on the antifungal activity of honey against Candida albicans (C. albicans). Methods: C. albicans was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four varieties of Algerian honey. Lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch and then added to media to determine the minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC). Results: The MIC for the four varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 38% and 42% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop was noticed with each variety. MAIC of the four varieties ranged between 32% honey (v/v) with 4% starch and 36% honey (v/v) with 2% starch. Conclusions: The use of ginger starch allows honey benefit and will constitute an alternative way against the resistance to antifungal agents.

  6. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies on low-temperature adsorption drying of fresh ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Wei; Ding, Jing; Zhao, Yi

    2006-03-01

    The working principle of low-temperature adsorption drying and the advantages of its application for biological materials drying were introduced in this paper. By using fresh ginger as the drying material, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on its drying characteristics were examined. The results show that the drying rate increases with the temperature increasing or the humidity decreasing. The drying time to the equilibrium is almost the same under different humidity conditions, but low equilibrium moisture content can be acquired under low humidity. The shrinkage characteristics of fresh ginger were also studied. The change of its surface appearance during the drying process was characterized by the new Charged Coupled Device (CCD) and the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) technique. A mathematical model of drying dynamics was set up according to the experiments.

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Low-Temperature Adsorption Drying of Fresh Ginger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxi YANG; Wei XU; Jing DING; Yi ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    The working principle of low-temperature adsorption drying and the advantages of its application for biological materials drying were introduced in this paper. By using fresh ginger as the drying material, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on its drying characteristics were examined. The results show that the drying rate increases with the temperature increasing or the humidity decreasing. The drying time to the equilibrium is almost the same under different humidity conditions, but low equilibrium moisture content can be acquired under low humidity. The shrinkage characteristics of fresh ginger were also studied. The change of its surface appearance during the drying process was characterized by the new Charged Coupled Device (CCD)and the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) technique. A mathematical model of drying dynamics was set up according to the experiments.

  9. Potential efficacy of ginger as a natural supplement for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amirhossein Sahebkar

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases and its prevalence is likely to reach epidemic proportions. According to the "two-stage hypothesis" proposed for the pathophysiology of NAFLD,insulin resistance, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines are among the key promoters of the disease.Here, ginger has been hypothesized to prevent NAFLD or blunt its progression via several mechanisms, such as sensitizing insulin effects, activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which induces adiponectin and down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, changing the balance between adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α in favor of adiponectin, promoting considerable antioxidant effects and antidyslipidemic properties, and reducing hepatic triglyceride content which can prevent steatosis. The aforementioned mechanisms imply that ginger possesses interesting potentials for serving as a natural supplement for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Therefore, conducting trials to explore its benefits in clinical practice is greatly recommended.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites.

  12. Dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric improves reproductive function in hypertensive male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10: normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day; normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day. The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity with concomitant increase in 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension

  13. Changes in Nutritional Metabolites of Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4% and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%. In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW, while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.

  14. Changes in nutritional metabolites of young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in response to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ashkani, Sadegh

    2014-10-16

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4%) and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%). In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin) except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW), while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW) and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW) were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.

  15. Effects of ginger and its constituents on airway smooth muscle relaxation and calcium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Siviski, Matthew E; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100-300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca(2+) responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(-)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β(2)-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma.

  16. Investigation of Solar Drying of Ginger (Zingiber officinale): Emprical Modelling, Drying Characteristics, and Quality Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Waheed Deshmukh; Mahesh N. Varma; Chang Kyoo Yoo; Wasewar, Kailas L.

    2014-01-01

    Drying is a simultaneous heat and mass transfer energy intensive operation, widely used as a food preservation technique. In view of improper postharvest methods, energy constraint, and environmental impact of conventional drying methods, solar drying could be a practical, economical, and environmentally reliable alternative. In the present paper applicability of mixed mode solar cabinet dryer was investigated for drying of commercially important and export oriented ginger. Freshly harvested ...

  17. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  18. The Effect of Turmeric , Cardamom and Ginger on in vitro Albumin Glycation

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    N. Sheikh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disease in the world that imposes a tremendous health and societal burden whether that burden is measured in terms of sickness , use of health systems resources or costs. Hyperglycemia is the most important clinical sign of diabetes leading to glycation of the various proteins in the body that leads to change in their nature , structure and biochemical activity. One of the probable methods in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is decrease or inhibition of this reaction. It seems that Turmeric , Cardamom and Ginger are useful for this purpose. The main goal of this research is to determine the effect of above agents on in vitro albumin glycation. In the presence of various concentration of these agents , albumin was glycated and evaluated using TBA method. Results showed that these food additives have inhibitory effects on albumin glycation reaction with the concentraction of 1 g/dl , 0.2 g/dl and 0.1 g/dl. Among these agents , Ginger had the most inhibitory effect (78% with the concentration of 1 g/dl. The sequence of effect is : Ginger > Cardamom > Turmeric These findings showed that these agents decrease albumin glycation reaction.

  19. Beneficial effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazaq, Nafiu Bidemi; Cho, Maung Maung; Win, Ni Ni; Zaman, Rahela; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2012-10-01

    Zingiber officinale (ZO), commonly known as ginger, has been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Several studies have reported the hypoglycaemic properties of ginger in animal models. The present study evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect of its aqueous extract administered orally (daily) in three different doses (100, 300, 500 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 d to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A dose-dependent antihyperglycaemic effect revealed a decrease of plasma glucose levels by 38 and 68 % on the 15th and 30th day, respectively, after the rats were given 500 mg/kg. The 500 mg/kg ZO significantly (Pdiabetic rats v. control rats, although the decrease in liver weight (% body weight) was not statistically significant. Kidney glycogen content increased significantly (Pdiabetic controls v. normal controls. ZO (500 mg/kg) also significantly decreased kidney glycogen (Pdiabetic rats when compared to diabetic controls. Activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in diabetic controls were decreased by 94, 53 and 61 %, respectively, when compared to normal controls; and ZO significantly increased (Pdiabetic rats. Therefore, the present study showed that ginger is a potential phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes through its effects on the activities of glycolytic enzymes.

  20. Ginger and cinnamon: can this household remedy treat giardiasis? Parasitological and histopathological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoal infections in human especially children. Metronidazol (MTZ is the drug of choice for treatment of giardiasis; its chemical composition possesses major threats and is becoming less sensitive. This study aimed to search for natural extracts alternative to MTZ.In-vivo effects of dichloromethane extracts of ginger and cinnamon in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day separately were studied on 30 experimentally infected albino rats divided into 6 groups (5 rats each. Plant extracts were started on the 6th day post infection for 7 successive days. The study was evaluated by fecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts, histopathology, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examinations of the small intestinal mucosa.Ginger and cinnamon caused reduction of fecal cyst and trophozoites counts. Histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM after exposure to each extract revealed evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damage produced by G. lamblia infection and direct structural injury to the trophozoites. However, these results were more obvious after exposure to cinnamon extracts.We confirmed the potential therapeutic effects of ginger and cinnamon extracts on G. lamblia infection in albino rats as a promising alternative therapy to the commonly used antigiardial drugs.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF COATING MATERIAL DIFFERENCE AGAINST ENCAPSULATION EFFICIENCY OF RED GINGER OLEORESIN

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    Jayanudin Jayanudin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different coating materials on the efficiency of red ginger oleoresin encapsulation and characterization of microcapsule surface. The encapsulation process begins by dissolving chitosan with 1 % (v/v acetic acid and dissolving sodium alginate using aquadest to be used as a coating material. Red ginger oleoresin alginate included in the solution was stirred. The mixture entered into the chitosan solution and added tween 80 was stirred using a homogenizer to emulsify. The emulsion that forms included in the spray dryer to be converted into a powder of microcapsules, and then analyzes the encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology of microcapsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Differences in the coating material used were chitosan, mixture of chitosan-alginate and mixture of chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP. Weight ratio of red ginger oleoresin and the coating material were 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3. The research results obtained were the highest encapsulation efficiency obtained from the coating material of the chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP at a ratio of 1: 3, namely by 85 %.

  2. Effects of ginger extract on smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen

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    Amin Mamaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulorumen hypomotility leads to the impaired physiologic functions of the digestive tract. Prokinetic action of ginger has been demonstrated in the laboratory animals and human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on contraction and motility of reticulum and rumen of ruminants. Collected samples of reticulum and rumen from eight sheep were investigated in vitro. The extract at the concentration of 0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1 had no effect on any preparations. Contraction of reticulum and rumen preparations was occurred at 10.0 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations (p < 0.05. Concentration of 1000 mg L-1 caused a relaxation in preparations contracted with 10.0 and 100 mg L-1. Likewise, the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited ACh-induced contraction in both tissues. Six sheep were involved in electromyographic study. Administration of 40 mg kg-1 of the extract increased the overall frequency of contractions of the reticulum and rumen at the subsequent three days with the prominent increase at the second day (p < 0.05. Results of in vitro study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger contained spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. The results in vivo study represented evidences that the extract may have stimulant effect on reticulorumen motility in 40 mg kg-1 concentration.

  3. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t-test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching (P > 0.05), burning (P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion (P cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  4. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  5. The GINGER project and status of the GINGERino prototype at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, A.; Belfi, J.; Bosi, F.; Di Virgilio, A.; Beverini, N.; Carelli, G.; Maccioni, E.; Santagata, R.; Simonelli, A.; Beghi, A.; Cuccato, D.; Donazzan, A.; Naletto, G.

    2016-05-01

    GINGER (Gyroscopes IN GEneral Relativity) is a proposal for measuring in a ground-based laboratory the Lense-Thirring effect, known also as inertial frame dragging, that is predicted by General Relativity, and is induced by the rotation of a massive source. GINGER will consist in an array of at least three square ring lasers, mutually orthogonal, with about 6-10 m side, and located in a deep underground site, possibly the INFN - National Laboratories of Gran Sasso. The tri-axial design will provide a complete estimation of the laboratory frame angular velocity, to be compared with the Earths rotation estimate provided by IERS with respect the fixed stars frame. Large-size ring lasers have already reached a very high sensitivity, allowing for relevant geodetic measurements. The accuracy required for Lense-Thirring effect measurement is higher than 10-14 rad/s and therefore Earth angular velocity must be measured within one part in 10-9. A 3.6 m side, square ring laser, called GINGERino, has been recently installed inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratories in order to qualify the site for a future installation of GINGER. We discuss the current status of the experimental work, and in particular of the GINGERino prototype.

  6. Experimental Study on Ginger Hot Air Drying%生姜热风干燥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 赵士杰; 冉雪

    2014-01-01

    First, the temperature of hot air , speed of hot air and thickness of slice are elected as the ginger dryer ’ s in-fluencing factors in this experiment to carry the ginger dryer and dynamic experiment .According to test, the curve of drying characteristics and drying rate of ginger hot air dryer are obtained .After the ginger hot air dryer test , the ginger rehydration test further obtained the relationships between the rehydration characteristics and drying conditions of ginger in different drying conditions .The hot air temperature is higher , hot air speeds greater , slice thickness as small as ginger dry faster , higher drying efficiency , but rehydration of dried increase decrease with increasing temperature and wind speed .%通过选取热风温度、热风速度和切片厚度作为生姜干燥的影响因素进行生姜干燥动力学试验,得到了生姜热风干燥的干燥特性曲线和干燥速率曲线。热风干燥后对干品进行复水试验,从而进一步得出了不同干燥条件下的生姜干品复水特性与干燥条件的关系:热风温度越高,热风速度越大,切片厚度越小,生姜干燥速度越快,干燥效率也越高;但干品的复水特性随温度的升高和风速的增大反而降低。

  7. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

  8. 提取陕西生姜姜油的工艺条件研究%Study on the extraction process conditions of ginger oil from fresh ginger grown in shaanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄四平

    2013-01-01

    Wet and fresh ginger grown in Shaanxi was extracted ginger oil by Soxhelt method which used petroleum ether as solvent. Influence of the material agent ratio, extraction temperature and time on ginger oil yield were investigated. All the ginger oil was analyzed of chemical component by GC-MS. The results showed that the optimum time for extraction was 3 h, the extraction temperature was 90℃, and the mate-rials ratio ( ginger : petroleum ether) was 1 : 6 ( g : mL) . The oil extraction rate under the most favorable conditions was 10.9% ,the main ingredient is Zingiberene,curcumene and nerolidol.%以陕西本地种植的生姜为原料,以石油醚为溶剂,采用索氏提取法提取姜油,考察了料剂比、提取温度及时间对姜油产率的影响,通过GC-MS进行成分分析.结果表明,最佳提取时间为3h,提取温度为90℃,料剂比(生姜∶石油醚)为l∶6(g∶mL).在此条件下,提取率为10.9%,姜油中主要成分为姜烯、姜黄烯、橙花叔醇.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roopal V Patel; Vidhi T Thaker; VK Patel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effects of ginger and honey on micro-organisms on carious teeth by employing antibiotic sensitivity test. Methods: Two hundred and fifty (250) extracted, carious teeth were aseptically collected into sterile peptone water. Bacterial species were isolated from the peptone water broth, characterized and identified according to standard methods described in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Aqueous ginger extract and honey were employed for sensitivity test. Suspensions of the bacterial isolates were made in sterile normal saline and adjusted to the 0.5 McFarland’s standard. Each Mueller Hinton (MH) agar plate was uniformly seeded by means of sterile swab dipped in the suspension and streaked on the agar plate surface, and the plates left on the bench for excess fluid to be absorbed. Approximately 100μL of the extracts were dropped into each well which filled them respectively to fullness. The setup was allowed to stabilize for 3 h before being incubated at 37 ℃ for 24 h. The mean zones of inhibition were thereafter measured in mm, for all the individual isolates. Results: Streptococcusmutans (88.0%) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) (39.0%) were most prevalent as compared with other isolates. The diameter of the zone of inhibition ranged from (18.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 1.0) mm for ginger and (20.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 0.7) mm for honey, as compared with (18.0 ± 0.7) mm to (23.0 ± 0.5) mm for gentamycin, at the various concentrations used. Results indicate a considerable antibacterial activity of ginger and honey. The combined extracts were most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (30.0.0 ± 1.5) mm but least effective against L. acidophilus (21.0 ± 0.7) mm. Conclusions: For the prevention of the emergence of resistant microorganisms, use of combination of herbal preparations is more useful.Considering in vitro data obtained in this study, there is a significant synergistic effect of antimicrobial

  10. Quality analysis of processing products of dried ginger%干姜炮制品的质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维皓; 王智民; 高慧敏; 洪玉梅

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish the quality standards of roasted ginger and charry ginger prepared from dried ginger. Method:The basic quality information of roasted ginger and charry ginger investigated by analysis of marketed samples. Ten batches of two roasted ginger and charry ginger were prepared in medium-scale from four main growth places by the processed criterion. The quality information includes contents of ash,acid-insoluble ash,water-soluble extract and 6-gingerol. The content of 6-gingerol were determined by HPLC method. Result:The contents of total ash,acid-insoluble ash and water-soluble extract in processed ginger from medium-scale production were 6.3%-7.0%,0.3%-0.7% and 22.11% -41.61% ,and that in charry ginger were 5.0%-6.0%,0.4-0.6 % and 20.94%-44.92%, respectively. The contents of 6-gingerol in roasted ginger from medium-scale production and market samples were 1.05-5.34 mg·g~(-1) and 1.01-4.81 mg·g~(-1), and those indexes in charry ginger were 0.43-3.81 mg·g~(-1) and 0.44-3.07 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Total ash, acid-insoluble ash and water-soluble extract of the two ginger processed products had no obvious difference in batch-to-batch, but the contents of 6-gingerol were closely related to their growth places. Conclusion: The above data provide evidences for production and quality control of ginger processed products.%目的:对干姜炮制品进行质量研究.方法:通过对市售炮姜、姜炭产品的分析,了解产品的质量;参照饮片炮制规范,对4个主产地干姜各制备10个批次的炮姜、姜炭样品;通过对其灰分、酸不溶性灰分、水溶性浸出物、6-姜辣素含量测定,研究其工艺和质量的关系.结果:10批中试炮姜的总灰分6.3%~7.0%、酸不溶性灰分0.3%~0.7%、水溶性浸出物22.11%~41.61%、6-姜辣素在1.05~5.34 mg·g~(-1);10批市售品的6-姜辣素在1.01~4.81 mg·g~(-1).10批中试姜炭的总灰分5.0%~6.0%、酸不溶性灰分0.4%~0.6%、水溶性浸出物20.94%

  11. Nephro-protective effects of a ginger extract on cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic complications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Shanmugam Kondeti; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Lee, Li-Chen; Cheng, I-Shiung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Kesireddy, Sathyavelu Reddy

    2011-04-30

    Diabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and disturbed homeostasis of metabolic enzymes in whole-body. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger administration on altered blood glucose levels, intra- and extra-mitochondrial enzymes and tissue injuries in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar strain rats (n = 30) were equally divided into 5 groups: normal control (NC), ginger treated (Gt, 200 mg/kg b.w. orally/30 days), diabetic control (DC, 50 mg/kg b.w.), diabetic plus ginger treated (D + Gt) and diabetic plus glibenclamide treated (D + Gli) groups. We found highly elevated blood glucose levels in the diabetic group, and the glucose levels were significantly (P ginger administration. Activities of intra- and extra-mitochondrial enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were significantly (P diabetic rats, while this was significantly reversed by 30 days of ginger treatment. We also observed consistent renal tissue damages in the diabetic rats; however, these injuries recovered in the ginger-treated diabetic rats as shown in histopathological studies. In this study, we demonstrated that an ethanolic extract of ginger could lower the blood glucose levels as well as improve activities of intra- and extra-mitochondrial enzymes in diabetic rats. Our results suggest that ginger extracts could be used as a nephro-protective supplement particularly to reverse diabetic-induced complications.

  12. A Double Blind Comparative Trial of Powdered Ginger Root, Hyosine Hydrobromide, and Cinnarizine in the Prophylaxis of Motion Sickness Induced by Cross Coupled Stimulation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A double blind laboratory trial was conducted to study the relative effectiveness of powdered ginger root (1G), hyosine (0.6 mg), cinnarizine (15 mg...report that powdered root ginger is of value in the prophylaxis of motion sickness. Significant differences in the results of performance tests were

  13. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Sampling and analytical variability associated with determination of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A in capsular ginger powder sold as a dietary supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety of botanicals is of primary concern to the consumers of medicinal plants and dietary supplements. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration generally recognize ginger as safe. Ginger roots could be contaminated with mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by molds during productio...

  15. Determination of Content of Polysaccharide in Fresh Ginger and Its Processed Prodncts%生姜及其炮制品多糖含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素霞; 毛靖

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定生姜及其炮制品多糖的含量.方法:采用水提醇沉法提取生姜及其炮制品多糖,苯酚-硫酸法测定含量.结果:生姜及其炮制品多糖含量的顺序为:干姜>炮姜>姜炭>生姜.结论:炮制对生姜及其炮制品的多糖含量有显著性影响.%Objective:To determine the content of polysaccharide in fresh ginger and its processed products. Method;To extract polysac-charides from fresh ginger and its processed products by means of water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide. Results: The descending order of polysaccharide content in fresh ginger and its processed products was: dried ginger > processed ginger > ginger carbon > fresh ginger. Conclusion: The processing methods used in fresh ginger and its processed products have significant impact on the content of polysaccharide.

  16. Assay of 6-gingerol in CO2 supercritical fluid extracts of ginger and evaluation of its sustained release from a transdermal delivery system across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-07-01

    Ginger has been widely used as healthy food condiment as well as traditional Chinese medicine since antiquity. Multiple potentials of ginger for treatment of various ailments have been revealed. However, the biological half-life of 6-gingerol (a principal pungent ingredient of ginger) is only 7.23 minutes while taken orally. Delivery of ginger compositions by routes other than oral have scarcely been reported. Therefore, we studied a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of ginger to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism, avoid gastrointestinal degradation and achieve long persistent release of effective compositions. After establishment of a HPLC analysis method of 6-gingerol, assays of 6-gingerol were performed to compare two kinds of ginger extracts. Then, the characteristics of transdermal delivery of 6-gingerol in TDDS were exhibited. The results showed that the contents of 6-gingerol in two kinds of ginger extracts were significantly different. The maximal delivery percentage of 6-gingerol across rat skin at 20 h was more than 40% in different TDDS formulations. TDDS may provide long-lasting delivery of ginger compounds.

  17. Comparison of the effect of ginger and zinc sulfate on primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Alavinia, Mohammad; Asili, Javad

    2014-12-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is common among young women and results in their incapacitation; it can be accompanied by various symptoms that can disrupt their lives. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effect of ginger, zinc sulfate, and placebo on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in young women. One hundred and fifty high school students were recruited. The participants were divided into three groups. The first group received ginger capsules, the second group received zinc sulfate capsules, and the third group received placebo capsules. All participants took the medications for four days, from the day before the commencement of menstruation to the third day of their menstrual bleeding. The severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed every 24 hours by the pain visual analog scale. The severity of pain was significantly different between, before, and after the intervention in both the ginger and the zinc sulfate groups (p ginger and zinc sulfate reported more alleviation of pain during the intervention (p Ginger and zinc sulfate had similar positive effects on the improvement of primary dysmenorrheal pain in young women.

  18. A Metabonomic Study of the Effect of Methanol Extract of Ginger on Raji Cells Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parvizzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is currently a major international health problem. The development of resistance to chemotherapy has resulted in the search for herbal drugs. Ginger is a medicinal plant with several clinical applications. Metabolomics is a simultaneous detection of all the metabolites by use of 1HNMR or mass spectroscopy and interpretation by modeling software. The purpose of this study was to detect the altered metabolites of Raji cells in the presence of ginger extract in vitro. Cells were cultured in the presence and absence of methanolic ginger extract in RPMI medium. IC50 determined by MTT and lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts were prepared from control and treated groups which were analyzed by 1HNMR. The IC50 was 1000 μg/mL. Modeling of spectra was carried out on the two groups using OSC-PLS with MATLAB software and the main metabolites detected. Further analysis was carried out using MetaboAnalyst database. The main metabolic pathways affected by the ginger extract were detected. Ginger extract was seen to effect the protein biosynthesis, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism and had a strong cytotoxic effect on Raji cells in vitro.

  19. The postulated mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah Khalil, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    There are many available drugs for treating gastric ulcer, but they have various side effects. Ginger is a folk, herbal medicine, which is used for treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. This study investigates the possible mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 animal per each group) and orally received the followings once daily for 5 days: Group I: 3 ml of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; Group II: ginger powder (200 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose; Group III: aspirin (400 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water. Group IV: ginger and 30 minutes later, received aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose, in similar doses as received in groups II and III. On day 6, rats were sacrificed. The animals were anesthetized and the stomach was removed for the macroscopic, histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin and Periodic Acid Shiff) and immunohistochemical investigations (Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70). Aspirin induced a significant increase of the macroscopic ulcer score, shed and disrupted epithelium, mucosal hemorrhage, submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration, loss of the mucus of the mucosal surface significantly increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Ginger ameliorated the histological changes by reducing Bax and iNOS and increasing HSP70 expressions.

  20. 无糖生姜口香糖的研制%Development of sugar-free ginger gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭平; 唐群凤

    2011-01-01

    以生姜为原料,利用超临界CO萃取生姜油,与口香糖用食品胶基、木糖醇、麦芽糖醇等混合制成无糖生姜口香糖.结果表明,最佳配方为:胶基30 g,生姜油2 g,混合糖醇60 g(木糖醇52.5 g、麦芽糖醇7.5 g),所得产品姜味浓郁,口感良好.%Taking ginger as the raw material, and the ginger oil which extracted by supercritical fluid CO2, mixed with gum base, xylitol,maltitol etc.to make sugar free ginger gum.The result, from the single and orthogonal experiments, showed that the optimal formula were as follows: Gum base 30 g, ginger oil 2 g, mixing sugar alcohol 60 (xylitol 52.5 g, maltitol 7.5 g).The gum was full of ginger aroma and good taste.

  1. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  2. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwilai, Kwanjit; Konmun, Jitprapa; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Subongkot, Suphat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo. Patients and methods Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day) or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH/GSSG), lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO2−/NO3−, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2−/NO3− levels were significantly decreased (P ginger extract started 3 days prior to chemotherapy has been shown to significantly elevate antioxidant activity and reduce oxidative marker levels in patients who received moderate-to-high emetogenic potential chemotherapy compared to placebo. PMID:28203106

  3. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  4. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF GINGER-JUICE (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE ON CNS (LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY PARAMETERS IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ginger-juice (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE on CNS parameters in rat Methods: (A Albino rats (n=6-12 were administered G.J at two doses (2ml & 4 ml/rat, p.o as single administration and chronic treatment over period of 30 days. Following this assessment was done. Effect of treatment with G.J acutely and chronically (30 days administered, was assessed. Parameters used during assessment were locomotor activity. Results: The experiments indicate that ginger-juice-treatment has not produced any effect on any parameter of the loco motor activity. Conclusion: Ginger-juice acute and chronic administered did not affect loco motor activity.

  5. Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2: the effect of the SFE pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Moreschi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrolysis of fresh and dried turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and ginger (Zingiber officinale R. in the presence of subcritical water + CO2 was studied. The hydrolysis of ginger and turmeric bagasses from supercritical fluid extraction was also studied. The reactions were done using subcritical water and CO2 at 150 bar, 200 °C and reaction time of 11 minutes; the degree of reaction was monitored through the amount of starch hydrolyzed. Process yields were calculated using the amount of reducing and total sugars formed. The effects of supercritical fluid extraction in the starchy structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Higher degree of hydrolysis (97- 98 % were obtained for fresh materials and the highest total sugar yield (74% was established for ginger bagasse. The supercritical fluid extraction did not significantly modify the degree of hydrolysis in the tested conditions.

  6. Chemical characterisation and allelopathic potential of essential oils from leaves and rhizomes of white ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEssential oils have the potential to be used as bioherbicides, and possess the advantage of their biodegradability, high structural diversity and reduced natural resistance to weeds. The essential oils of the leaves and rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium, an exotic invasive plant adapted to different regions of Brazil, were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterised chemically by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allelopathic activity was determined using methodologies that evaluate the effects of volatility and direct contact on seed germination and seedling vigour in the lettuce. The major constituents of the essential oil from the leaves were β-pinene (46.9%, α-pinene (19.2% and β-caryophyllene (13.2% and from the rhizomes, β-pinene (41.5%, 1.8-cineole (23.6% and α-pinene (13.1%. When analysing the volatile effects of the essential oils, it was seen that their concentration did not affect seedling first germination count or total germination. The essential oil from the rhizomes was more effective than the essential oil from the leaves in reducing seedling response for SGI, dry weight, and length of the roots and shoots. When evaluating the effect of direct contact with the essential oils, it was seen that both oils reduced the response of all the variables under evaluation, and that in addition, the oil from the rhizomes caused greater reductions than that from the leaves, again for all variables. These results can be attributed to the higher levels of monoterpenes present in the essential oil from the rhizomes, mainly the presence of 1.8-cineole.

  7. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs.

  8. Impact of the 5-HT3 receptor channel system for insulin secretion and interaction of ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, Katharina; Feistel, Björn; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2009-12-10

    The relevance of serotonin and in particular that of 5-HT(3) receptors is unequivocal with respect to emetic/antiemetic effects, but it is controversial with respect to antidiabetic effects. The effects of tropisetron (5-HT(3) receptor antagonist) and various ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts (known to interact with the 5-HT(3) receptor channel system) were investigated. Serotonin (32 to 500 microM) inhibits insulin release (RIA) from INS-1 cells which is reversed by tropisetron (10 to 100 microM) and two different ginger extracts (spissum and an oily extract). Their effects are obvious even in the absence of serotonin but are more pronounced in its presence (doubled to tripled). Specific 5-HT(3) binding sites are present in INS-1 cells using 0.4 nM [3H] GR65630 in displacement experiments. The in vitro data with respect to ginger are corroborated by in vivo data on glucose-loaded rats showing that blood glucose (Glucoquant) is decreased by approximately 35% and plasma insulin (RIA) is increased by approximately 10%. Both the spissum extract and the oily ginger extract are effective in two other models: they inhibit [(14)C] guanidinium uptake into N1E-115 cells (model of 5-HT(3) effects) and relax rat ileum both directly and as a serotonin antagonistic effect. Other receptors addressed by ginger are 5-HT(2) receptors as demonstrated by using methysergide and ketanserin. They weakly antagonize the serotonin effect as well. It may be concluded that serotonin and in particular the 5-HT(3) receptor channel system are involved in modulating insulin release and that tropisetron and various ginger extracts can be used to improve a diabetic situation.

  9. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, E M; Folmer, V N; Bliddal, H; Altman, R D; Juhl, C; Tarp, S; Zhang, W; Christensen, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral ginger for symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by carrying out a systematic literature search followed by meta-analyses on selected studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral ginger treatment with placebo in OA patients aged >18 years. Outcomes were reduction in pain and reduction in disability. Harm was assessed as withdrawals due to adverse events. The efficacy effect size was estimated using Hedges' standardized mean difference (SMD), and safety by risk ratio (RR). Standard random-effects meta-analysis was used, and inconsistency was evaluated by the I-squared index (I(2)). Out of 122 retrieved references, 117 were discarded, leaving five trials (593 patients) for meta-analyses. The majority reported relevant randomization procedures and blinding, but an inadequate intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Following ginger intake, a statistically significant pain reduction SMD = -0.30 ([95% CI: [(-0.50, -0.09)], P = 0.005]) with a low degree of inconsistency among trials (I(2) = 27%), and a statistically significant reduction in disability SMD = -0.22 ([95% CI: ([-0.39, -0.04)]; P = 0.01; I(2) = 0%]) were seen, both in favor of ginger. Patients given ginger were more than twice as likely to discontinue treatment compared to placebo ([RR = 2.33; 95% CI: (1.04, 5.22)]; P = 0.04; I(2) = 0%]). Ginger was modestly efficacious and reasonably safe for treatment of OA. We judged the evidence to be of moderate quality, based on the small number of participants and inadequate ITT populations. Prospero: CRD42011001777.

  10. Protective effect of ginger oil on aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushtar M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed in aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Wistar rats, in which ability of ginger oil to provide gastric protection was studied at two different doses, 0.5 and 1 g/kg po. Gastric protection was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index, serum λ- GTP levels, total acidity of gastric juice and gastric wall mucus thickness. The results obtained in the present study indicated that ginger oil has a protective action against gastric ulcers induced by aspirin plus pylorus ligation in Wistar rats.

  11. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar [Kandaswami Kandar' s College, Namakkal (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar [PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study on lipophilicity and wound healing activity of ginger compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Afroz Bakht; Mohammed F Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Aftab Alam; Prawez Alam; Tariq Mohammed Aljarba

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the chromatographic and computational method to calculate lipophilicity of selected ginger compounds and to observe the effects of log P on wound healing. Methods:Mixtures of acetonitrile and water with acetonitrile content between 95% and 50% v/v in 5% increments were kept separately in 10 different chromatographic chambers, saturated with solvent for 2 h. Spots were observed under UV light at λ=254 nm p-anisaldehyde used as a spraying reagent. Theoretical calculation was done using the Alogps 2.1 online program at www. vcclab.org/lab/alogps. For percentage wound contraction, five groups of animal (mice) (25-30 g) of either sex were selected. Wound were created on dorsal surface of animals using toothed forceps, scalpel and pointed scissors. The wound areas were calculated using vernier caliper. After making wound mice were orally administered 35 mg/kg 6-shogoal, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol respectively. Group E as the control group received tap water. Results:The lipophilicity values determined in thin layer chromatography were correlated with the theoretically calculated various log P by linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between log P values calculated by software program and the experimental reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography data. Order of wound healing property of ginger compounds is directly dependent on lipophilicity i.e. more lipophilic compound has highest activity. Conclusions:Experimentally determined lipophilicity (RMO) values were correlated with log Pdetermined by software's and found satisfactory. Lipophilicity (RMO) is a useful parameter for the determination and prediction of biological activity of ginger compounds.

  13. Effects of Ginger (Zingiberaceae on Diabetes Mellitus Induced Changes in the Small Intestine of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimipour

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and causes gastrointestinal complications .The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on the small intestine of diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in the anatomy department of Uremia Medical University in 1385. 24 adult male rats, weighing 250±20 gr were randomly selected and divided into 3 following groups: control, diabetic (induced by 60mg/kg STZ and treatment groups. The treatment group was given ginger powder (5% of their consumed food weight during day/night period. After 8 weeks, all rats were anaesthetized and their small intestines were removed and measured for their weight and length. For histological assessment, samples from each part of duodenum, jejunum and ileum was fixed in 10% formalin and slides with hematoxilin & eosin staining were prepared. Villi length, crypt depth and muscular layer thickness were assessed by graticule eye piece of light microscope. Statistical analysis, one- way analysis of variance and Tukey’s SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that mean of intestinal length and weight, villi length and muscular layer thickness in all three parts and crypts depth in duodenum and jejunum in diabetic group increased significantly in comparison with control and treatment groups, but there was no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that ginger as an antioxidant, through decreasing oxidative stress, can prevent pathologic alterations induced by diabetes in small intestine.

  14. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  15. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  16. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, J.T.; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H

    2002-03-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13 deg. C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes.

  17. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  18. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  19. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  20. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, João Tessarioli; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2002-03-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13°C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes.

  1. The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein a-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (22 in ginger group and 19 in control group), received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in ginger group in comparison to baseline, as well as control group, while it increased the level of apolipoprotein A-I (pginger powder supplement can improves fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may have a role in alleviating the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  2. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Turgeon, Danielle K; Wright, Benjamin D; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M

    2013-09-01

    Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes that control prostaglandin E2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting. After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8±41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9±52%; P=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In participants who were at normal risk for CRC, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in participants at increased risk for CRC but not in those at normal risk for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal-risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention, is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue levels of prostaglandin.

  3. Ginger and Zingerone Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice, Assessed by Nuclear Factor-κB Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Cheng, Hui-Man; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-08

    Ginger is a commonly used spice in cooking. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of ginger and its component zingerone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bioluminescent imaging. Ginger and zingerone significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities in cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal inhibition (84.5% ± 3.5% and 96.2% ± 0.6%) was observed at 100 μg/mL ginger and zingerone, respectively. Moreover, dietary ginger and zingerone significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in sera by 62.9% ± 18.2% and 81.3% ± 6.2%, respectively, and NF-κB bioluminescent signals in whole body by 26.9% ± 14.3% and 38.5% ± 6.2%, respectively. In addition, ginger and zingerone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luminescent intensities in most organs, and the maximal inhibition by ginger and zingerone was observed in small intestine. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that ginger and zingerone decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-, CD11b-, and p65-positive areas in jejunum. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ginger and zingerone were likely to be broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents in most organs that suppressed the activation of NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice.

  4. Embryogenic Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Hedychium coronarium via Somatic Embryogenesis%白姜花胚性愈伤组织的诱导与植株再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖望; 涂红艳; 张爱玲

    2016-01-01

    将白姜花(Hedychium coronarium)未成熟花丝接种在MS+4mg· L-l 2,4-D+4mg·L-1NAA+lmg.L-1 6-BA的培养基上,经过180 d的培养,诱导出3种愈伤组织:Ⅰ,浅黄色松散易碎;Ⅱ,白色疏松半透明水渍状;Ⅲ,黄色致密颗粒状.对愈伤组织继代培养基中的2,4-D、NAA和6-BA浓度进行优化,结果表明培养基中含有1 mg·L-1 2,4-D、0.25 mg· L-1 NAA、0.25 mg·L-l 6-BA时可获得胚性状态良好的愈伤组织.胚性愈伤组织在MS无机盐+0.25 mg· L-1 NAA+ 0.5 mg·L-1 TDZ+维生素B5+ 100 mg.L-1谷氨酰胺+ 230 mg·L-1脯氨酸+ 100 mg·L-1麦芽提取物+ 45 g·L-1蔗糖的体胚诱导培养基中培养20d后,转移到MS基本培养基上培养30d,1 g胚性愈伤组织可获得50 ~ 60个体胚.成熟体胚在MS+ 0.2mg· L-1 IAA+0.5 mg· L-l 6-BA的萌发培养基上培养20 d时,体胚萌发率为85%.萌发的体胚转移到1/2MS+1 g· L-1活性炭的成苗培养基中可发育成正常植株,植株室外栽培成活率达90%.对100株再生植株的染色体数进行分析,发现3株三倍体(2n=3x=51)、6株四倍体(2n=4x=68)和2株六倍体(2n=6x=102).

  5. A SynoviocyteModel for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Response to Ibuprofen, Betamethasone, and Ginger Extract—A Cross-Sectional In Vitro Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Søren; Bartels, Else Marie; Stockmarr, Anders

    2012-01-01

    synovial membrane or joint fluid. Cells were cultivated and exposed to no or TNF-α stimulation without, or in the presence of, betamethasone, ibuprofen, or a standardized ginger extract. Concentrations of a panel of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines were mapped for each culture and condition. Our......, and IL-8 release in all groups. Ibuprofen showed no effect on cytokine production, while ginger extract was similar to betamethasone. Ginger extract was as effective an anti-inflammatory agent as betamethasone in this in vitro model. Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes from OA and RA subjects promise...

  6. Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhong-Bin; Mu, Jingyao; Zhang, Lifeng; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Feng, Wenke; McClain, Craig J; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Daily exposure of humans to nanoparticles from edible plants is inevitable, but significant advances are required to determine whether edible plant nanoparticles are beneficial to our health. Additionally, strategies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying any beneficial effects. Here, as a proof of concept, we used a mouse model to show that orally given nanoparticles isolated from ginger extracts using a sucrose gradient centrifugation procedure resulted in protecting mice against alcohol-induced liver damage. The ginger-derived nanoparticle (GDN)-mediated activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) led to the expression of a group of liver detoxifying/antioxidant genes and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, which partially contributes to the liver protection. Using lipid knock-out and knock-in strategies, we further identified that shogaol in the GDN plays a role in the induction of Nrf2 in a TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. Given the critical role of Nrf2 in modulating numerous cellular processes, including hepatocyte homeostasis, drug metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle progression of liver, this finding not only opens up a new avenue for investigating GDN as a means to protect against the development of liver-related diseases such as alcohol-induced liver damage but sheds light on studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies communication in the liver via edible plant-derived nanoparticles.

  7. Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily exposure of humans to nanoparticles from edible plants is inevitable, but significant advances are required to determine whether edible plant nanoparticles are beneficial to our health. Additionally, strategies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying any beneficial effects. Here, as a proof of concept, we used a mouse model to show that orally given nanoparticles isolated from ginger extracts using a sucrose gradient centrifugation procedure resulted in protecting mice against alcohol-induced liver damage. The ginger-derived nanoparticle (GDN–mediated activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 led to the expression of a group of liver detoxifying/antioxidant genes and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, which partially contributes to the liver protection. Using lipid knock-out and knock-in strategies, we further identified that shogaol in the GDN plays a role in the induction of Nrf2 in a TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. Given the critical role of Nrf2 in modulating numerous cellular processes, including hepatocyte homeostasis, drug metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle progression of liver, this finding not only opens up a new avenue for investigating GDN as a means to protect against the development of liver-related diseases such as alcohol-induced liver damage but sheds light on studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies communication in the liver via edible plant–derived nanoparticles.

  8. Multiresponse Optimization and Prediction of Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Ginger Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade

    2016-01-01

    The influence of extraction temperature, powder concentration, and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of aqueous ginger extract was investigated. The possibility of estimating the antioxidant properties of the extract from its absorbance and colour properties was also investigated. Results indicated that powder concentration was the most significant factor to consider in optimizing antioxidant extraction. However, temperature and time still influenced the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity while extraction temperature influenced the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the extract. Using the total phenol content, total flavonoid content, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract, the multiresponse optimization condition for extraction of antioxidant based on the experimental range studied is 96°C, 2.10 g/100 mL, and 90 min. The absorbance of the ginger extract at 610 nm could be exploited for rapid estimation of its total flavonoid and polyphenol with a R2 of 0.713 and 0.753, respectively. PMID:28078258

  9. Effect of slice thickness and blanching time on different quality attributes of instant ginger candy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A; Deka, Bidyut C; Jha, A K; Paul, D; Misra, L K

    2013-02-01

    Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) suffers from weight loss, shrinkage, sprouting and rotting during storage after 3-4 weeks. This spoilage may be overcome by processing fresh produce to some value added products. An attempt was made to optimize the protocol for production of instant ginger candy. The experimental parameters considered were slice thickness (5.0-25.0 mm) and blanching duration (10-30 min) followed by dipping in 40°B and 75°B sugar solutions containing 2.0% citric acid respectively, for 1 and 2 h at 95 °C and dried at 60 °C for 1 h. RSM design was considered for this experiment and final products were evaluated for their textural properties, TSS, acidity, TSS: acid ratio, taste score and overall acceptability. The optimum product qualities in terms of hardness (2.08 kg), TSS (73.4%), acidity (1.31%), TSS: acid ratio (56.3), taste score (7.98) and overall acceptability (8.07) were obtained for slice thickness of 10.9 mm and blanching time of 24.9 min.

  10. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  11. GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity), a ring lasers array to measure the Lense-Thirring effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.

    The purpose of the GINGER is to perform the first test of general relativity (not considering the gravitational redshift measurements) in a terrestrial laboratory, using light as a probe. The experiment will complement the ones in space, performed or under way, with an entirely different technique and at a far lower cost. The methodology is based on ring-lasers, which are extremely accurate rotation sensors and can not only sense purely kinematical rotations (Sagnac effect accounting for the Earth rotation, polar motion of the terrestrial axis, local rotational movements of the laboratory due to the Earth crust dynamics...), but also general relativistic contributions such as the de Sitter effect (coupling between the gravito-electric field of the earth and the kinematical rotation) and the Lense-Thirring effect (inertial frame dragging due to the angular momentum of the earth). In order to reveal the latter effects, ring-laser response must be improved to be able to measure the effective rotation vector (kinematic plus GR terms) with an accuracy of 1 part in 109 or better. This is a challenging technological aspect, which however has been accurately taken into account by designing a system of ring lasers that will be implemented in this project. A ring laser have been installed inside the underground laboratory of GranSasso, with the purpose to see if an underground location is the right choice for GINGER. The apparatus and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  12. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krival, Kate; Bates, Crystal

    2012-06-01

    Oral chemesthesis is the detection of chemicals that activate temperature and pain receptors in the oral mucosa. Presentation of orally chemesthetic input has been theorized to stimulate a faster, stronger swallow. We measured differences in peak linguapalatal swallowing pressures, pressure durations, and pressure adjustments in response to two volumes of water and carbonation (in Schweppes® Club Soda) and carbonation + gingerol (in Reed's Extra Ginger Brew) in 20 young adult women. There was a main effect of stimulus on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, F(6,74) = 6.247, p = 0.000, hp(2) = 0.536 (Reed's Extra Ginger Brew > Schweppes Club Soda > water). Rising and releasing linguapalatal pressure durations were greater for carbonation + gingerol and carbonation than for water. Our results add to the evidence that orally chemesthetic beverages influence greater neuromotor activity compared to water during the oral stage of swallowing. Our findings also suggest that there may be some benefit to the cumulative addition of chemosensory agents in a beverage. Clinically, this provides a theoretical basis for considering the use of these or chemically similar beverages as facilitating stimuli in patients who aspirate thin liquids.

  13. Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yong Qing Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil on soft tissue injury (swelling. Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation. The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury.

  14. Zingiber officinale (Ginger: A Future Outlook on Its Potential in Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes and Prediabetic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil D. Roufogalis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is reaching pandemic levels in both developing and developed countries and requires safe, affordable, and effective therapies. This report summarises work in our laboratory on the effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger and its components in diabetes models and provides a future outlook on the potential for their use in type 2 diabetes. A high fat diet rat model showed modulation of body weight gain and normalisation of glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances, with reduction of insulin resistance in a high fat-high carbohydrate diet model. Ginger extract inhibits enhanced NF-κB in liver of high fat-fed rats through inhibition of the IKK/IκBα/NF-κB classical pathway. The major active component (S-[6]-gingerol inhibited elevated cytokines in inflamed HuH7 cells through suppression of COX2 expression and protection against the ROS pathway. Ginger extract and gingerols enhanced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, by enhancing translocation of GLUT4 to the surface membrane and activation of AMPKα1 through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. (S-[6]-Gingerol also enhanced energy metabolism through marked increment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α gene expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Future studies will require well designed clinical trials on ginger preparations of defined chemical composition.

  15. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  16. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP concentration against the emulsion droplet size and determine the encapsulation efficiency of red ginger oleoresin. Encapsulation method was done by mixing 2% chitosan solution with 1% acetic acid, 1% sodium alginate and 8 g of red ginger oleoresin. The mixture was stirred and added sodium tripolyphosphate (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively, emulsion preparation process was done by adding tween 80 (3, 4 and 5%, respectively and then stirred using homogenizer with a speed of 22,000 rpm, emulsions formed were analyzed using nano-particle analyzer. Emulsion formed was flowed on to the spray dryer inlet temperature of 180°C to form a powder encapsulation. Powder products were analyzed for determining encapsulation efficiency and morphology of red ginger oleoresin powder using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Based on the research results, the smallest droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 481.5 nm and the largest encapsulation efficiency was as high as 70.59%.

  17. Dietary onion and ginger enhance growth, hemato-immunological responses, and disease resistance in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane S. Apines-Amar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week (September to December 2009 feeding trial was conducted to evaluate theimmunostimulatory effects of different substances administered orally through the diet in the brownmarbledgrouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Five experimental diets containing either onion, ginger, β–glucan, or vitamin C and a control diet (without immunostimulants were fed to the fish weighing about44 g for 12 weeks. Onion-fed fish showed significantly increased weight gain, hematocrit, and total Igcompared to the control group; however, leukocyte differential count and ROS production wereunaffected. Ginger-fed fish likewise significantly increased total Ig, ROS production and lysozymeactivity. However, it did not affect growth and hematocrit value. β-glucan significantly increased growthand total Ig but had no effect on the other parameters. Vitamin C significantly increased hematocrit, totalIg and ROS production but did not increase growth. Upon challenge with a bacterial pathogen Vibrioharveyi, mortality was significantly reduced in the onion, ginger and vitamin C-fed fish but not in the β–glucan-fed fish. This study demonstrated that onion and ginger could positively affect the innate immuneresponses and protect grouper against Vibrio harveyi infection.

  18. Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

  19. Influence of ginger and banana starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine phosphate tab-lets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.Odeku; M.A.Odeniyi; G.O.Ogunlowo

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The influence of two experimental starches -ginger starch obtained from Zingiber officinale and ba-nana starch from Musa sapientum -on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine tablets have been studied in comparison with the influence of official corn starch.Methods:Chloroquine tablets were for-mulated using various concentarions of the starches as binding agent.The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed in terms of crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated based on disintegration and the time of tablets.Results:The ranking for crushing strength and CSFR was corn >banana >ginger starch while the ranking was reverse for friability.The disintegration time increased with packing fraction and starch concentration in the rank order of formulations containing corn >banana >ginger starch.The CSFR/DT values increased with concentration of starch binder indicating an improved balance between binding and disintegrant properties of the starches.Sta-tistical analysis showed that there were significant (P <0.001)difference in the CSFR/DT for tablets contai-ning the various starch binders.Conclusion:The mechanical and disintegration properties of the experimental starches compared favorably with those of corn starch and ginger starch could be more useful when faster tablet disintegration is desired.

  20. Steam distillation extraction of ginger essential oil: Study of the effect of steam flow rate and time process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia ginger was usually used as a seasoning for dishes, an ingredient for beverage and a source of herbal medicines. Beside raw usage, ginger can be processed to obtain the essential oil which has many advantages such as proven to be an active antimicrobial and having an antioxidant ability. There are a lot of methods to extract essential oil from ginger, one of which is steam distillation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of variation of time process and steam flow rate in the yield on ginger essential oil steam distillation extraction process. It was found that the best operation condition was 0.35 ml/s as the steam flow rate which yields 2.43% oil. The optimum time process was predicted at 7.5 hours. The composition of the oil was varied depend on the flow rate and every flow rate has its own major component contained in the oil. Curcumene composition in the oil was increased as increased steam flow rate applied, but the composition of camphene was decreased along with the increasing steam flow rate.

  1. Protective Effect of Ginger oil on Aspirin and Pylorus Ligation-Induced Gastric Ulcer model in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khushtar, M; Kumar, V; Javed, K; Bhandari, Uma

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was performed in aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Wistar rats, in which ability of ginger oil to provide gastric protection was studied at two different doses, 0.5 and 1 g/kg po...

  2. Research on Processing of a Ginger Beverage from Residual Sugar Solution of Crystallized Ginger%姜脯废糖液开发姜味饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 张亦美仰; 朱传合

    2014-01-01

    A ginger beverage was made from the residual sugar solution of crystallized ginger as the main material, with the addition of some ingredients such as ginger additives, acidifiers and sweeteners. The process and formula concerned were studied. A single-factor sensory evaluation and an orthogonal test were conducted to determine the dilution ratio and the types and dosages of ginger additives, acidifiers and sweeteners. The results showed that solid-liquid ratio 1∶8.5, honey 37.5g/L, acidifiers 0.7g/L (citric acid∶malic acid = 1∶2), ginger flavor 0.2% and gingerols 0.19g/L gave a beverage with the best sensory quality.%以姜脯废糖液为主原料,对加入姜味添加剂、酸味剂、甜味剂等配料的姜味饮料的工艺配方进行了研究。通过单因素感官品评及正交试验确定了稀释倍数、姜味添加剂、酸味剂和甜味剂的种类与用量。实验结果表明,当料液比1∶8.5、蜂蜜37.5g/L、酸味剂0.7g/L(柠檬酸与苹果酸按1∶2复合)、姜味香精0.2%、姜辣素0.19g/L时,获得的饮料感官品质最佳。

  3. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Nauertz, Andrew; Luong, Nhungoc T; Agrawal, Shivani; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Youssef, Mohammed M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus. The antiviral assay was performed using dilutions of the extracts below the maximum nontoxic concentrations of the extracts to the host cells of FCV, Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No antiviral effect was seen when the host cells were pretreated with any of the extracts. However, pretreatment of FCV with nondiluted clove and ginger extracts inactivated 6.0 and 2.7 log of the initial titer of the virus, respectively. Also, significant dosedependent inactivation of FCV was seen when host cells were treated with clove and ginger extracts at the time of infection or postinfection at concentrations equal to or lower than the maximum nontoxic concentrations. By comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol (29.5%) and R-(-)-1,2-propanediol (10.7%) were identified as the major components of clove and ginger extracts, respectively. The antiviral effect of the pure eugenol itself was tested; it showed antiviral activity similar to that of clove extract, albeit at a lower level, which indicates that some other clove extract constituents, along with eugenol, are responsible for inactivation of FCV. These results showed that the aqueous extracts of clove and ginger hold promise for prevention of foodborne viral contamination.

  4. Gelam honey and ginger potentiate the anti cancer effect of 5-FU against HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Luqman; Alias, Ekram; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Morad, Nor Azian; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The development of chemopreventive approaches using a concoction of phytochemicals is potentially viable for combating many types of cancer including colon carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the anti-proliferative effects of ginger and Gelam honey and its efficacy in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) against a colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116. Cell viability was measured via MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay showing ginger inhibiting the growth of HCT 116 cells more potently (IC50 of 3mg/mL) in comparison to Gelam honey (IC50 of 75 mg/mL). Combined treatment of the two compounds (3mg/mL ginger+75 mg/mL Gelam honey) synergistically lowered the IC50 of Gelam honey to 22 mg/mL. Combination with 35 mg/mL Gelam honey markedly enhanced 5-FU inhibiting effects on the growth of HCT 116 cells. Subsequent analysis on the induction of cellular apoptosis suggested that individual treatment of ginger and Gelam honey produced higher apoptosis than 5-FU alone. In addition, treatment with the combination of two natural compounds increased the apoptotic rate of HCT 116 cells dose- dependently while treatment of either ginger or Gelam honey combined with 5-FU only showed modest changes. Combination index analysis showed the combination effect of both natural compounds to be synergistic in their inhibitory action against HCT 116 colon cancer cells (CI 0.96 5-FU against colorectal cancer.

  5. Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-10-01

    Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement.

  6. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture.

  7. Active components of ginger potentiate β-agonist-induced relaxation of airway smooth muscle by modulating cytoskeletal regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Wakita, Ryo; Emala, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    β-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate β-agonist-induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with β-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 μM). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C β enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C β activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate β-agonist-induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with β-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms through

  8. Which potential harms and benefits of using ginger in the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be addressed? a consensual study among pregnant women and gynecologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramzi Shawahna; Assim Taha

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to achieve consensus among women who suffered NVP and physicians often consulted by pregnant women on a core list of potential harms and benefits of using ginger to manage...

  9. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  10. Determination and Qualitative Analysis of Gingerol in Ginger Liquor%姜酒中姜辣素含量测定及品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2013-01-01

    用分光光度法测定不同姜酒中姜辣素含量,研究姜辣素含量与姜酒品质的关系,结果表明:随着姜酒度数增加,姜辣素含量增加,喝后出现反胃现象的人数增加.%The relation between content of gingerol and quality of ginger liquor is studied and the content of gingerol in different ginger liquor is determined by spectrophotometry.The results show that with the increase of degree of ginger liquor,the content of gingerol increases,the number of people who have nausea symptom increases after drinking ginger liquor.

  11. Resistance Evaluation of Fifty -Seven Ginger Varieties to Stem Rot%57份生姜品种对茎腐病的抗性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀娟; 刘振伟; 李立国; 赵济红

    2015-01-01

    The resistance of 57 ginger varieties to stem rot were evaluated by artificial disease nursery method.The results showed that the resistance varied significantly between different varieties and different growth periods of ginger.According to the disease index in early harvest time,the tested varieties could be di-vided into 4 types including moderately resistant(MR),moderately susceptible(MS),susceptible(S)and highly susceptible (HS).Among them,the MR type contained only one variety(Guangxi ginger);the MS type contained 26 varieties such as Longzhua ginger 1 from Longhui of Hunan,Jinggangshan ginger and Luzhong ginger;the S type contained 23 varieties such as Ruian ginger of Zhejiang,Fujian ginger and Guangxi ginger;and the HS type contained 7 varieties such as Taiwan ginger,Xiba ginger of Sichuan and Z102.The highly -resistant and resistant varieties were not found in this study.%采用人工病圃测定方法评价了57份生姜品种对茎腐病的抗性。结果表明,生姜不同品种及其不同生育期对茎腐病的抗性差异显著。依据生姜收获前期的病情指数,参试品种可分为中抗、中感、感病和高感等4种抗性类型。其中,中抗类型只有广西大姜1个品种,中感类型包括湖南隆回虎爪姜1、井冈山姜和鲁中大姜等26个品种,感病类型包括浙江瑞安大姜、福建大姜和广西姜等23个品种,高感类型包括台湾肥姜、四川西坝姜和 Z102等7个品种。研究没有发现高抗、抗病品种。

  12. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    SIHEGIKO KANAYA; LATIFAH KOSIM DARUSMAN; NAMPIAH SUKARNO; UTUT WIDYASTUTI; ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root,...

  13. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5–hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  14. Treatment with Ginger Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver and Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats: Modulation of the Hepatic Carbohydrate Response Element-Binding Protein-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has been demonstrated to improve lipid derangements. However, its underlying triglyceride-lowering mechanisms remain unclear. Fructose overconsumption is associated with increase in hepatic de novo lipogenesis, thereby resulting in lipid derangements. Here we found that coadministration of the alcoholic extract of ginger (50 mg/kg/day, oral gavage, once daily over 5 weeks reversed liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations and hepatic triglyceride content in rats. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was also decreased. Attenuation of the increased vacuolization and Oil Red O staining area was evident on histological examination of liver in ginger-treated rats. However, ginger treatment did not affect chow intake and body weight. Further, ginger treatment suppressed fructose-stimulated overexpression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. Consequently, hepatic expression of the ChREBP-targeted lipogenic genes responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis was also downregulated. In contrast, expression of neither peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR- alpha and its downstream genes, nor PPAR-gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c was altered. Thus the present findings suggest that in rats, amelioration of fructose-induced fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia by ginger treatment involves modulation of the hepatic ChREBP-mediated pathway.

  15. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation.

  16. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on the Body Weight, Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats Undergoing Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sharifi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is used as an anti cancer medicine in chemotherapy. This is an alkalizing medicine and causes the binding of DNA strands, breaking of DNA and control of protein synthesis and RNA. The side effects of this medicine include lack of appetite, nausea, reduction in activity of sexual lymph nodes, causing amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Ginger includes many compounds, some of which are shogaols, gingerols, pyrogallols and sesquiterpenes. Ginger has anti nauseating, anti cancer, anti oxidant effects and eliminates free radicals. This medicine is used along with cyclophosphamide to reduce its destructive side effects in the body. Methods: For 21 days, the rats were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and rendered unconscious. Their testes were removed and tissue samples were provided from their testes. Results: The results showed that cyclophosphamide alone reduces body weight, testes weight and spermatogenesis as compared to the control group. In other experimental groups that were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide, increased dosage of ginger increased the body weight, the testes weight and spermatogenesis in comparison to the other experimental groups. Conclusion: It seems that compounds present in ginger are anti tumoral and control the production of active metabolites. Therefore, if administered together with Cyclophosphamide, it can be useful and effective in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  17. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  18. Effects of 6-paradol, an unsaturated ketone from gingers, on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Jun; Kim, In Sook; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Ha, Sang Keun; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-02-20

    Paradols are unsaturated ketones produced by biotransformation of shogaols in gingers. Among them, 6-paradol has been investigated as a new drug candidate due to its anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and neuroprotective activities. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 6-paradol on the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated with human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isozymes. 6-Paradol showed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 isozymes, with IC50 values ranging from 3.8 to 21.4µM in recombinant CYP isozymes. However, the inhibition was not potentiated following pre-incubation, indicating that 6-paradol is not a mechanism-based inhibitor. These results suggest that pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions might occur with 6-paradol, which must be considered in the process of new drug development.

  19. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, DeeAnn; Belew, John

    2009-10-01

    This randomized, controlled, blinded study examined the effectiveness of an aromatherapy intervention on the reduction of children's distress in a perianesthesia setting. The sample included children with and without developmental disabilities (n = 94). Subjects in the intervention group received an aromatherapy intervention of lavender and ginger essential oils. The control group received a placebo intervention of jojoba oil. Distress was measured at two times: before induction and in the PACU, using the Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale. The mean distress level was lower for the children in the essential oil group, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = .055). Parents' responses to survey questions about satisfaction with aromatherapy did not differ between groups, although open-ended comments indicated a more positive opinion of the benefits of the intervention in the aromatherapy group.

  20. Chemoprotective properties of some pungent ingredients present in red pepper and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Lee, E; Lee, J M

    1998-06-18

    There has been a substantial body of data, supporting that dietary factors have a profound impact on prevention as well as etiology of human cancer. Capsaicin has been tested by many investigators for its effects on experimental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Data in the literature indicate that capsaicin has dual effects on carcinogenic and mutagenic processes. At present, there is no solid evidence that hot red and chili peppers or their principal pungent ingredient capsaicin are carcinogenic in humans although results of early investigations with experimental animals exhibit the moderate tumorigenicity of this compound. In contrast, recent studies reveal substantial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of capsaicin, suggesting this compound as another important dietary phytochemical with a potential chemopreventive activity. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some of them exhibit anti-tumor promotional activity in experimental carcinogenesis. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Simulation of Ginger EPR Spectra Obtained by X-Irradiation:Quantum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laachir, S.; Moussetad, M.; Adhiri, R.; Fahli, A.; Aboulfatah, M.; Mikou, M.

    2005-08-01

    The ginger sample has been exposed to X-rays at cumulative doses. The foodstuffs irradiation is used in particular to improve their hygienic qualities and increase their shelf lives. This process has been approved by various international organizations: FAO -- AIEA -- WHO. In the present work, we propose to reproduce by simulation, based on a quantum approach, of the ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) spectra. The semi-classical approach is valid for a simple system, but not for a complex system such as an atom with hyperfine structure. In this case a quantum approach, based on spin Hamiltonian, is essential to interpret the ESR spectra. The main result is that the simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained before and after irradiation.

  2. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  3. Comparison of Essential oil Composition of Three Ginger Cultivars from Sub Himalayan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh V Nampoothiri; V V Venugopalan; Beena Joy; M M Sreekumar; A Nirmala Menon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the essential oil constituents of three most popular cultivars from sub Himalayan region namely, gorubathane, shingboi and thingria. Methods: Volatile oils were isolated using Clevenger trap and characterized by analytical gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: Eighty one constituents accounting for 95.24%, 97.1%and 97.03% of the gorubathane, shingboi and thingria oils respectively, were identified. Conclusions:The major compounds of gorubathane oil were zingiberene (32.2%) and β-sequiphellandrene (10.9%). The main constituents in thingria oil were zingiberene (12.58%) and ar-curcumene (9.89%) and of shingboi oil were geranial (20.07%) and neral (9.44%). This is the first report on the essential oils composition of three Sub Himalayan ginger cultivars.

  4. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danwilai K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kwanjit Danwilai,1,2 Jitprapa Konmun,2,3 Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai,4 Suphat Subongkot,2,4,5 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, 3Department of Pharmacy, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, 5Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo.Patients and methods: Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (GSH/GSSG, lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA and NO2-/NO3-, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance.Results: A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2-/NO3- levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001. When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01, while the blood levels of

  5. 隔姜泥重灸法的临证应用%Application of intensive moxibustion with ginger paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱现民

    2013-01-01

    探讨隔姜泥“重灸”法的施术操作、应用范围和治病特色.对传统隔姜灸法进行改良,将生姜捣碎成泥敷于穴位,同时点燃2~3支艾条,进行30~60 min的长时间灸治.隔姜泥“重灸”法对内脏失调、经带产后、增生疖肿、骨节肌肉病等多种病证的治疗效果明显优于传统隔姜灸法.表明隔姜泥重灸通行气血、温经散寒、温煦阳气、调理脏腑功效卓著,可使生姜的药力作用借助灸火热力充分渗透到穴位深部,并且温热均衡易控,刺激强烈持续.该法操作简单,安全实用有效.%The manipulations, range of application and characteristics of intensive moxibustion with ginger paste are discussed in this article. Adjustment is made on the base of traditional moxibustion with ginger slice. Fresh ginger is smashed, and the ginger paste is applied on acupoints. Two to 3 moxa sticks are ignited together in moxibustion at each point, and long duration of treatment of 30 to 60 min is adopted. The effects of the above mentioned moxibustion on dysfunction of the internal organs, postpartum diseases, hyperplasia, furuncle and diseases of bones, joints and muscles are obviously better than that of the traditional way. Thus, it is concluded that the effect of intensive moxibution with ginger paste is remarkable in promoting qi and blood circulation, warming up yang qi and regulating the functions of zang-fu organs. The potency of ginger can reach a deeper part with the heat produced by moxibustion. The heat is even and easy to be controlled. Moreover, the manipulation is simple, practical, safe and effective.

  6. Composition and Comprehensive Antioxidant Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Stanchev, Veselin; Krastanov, Albert

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of an essential oil of ginger rhizomes from Ecuador was elucidated. The analysis of the essential oil by GC/FID/MS resulted in identification of 71 compounds, of which the main are citral (geranial 10.5% and neral 9.1%), α-zingiberene (17.4%), camphene (7.8%), α-farnesene (6.8%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (6.7%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil expressed by IC50 in descending order is: hydroxyl radical (OH*) scavenging (0.0065 μg/mL) > chelating capacity (0.822 μg/mL) > 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS*+) scavenging (3.94 μg/mL) > xanthine oxidase inhibition (138.0 μg/mL) > oxygen radical (O2*) scavenging (404.0 μg/mL) > 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging (675 μg/mL). Lipid peroxidation inhibition of the essential oil was less efficient than butylhydroxytoluol (BHT) in both stages, i.e. hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde formation. In vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in antioxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells. Moreover, ginger essential oil in concentrations of 1.6 mg/mL increases the viability of cells to oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

  7. Identification and analysis of miRNAs and their targets in ginger using bioinformatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Noopur; Srivastava, Swati; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of endogenous small RNAs derived from the non-protein coding genes. miRNA regulates the gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and plays an important role in plant development. Zingiber officinale is an important medicinal plant having numerous therapeutic properties. Its bioactive compound gingerol and essential oil posses important pharmacological and physiological activities. In this study, we used a homology search based computational approach for identifying miRNAs in Z. officinale. A total of 16 potential miRNA families (miR167, miR407, miR414, miR5015, miR5021, miR5644, miR5645, miR5656, miR5658, miR5664, miR827, miR838, miR847, miR854, miR862 and miR864) were predicted in ginger. Phylogenetic and conserved analyses were performed for predicted miRNAs. Thirteen miRNA families were found to regulate 300 target transcripts and play an important role in cell signaling, reproduction, metabolic process and stress. To understand the miRNA mediated gene regulatory control and to validate miRNA target predictions, a biological network was also constructed. Gene ontology and pathway analyses were also done. miR5015 was observed to regulate the biosynthesis of gingerol by inhibiting phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), a precursor enzyme in the biosynthesis of gingerol. Our results revealed that most of the predicted miRNAs were involved in the regulation of rhizome development. miR5021, miR854 and miR838 were identified to regulate the rhizome development and the essential oil biosynthesis in ginger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of cytochrome P450 metabolism and transport across intestinal epithelial barrier by ginger biophenolics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Mukkavilli

    Full Text Available Natural and complementary therapies in conjunction with mainstream cancer care are steadily gaining popularity. Ginger extract (GE confers significant health-promoting benefits owing to complex additive and/or synergistic interactions between its bioactive constituents. Recently, we showed that preservation of natural "milieu" confers superior anticancer activity on GE over its constituent phytochemicals, 6-gingerol (6G, 8-gingerol (8 G, 10-gingerol (10 G and 6-shogaol (6S, through enterohepatic recirculation. Here we further evaluate and compare the effects of GE and its major bioactive constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activity in human liver microsomes by monitoring metabolites of CYP-specific substrates using LC/MS/MS detection methods. Our data demonstrate that individual gingerols are potent inhibitors of CYP isozymes, whereas GE exhibits a much higher half-maximal inhibition value, indicating no possible herb-drug interactions. However, GE's inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2C8 reflects additive interactions among the constituents. In addition, studies performed to evaluate transporter-mediated intestinal efflux using Caco-2 cells revealed that GE and its phenolics are not substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp. Intriguingly, however, 10 G and 6S were not detected in the receiver compartment, indicating possible biotransformation across the Caco-2 monolayer. These data strengthen the notion that an interplay of complex interactions among ginger phytochemicals when fed as whole extract dictates its bioactivity highlighting the importance of consuming whole foods over single agents. Our study substantiates the need for an in-depth analysis of hepatic biotransformation events and distribution profiles of GE and its active phenolics for the design of safe regimens.

  9. Modulation of cytochrome P450 metabolism and transport across intestinal epithelial barrier by ginger biophenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Natural and complementary therapies in conjunction with mainstream cancer care are steadily gaining popularity. Ginger extract (GE) confers significant health-promoting benefits owing to complex additive and/or synergistic interactions between its bioactive constituents. Recently, we showed that preservation of natural "milieu" confers superior anticancer activity on GE over its constituent phytochemicals, 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8 G), 10-gingerol (10 G) and 6-shogaol (6S), through enterohepatic recirculation. Here we further evaluate and compare the effects of GE and its major bioactive constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity in human liver microsomes by monitoring metabolites of CYP-specific substrates using LC/MS/MS detection methods. Our data demonstrate that individual gingerols are potent inhibitors of CYP isozymes, whereas GE exhibits a much higher half-maximal inhibition value, indicating no possible herb-drug interactions. However, GE's inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2C8 reflects additive interactions among the constituents. In addition, studies performed to evaluate transporter-mediated intestinal efflux using Caco-2 cells revealed that GE and its phenolics are not substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Intriguingly, however, 10 G and 6S were not detected in the receiver compartment, indicating possible biotransformation across the Caco-2 monolayer. These data strengthen the notion that an interplay of complex interactions among ginger phytochemicals when fed as whole extract dictates its bioactivity highlighting the importance of consuming whole foods over single agents. Our study substantiates the need for an in-depth analysis of hepatic biotransformation events and distribution profiles of GE and its active phenolics for the design of safe regimens.

  10. Partial Characterization of an Enzymatic Extract from Bentong Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi'

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8 and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP with a specific activity of 24.8 ± 0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6–8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20 slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL−1 and 34.48 mg mL−1 min−1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at −20 °C.

  11. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  12. Partial characterization of an enzymatic extract from Bentong ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafi', Ahmad; Ling, Foo Hooi; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M

    2014-08-15

    Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong) was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8) and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA) on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP) with a specific activity of 24.8±0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20) slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL-1 and 34.48 mg mL-1 min-1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at -20 °C.

  13. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  14. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  15. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kejing; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Zhengfu; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges in preserving better quality of fruit and vegetable products after processing. Recently, many attentions have been drawn to ginger rhizome processing due to its numerous health promoting properties. In our study, ginger rhizome slices were subjected to air-drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MD) and intermittent microwave & convective drying (IM&CD). Quality attributes of the dried samples were compared in terms of volatile compounds, 6, 8, 10-gingerols, 6-shogaol, antioxidant activities and microstructure. Results showed that AD and IR were good drying methods to preserve volatiles. FD, IR and IM&CD led to higher retention of gingerols, TPC, TFC and better antioxidant activities. However, FD and IR had relative high energy consumption and drying time. Therefore, considering about the quality retention and energy consumption, IM&CD would be very promising for thermo sensitive material.

  16. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  17. Encapsulation Red Ginger Oleoresin (Zingiber officinale) var. Rubrum) With Chitosan-alginate as Wall Material Using Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin; Rochmadi,; Wiratni; Meri Yulvianti; Dhena Ria Barleany; Widya Ernayati

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation is the process of protecting the active ingredients that is susceptible to environmental influences by using a coating. Red ginger oleoresin contains bioactive components that can be used as natural antioxidants, but sensitive to environmental influences. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticle is used as the coating, because it is safe for consumption and also stable. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the Tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration against the emulsio...

  18. Bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea, and ginger protect against dicarbonyl induced stress in cultured human retinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath, Chethan; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BackgroundMethylglyoxal (MGO) is known to be a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which are linked to diabetes and its related complications. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds could play an important role in countering AGEs thereby minimizing the risk associated with their formation. MethodsIn this study, eight specific bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea and ginger were evaluated for their AGEs scavenging activity using Human Retinal Pigment Epi...

  19. Inhibitory effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil on leukocyte migration in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; da Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, popular name ginger, is grown naturally in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Ginger is used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food and beverage industries and the essential oil has been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions including as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil (GEO) in an in vitro chemotaxis assay and on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in vivo. GEO was analyzed by GC-MS and the main components identified were ar-curcumene (59%), β-myrcene (14%), 1,8-cineol (8%), citral (7.5%), and zingiberene (7.5%). Oral administration of GEO (200-500 mg/kg) reduced the rolling and leukocyte adherence after 2 h of carrageenan injection (100 μg) into the scrotal chamber. The number of leukocytes migrated to the perivascular tissue 4 h after the irritant stimulus was also diminished. GEO in all doses tested (10(-4), 10(-3), or 10(-2) μL/mL) caused a significant reduction of leukocyte chemotaxis (35.89 ± 4.33, 30.67 ± 0.70, and 35.85 ± 3.83%, respectively) toward casein stimuli. The data presented showed direct and systemic effects of GEO on leukocyte migration as an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of ginger.

  20. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  1. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaj Shah; S K Garg

    2014-01-01

    The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental ...

  2. Determination of Trace Elements in Three Gingers%三种姜中微量元素的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云福; 罗玲; 林朋; 刘玲君; 黄海霞

    2012-01-01

    The contents of Ca、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn、Cd、Pb in rhizoma zingiberis preparatum,dried ginger and galangal were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and the different of contents of the trace elements in different gingers were analyzed.The results show that,in different gingers,the contents of trace elements are quite different.In Rhizoma zingiberis preparatum,the contents of Fe、Cu、Zn、Cd are higher than the other two.In galangal,the contents of Mn、Pb are far more than theirs,and the content of Ca in dried ginger is highest among the three,about 2298.80 mgokg-1.In general,the differences of trace elements in them are quite obvious.%用火焰原子吸收分光光度法测定炮姜、干姜和高良姜中Ca、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn、Cd、Pb等七种微量元素的含量,并分析不同姜之间微量元素的差异。结果表明,不同姜中微量元素的含量有较大差异。炮姜中Fe、Cu、Zn、Cd的含量都高于干姜和高良姜,高良姜中Mn、Pb的含量远远高于炮姜和干姜,而干姜中Ca的含量又是三种姜中含量最高的,其含量达到了2298.80 mg.kg-1。总的来说,三种姜中各种微量元素的差异较为明显。

  3. Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yuki; Nakahashi, Emiko; Obayashi, Momoko; Sugihara, Kento; Qiao, Shanlou; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Goto, Yuji; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Takeda, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of allergies has recently been increasing worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its extracts have been valued for their medical properties including antinausea, antiinflammation, antipyresis and analgesia properties. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effects of ginger and 6-gingerol, a major compound of ginger, using a mouse allergy model and primary/cell line culture system. In mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis, oral administration of 2% ginger diet reduced the severity of sneezing and nasal rubbing by nasal sensitization of OVA and suppressed infiltration of mast cells in nasal mucosa and secretion of OVA-specific IgE in serum. 6-Gingerol inhibited the expression of not only Th2 cytokines but also Th1 cytokines in OVA-sensitized spleen cells. Accordingly, 6-gingerol suppressed in vitro differentiation of both Th1 cells and Th2 cells from naïve T cells. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed both superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)- and anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation. 6-Gingerol also abrogated PMA plus ionomycin- and SEB-induced IL-2 production in T cells, suggesting that 6-gingerol affected T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction rather than the antigen-presentation process. Indeed, 6-gingerol inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, calcium release and nuclear localization of c-fos and NF-κB by PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that 6-gingerol suppresses cytokine production for T cell activation and proliferation, thereby not causing B cell and mast cell activation and resulting in prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Essential Oils of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Chen, Jianling; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2016-07-01

    Ginger and its extracts have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory remedies, with a particular focus on the medicinal properties of its phenolic secondary metabolites, the gingerols. Consistent with these uses, potent anti-arthritic effects of gingerol-containing extracts were previously demonstrated by our laboratory using an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of ginger's other secondary metabolites, the essential oils (GEO), which contain terpenes with reported phytoestrogenic activity, were assessed in female Lewis rats with SCW-induced arthritis. GEO (28 mg/kg/d ip) prevented chronic joint inflammation, but altered neither the initial acute phase of joint swelling nor granuloma formation at sites of SCW deposition in liver. Pharmacologic doses of 17-β estradiol (200 or 600 μg/kg/d sc) elicited the same pattern of anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that GEO could be acting as a phytoestrogen. However, contrary to this hypothesis, GEO had no in vivo effect on classic estrogen target organs, such as uterus or bone. En toto, these results suggest that ginger's anti-inflammatory properties are not limited to the frequently studied phenolics, but may be attributable to the combined effects of both secondary metabolites, the pungent-tasting gingerols and as well as its aromatic essential oils.

  5. 速溶低糖姜茶饮料的研发%Development of Instant Ginger Tea with Low Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚翠翠; 郁志珺; 韩薇薇

    2015-01-01

    This paper selected instant ginger powder,instant black tea powder,brown sugar and Stevia as main raw materials, through orthogonal test to optimise the formula of ginger tea with low sugar. The results showed that added ginger powder 0.3 g,black tea powder 0.4 g,Stevia 0.04 g. The product taste mellow and thick with moderate sweet and spicy.%选用速溶姜粉、速溶红茶粉、红糖和甜菊糖苷为原料,通过正交试验优化低糖姜茶的配方,结果表明:速溶姜粉、速溶红茶粉、红糖和甜菊糖苷的添加量分别为0.3、0.4、3 g和0.04 g时,所得产品口感醇浓、甜辣适中、风味独特。

  6. Production of Wine from Ginger and Indian Gooseberry and A Comparative Study of Them over Commercial Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Nandagopal.M.S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Commercially, wine is produced by the fermentation of yeast which involves the conversion of sugar to alcohol. Wine can act as a nutrient supplement for seasonal fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Using fruits and vegetables having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Ginger and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high medicinal and nutritional value are used as the substrate here. Fermentation is carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly known as bakers yeast. Daily monitoring was done to study the composition and characteristics of the wine. The wine produced resembled the commercial wine in terms of its composition, taste and aroma. During the fermentation period the wines were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, biomass content, alcohol and reducing sugar on a daily basis. pH show a decreased trend then attains minima and then increased. As the fermentation days proceed, the specific gravity increased and the alcohol percentage increased gradually. Batch 1 Amla (A1 showed a pH range of 3.79-3.56, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.17 and alcohol content was 10.5%. Batch 2 Amla (A2 showed a pH range of 3.81-3.30, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.167 and alcohol content was 10.35%. Batch 3 Amla (A3 showed a pH range of 3.83-3.34, specific gravity ranges from 1.032 -1.0967and alcohol content was 8.64%. Batch 1 ginger (G1 showed a pH range of 3.77 -3.59, specific gravity ranges from 1.11 -1.178 and alcohol content was 7.94%. Batch 2 ginger (G2 showed a pH range of 3.89 -3.94, specific gravity ranges from 1.116 -1.162 and alcohol content was 6.81 %. Batch 3 ginger (G3 showed a pH range of 4.42 -4.01, specific gravity ranges from 1.144 -1.188 and alcohol content was 5.81%.After the fermentation period parameters such as Tannin content

  7. Production of a novel wheat gluten hydrolysate containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory tripeptides using ginger protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Hayashida, Osamu; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2017-09-01

    Wheat gluten is a Pro-rich protein complex comprising glutenins and gliadins. Previous studies have reported that oral intake of enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten has beneficial effects, such as suppression of muscle injury and improvement of hepatitis. Here, we utilized ginger protease that preferentially cleaves peptide bonds with Pro at the P2 position to produce a novel type of wheat gluten hydrolysate. Ginger protease efficiently hydrolyzed gluten, particularly under weak acidic conditions, to peptides with an average molecular weight of gluten hydrolysate contained substantial amounts of tripeptides, including Gln-Pro-Gln, Gln-Pro-Gly, Gln-Pro-Phe, Leu-Pro-Gln, and Ser-Pro-Gln (e.g. 40.7 mg/g at pH 5.2). These gluten-derived tripeptides showed high inhibitory activity on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with IC50 values of 79.8, 70.9, 71.7, 56.7, and 78.9 μM, respectively, suggesting that the novel gluten hydrolysate prepared using ginger protease can be used as a functional food for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. The Effect of Ginger Extract on the Incidence and Severity of Nausea and Vomiting After Cesarean Section Under Spinal Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Hossein; Shahinfar, Javad; Imani Hesari, Shiva; Masrorniya, Mahnaz; Nasimi, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common complications of cesarean sections under spinal anesthesia. Recently, the use of drugs to treat nausea and vomiting has decreased, and nonpharmaceutical and alternative traditional medicine are often preferred. This study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 92 pregnant women, each of whom underwent a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, were divided in two groups: a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received 25 drops of ginger extract in 30 cc of water, and the control group received 30 cc of water one hour before surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting were assessed during the surgery and two and four hours after the surgery using a self-report scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and statistical tests. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of maternal age, duration of fasting, duration of surgery, and confounding factors (P > 0.05). According to an independent t-test, there was a significant relationship between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity score of nausea and vomiting during the cesarean section (P 0.05). The findings of this study showed that ginger extract can be used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

  9. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  10. Memory enhancement by administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract on morphine-induced memory impairment in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Gomar; Abdolkarim Hosseini; Naser Mirazi

    2014-01-01

    To study the chronic treatment with hydroethanolic extract of ginger(50,100 and200 mg/kg, p.o) would effect on the passive avoidance learning(PAL) and memory in rat.Methods:The rats were divided into eight groups.On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment.Twenty-four hours later,30 min after treatment, theSTL(step-through latency) andTDC(total time in dark compartments) was recorded and defined as the retention trial.Results:The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control(P<0.001).Treatment of the animals by100 and200 mg/kg of ginger extract before the training trial increased the time latency at24 hours after the training trial(P<0.01 andP<0.001). Administration of both100 and200 mg/kg doses of the extract in morphine received animal groups before retention trials also increased the time latency than the morphine-treated group groups(P<0.001).Conclusion:The results revealed that the ginger extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  11. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively.

  12. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebifar, Shila; Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi, Toba; Eivary, Seyed Hosein Abtahi; Mogharnasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run) for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1) in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026) and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001) groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.093), MCP-1(P = 0.075), and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P = 0.164). Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:28255324

  13. A comparison study of the nutritional, mineral and volatile compositions of three dry forms of ginger rhizomes, and antioxidant properties of their ethanolic and aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Jelled

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the most accessible dry forms of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale used as a spice and as a remedy in order to choose the best ginger for medicinal purpose. Methods: Freshly air dried ginger, commercially dry rhizomes and ginger available in powder form are investigated in terms of nutritional values (proximate and mineral compositions and volatiles profile. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts (decoctions and infusions were prepared for total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents determination. Also, three standard tests were established in order to estimate the best extract with the better antioxidant potential. Results: The results showed unlike proximate composition revealing different nutritional values. In fact, freshly dried ginger contained much ash, while already dry samples contained much protein. In addition, mineral contents of studied samples indicated their dissimilar richness especially in Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Solid phase micro-extraction gave volatile profiles with many interesting compounds, only 26 from the 51 identified components were common to studied samples with bioactive compounds predominance in freshly dried sample. Also, the antioxidant potential established by three different tests was higher in already dry samples and was positively correlated with their higher contents in the determined phytochemicals. The ethanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than aqueous extracts. Decoctions and infusions were almost similar proving that long cooking time did not affect ginger antioxidant potential. Conclusions: This work highlighted the benefits of traditional preparations of ginger as sources of bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants, and proved that the available commercial samples are not identical and encouraged analyzing samples before uses depending on needs.

  14. Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger and related products by HPLC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up and postcolumn photochemical derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Kong, Weijun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Meihua

    2013-12-01

    Ginger, a widely used spice and traditional Chinese medicine, is prone to be contaminated by mycotoxins. A simple, sensitive, and reproducible method based on immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with HPLC and on-line postcolumn photochemical derivatization with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 , and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 25 batches of gingers and related products marketed in China for the first time. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonication with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) and then cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns for analysis. Under the optimized conditions, the LODs and LOQs for the five mycotoxins were 0.03-0.3 and 0.1-0.9 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 81.3-100.8% for AFs and from 88.6-99.5% for OTA at three spiking levels. Good linearity was observed for the analytes with correlation coefficients all >0.9995. All moldy gingers were contaminated with at least one kind of the five investigated mycotoxins, while none of them were found in normal gingers. Ginger powder samples were contaminated slightly with the contamination levels below the LOQs, while ginger tea bags were mainly contaminated by OTA at 1.05-1.19 μg/kg and ginger black tea bags were mainly contaminated by AFs at 3.37-5.76 μg/kg. All the contamination levels were below the legally allowable limits.

  15. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Nayebifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1 in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026 and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001 groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 (P = 0.093, MCP-1(P = 0.075, and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 (P = 0.164. Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement.

  16. Study on the Material Foundation of Ginger Antiemetic Efficacy%生姜止呕功效的物质基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文娟; 崔瑛; 纪彬; 王君明; 冯志毅

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究生姜止呕功效的物质基础.方法:在大鼠异嗜高岭土模型上,观察生姜汁和生姜水煎液对饲料和高岭土进食量的影响.通过高效液相色谱法初步确定姜止呕的物质基础.结果:模型动物饲料进食量下降,而高岭土的进食量增加;给药组较模型组高岭土摄食量明显减少,并在含药血清中发现了生姜的入血成分-6-姜酚.结论:生姜对大鼠异嗜高岭土模型具有显著减少高岭土摄食量的作用,反映生姜的止呕功效的物质可能为6-姜酚.%Objective:To study the material foundation of ginger antitussive effect Methods:In the rat model of kaolin,observe the effect of ginger juice and ginger decoction on feed intake and kaolin. Through the method of HPLC initially determine the material basis of ginger antiemetic. Results:Feed intake decreased in animal models, while the intake of kaolin increased; drug group than in the model group decreased kaolin intake. And found ginger into blood components in the serum of-6-jiangfen. Conclusion: Ginger has significantly reduced the role of kaolin intake on rat kaolin model, reflect the vomiting effect check bom ginger, the effect of material may be-6-jiangfen.

  17. 姜汁凝乳保健饮料的研制%Functional Beverage of Ginger Milk Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桐; 周春生; 杨泠茜; 焦娇; 姜瞻梅

    2014-01-01

    本实验将鲜牛乳和姜汁制成姜汁凝乳,然后与葛根粉、核桃粉进行科学调配与优化,制得姜汁凝乳保健饮料。结果表明,以质构特性和感官评价为检测指标,优化出姜汁凝乳的最佳工艺条件为姜汁添加量为30%、凝乳温度75℃、滴定酸度28°T、钙离子添加量0.25%。利用正交试验设计,确定姜汁凝乳保健饮料的最佳配方为姜汁凝乳、葛根粉汁、核桃粉汁添加量分别为40%、25%、15%(质量分数);产品最佳增稠剂由槐豆胶、卡拉胶、黄原胶混合而成,其添加总量为0.2%,三者添加比例为3∶4∶2。%Ginger milk curd beverage is produced and optimized with ginger milk curd, which is the product of ginger milk and fresh milk, and pueraria powder and walnut powder. With the index of texture properties and sensory evaluation, the optimal condition is determined as a result of the research: volume of ginger milk curd added is 30%;curding temperature is 75℃; titration acidity is 28 °T; volume of calcium ion is 0.25%. The optimal formula is suggested as the result of orthogonal experiments with ginger milk curd, pueraria powder and walnut powder of 40%, 25%,and 15%(quality fraction), respectively. The best thickener, accounting for 0.2%, is a mixture of locust bean gum, carrageenan and xanthan gum in the ratio of 3 to 4 to 2.

  18. Effect of different concentrations of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA concentration in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving

  19. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  20. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on nausea, vomiting and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chemotherapy breast cancer patients. Single-blind, controlled, randomized cross-over study. Patients received 5-day aromatherapy treatment using either ginger essential oil or fragrance-matched artificial placebo (ginger fragrance oil) which was instilled in a necklace in an order dictated by the treatment group sequence. Two oncology clinics in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. VAS nausea score, frequency of vomiting and HRQoL profile (EORTC QLQ-C30 scores). Sixty female patients completed the study (age=47.3±9.26 years; Malay=98.3%; on highly emetogenic chemotherapy=86.7%). The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after ginger essential oil inhalation compared to placebo during acute phase (P=0.040) but not sustained for overall treatment effect (treatment effect: F=1.82, P=0.183; time effect: F=43.98, Pessential oil inhalation. A clinically relevant 10 points improvement on role functioning (P=0.002) and appetite loss (Pessential oil. At present time, the evidence derived from this study is not sufficiently convincing that inhaled ginger aromatherapy is an effective complementary therapy for CINV. The findings for HRQoL were however encouraging with significant improvement in several domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger after inoculation with fungi by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wen, Jing; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Luo, Hongli; Wang, Jian; Yang, Meihua

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) have been detected frequently in food, agricultural products and traditional Chinese medicines, and their presence poses serious health and economic problems worldwide. Ginger can easily be polluted with mycotoxins. In this study, ginger samples were cultivated for 15 days after inoculation with fungi and were prepared based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction using methanol/water followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and analysed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for AFs and OTA. The limits of detection and quantification of AFs and OTA were 0.04-0.30 µg mL(-1) and 0.125-1.0 µg mL(-1) , respectively. The recoveries were 82.0-100.2%. After 15 days' cultivation, no macroscopic mildew was found in ginger. But, the content of AFB1 expressed an increasing trend in ginger, peel [less than the limit of quantification (LOQ)] to the innermost layer (51.86 µ mL(-1) ), AFB2 was only detected in the innermost layer at the level of 0.87 µ mL(-1) . A small amount (safety and quality of ginger. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of the combination of gelam honey and ginger on oxidative stress and metabolic profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Belani, Levin Kesu; Sin, Chong Pui; Rahman, Siti Nor Amilah Abdul; Das, Srijit; Chi, Thent Zar; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic complications occur as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to long term hyperglycaemia. Honey and ginger have been shown to exhibit antioxidant activity which can scavenge ROS. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of gelam honey, ginger, and their combination. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 major groups which consisted of diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin intramuscularly (55 mg/kg body weight). Each group was further divided into 4 smaller groups according to the supplements administered: distilled water, honey (2 g/kg body weight), ginger (60 mg/kg body weight), and honey + ginger. Body weight and glucose levels were recorded weekly, while blood from the orbital sinus was obtained after 3 weeks of supplementation for the estimation of metabolic profile: glucose, triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH): oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The combination of gelam honey and ginger did not show hypoglycaemic potential; however, the combination treatment reduced significantly (P diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats.

  3. TREATMENT EFFICACY OF GINGER V/S P YRIDOXIN IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER NAUSEA & VOMITINGS OF PREG NANCY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Kaliki.Hymavathi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are the main symptoms in 1sttrimester of pregnancy. Ginger is safe and highly effective in the treatment of pregnancy induced nausea and vomitings. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Ginger and Pyridoxine in the treatmentof pregnancy induced nausea and vomitings (First trimester.100 pregnant women attending the out patient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Narayana medical college hospital, Nellore with complaints of nausea and vomitings in 1sttrimester of pregnancy are recruited into the study after obtaining informed consent. These100 were divided into two groups. 50 were given Ginger administration and another 50 were given Pyridoxine for a period of 35 days. During the period of treatment the symptom relief in both the groups are assessed periodically by visual analog scales .The results have shown that nausea and vomiting scores reduction was found to be much better in Ginger group compared to Pyridoxine group. Ginger administration is proved to bea better treatment in treating 1sttrimester pregnancy induced nausea and vomitings

  4. The Influence of Oral Ginger before Operation on Nausea and Vomiting after Cataract Surgery under General Anesthesia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Jamal; Ebnerasooli, Shahrokh; Shahsawari, Sirous; Nzarian, Simin

    2017-01-01

    Background According to Iranian traditional medicine, using safe ginger may contribute to taking less chemical medicines and result in fewer side effects. Objective To determine the influence of using ginger before operation on nausea and vomiting, after cataract surgery under general anesthesia. Methods This study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. 122 candidates of cataract surgery were randomly allocated in three groups. The first group received a ginger capsule in a single 1 g dose, the second received two separate doses of ginger capsule each containing 500 mg and the third group received placebo capsule before operation. The patients were examined and studied for the level of nausea and occurrence of vomiting for 6 hours after the operation. The intensity of nausea was scored from zero to ten, based upon Visual Analog Scale. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. We used Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis test for the analyses of outcomes. Results The frequency and intensity of nausea and the frequency of vomiting after operation among those who had taken the ginger capsule in 2 separate 500 mg doses was less than the other 2 groups. This difference was significant (pKurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. PMID:28243400

  5. Effect of the Combination of Gelam Honey and Ginger on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fathiah Abdul Sani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic complications occur as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS due to long term hyperglycaemia. Honey and ginger have been shown to exhibit antioxidant activity which can scavenge ROS. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of gelam honey, ginger, and their combination. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 major groups which consisted of diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin intramuscularly (55 mg/kg body weight. Each group was further divided into 4 smaller groups according to the supplements administered: distilled water, honey (2 g/kg body weight, ginger (60 mg/kg body weight, and honey + ginger. Body weight and glucose levels were recorded weekly, while blood from the orbital sinus was obtained after 3 weeks of supplementation for the estimation of metabolic profile: glucose, triglyceride (TG, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH: oxidized glutathione (GSSG, and malondialdehyde (MDA. The combination of gelam honey and ginger did not show hypoglycaemic potential; however, the combination treatment reduced significantly (P<0.05 SOD and CAT activities as well as MDA level, while GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly elevated (P<0.05 in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale OLEORESIN ON THE PROFILE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD IN THE KIDNEY OF RATS UNDER STRESS CONDITION

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    Tutik Wresdiyati1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress condition has beeb reported to decrease intracellular antioxidant-superoxide dismutase(SOD in the liver and kidney of rats. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activies of ginger oleoresin on the profile of superoxide dismutase(SOD in the kidney of rats under stress condition. The stress condition was achieved by five days of fasting together with swimming for 5 min/day. Ginger oleoresin was orally administrated in a dose of 60 mg/KgBW/day for seven days. Drinking water was provided ad libitum to all groups. The treatment of ginger oleoresin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA levels and increased SOD activity, as well as immunohistochemicall, increased the content of copper, zinc-SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD in the kidney tissues compared to that of untreated group. The antioxidant content in ginger oleoresin such as shogaol, zingeron, and gingerol, etc. were shownto have activities in the kidney tissues of rats under stress condition that is increasunf the profile of SOD. Ginger oleoresin treatment in combination both before and after stress gave the best result.

  7. Ginger extracts influence the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, A; Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, M; Ahangar-Parvin, R; Azizi, V; Khoramdel-Azad, H; Shamsizadeh, A; Ayoobi, A; Nemati, M; Hassan, Z M; Moazeni, S M; Khaksari, M

    2014-11-15

    The immunomodulatory effects of the IL-27 and IL-33 and the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger have been reported in some studies. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the ginger extract on the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In PBS-treated EAE mice the expression of IL-27 P28 was significantly lower whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly higher than unimmunized control mice. In 200 and 300 mg/kg ginger-treated EAE groups the expression of IL-27 P28 and IL-27 EBI3 was significantly higher whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower than PBS-treated EAE mice. The EAE clinical symptoms and the pathological scores were significantly lower in ginger-treated EAE groups. These results showed that the ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

  8. Mechanism of Chemoprevention against Colon Cancer Cells Using Combined Gelam Honey and Ginger Extract via mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lee Heng; Morad, Noor Azian; Aan, Goon Jo; Makpol, Suzana; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2015-01-01

    The PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with IC50 values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells. Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, β-catenin, Gsk3β, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated. In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR, Wnt/β catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway.

  9. 生姜炮制品种及其临床应用刍议%Discussion on Types and Clinical Application of Processed Products of Ginger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏武; 安培坤

    2015-01-01

    生姜的传统炮制品种有鲜姜、干姜、炮姜、姜炭、煨姜等,此5种炮制规格在功能主治上均有明显的差异,故其临床效用亦各不相同,就生姜不同炮制品的炮制方法及临床应用加以简述,以期为生姜不同炮制品的合理应用提供参考。%Traditional processed products of ginger (Zingiber officinale) consist of five types: fresh ginger, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparata, charcoal made from ginger and roasted ginger.These products have clearly different functions which indicates different clinical effects. This paper aims at providing reference for using processed ginger correctly by discussing the processed methods and clinical application of these products.

  10. Estimation of the binding modes with important human cytochrome P450 enzymes, drug interaction potential, pharmacokinetics, and hepatotoxicity of ginger components using molecular docking, computational, and pharmacokinetic modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for the treatment of numerous ailments and improvement of body functions. It may be used in combination with prescribed drugs. The coadministration of ginger with therapeutic drugs raises a concern of potential deleterious drug interactions via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, resulting in unfavorable therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to determine the molecular interactions between 12 main active ginger components (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphelandrene, 6-gingerdione, (-)-zingiberene, and methyl-6-isogingerol) and human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) of the 12 ginger components using computational approaches and comprehensive literature search. Docking studies showed that ginger components interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 mainly through hydrogen bond formation, to a lesser extent, via π-π stacking. The pharmacokinetic simulation studies showed that the [I]/[Ki ] value for CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 ranged from 0.0002 to 19.6 and the R value ranged from 1.0002 to 20.6 and that ginger might exhibit a high risk of drug interaction via inhibition of the activity of human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, but a low risk of drug interaction toward CYP2C19-mediated drug metabolism. Furthermore, it has been evaluated that the 12 ginger components possessed a favorable ADMET profiles with regard to the solubility, absorption, permeability across the blood-brain barrier, interactions with CYP2D6, hepatotoxicity, and plasma protein binding. The validation results showed that there was no remarkable effect of ginger on the metabolism of warfarin in humans, whereas concurrent use of ginger and nifedipine exhibited a

  11. Cashew gum and inulin: New alternative for ginger essential oil microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Silva, Eric Keven; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Oliveira, Cassiano Rodrigues de; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro

    2016-11-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of cashew gum by inulin used as wall materials, on the characteristics of ginger essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying with ultrasound assisted emulsions. The characterization of particles was evaluated as encapsulation efficiency and particle size. In addition, the properties of the microcapsules were studied through FTIR analysis, adsorption isotherms, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of the treatments was affected by the composition of the wall material and reached higher values (89.80%) when higher inulin concentrations were applied. The encapsulation efficiency (15.8%) was lower at the highest inulin concentration. The particles presented amorphous characteristics and treatment with cashew gum as encapsulant exhibited the highest water absorption at high water activity. The cashew gum and inulin matrix (3:1(w/w) ratio) showed the best characteristics regarding the encapsulation efficiency and morphology, showing no cracks in the structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

  13. Whole plastome sequences from five ginger species facilitate marker development and define limits to barcode methodology.

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    Justin N Vaughn

    Full Text Available Plants from the Zingiberaceae family are a key source of spices and herbal medicines. Species identification within this group is critical in the search for known and possibly novel bioactive compounds. To facilitate precise characterization of this group, we have sequenced chloroplast genomes from species representing five major groups within Zingiberaceae. Generally, the structure of these genomes is similar to the basal angiosperm excepting an expansion of 3 kb associated with the inverted repeat A region. Portions of this expansion appear to be shared across the entire Zingiberales order, which includes gingers and bananas. We used whole plastome alignment information to develop DNA barcodes that would maximize the ability to differentiate species within the Zingiberaceae. Our computation pipeline identified regions of high variability that were flanked by highly conserved regions used for primer design. This approach yielded hitherto unexploited regions of variability. These theoretically optimal barcodes were tested on a range of species throughout the family and were found to amplify and differentiate genera and, in some cases, species. Still, though these barcodes were specifically optimized for the Zingiberaceae, our data support the emerging consensus that whole plastome sequences are needed for robust species identification and phylogenetics within this family.

  14. Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Jackie, Tan; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Kulur, Anupama

    2010-10-01

    Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular function. Exposure to even low levels of lead may have potential hazardous effects on brain, liver, kidneys and testes. The efficacy of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) to protect hepatotoxicity induced by lead acetate was evaluated experimentally in male Sprague - Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 21 days and the effects of concurrent treatment with extract of E. elatior on hepatic lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total antioxidants (TA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S- Transferase (GST) levels and histopathological changes in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in TA and other antioxidant enzymes (p induced changes in hepatic architecture. E. elatior has also reduced the blood lead levels (BLL). Thus, there has been extensive biochemical and structural alterations indicative of liver toxicity with exposure to lead and E. elatior treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage. Our results suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect against lead-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Effects of Roselle and Ginger on cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr Amin; AlaaEldin A. Hamza

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in rats and to study the mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods:which began 21 days before a single cisplatin I.p. Injection (10 mg/kg body weight). Results: Extracts of H. Sabdariffa and Z. Officinale reduced the extent of cisplatin-induced sperm abnormality and enhanced sperm motility. Both extracts restored the control level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (lipid peroxidation marker) in the cisplatin-treated testis.The cisplatin injection induced decline in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were significantly reversed to control levels in groups where cisplatin was preceded by the administration of either H. Sabdariffa or Z. Officinale. Conclusion: Both H. Sabdariffa and Z. Officinale treatment increased the activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes and restored sperm motility of cisplatin-treated rats. The protective effects of tested plants are, therefore, suggested to be mediated by their potent antioxidant activities.

  16. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Toda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  17. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuya; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Takeda, Shogo; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  18. Acupoint Sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with Ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) for Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Amifostine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-na; Hu Hong-yan; Qiu Yi-ling; Zhou Yu-hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the treatment effect of acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) on nausea and vomiting induced by Amifostine for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Methods: Totally 124 eligible subjects intervened by Amifostine were randomized into 2 groups by the visiting order,an observation group and a control group,62 in each group. The control group was intervened by conventional treatment, while the observation group was by acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) in addition to the same conventional treatment. The occurrence rate of nausea and vomiting in the two groups were observed. Results: After intervention, the occurrence rate of nausea and vomiting in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P Conclusion: Acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-prepared Ban Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae)can produce a content effect on nausea and vomiting induced by Amifostine for MDS.

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  20. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk.

  1. Molecular characterization of ZzR1 resistance gene from Zingiber zerumbet with potential for imparting Pythium aphanidermatum resistance in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R Aswati; Thomas, George

    2013-03-01

    Soft rot disease caused by the oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. is the most economically significant disease of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in tropical countries. All available ginger cultivars are susceptible to this pathogen. However a wild ginger relative viz., Zingiber zerumbet L. Smith, was identified as a potential soft rot resistance donor. In the present study, a putative resistance (R) gene designated, ZzR1 was isolated and characterized from Z. zerumbet using sequence information from Zingiber RGCs identified in our earlier experiments. Analysis of the 2280 bp segment revealed a 2157 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative cytoplasmically localized protein. The deduced ZzR1 protein shared high homology with other known R-genes belonging to the CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat) class and had a calculated molecular weight of 84.61kDa. Real-time PCR analysis of ZzR1 transcription in Z. zerumbet following pathogen infection demonstrated activation at 3 hpi thus suggesting an involvement of ZzR1 in Z. zerumbet defense mechanism. Although many R-genes have been characterized from different taxa, none of them will help in the development of resistant ginger cultivars owing to the phenomenon of "Restricted Taxonomic Functionality" (RTF). Thus ZzR1 gene characterized from the resistant wild Zingiber accession represents a valuable genomic resource for ginger improvement programs. This first report on R-gene isolation from the Zingiber secondary gene pool is pivotal in designing strategies for engineering resistance in ginger, which is otherwise not amenable to conventional improvement programs owing to sexual reproduction barriers.

  2. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity of a novel molecule isolated and characterized from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; K Rehna; L Jaganmohan Rao; S M Aradhya

    2010-06-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome is used in the manufacture of pickles and other food preparations due to its unique raw mango flavour. The chloroform extract of mango ginger rhizome was subjected to antibacterial activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure compound. The structure of the isolated compound was deduced by analysing UV, IR, LC-MS and 2D-HMQCT NMR spectral data, and named it as amadaldehyde, a novel compound. It exhibited a wide range of antibacterial activity with potential bactericidal activity against several bacteria. The purified compound also exhibited antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activities.

  3. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  4. High-yielding cultivation techniques of ginger in the mountainous area of southern Fujian%闽南山区生姜高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶涌清

    2011-01-01

    闽南山区具有发展生姜生产的环境条件和发展空间,该文介绍了生姜生产对环境条件的要求,生姜各生长时期的管理要点及其高产栽培技术。%The mountainous area of southern Fujian possesses the environmental conditions and potential developing space for ginger production.This paper described the environmental requirement,key management points in different growth period and high-yielding cultivation techniques of ginger.

  5. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  6. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Kasperek, Elwira; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Lucyna; Szwerc, Wojciech; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals. PMID:28230740

  7. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Koch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan. GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%; the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg; a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  8. In vivo antiprotozoan effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Kamal, Amany M; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abdelgelil, Noha H

    2015-09-01

    Controversy surrounding the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in humans and lack of well-established diagnostic criteria led to debates concerning the treatment for that organism. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against the recommended drugs. Thus, using natural medicine has many positive aspects to address these points. In an earlier study, we addressed in vitro effect of garlic and ginger on Blastocystis spp. isolates as an alternative treatment. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate in vivo activities of these two herbs on mice infected with Blastocystis spp. Antiprotozoan activities were determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected mice. Additionally, assessment of the antioxidant effect (via measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) of these herbs on the treated groups of mice was done. Also, their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed. In this work, treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and nitazoxanide (NTZ) reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the infected untreated group, P value ≤0.001, 0.0001, and 0.0003, respectively. As well, histopathological examination revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, mice infected with Blastocystis exhibited increased levels of NO (440.09 ± 3.7 vs. 276.66 ± 0.8, P ≤ 0.001) and MDA production (106.19 ± 0.43 vs. 63.06 ± 0.45, P ≤ 0.0004) compared to that of the uninfected controls. Treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and NTZ reduced NO levels to 54.41 ± 1.2, 47.70 ± 1.2, and 37.43 ± 0.98 and MDA levels to 22.38 ± 0.17, 63.34 ± 3.89, and 66.76 ± 9.1, respectively. We conclude that using ginger and garlic for treatment of blastocystosis is beneficial.

  9. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p., and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 180mg/kg, i.p. which was confirmed by the measurement of blood glucose, 7 days after STZ injection. One week after saline or STZ injection, chronic inflammation was induced by implantation of cotton pellets (30 mg on each side of the groin region subcutaneously. Then at the day of 3, the aqueous extract of Z.officinale was added to drinking water (100, 200 and 400 mg/100 ml for 4 days. In another sets of experiments, L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacin, an inhibitor of the prostaglandin biosynthesis, (2 mg/kg, i.p. were injected at the day of 5 of implantation. On the 8th day, the mice were killed and the pellets were removed, freed from extraneous tissue and dried at 60 °C for 24h. The increase in the weight of cotton pellets was higher in diabetic mice (control: 160 ± 13.6 mg,diabetic: 271 ± 11.8 mg, P<0.001. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of Z. officinale caused a significant but not dose-dependent reduction in cotton pellet weight in diabetic animals (diabetic + Z.officinale's extract: 181.4 ± 21 mg, P<0.05 vs diabetic. The anti-inflammatory effect of extract was almost the same as L-NAME, but less than indomethacin. Results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Z. officinale are comparable to L-NAME.

  10. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.

  11. Separation and preparation of 6-gingerol from molecular distillation residue of Yunnan ginger rhizomes by high-speed counter-current chromatography and the antioxidant activity of ginger oils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhilin; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Xiaosong; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Mo; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-02-01

    Molecular distillation residue (MD-R) from ginger had the most total phenol content of 247.6mg gallic acid equivalents per gram (GAE/g) among the ginger oils. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully performed in separation and purification of 6-gingerol from MD-R by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:5:7, v/v/v/v). The target compound was isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by HPLC. A total of 90.38±0.53mg 6-gingerol was obtained from 600mg MD-R, with purity of 99.6%. In addition, the structural identification of 6-gingerol was performed by EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Moreover, the orders of antioxidant activity were vitamin E (VE)>supercritical fluid extraction oleoresin (SFE-O)=MD-R=6-gingerol>molecular distillation essential oil (MD-EO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)=VE>6-gingerol>MD-R=SFE-O>MD-EO, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and β-Carotene bleaching.

  12. Aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme, iron(II), and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat heart in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-07-01

    Ginger has reportedly been used in folk medicine for the management and prevention of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties of ginger on a key enzyme linked to hypertension (angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE]), and on pro-oxidants [Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] which have been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in the rat's isolated heart in vitro. Aqueous extracts (0.05 mg/mL) of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were prepared and the ability of the extracts to inhibit ACE along with Fe(2+)- and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation was determined in rat's heart in vitro. Results revealed that both extracts inhibited ACE in a dose-dependent manner (25-125 μg/mL). However, red ginger extract (EC50=27.5 μg/mL) had a significantly (Pginger extract (EC50=87.0 μg/mL). Furthermore, incubation of the rat's heart in the presence of Fe(2+) and SNP caused a significant increase (Pginger extracts (78-313 μg/mL) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the stressed heart homogenates. This suggests that the possible mechanism through which ginger exerts its antihypertensive properties may be through inhibition of ACE activity and prevention of lipid peroxidation in the heart. Furthermore, red ginger showed stronger inhibition of ACE than white ginger. Additionally, it should be noted that these protective properties of the ginger varieties could be attributed to their polyphenol contents.

  13. Study on the Applicafion of the Mini-grinding Technology in Production of Low-degree Ginger Liquor%超微粉碎技术在低度姜酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 秦德宾

    2011-01-01

    [Objectiv] The reference for the preparation of low-degree ginger liquor was provided through the research on the effect of the mini-grinding of ginger on the quality of its low-degree liquor. [ Methods ] The clarification, stability and sensory of the different low-degree ginger liquors, which were added with common or mini-grinded ginger, were evaluated and compared. [ Results ] The result showed that the clarification of low-ginger liquor added with mini-grinded ginger was obviously higher, with good stability, rich flavor of ginger, and coordinated and sweet alcohol taste, which was typical style of ginger wine ,and all of indicators of the liquor was better than these of the low-degree ginger liquor added with common grinded ginger. [ Conclusion] The quality of the low-degree liquor added with mini-grinded ginger was improved compared with the common ginger liquor.%[目的]研究超微粉碎生姜对所产低度姜酒质量的影响,为低度姜酒生产提供参考.[方法]将生姜普通粉碎和超微粉碎后生产成低度姜酒,对不同低度姜酒的澄清度、稳定性、感官评价结果进行比较.[结果]生姜经超微粉碎后生产的低度姜酒澄清度显著增加,稳定性好,具浓郁的姜香味,酒味协调,醇和甜润,余味爽净,具姜酒典型风格,各项指标远优于普通粉碎生姜生产的姜酒.[结论]经超微粉碎后的生姜生产的低度姜酒质量比经普通粉碎生姜生产的姜酒质量有所提高.

  14. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Prolonging storage time of baby ginger by using a sand-based storage medium and essential oil treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Sui, Guoliang; He, Yongzhou; Liu, Dongjie; Yan, Jing; Liu, Shuxiang; Qin, Wen

    2014-04-01

    Wilt and rot occur readily during storage of baby ginger because of its tender skin and high moisture content (MC). A storage medium, which consisted of sand, 20% water, and 3.75% super absorbent polymers delayed weight loss and loss of firmness at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity. Microorganisms were isolated and purified from decayed rhizomes; among these, 3 fungi were identified as pathogens. The results of 18S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these fungi belonged to Penicillium, Fusarium, and Mortierella genera. The use of essential oil for controlling these pathogens was then investigated in vitro. Essential oils extracted from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) completely inhibited the growth of all of the above pathogens at a concentration of 2000 ppm. Cinnamon oil showed higher antifungal activity in the drug sensitivity test with minimal fungicidal concentration (oil fumigation combined with medium storage at 12 °C as an integrated approach to baby ginger storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger prevents cataractogenesis and retinopathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Lertrat, Kamol; Suriharn, Bhalang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the crucial roles of oxidative stress and aldose reductase on diabetic complications and the protective effect against diabetic eye complication of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG) together with the synergistic effect concept, we aimed to determine anticataract and antiretinopathy effects of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG). The streptozotocin diabetics with the blood glucose levels >250 mg·dL(-1) were orally given the extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg·BW(-1) for 10 weeks. Then, lens opacity and histopathology of retina were determined. The changes of MDA together with the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were also determined using biochemical assays. All doses of PWCG decreased lens opacity, MDA, and AR in the lens of diabetic rats. The elevation of CAT and GPx activities was also observed. The antiretinopathy property of the combined extract was also confirmed by the increased number of neurons in ganglion cell layer and thickness of total retina and retinal nuclear layer in diabetic rats. PWCG is the potential functional food to protect against diabetic cataract and retinopathy. However, further studies concerning toxicity and clinical trial are still essential.

  17. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the protective effect of ginger extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Doaa A; Abdeen, Ahmed M; Ismail, Mohammed F; Mostafa, Mai A

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used anticancer drug; however, it has several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, consumed since ancient times has numerous health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of ginger extract (GE) against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. CP group displayed a marked renal failure characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in addition to severe histopathological and ultrastructural renal alterations. Also, CP group showed an increase in the immunohistochemical expression of Bax proapoptotic protein. In contrast, GE+CP group showed significant decrease in the elevated serum creatinine and BUN levels and an improvement in the histopathological and ultrastructural renal injury induced by CP. The overexpression of Bax proapoptotic protein was significantly decreased in the GE+CP group. Hence, the present results indicated that GE has a protective effect against CP-induced renal damage in rats. Thereby, such findings recommended the usage of GE to prevent and/or decrease the renal damage induced by CP chemotherapeutic treatment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prawez Alam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods:The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results:This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions:The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  19. 姜汁柠檬复合饮料的研制%Study on Compound Beverage with Ginger and Lemon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣芮; 刘畅

    2016-01-01

    以生姜、柠檬为主要研究对象,对姜汁柠檬复合饮料加工工艺进行研究。在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验,确定姜汁柠檬复合饮料的最佳配方。结果表明:最佳调配方案为姜汁添加量7%、柠檬汁加量为12%、蜂蜜添加量为6%、白砂糖添加量为10%。稳定剂的最佳调配方案为阿拉伯胶0.1%、黄原胶为0.1%。%The study focused on the processing technology of compound juice made from ginger and lemon. The formula for the compound beverage was confirmed by single factor experiment and orthogonal test.The result showed the optimum formula of the compound healthy beverage is obtained,which is 7% ginger extract,12% lemon juice extract,6% honey and 10% white granulated sugar in the compound healthy beverage.The optimum formula of the additive is obtained,which is 0.1% acacia and 0.1%xanthan gum .

  20. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya.

  1. Enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of Monascus pilosus fermented products by addition of ginger to the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chu; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Liao, Chen-Chung; Hu, Tzu-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2010-11-24

    Hypercholesterolemia initiates the atherogenic process; however, chronic inflammation promotes atherogenesis. Monascus spp. fermented products are recognized for their anti-hypercholesterolemic effect, but their anti-inflammatory activity is not as significant as that of many plant-derived foods. To enhance the anti-inflammatory function of Monascus pilosus fermented products, ginger was added to the PDB medium at a ratio of 20% (v/v). The mycelia and broth were collected, freeze-dried, and extracted by ethanol for assays. Macrophage RAW264.7 was challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and coincubated with the extracts of fermented product cultured in ginger-supplemented medium (MPG) or extracts of fermented product cultured in regular PDB medium (MP) for 18 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC was challenged with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and coincubated with the extracts of either MPG or MP for 6 h. The results showed that MPG significantly (pMonascus spp. fermented products as antiatherosclerotic nutraceuticals.

  2. Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against AcrylamideInduced Intestinal Damage In Mice

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    Hala Galal El-Tantawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber officinale extract (ZOE against the acrylamide (AC which is an industrial chemical used in water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature. Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three groups (10 mice/group: (Icontrol group. (IIacrylamide treated group. (III acrylamide & ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week. Ginger extract was orally administrated at 50 mg/L (~5 ml/day for 10 weeks (3 days/week. The ileum samples were collected for light microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus. Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level

  3. Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkor, Hafez R; Mansour, Sherif W; Ramadan, Gamal

    2011-04-01

    Spices which show hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities may have a role in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The present study aimed to compare the modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on the metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg body weight, 15 min before STZ injection). Diabetic rats orally received either distilled water (as vehicle) or 200 mg/kg body weight of garlic bulb, ginger rhizome or turmeric rhizome powder suspension separately or mixed together (GGT mixture) for twenty-eight consecutive days. The results showed that these spices and their mixture significantly alleviated (80-97 %, P diabetic rats by increasing the production of insulin (26-37 %), enhancing the antioxidant defence system (31-52 %, especially GSH) and decreasing lipid peroxidation (60-97 %). The greatest modulation was seen in diabetic rats that received garlic and the GGT mixture (10-23 % more than that in the ginger and turmeric groups). In conclusion, garlic or the mix including garlic appears to have an impact on each of the measures more effectively than ginger and turmeric and may have a role in alleviating the risks of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.

  4. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, A; Verma, S K; Srivastava, K C

    1997-05-01

    In a placebo-controlled study the effect of ginger and fenugreek was examined on blood lipids, blood sugar, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity. The subjects included in this study were healthy individuals, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who either had CAD or were without CAD. In patients with CAD powdered ginger administered in a dose of 4 g daily for 3 months did not affect ADP- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Also, no change in the fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen level was observed. However, a single dose of 10 g powdered ginger administered to CAD patients produced a significant reduction in platelet aggregation induced by the two agonists. Ginger did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar. Fenugreek given in a dose of 2.5 g twice daily for 3 months to healthy individuals did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). However, administered in the same daily dose for the same duration to CAD patients also with NIDDM, fenugreek decreased significantly the blood lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) without affecting the HDL-c. When administered in the same daily dose to NIDDM (non-CAD) patients (mild cases), fenugreek reduced significantly the blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). In severe NIDDM cases, blood sugar (both fasting and post prandial) was only slightly reduced. The changes were not significant. Fenugreek administration did not affect platelet aggregation, fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen.

  5. Improvement of Liquid Fructose-Induced Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance by Ginger Treatment in Rats Is Associated with Suppression of Adipose Macrophage-Related Proinflammatory Cytokines

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    Jianwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR results in excessive release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, which plays a key role in the development of “lipotoxicity.” Therefore, amelioration of Adipo-IR may benefit the treatment of other metabolic abnormalities. Here we found that treatment with the alcoholic extract of ginger (50 mg/kg/day, by oral gavage for five weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and an increase in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index in rats. More importantly, ginger reversed the increases in the Adipo-IR index and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. Adipose gene/protein expression profiles revealed that ginger treatment suppressed CD68 and F4/80, two important macrophage accumulation markers. Consistently, the macrophage-associated cytokines tissue necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 were also downregulated. In contrast, insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, but not IRS-2, was upregulated. Moreover, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor-2 were also suppressed. Thus these results suggest that amelioration of fructose-induced Adipo-IR by ginger treatment in rats is associated with suppression of adipose macrophage-related proinflammatory cytokines.

  6. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens.

  7. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  8. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-02-23

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  10. Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The initiation of obesity entails an imbalance wherein energy intake exceeds expenditure. Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is now a worldwide health problem. Food-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) stimulators represent potential treatment options for obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was previously shown to regulate the PPARγ signaling pathway in adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ginger in vivo and the mechanism of action in vitro. Energy expenditure was increased, and diet-induced obesity was attenuated in C57BL/6J mice treated with dietary ginger extract (GE). GE also increased the number of Type I muscle fibers, improved running endurance capacity and upregulated PPARδ-targeted gene expression in skeletal muscle and the liver. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol acted as specific PPARδ ligands and stimulated PPARδ-dependent gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle myotubes. An analysis of cellular respiration revealed that pretreating cultured skeletal muscle myotubes with GE increased palmitate-induced oxygen consumption rate, which suggested an increase in cellular fatty acid catabolism. These results demonstrated that sustained activation of the PPARδ pathway with GE attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved exercise endurance capacity by increasing skeletal muscle fat catabolism. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol may be responsible for the regulatory effects of dietary ginger on PPARδ signaling.

  11. Ginger extract mitigates ethanol-induced changes of alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain isoforms gene expression and oxidative stress in the heart of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef

    2017-09-01

    The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals as follows: Control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the β-MHC gene expression, 8- OHdG amount, and NADPH oxidase level. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the ratio of α-MHC/β-MHC gene expression to the amount of paraoxonase enzyme in the ethanol group compared to the control group was found. The consumption of Ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated the changes in MHC isoforms gene expression and reduced the elevated amount of 8-OHdG and NADPH oxidase. Moreover, compared to the consumption of ethanol alone, it increased the paraoxonase level significantly. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may in part be associated with MHC isoforms changes mediated by oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

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    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  13. Influence of cultivar and maturity at harvest on the essential oil composition, oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in fresh ginger from northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Challa Ravi; Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Amma, K P Padmakumari; Menon, A Nirmala; Kumar, M M Sree; Venugopalan, V V

    2013-05-01

    Severe flooding of the Brahmaputra River during the monsoon season and continuous rainfall in the northeast region (NER) of India cause an enormous loss of ginger crop every year. In this context, the present study investigates the variation in the essential oil composition and oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in 10 different fresh ginger cultivars harvested at 6- and 9-month maturity from five different states of NER. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and citral composition in the essential oil were evaluated to ascertain their dependence upon the maturity of ginger. Except Mizoram Thinglaidum, Mizoram Thingria, Nagaland Nadia, and Tripura I ginger cultivars, all other cultivars showed an increase in the citral content during the maturity that was observed for the first time. At 6-month maturity, a higher undecanone level was found in Nagaland Nadia (7.36 ± 0.61%), Tripura I (6.23 ± 0.61%), and Tripura III (9.17 ± 0.76%) cultivars, and these data can be used as a benchmark to identify those immature varieties. Interestingly, the Nagaland Nadia cultivar showed higher ar-curcumene (9.57 ± 0.58%) content than zingiberene (5.84 ± 0.24%), which was unique among all cultivars. Ginger harvested at 9-month maturity from the Tripura II cultivar had the highest citral content (22.03 ± 0.49%), and the Meghalaya Mahima cultivar had the highest zingiberene content (29.89 ± 2.92%). The oleoresin content was found to decrease with maturity in all cultivars, except Assam Fibreless and Manipur I. Moreover, the highest oleoresin (11.43 ± 0.58 and 9.42 ± 0.63%) and [6]-gingerol (1.67 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.05 g) contents were observed for Tripura II and Nagaland Nadia, respectively. This study suggests that Tripura and Nagaland are the most ideal locations in NER for ginger cultivation to obtain high yields of oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents and harvesting at the 6-month maturation will compensate for the loss of ginger crop caused by the Brahmaputra River flooding in NER

  14. New Zealand Ginger mouse: novel model that associates the tyrp1b pigmentation gene locus with regulation of lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesnes, Cécile E; Naggert, Jürgen K; Tatnell, Michele A; Beckman, Nikki; Marnane, Rebecca N; Rodrigues, Jessica A; Halim, Angela; Pontré, Beau; Stewart, Alistair W; Wolff, George L; Elliott, Robert; Mountjoy, Kathleen G

    2009-05-13

    The study of spontaneous mutations in mice over the last century has been fundamental to our understanding of normal physiology and mechanisms of disease. Here we studied the phenotype and genotype of a novel mouse model we have called the New Zealand Ginger (NZG/Kgm) mouse. NZG/Kgm mice are very large, rapidly growing, ginger-colored mice with pink eyes. Breeding NZG/Kgm mice with CAST/Ei or C57BL/6J mice showed that the ginger coat colour is a recessive trait, while the excessive body weight and large body size exhibit a semidominant pattern of inheritance. Backcrossing F1 (NZG/Kgm x CAST/Ei) to NZG/Kgm mice to produce the N2 generation determined that the NZG/Kgm mouse has two recessive pigmentation variant genes (oca2(p) and tyrp-1(b)) and that the tyrp-1(b) gene locus associates with large body size. Three coat colors appeared in the N2 generation; ginger, brown, and dark. Strikingly, N2 male coat colour associated with body weight; the brown-colored mice weighed the most followed by ginger and then dark. The male brown coat-colored offspring reached adult body weights indistinguishable from NZG/Kgm males. The large NZG/Kgm mouse body size is a result of excessive lean body mass since these mice are not obese or diabetic. NZG/Kgm mice exhibit an unusual pattern of fat distribution; compared with other mouse strains they have disproportionately higher amounts of subcutaneous and gonadal fat. These mice are susceptible to high-fat diet-induced obesity but are resistant to high-fat diet-induced diabetes. We propose NZG/Kgm mice as a novel model to delineate gene(s) that regulate 1) growth and metabolism, 2) resistance to Type 2 diabetes, and 3) preferential fat deposition in the subcutaneous and gonadal areas.

  15. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Vareed, Shaiju K; Ruffin, Mack T; Litzinger, Amie J; Wright, Benjamin D; Alrawi, Sara; Normolle, Daniel P; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2011-11-01

    Inhibitors of COX indicate that upregulation of inflammatory eicosanoids produced by COX, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), are early events in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Ginger has shown downregulation of COX in vitro and decreased incidence/multiplicity of adenomas in rats. This study was conducted to determine if 2.0 g/d of ginger could decrease the levels of PGE(2), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), in the colon mucosa of healthy volunteers. To investigate this aim, we randomized 30 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and day 28 was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per protein or per free arachidonic acid. There were no significant differences in mean percent change between baseline and day 28 for any of the eicosanoids, when normalized to protein. There was a significant decrease in mean percent change in PGE(2) (P = 0.05) and 5-HETE (P = 0.04), and a trend toward significant decreases in 12-HETE (P = 0.09) and 15-HETE (P = 0.06) normalized to free arachidonic acid. There was no difference between the groups in terms of total adverse events P = 0.55). On the basis of these results, it seems that ginger has the potential to decrease eicosanoid levels, perhaps by inhibiting their synthesis from arachidonic acid. Ginger also seemed to be tolerable and safe. Further investigation in people at high risk for CRC seems warranted.

  16. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  17. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation.

  18. Control Effect of Ozone Water on Ginger Root-knot Nematodes and Impact on Yield and Quality of Ginger%臭氧水对生姜根结线虫的防治及产量与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任培华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] The aim was to explore the control effect of ozone water on ginger root-knot nematodes and impact on growth, yield and quality of ginger. [Method] Different concentrations of ozone water were prepared by using WF-60 machine for controlling root-knot nematodes. After ginger was irrigated by different concentrations of ozone water, the control effect of ozone water on ginger root-knot nematodes and impact on growth, yield and quality of ginger were studied. [ Result ] 6 mg/kg ozone water could prevent root-knot nematodes, with a successful rate of 93.3% , meanwhile the yield and quality of gingers were improved greatly. [ Conclusion] The research result provides reference for the establishment of environment-friendly and efficient control methods of root-knot nematodes.%[目的]探讨臭氧水对生姜根结线虫的防治效果及对生姜生长、产量和品质的影响.[方法]利用WF-60型根治根结线虫专用机产生不同浓度臭氧水,通过用不同浓度臭氧水灌溉生姜研究了臭氧水对生姜根结线虫的防治效果及对大姜生长、产量和品质的影响.[结果]6 mg/kg臭氧水对生姜根结线虫病的防治效果达93.3%,同时对生姜的产量和品质均有较大提高.[结论]为建立环保高效的根结线虫防治方法提供了借鉴.

  19. TU-100 (Daikenchuto) and ginger ameliorate anti-CD3 antibody induced T cell-mediated murine enteritis: microbe-independent effects involving Akt and NF-κB suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Kono, Toru; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Musch, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ free (GF) mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.

  20. Characteristics and complete genome analysis of a novel jumbo phage infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus causing ginger rhizome rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-12-01

    Tailed phages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are classified as jumbo phage and exhibit extremely high diversity. In this study, a novel jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus, the cause of ginger rhizome rot disease, was isolated. Notable features of phage vB_BpuM_BpSp are the large phage capsid of 137 nm and baseplate-attached curly tail fibers. The genome of the phage is 255,569 bp in size with G+C content of 25.9 %, and it shows low similarity to known biological entities. The phage genome contains 318 predicted coding sequences. Among these predicted coding sequences, 26 genes responsible for nucleotide metabolism were found, and seven structural genes could be identified. The findings of this study provide new understanding of the genetic diversity of phages.

  1. Performance of an integrated approach for prediction of bond dissociation enthalpies of phenols extracted from ginger and tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Pham Cam; Chandra, Asit K.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the (RO)B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) with the PM6 method into a two-layer ONIOM is found to produce reasonably accurate BDE(O-H)s of phenolic compounds. The chosen ONIOM model contains only two atoms of the breaking bond as the core zone and is able to provide reliable evaluation for BDE(O-H) for phenols and tocopherol. Deviation of calculated values from experiment is ±(1-2) kcal/mol. BDE(O-H) of several curcuminoids and flavanoids extracted from ginger and tea are computed using the proposed model. The BDE(O-H) values of enol curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate are predicted to be 83.3 ± 2.0 and 76.0 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, respectively.

  2. 红糖生姜果脯微波干燥工艺研究%Microwave Drying Technology Research on Brown Sugar Ginger Preserved Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅锋; 刘绍军; 许高升; 王晶晶

    2013-01-01

    对红糖生姜果脯的微波干燥工艺参数进行了初步研究,为生姜制品的开发、产品营养保健价值的充分保持和生姜产品的丰富以及微波技术工业化的应用提供参考。试验通过单因素及正交试验探讨了不同干燥处理条件对红糖生姜果脯的脱水率、感官品质等的影响,得到了红糖生姜果脯微波干燥的最优工艺参数即干燥方式间歇式干燥、微波功率320 W、装载量90 g、干燥时间6 min,此时所得产品试样感官质量较好,呈半透明状、膨化轻微、不焦化,色泽均匀、有光泽,组织饱满、有韧性,口感纯正、姜的辣味和红糖的香味适中。%Brown sugar, ginger preserved fruits is new products. The microwave drying process parameters of brown sugar, ginger preserved fruits have been studied. For the ginger products development, products nutrition health care value fully maintained and ginger products rich and even microwave technology industrialization to provide the reference. The influences of different microwave drying condition to dehydrated ratio of brown sugar, ginger preserved fruits,sensory quality were discussed through single factor and orthogonal experiments and the optimal processing condition was obtained.That is to say drying method of intermittent drying, microwave power 320 W load of 90 g, the drying time of 6 min, better sensory quality of products was obtained. Sample Was translucent, slightly puffed, not coking, uniform color, glossy, full organization, toughness, pure taste and ginger spice and brown sugar flavor moderate.

  3. 乳清姜汁发酵饮料的研制%A STUDY ON PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED MILK WHEY - GINGER BEVERAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛丽娜; 敖日格乐; 斯木吉德

    2012-01-01

    此项研究旨在利用营养丰富的乳清和药食同源的生姜为原料,开发具有营养保健功能的新型饮料-乳清姜汁发酵饮料.为饮料工业的发展开辟新领域.在研究中通过采用均匀设计的试验方法,对乳清姜汁发酵饮料发酵过程中的发酵条件进行了优化,并得出相关试验结论.其中碱性蛋白酶水解试验最优条件为,酶量为0.03%,pH值8.0,温度50℃,时间120min.乳清姜汁发酵试验最优条件为,乳酸菌种接种量为3%,乳清和姜汁的比例4:1,发酵时间5h.%This study contributes to the development of beverages that promote human health. Milk whey and ginger juice contain rich health -beneficial nutrients. In this study, milk whey and ginger juice were used as main ingredients to produce a fermented milk whey - ginger beverage. A uniform design testing method was adopted to determine the optimum conditions for fermentation of the milk whey - ginger beverage. The results of testing show that the optimum reaction conditions for basic proteinase are: an enzyme dosage of 0. 03% , a pH of 8.0, a temperature of 50℃ , and a duration time of 120min. The results of testing also show that the optimum conditions for fermenting the liquid mixture of milk whey and ginger juice are- an inoculationlactic lactic bacteria dosage of 3% , a ratio of 4:1 (milk whey to ginger juice) , and a fermentation duration time of 5h.

  4. Study Progress and Prevention Strategy for Ginger Bacterial Wilt Disease%姜瘟病研究进展和防治策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱正明; 矫振彪; 郭凤领; 陈磊夫; 田延富; 胡燕; 吴金平

    2015-01-01

    Ginger bacterial wilt disease occurred frequently has become the bottleneck for restricting the development of ginger planting industry. The research progress of the symptoms, the pathogens, the pathogenic factors and the infection pathways was summarized. By screening and creating the resource for ginger of the highquality and disease resistance (tolerance), and we obtained resistance materials of bacterial wilt disease. Building new bioactive substances or new genes against pathogen of the bacterial wilt disease by the metagenomic libraryconstructed of the rhizosphere soil microbial of ginger, so we can obtain the new resources and strategies forecological prevention thebacterial wilt disease. By studying the change of soil microbial community for ginger rhizosphere by the theory of the rhizospheremicroecological balance, we can reduce or eliminate thebacterial wilt disease of ginger by the modified for the soil biological activity.%生姜姜瘟病频发已成为制约生姜种植业发展的瓶颈。笔者分析了姜瘟病的发病症状、病原菌、致病环境因子以及侵染路径等方面的研究现状,提出通过筛选、创制“优质、抗(耐)病”的生姜资源,为生姜抗病育种提供新材料;同时,通过构建生姜根际土壤微生物宏基因组文库,挖掘抗姜瘟病病菌的新生物活性物质或新基因,在基因组水平上为姜瘟病的生态防控提供新资源。此外,笔者还利用根际微生态平衡理论,研究了生姜根际土壤微生物群落的变化,通过土壤生物活性的改良,消除或者减轻姜瘟病的危害。

  5. Bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea, and ginger protect against dicarbonyl induced stress in cultured human retinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Chethan; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-02-15

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is known to be a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which are linked to diabetes and its related complications. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds could play an important role in countering AGEs thereby minimizing the risk associated with their formation. In this study, eight specific bioactive compounds isolated from apple, tea and ginger were evaluated for their AGEs scavenging activity using Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (H-RPE) cells treated with MGO. Among the eight specific compounds evaluated, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) from tea, phloretin in apple, and [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol from ginger were found to be most effective in preventing MGO-induced cytotoxicity in the epithelial cells. Investigation of possible underlying mechanisms suggests that that these compounds could act by modulating key regulative detoxifying enzymes via modifying nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) function. MGO-induced cytotoxicity led to increased levels of AGEs causing increase in Nε-(Carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and glutathione (GSH) levels and over expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Data also showed that translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus was inhibited, which decreased the expression of detoxifying enzyme like heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The most potent bioactive compounds scavenged dicarbonyl compounds, inhibited AGEs formation and significantly reduced carbonyl stress by Nrf2 related pathway and restoration of HO-1 expression. These findings demonstrated the protective effect of bioactive compounds derived from food sources against MGO-induced carbonyl stress through activation of the Nrf2 related defense pathway, which is of significant importance for therapeutic interventions in complementary treatment/management of diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Reproductive biology of two Himalayan alpine gingers (Roscoea spp., Zingiberaceae) in China: pollination syndrome and compensatory floral mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-Q; Kress, W J; Xie, W-J; Ren, P-Y; Gao, J-Y; Li, Q-J

    2011-07-01

    According to the concept of pollination syndromes, floral traits reflect specialisation to a particular pollinator or set of pollinators. However, the reproductive biology of endemic, and often specialised, plants may require increased attention as climate change accelerates worldwide. Species of Roscoea endemic to the Himalayan region have striking orchid-like flowers with long corolla tubes, suggesting pollination by long-tongued insects. Until now, the reproductive biology of species of Roscoea has been poorly documented. We investigated the floral biology, breeding system and pollination ecology of R. cautleoides and R. humeana, from Hengduan Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot in southwest China. We also tested whether floral longevity increases pollination success. Pollination experiments showed that the two species were self-compatible and depended on insects for fruit production. Over several flowering seasons we did not observe any potential pollinators with long tongues that matched the corolla tube visiting flowers in centres of distribution. The principal pollinators observed were pollen-collecting generalist bees, with low visitation frequencies. In general, members of the ginger family are characterised by short-lived (usually 1 day) flowers, but flowers of R. cautleoides and R. humeana last 8 and 6 days, respectively. Removing stigmas decreased fruit set in both study populations. Our results suggest that the original pollinators may have been long-tongued insects that are now absent from the Chinese Himalayas because habitats have responded to climate change. However, long-lived and self-compatible flowers, coupled with the presence of generalist pollinators, are traits that have allowed these gingers to reproduce and continue to persist in the alpine habitats. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia P. NOBREGA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.O gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pertence à família Zingiberacea. É uma especiaria de grande importância comercial. Neste trabalho realizou-se extrações da oleoresina de gengibre com etanol, isopropanol e dióxido de carbono líquido e comparou-se a composição química de cada um dos extratos. A oleoresina obtida tem componentes das classes dos monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em todas as amostras. Ácidos carboxílicos foram encontrados nos extratos obtidos com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 2 horas. Os componentes que dão a característica pungente à oleoresina, os gingerois, foram detectados nas amostras obtidas com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 6 horas e, nas amostras obtidas com CO2 líquido, com 2 horas de extração.

  8. Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ahumada, Maria del Carmen; Timmermann, Barbara N; Gang, David R

    2006-09-01

    Members of the Zingiberaceae such as turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) accumulate at high levels in their rhizomes important pharmacologically active metabolites that appear to be derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. In ginger, these compounds are the gingerols; in turmeric these are the curcuminoids. Despite their importance, little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds. This investigation describes the identification of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of these bioactive natural products. Assays for enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway identified the corresponding enzyme activities in protein crude extracts from leaf, shoot and rhizome tissues from ginger and turmeric. These enzymes included phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyketide synthases, p-coumaroyl shikimate transferase, p-coumaroyl quinate transferase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, which were evaluated because of their potential roles in controlling production of certain classes of gingerols and curcuminoids. All crude extracts possessed activity for all of these enzymes, with the exception of polyketide synthases. The results of polyketide synthase assays showed detectable curcuminoid synthase activity in the extracts from turmeric with the highest activity found in extracts from leaves. However, no gingerol synthase activity could be identified. This result was explained by the identification of thioesterase activities that cleaved phenylpropanoid pathway CoA esters, and which were found to be present at high levels in all tissues, especially in ginger tissues. These activities may shunt phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates away from the production of curcuminoids and gingerols, thereby potentially playing a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of these compounds.

  9. Identification and concentration of some flavonoid components in Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) varieties by a high performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-09-03

    Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%), and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1%) as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed high activities (65.7%) in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

  10. Identification and Concentration of Some Flavonoid Components in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting, and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%, and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1% as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay showed high activities (65.7% in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  12. Elevated carbon dioxide increases contents of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities in Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-11-03

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae) is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin) and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid), and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) with CO(2) enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO(2) enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO(2). These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO(2) concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH) increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO(2) enrichment.

  13. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Increases Contents of Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid, and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara with CO2 enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO2. These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO2 conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO2 concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO2 enrichment.

  14. Ginger extract modulates the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β in the central nervous system and serum of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Ahangar-Parvin, Reyhane; Nemat, Maryam; Taghipour, Zahra; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main function of IL-12 is differentiation of naive T cells intoTh1 cells and TGF-β is a powerful immunoregulatory cytokine. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have also been reported in some studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. The mice were administered intra-peritoneally with ginger extracts or PBS, from day +3 to +30. On day 31, mice were scarified and the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β mRNA in the spinal cord were determined by using real time-PCR. The serum levels of cytokines were measured by ELISA. Results: In PBS-treated EAE mice, the expression of IL-12 P35 and IL-12 P40 mRNA in the CNS and the mean serum levels of IL-12 were significantly higher than those of healthy group (pginger-treated EAE mice, the expression of IL-12 mRNA and its serum levels were significantly lower as compared to PBS-treated EAE mice. No significant difference was observed between PBS-treated EAE mice and healthy group regarding the expression of TGF-β mRNA. In ginger (300 mg/kg)-treated EAE group, the expression of TGF-β mRNA and its serum levels were significantly higher in comparison to PBS-treated EAE mice (pginger extract modulates the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β in CNS and serum of EAE mice. PMID:28265547

  15. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Nayebifar; Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour; Toba Kazemi; Seyed Hosein Abtahi Eivary; Mehdi Mogharnasi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal...

  16. Study on Technology of Red Jujube and Ginger Health Jelly%红枣生姜保健果冻的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元成伟; 宋照军; 孔瑾; 高青蕾

    2014-01-01

    以红枣、生姜为主要原料,并配以其他辅料,研制红枣、生姜保健果冻。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定其最佳配方为10%红枣汁,3%生姜汁,10%糖(红糖1%,白糖9%),0.8%卡拉胶,0.25%柠檬酸。研制出的产品色泽均匀,组织状态良好,口感细滑,酸甜可口,风味独特。%With red jujube and ginger as main raw materials, and other accessories, red jujube ginger care jelly was developed. Through single factor test and orthogonal test to determine the best formula of 10%red jujube juice, 3%ginger juice, 10%sugar (brown sugar 1%, sugar 9%),carrageenan 0.8%, citric acid 0.25%. Developed the product colour and lustre is uniform, the organization to be in good condition, and smooth taste, sweet and delicious, unique flavor.

  17. Aptamer-affinity column clean-up coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the rapid determination of ochratoxin A in ginger powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Kong, Weijun; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua; Huang, Luqi; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with high affinity and specificity and are widely used in targets separation and enrichment. Here, an aptamer-affinity column (AAC) was firstly prepared in-house through a covalent immobilization strategy. Then, ochratoxin A (OTA) in ginger powder was absorbed and enriched using the new aptamer-based clean-up technology for the first time, and was further analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. After optimization, the average recoveries for blank samples spiked with OTA at 5, 15, and 45 μg/kg ranged from 85.36 to 96.83%. Furthermore, the AAC exhibited a similar accuracy as an immunoaffinity column to clean up OTA in ginger powder. Above all, it exhibited better reusability, twice that of the immunoaffinity column, had lower toxicity and cost, and took less time. Of 25 contaminated ginger powder samples, OTA contamination levels ranged from 1.51 to 4.31 μg/kg, which were lower than the European Union (EU) regulatory limits. All the positive samples were further confirmed by ultra-fast LC with MS/MS. In conclusion, the method of clean-up based on the AAC coupled to ultra-HPLC with fluorescence detection was rapid, specific, and sensitive for the quantitative analysis of OTA in a complex matrix.

  18. Comparison of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Ginger powder and Ibuprofen in postsurgical pain model: A randomized, double-blind, case–control clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayati, Farshid; Hajmanouchehri, Fatemeh; Najafi, Elnaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ginger has been used as an herbal drug for a long time for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 healthy adults with at least one impacted lower third molar. Participants were randomly allocated into three groups: Ibuprofen, Ginger, and placebo. Evaluation of inflammation was done by measuring cheek swelling, mouth opening ability, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and visual analog scale (for pain scoring). The number and the time of using rescue medication were recorded too. Results: Sixty patients completed the study. In all three groups, there was a significant increase in the mean cheek swelling measures, compared with the baseline, until day 5. The reduction in mouth opening ability was significant in all three groups, compared with the baseline, until day 5. There was no significant difference between ibuprofenand ginger groups in pain scores in all follow-up days. Number of required rescue medication on the day of surgery was significantly more in the placebo group. No significant or strong correlations were found between CRP levels and clinical findings. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can ban be concluded that gingerpowder is as effective as ibuprofenin the management of postsurgical sequelae. Furthermore, CRP levels alone are not suggested for the assessment of anti-inflammatory effects of drugs.

  19. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  20. 生姜综合利用研究进展及前景分析%Research Progress and Prospect Analysis of Ginger Comprehensive Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉峰; 徐立伟

    2011-01-01

    生姜是一种药食同源的保健品。简述生姜的营养价值及其保健作用,从生姜的药用、初加工和精深加工3个方面介绍其加工、利用现状,指出生姜在食品工业化生产中的作用,分析我国开展生姜综合利用研究的广阔市场前景。%Ginger can be both a medicine and food. This article makes analysis on the nutrition value and heahhcare functions of ginger The author examines the present state of ginger processing and utilization in terms of its medicine value, extensive and intensive processing, pointing out ginger's functions in food industrial production, and makes analysis on the market prospect in ginger's comprehensive utilization.

  1. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  2. A Synoviocyte Model for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Response to Ibuprofen, Betamethasone, and Ginger Extract—A Cross-Sectional In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ribel-Madsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining if synovial cell cultures from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and healthy controls (HC differ and are suitable disease models in pharmacological studies, and tested their response to some anti-inflammatory drugs. Synovial cells were isolated from synovial membrane or joint fluid. Cells were cultivated and exposed to no or TNF-α stimulation without, or in the presence of, betamethasone, ibuprofen, or a standardized ginger extract. Concentrations of a panel of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines were mapped for each culture and condition. Our cells secreted an increased amount of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in response to TNF-α stimulation in all conditions. OA cells showed a higher IL-6 and IL-8 and a lower IL-1β production, when not stimulated, than RA and HC cells, which were similar. TNF-α stimulation caused similar IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in all groups. Ibuprofen showed no effect on cytokine production, while ginger extract was similar to betamethasone. Ginger extract was as effective an anti-inflammatory agent as betamethasone in this in vitro model. Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes from OA and RA subjects promise to be a useful pharmacological disease model, but further studies, to support results from such a model are needed.

  3. Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Owen J; Grey, John B; Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Redmond, Wayne A; Porter, Noel G

    2003-08-13

    Ginger, black pepper, and chili powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO(2) and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at approximately 10% of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO(2), but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

  4. Study on Optimization of Process for Extracting Ginger Oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction Technology%超临界CO2萃取姜油树脂的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建立; 李公春

    2011-01-01

    [目的]优化采用超临界CO_2萃取取姜油树脂的工艺.[方法]利用超临界CO_2流体作为萃取溶剂从干姜中提取姜油树脂,研究萃取压力、萃取时间和萃取温度对姜油树脂萃取率的影响,通过正交试验确定了姜油树脂萃取工艺的最佳萃取条件.[结果]姜油树脂超临界CO_2萃取的最佳萃取工艺条件为:萃取压力35MPa,萃取时间2.5h,萃取温度40℃,在此条件下,姜油树脂的萃取率为2.86%.[结论]该研究可为调味料科研工作者和生产厂家提供参考.%[ Objective] The research aimed to optimize the process of extracting ginger oil by supercritical CO2 extraction technology. [ Method] The ginger oil was extracted from dry ginger by supercritical CO, fluid, and the effects of extraction pressure, extraction time and extraction temperature on extraction rate of ginger oil were studied. The optimum extraction condition of ginger oil was determined through orthogonal test. [Result] The optimum extraction process of ginger oil was extraction pressure of 35 Mpa, extraction time of 2.5 h, extraction temperature of 40 ℃. Under this condition, the extraction rate of ginger oil was 2.86%. [ Conclusion] The study can provide reference for scientists researching flavoring and manufacturers.

  5. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC(50 of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30-40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC(50 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml. Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20-40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53(neg SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  6. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  7. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Whelan, Rebecca J; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Ludwig, Kai; Subudhi, Enkateswar; Rowland, Helen; Claussen, Nick; Zucker, Noah; Uppal, Shitanshu; Kushner, David M; Felder, Mildred; Patankar, Manish S; Kapur, Arvinder

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE) are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC(50) of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30-40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC(50) 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml). Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20-40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53(neg) SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  8. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amino Acid and Secondary Metabolite Production in Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus of Fingerroot Ginger (Boesenbergia rotunda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Lee Mei Ng

    Full Text Available Interest in the medicinal properties of secondary metabolites of Boesenbergia rotunda (fingerroot ginger has led to investigations into tissue culture of this plant. In this study, we profiled its primary and secondary metabolites, as well as hormones of embryogenic and non-embryogenic (dry and watery callus and shoot base, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry together with histological characterization. Metabolite profiling showed relatively higher levels of glutamine, arginine and lysine in embryogenic callus than in dry and watery calli, while shoot base tissue showed an intermediate level of primary metabolites. For the five secondary metabolites analyzed (ie. panduratin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, cardamonin and alpinetin, shoot base had the highest concentrations, followed by watery, dry and embryogenic calli. Furthermore, intracellular auxin levels were found to decrease from dry to watery calli, followed by shoot base and finally embryogenic calli. Our morphological observations showed the presence of fibrils on the cell surface of embryogenic callus while diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester staining indicated the presence of flavonoids in both dry and embryogenic calli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that shoot base and dry and embryogenic calli contained starch reserves while none were found in watery callus. This study identified several primary metabolites that could be used as markers of embryogenic cells in B. rotunda, while secondary metabolite analysis indicated that biosynthesis pathways of these important metabolites may not be active in callus and embryogenic tissue.

  10. Study on the morphology, crystalline structure and thermal properties of yellow ginger starch acetates with different degrees of substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming, E-mail: zhanglmd@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xie, Weiguang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhao, Xi [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Liu, Ying [College of Bioengineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Gao, Wenyuan [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China)

    2009-11-10

    Yellow ginger starch acetates with different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared by reacting native starch with glacial acetic acid/acetic anhydride using sulfuric acid as catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of acetylated starch revealed that the crystal structure of native starch was disappeared and new crystalline regions were formed. Their formation was confirmed by the presence of the carbonyl signal around 1750 cm{sup -1}, as well as the reduced hydroxyl groups, in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested most of the starch granules disintegrated with many visible fragments along with the increasing DS. The thermal behavior of the native starch and starch acetate were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), it was observed that the thermal stability of acetylated starch depends on the degree of substitution. Thermal stability of high DS acetylated starch is much better than that of the original starch when DS reached to 2.67.

  11. Nutritional Evaluation of Complementary Food Gruels Formulated from Blends of Soybean Flour and Ginger Modified Cocoyam Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Ojinnaka

    Full Text Available The use of ginger modified starch and soybean flour blends in the formulation of low-cost, nutritive complementary food gruels were studied. The complementary food samples were analyzed for their nutritional, functional, anti-nutritional and sensory properties. The nutritional composition of the samples showed that the protein content increased with increased supplementation with the soybean flour from 2.68% in sample A (10:90 to 3.97% in sample D (40:60. The functional properties of the samples showed an increase in the swelling index and water absorption capacities from samples A to sample D while the bulk densities were relatively constant. The complementary food samples also showed low levels of oxalate and phytate in the range of 0.03 to 0.06% for oxalate and 0.04 to 0.07% for phytate. The sensory evaluation carried out on the complementary food samples after reconstituting into gruel with warm water, milk and sugar showed that all the samples were well accepted by the judges.

  12. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Kobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mice were randomly allocated into five groups of five animals each. Group I and II were given Tween 80 (1 ml/kg and diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg to serve as untreated and treated controls, respectively. Groups III-V received the extract at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All treatments were given for 6 consecutive days and through the oral route. The mean body weight, mean survival period and daily level of parasitaemia were evaluated. Results: Acute toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe. There was an insignificant increase in body weight and survival rate of mice treated with the extract. The level of parasitaemia in the extract treated groups was decreased. Conclusion: This study shows the in vivo potential of methanolic extract of Z. officinale in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  13. Hot air drying characteristics of mango ginger: Prediction of drying kinetics by mathematical modeling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Thirupathihalli Pandurangappa Krishna; Manohar, Balaraman

    2014-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada) was dried in a through-flow dryer system at different temperatures (40-70 °C) and air velocities (0.84 - 2.25 m/s) to determine the effect of drying on drying rate and effective diffusivity. As the temperature and air velocity increased, drying time significantly decreased. Among the ten different thin layer drying models considered to determine the kinetic drying parameters, semi empirical Midilli et al., model gave the best fit for all drying conditions. Effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.7 × 10(-10) m(2)/s to 12.5 × 10(-10) m(2)/s over the temperature and air velocity range of study. Effective moisture diffusivity regressed well with Arrhenius model and activation energy of the model was found to be 32.6 kJ/mol. Artificial neural network modeling was also employed to predict the drying behaviour and found suitable to describe the drying kinetics with very high correlation coefficient of 0.998.

  14. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  15. Oxidative stability, thermal stability and acceptability of coconut oil flavored with essential oils from black pepper and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Janu; Nayana, N; Roshini, N; Nisha, P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the oxidative and thermal stability of flavoured oils developed by incorporating essential oils from black pepper and ginger to coconut oil (CNO) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0% (CNOP-0.1, CNOP-1, CNOG-0.1, CNOG-1). The stability of oils were assessed in terms of free fatty acids, peroxide, p-anisidine, conjugated diene and triene values and compared with CNO without any additives and a positive control with synthetic antioxidant TBHQ (CNOT). It was found that the stability of CNOP-1 and CNOG-1 were comparable with CNOT at both study conditions. The possibility of flavoured oil as a table top salad oil was explored by incorporating the same in vegetable salad and was found more acceptable than the control, on sensory evaluation. The synergetic effect of essential oil as a flavour enhancer and a powerful natural antioxidant that can slow down the oxidation of fats was established in the study.

  16. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  17. TU-100 (Daikenchuto and ginger ameliorate anti-CD3 antibody induced T cell-mediated murine enteritis: microbe-independent effects involving Akt and NF-κB suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Ueno

    Full Text Available The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100 has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF and germ free (GF mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.

  18. Study on Formula and Clarification Process of Compound Beverage of Papaya and Ginger%番木瓜生姜复合饮料配方及澄清工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广河; 陈志芳

    2013-01-01

    Using papaya and ginger as the main materials, we studied formula and clarification process of compound beverage of papaya and ginger. The results showed that, the optimum formula of compound beverage of papaya and ginger was as follow, ratio of papaya juice and ginger juice was 3:2, the addition of sugar was 5.0%, the addition of citric acid was 0.15%, using 0.15 g·L-1 diatomite could improve the clarification of the papaya juice, using 0.20 g·L-1 pectinase could obviously improve clarification of the ginger juice. The final product had rich papaya aroma, pale ginger fragrance and good clarity, the transmittance was up to 86.2%.%以番木瓜和生姜为主要原料,对番木瓜生姜复合饮料的配方及澄清工艺进行了研究.结果表明,番木瓜生姜复合饮料的优化配方为:番木瓜汁与姜汁的配比为3∶2,白砂糖的添加量为5.0%,柠檬酸的用量为0.15%;采用0.15 g·L-1的硅藻土能明显提高番木瓜汁的澄清度,采用0.20 g·L-1的果胶酶能明显提高姜汁的澄清度.将两种清汁复合加工而成的番木瓜生姜复合饮料具有浓郁的番木瓜果香、淡淡的生姜芳香及良好的澄清度,透光率可达86.2%.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Oselys Rodriguez; Simioni, Patricia Ucelli; Gabriel, Dirce Lima; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Rosa, Paulo de Tarso Vieira; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Numerous plants from have been investigated due to their anti-inflammatory activity and, among then, extracts or components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sources of polyphenolic compounds. 6-gingerol from ginger rhizome and carnosic acid and carnosol from rosemary leaves present anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of these and other plant extracts is limited due to their high hydrophobicity. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a vehicle of liposoluble materials to mammalian cells in vitro, presenting enhanced cell penetration. Liposomes are also able to efficiently deliver agents to mammalian cells, being capable to incorporate in their structure not only hydrophobic molecules, but also hydrophilic and amphiphilic compounds. Another strategy is based on the use of Pluronic F-68, a biocompatible low-foaming, non-ionic surfactant, to disperse hydrophobic components. Here, these three delivery approaches were compared to analyze their influence on the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ginger and rosemary extracts, at different concentrations, on primary mammalian cells and on a tumor cell line. Ginger and rosemary extracts free of organic solvents were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and dispersed in DMSO, Pluronic F-68 or liposomes, in variable concentrations. Cell viability, production of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in vitro on J774 cell line and murine macrophages primary culture stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ after being exposed or not to these extracts. Ginger and rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of NO by peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells. The delivery vehicles influenced the anti-inflammatory effects. Comparatively, the ginger extract showed the

  20. Edible ginger-derived nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Prasad, Meena; Zhang, Yunchen; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Zhan; Han, Moon Kwon; Xiao, Bo; Xu, Changlong; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Merlin, Didier

    2016-09-01

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In this study, we characterized a specific population of nanoparticles derived from edible ginger (GDNPs 2) and demonstrated their efficient colon targeting following oral administration. GDNPs 2 had an average size of ∼230 nm and exhibited a negative zeta potential. These nanoparticles contained high levels of lipids, a few proteins, ∼125 microRNAs (miRNAs), and large amounts of ginger bioactive constituents (6-gingerol and 6-shogaol). We also demonstrated that GDNPs 2 were mainly taken up by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages, and were nontoxic. Using different mouse colitis models, we showed that GDNPs 2 reduced acute colitis, enhanced intestinal repair, and prevented chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). 2D-DIGE/MS analyses further identified molecular target candidates of GDNPs 2 involved in these mouse models. Oral administration of GDNPs 2 increased the survival and proliferation of IECs and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-22) in colitis models, suggesting that GDNPs 2 has the potential to attenuate damaging factors while promoting the healing effect. In conclusion, GDNPs 2, nanoparticles derived from edible ginger, represent a novel, natural delivery mechanism for improving IBD prevention and treatment with an added benefit of overcoming limitations such as potential toxicity and limited production scale that are common with synthetic nanoparticles.

  1. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahluji, Sepide; Attari, Vahide Ebrahimzade; Mobasseri, Majid; Payahoo, Laleh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Golzari, Samad E J

    2013-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale on some biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, 64 patients with DM2 were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2 g/d of each). A 3 d diet record, anthropometric measurements and concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FPG), HbA1c, lipid profile (including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein) and also the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were determined before and after 2 months of intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly lowered the levels of insulin (11.0 ± 2.3 versus 12.1 ± 3.3; p = 0.001), LDL-C (67.8 ± 27.2 versus 89.2 ± 24.9; p = 0.04), TG (127.7 ± 43.7 versus 128.2 ± 37.7; p = 0.03) and the HOMA index (3.9 ± 1.09 versus 4.5 ± 1.8; p = 0.002) and increased the QUICKI index (0.313 ± 0.012 versus 0.308 ± 0.012; p = 0.005) in comparison to the control group; while, there were no significant changes in FPG, TC, HDL-C and HbA1c (p > 0.05). In summary, ginger supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile in DM2 patients. Therefore it may be considered as a useful remedy to reduce the secondary complications of DM2.

  2. The Effect of Ginger on Blood Glucose, Lipid and Lipoproteins in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Najarzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays there is an uprising trend toward new approaches in type 2 diabetes management. In this study the effect of ginger supplementation on blood glucose, lipid and lipoproteins was examined in diabetic patients. Methods: 81 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this randomized clinical trial study within two-month interval. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Placebo (PG and supplemented (SG. SG group were supplemented with 3 capsules (1g ginger powder in each capsule and PG group received 3 microcrystalline cellulose capsules each day. Fasting blood glucose(FBS, fructose-amine, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, HDL-c and Apolipoproteins (Apo A1 and B100 were measured before and eight weeks after intervention. Results: Mean of LDL-c in SG before and after supplementation were 112.52 ± 22.09 and 106.10±20.78mg/dl(P=0.03, respectively. Also the results showed significant difference in levels of Apo A1 in SG and PG in the beginning and end of trial(P‹0.005. However no significant differences between groups were observed. Moreover no significant disparities were observed in level of Apo B100, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-c at the same period in studied groups. Mean FBS level after intervention in SG showed a 10.5% decrease(P=0.003, meanwhile a 21% increase in PG (P=0.01 was reported. Changes in mean HbA1c had a similar trend with mean FBS. Conclusion: This study indicates that ginger supplementation for type 2 diabetic patients would improve LDL-c, APO A1, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c parameters

  3. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  4. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  5. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Faizul Azam,1,2 Abdualrahman M Amer,1 Abdullah R Abulifa,1 Mustafa M Elzwawi1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Misurata University, Misurata, Libya; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nims Institute of Pharmacy, Nims University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale, despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931 between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated

  6. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

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    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  7. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara

  8. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Ginger Binds with Importin-α through Its Junction Domain for Nuclear Localization, and Further Interacts with NAC Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Sreekumar, Sweda; Sivakumar, K. C.; Tuteja, Narendra; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca2+ elevations in plant cells regulating the gene expression linked with various cellular processes like stress response, growth and development, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. Ginger is an extensively used spice due to its unique flavor and immense medicinal value. The two major threats that interfere with the large scale production of ginger are the salinity and drought stress. ZoCDPK1 (Zingiber officinale Calcium-dependent protein kinase 1) is a salinity and drought-inducible CDPK gene isolated from ginger and undergoes dynamic subcellular localization during stress conditions. ZoCDPK1, with signature features of a typical Ca2+ regulated kinase, also possesses a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in its junction domain (JD). A striking feature in ZoCDPK1 is the rare occurrence of a coupling between the NLS in JD and consensus sequences in regulatory domain. Here, we further identified its nature of nuclear localization and its interaction partners. In the homology model generated for ZoCDPK1, the regulatory domain mimics the crystal structure of the regulatory domain in Arabidopsis CDPK1. Molecular docking simulation of importin (ZoIMPα), an important protein involved in nuclear translocation, into the NLS of ZoCDPK1 was well-visualized. Furthermore, the direct interaction of ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα proteins was studied by the yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) system, which confirmed that junction domain (JD) is an important interaction module required for ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα binding. The probable interacting partners of ZoCDPK1 were also identified using Y2H experiment. Of the 10 different stress-related interacting partners identified for ZoCDPK1, NAC transcription factor (TF) needs special mention, especially in the context of ZoCDPK1 function. The interaction between ZoCDPK1 and NAC TF, in fact, corroborate with the results of gene expression and over-expression studies of ZoCDPK1. Hence

  9. 姜栀子炮制研究概况%Review on Processing Product of Gardenia jasminoids Roasted with Ginger Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨田; 肖永庆; 张村; 于定荣; 麻印莲; 顾雪竹

    2011-01-01

    Objective; By referring to the relevant literatures, it has been summarized the processing research of Gardenia jasminoids roasted with ginger juice. Method; The review has mainly contained the evolution of the processing history, the records of the processing procedures, the situation of processing technology, the variations of the chemical constituents and the pharmacological actions after being processed of G. Jasminoids roasted with ginger juice. Result; The processing method of G. Jasminoids roasted with ginger juice, which has been recorded in the processing procedures of many provinces, was firstly described in ( chanbao zalu). At present, it has not been well studied on the modern processing technology, chemical constituents and pharmacological actions. Conclusiod: It is necessary to research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of G. Jasminoids roasted with ginger deeply and systematically to reveal its processing principle and standardize its processing technology.%目的:研究姜栀子历史炮制情况及现代应用情况.方法:通过查阅、整理有关姜栀子的文献资料,对其炮制研究概况进行归纳总结.从姜栀子的炮制历史沿革、炮制规范收载情况、炮制工艺研究现状、炮制后化学成分和药理作用变化情况等几个方面进行综述.结果:姜栀子炮制方法始载于《产宝杂录》,在全国及数个省市的炮制规范中均有收载,目前对其炮制工艺、化学成分和药理作用的现代研究较少.结论:有必要深入、系统开展姜栀子的现代化学和药理研究,为揭示其炮制原理、规范其炮制工艺提供一定的参考依据.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50%. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp.

  11. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  12. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  13. Quality assessment of crude and processed ginger by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xianmei; Yu, Jiangyong; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Bin; Xue, Xingyang; Che, ChunTao; Meng, Jiang; Wang, Shumei

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive, simple, and validated high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry detection method was developed for three ginger-based traditional Chinese herbal drugs, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata. Chemometrics methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and analysis of variance, were also employed in the data analysis. The results clearly revealed significant differences among Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata, indicating variations in their chemical compositions during the processing, which may elucidate the relationship of the thermal treatment with the change of the constituents and interpret their different clinical uses. Furthermore, the sample consistency of Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata can also be visualized by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry analysis followed by principal component analysis/hierarchical cluster analysis. The comprehensive strategy of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis coupled with chemometrics should be useful in quality assurance for ginger-based herbal drugs and other herbal medicines.

  14. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  15. Characteristics and solutions of the turbidity of low-alcohol ginger wine%低度姜酒浑浊的特点及解决方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2011-01-01

    低度姜酒在生产销售过程中,易出现失光、浑浊等现象,通过分析姜酒非生物浑浊的类型与沉淀的成因、参与物质和影响因素,提出了通过加工工艺、过滤澄清工艺解决浑浊与沉淀的方法.希望为酿酒企业解决低度姜酒浑浊的问题提供参考.%The low-alcohol ginger wine was prone to losing light and having turbidity during its production and market period. These could affect appearance quality, the taste fiavour and stability of the low-alcohol ginger wine. Through analysis of the causes and types of ginger wine turbidity and precipitation and influencing factors, this article presented methods to solve the problem of turbidity and precipitation in low-ginger wine from material handling, clarification process, filtration technique and so on. It providod some references for brewing enterprises.

  16. The Inhibition of the Ginger Juice to the Bacteria%鲜姜汁对大肠杆菌及巨大芽孢杆菌的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟兴礼

    2013-01-01

    将新鲜生姜研磨过滤获得100%鲜姜汁,稀释成75%、50%、25%3个梯度浓度,以无菌水作为对照,以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus magaterium)为试验茵,采用滤纸贴片法测定抑茵作用,比较不同浓度姜汁的抑茵活性.结果表明,随着姜汁浓度的增大,抑茵作用增强.%Sterile crushed fresh ginger was filtered with four-layer gauze to obtain the 100% ginger extracting.Adding a certain volume of water by proportion to get the concentration of 75%,50% and 25%,and the sterile water was as the control.By filter paper patched method,the antibacterial activity of ginger juice against Escherichia coli and Bacillus magaterium with different concentration was compared.The results showed that the inhibition enhanced with the increasing of the concentration of ginger juice.

  17. Comparison of ginger powder properties by three processing technology%三种加工工艺对姜粉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芬; 崔素芬; 周主贵; 何全光; 李丽; 李志春; 李昌宝; 游向荣

    2012-01-01

    用热风烘干法、真空冷冻干燥法及喷雾干燥法三种工艺制备姜粉,比较分析了三种工艺制备所得姜粉的含水量、得率、姜酮及姜油含量,并对姜粉品质进行感官模糊评判.结果表明,三种工艺制备所得姜粉含水量为:真空冷冻干燥法>喷雾干燥法>热风烘干法;得率为:真空冷冻干燥法>热风烘干法>喷雾干燥法;姜油含量为:热风烘干法>喷雾于燥法>真空冷冻干燥法;三种工艺制备所得姜粉的姜酮含量无差异.感官模糊评价结果表明,真空冷冻干燥法所得姜粉品质最优,其次是喷雾干燥法和热风烘干法.综合各指标,真空冷冻干燥法在保持姜粉的姜酮、姜油含量,以及色泽、滋味、外观、组织状态等方面,均优于热风烘干法及喷雾干燥法,且得率也显著高于另两种工艺,可作为工业生产姜粉的一种很好的工艺选择.%Ginger powder was made by three different drying methods, hot air drying, vacuum freeze drying and spray drying. The properties of ginger powder included yield, water content, oil content and zingiberone content were compared. The results showed that the order of water content was as follows: vacuum freeze drying > hot air drying > spray drying. The yield order from each drying method was: vacuum freeze drying > hot air drying > spray drying. Oil content order was: hot air drying > vacuum freeze drying > spray drying. There was no difference on zingiberone content of zingiber powder obtained among three drying methods. Sensory fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the zingiber powder obtained by vacuum freeze drying technology had the best quality. Based on the above indicators, the performance of vacuum freeze drying in keeping the ginger oil and zingberone content is better than hot air drying and spray drying. The same result showed in ginger color, taste, exterior and texture, etc. The yield by vacuum freeze drying is also significantly higher

  18. 施氮量对生姜群体光合特性及产量和品质的影响%Effects of nitrogen rates on colon ial photosynt hesis,yield and qualities of ginger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坤; 郑国生; 王秀峰

    2001-01-01

    幼苗期随施N量的增加,生姜群体扩展加快,盛长期过多的N不利于生姜生长,而以施N600kg/hm2处理最佳。不同施N量处理的生姜群体光合速率(CPn)的季节变化为单峰曲线;日变化在幼苗期为双峰曲线,盛长期为单峰曲线。施N水平可显著影响生姜产量与品质,施N600kg/hm2处理产量达45330kg/hm2,较不施N及施N1200kg/hm2处理分别增产61.1%和23.7%。%A field experim ent was conduced to study on the application ofnitrogen fertilizer on ginger gr owth. The results showed that the colony of ginger developed rapidly with nitro g en fertilizer increase at seedling stage, but too much nitrogen was not favorabl e to the growth of ginger at vigorous growth stage, and application of N 600kg/h m2 on ginger growth was suitable. The seasonal changes of colonial photosynth e sis(CPn)with different nitrogen rates was in a single peak curve, the diurnal c h anges of CPn was a double peak curve at seedling stage and in a single peak curv e at vigorous growth stage. The yield and qualities of ginger was significantly affected by nitrogen level, the yield of ginger was 45330kg/hm2 in application of N 600kg/hm2, which was 61.1% and 23.7% higher than the control and appli ca tion of N 1200kg/hm2, respectively. The ginger yield with high nitrogen level decreased due to economic coefficient reduced.

  19. 没食子酸丙酯、壳聚糖对鲜切生姜保鲜特性的影响%Effects of Propyl Gallate and Chitosan on Preservation of Fresh-cut Ginger During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁君; 吴昊; 王成荣

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment,the effects of propyl gallate (PG)and chitosan on preservation of fresh-cut ginger during storage are investigated. Select gingers without scab and mechanical deterioration as test materials.The gingers are cut into 5 mm-thickness sheets after rinsing and peeling.The fresh-cut gingers are socked with three different treatments,including 0.20% PG, 1.50% chitosan and 0.20% PG+1.50% chitosan,and fresh-cut gingers without any reagent are used as control.The fresh-cut gingers are stored at 14 ℃ (± 1.0 ℃),then the changes of weight loss, browning degree,POD activity,MDA content,Vc content,hardness,elasticity and chewiness of fresh-cut gingers are determined.The results show that the three different treatments could delay the rise of weight loss and MDA content with a certain degree,reduce the browning speed,and inhibit the POD activity.At the same time,three different treatments could maintain the hardness and Vc content of fresh-cut gingers at a higher level and the chewiness and elasticity of fresh-cut gingers at a lower level.Compare with 0.20% PG and 1.50% chitosan,the effect of 0.20% PG + 1.50%chitosan treatment on preservation of fresh-cut ginger is the best.%试验研究了没食子酸丙酯(PG)、壳聚糖对鲜切生姜保鲜效果的影响。挑选无病虫害、无机械损伤的生姜,清洗去皮,用不锈钢刀切分成5 mm 薄片,用0.20% PG,1.50%壳聚糖和0.20% PG+1.50%壳聚糖3个不同溶液浸泡处理,以未加处理的鲜切生姜为对照组,在14℃(±1.0℃)恒温库中贮藏,每隔3天测定其失重率、褐变度、过氧化物酶(POD)活力、丙二醛含量、Vc 含量、硬度、弹性以及咀嚼性的变化。结果表明:3种不同处理均能够在一定程度上延缓鲜切生姜失重率和丙二醛含量的升高,降低鲜切生姜的褐变速率,抑制 POD 活性;同时,3种不同处理均使得鲜切生姜的 Vc 含量和硬度维持在较高水平,而其咀嚼性和弹性保持在较低水平。3

  20. The effect of the ginger on the apoptosis of hippochampal cells according to the expression of BAX and Cyclin D1 genes and histological characteristics of brain in streptozotocin male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molahosseini, A; Taghavi, M M; Taghipour, Z; Shabanizadeh, A; Fatehi, F; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Eftekhar Vaghefe, S H

    2016-10-31

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in humans with multiple complications including nervous system damages. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ginger extract on apoptosis of the neurons of hippocampus, via evaluation of BAX and Cyclin D1 and also histological analysis, in male diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats (220 ± 30gr) were conducted in 5 groups as follow: diabetic group treated with saline (group 1), normal group treated with saline (group 2), diabetic group treated with ginger (group 3), diabetic group treated with ginger-insulin (group 4), diabetic group treated with insulin (group 5). STZ (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally used to induce the diabetes. Expression levels of BAX and Cyclin D1 were examined using Real-Time PCR technique and the normality of neurons was evaluated using H&E staining method. The results showed that blood glucose level significantly decreased in group 4 when compared to group 1. In molecular analysis, there was no significant difference between groups regarding the expression of BAX gens, while, the expression of Cyclin D1 were significantly decreased in group 4 compared with group 1. Histological analysis revealed that pathological symptoms were lower in group 4 than the other diabetic groups. The results of present study showed that the ginger in addition to lowering blood sugar level, changes the expression of Cyclin D1 gene and histological characteristics in a positive manner. This means that the ginger may protects neurons of the hippocampus from apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  1. CDPK1 from ginger promotes salinity and drought stress tolerance without yield penalty by improving growth and photosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Tuteja, Narendra; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    In plants, transient changes in calcium concentrations of cytosol have been observed during stress conditions like high salt, drought, extreme temperature and mechanical disturbances. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in relaying these calcium signatures into downstream effects. In this study, a stress-responsive CDPK gene, ZoCDPK1 was isolated from a stress cDNA generated from ginger using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) - PCR technique and characterized its role in stress tolerance. An important aspect seen during the analysis of the deduced protein is a rare coupling between the presence of a nuclear localization sequence in the junction domain and consensus sequence in the EF-hand loops of calmodulin-like domain. ZoCDPK1 is abundantly expressed in rhizome and is rapidly induced by high-salt stress, drought, and jasmonic acid treatment but not by low temperature stress or abscissic acid treatment. The sub-cellular localization of ZoCDPK1-GFP fusion protein was studied in transgenic tobacco epidermal cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Over-expression of ginger CDPK1 gene in tobacco conferred tolerance to salinity and drought stress as reflected by the high percentage of seed germination, higher relative water content, expression o