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Sample records for kahili ginger hedychium

  1. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is an invasive weed in tropical forests in Hawaii and elsewhere. Bacterial wilt caused by the ginger strain of Ralstonia(=Pseudomonas) solanacearum systemically infects edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ornamental gingers (Hedychium spp.), causing wilt in infected plants. The suitability of R. solanacearum as a biological control agent for kahili ginger was investigated by inoculating seedlings and rooted cuttings of native forest plants, ornamental ginger, and solanaceous species to confirm host specificity. Inoculation via stem injection or root wounding with a bacterial–water suspension was followed by observation for 8 weeks. Inoculations on H. gardnerianum were then carried out in ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) wet forests of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to determine the bacterium's efficacy in the field. No native forest or solanaceous species developed wilt or other symptoms during the study. The bacterium caused limited infection near the inoculation site on H. coronarium, Z. zerumbet, Heliconia latispatha, and Musa sapientum. However, infection did not become systemic in any of these species, and normal growth resumed following appearance of initial symptoms. All inoculated H. gardnerianum plants developed irreversible chlorosis and severe wilting 3–4 weeks following inoculation. Systemic infection also caused death and decay of rhizomes. Most plants were completely dead 16–20 weeks following inoculation. The destructiveness of the ginger strain of R. solanacearum to edible ginger has raised questions regarding its use for biological control. However, because locations of kahili ginger infestations are often remote, the risk of contaminating edible ginger plantings is unlikely. The ability of this bacterium to cause severe disease in H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent.

  2. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  3. Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

  4. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  5. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  6. An Efficient In Vitro Regeneration System for Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved and efficient regeneration protocol was established for Hedychium via somatic embryogenesis. The plant material used consisted of 11 species and 9 cultivars of Hedychium. The explants consisted of young leaves taken from lateral or terminal shoots of mature greenhouse grown plants. These...

  7. Ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health Information Research Research Results ... by motion, chemotherapy, or pregnancy; rheumatoid arthritis; and osteoarthritis. Common forms of ginger include the fresh or ...

  8. Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

  9. Describing terminologies and discussing records: More discoveries of facultative vivipary in the genus Hedychium J.Koenig (Zingiberaceae) from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Ajith; Gowda, Vinita

    2018-01-01

    The authors introduce the term facultative vivipary for the first time in gingers and elaborate on this reproductive strategy. Four new observations of facultative vivipary are reported in the genus Hedychium which were discovered during botanical explorations by the authors in Northeast India (NE India) over the past three years. The viviparous taxa are H. marginatum C.B.Clarke, H. speciosum var. gardnerianum (Ker Gawl.) Sanoj & M.Sabu (previously, H. gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl.), H. thyrsiforme Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. and H. urophyllum G.Lodd. The authors also attempt to summarise the occurrence of vivipary in the family Zingiberaceae from published reports and to clarify a taxonomic misidentification in a previously known report of vivipary in Hedychium elatum .

  10. Describing terminologies and discussing records: More discoveries of facultative vivipary in the genus Hedychium J.Koenig (Zingiberaceae from Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Ashokan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce the term facultative vivipary for the first time in gingers and elaborate on this reproductive strategy. Four new observations of facultative vivipary are reported in the genus Hedychium which were discovered during botanical explorations by the authors in Northeast India (NE India over the past three years. The viviparous taxa are H. marginatum C.B.Clarke, H. speciosum var. gardnerianum (Ker Gawl. Sanoj & M.Sabu (previously, H. gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl., H. thyrsiforme Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. and H. urophyllum G.Lodd. The authors also attempt to summarise the occurrence of vivipary in the family Zingiberaceae from published reports and to clarify a taxonomic misidentification in a previously known report of vivipary in Hedychium elatum.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  12. Biologia floral de Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Zingiberaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joédia Argollo de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudada a biologia floral de Hedychium coronarium Koen., que ocorre em localidades de brejos e na beira de estradas, na cidade de Teresópolis (RJ, no período compreendido entre novembro de 2003 a julho de 2004. A floração segue o padrão anual assincrônico em nível populacional e ocorre nos meses de janeiro a abril, sendo a frutificação de março a maio. As flores são brancas, zigomorfas, hermafroditas nectaríferas, têm antese noturna e emitem um forte odor perceptível à longa distância. Os estaminódios constituem a “unidade de atração” para os visitantes florais. O androceu é composto de um único estame fértil e os grãos de pólen têm “pollenkitt”. O estigma é verde, úmido, côncavo e com pêlos uniformes ao seu redor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, com índices baixos de formação de frutos sob condições naturais. As flores de H. coronarium são importantes fontes de recursos para a fauna da região, oferecendo néctar e pólen como recompensa.

  13. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Hedychiums have been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities [4,5]. Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the plant...pathogens Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases affecting strawberries worldwide [6]. Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks is most...often associated with anthracnose crown rot of strawberries grown in hot, humid areas such as the southeastern United States [7]. The azalea lace bug

  14. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger ...

  15. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Hedychium Malayanum Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Yahya Abdo; Wan Yaacob Wan Ahmad; Laily Din; Nazlina Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Hedychium malayanum were hydro distilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus to give 0.038 and 0.009 % oils, respectively. Sixteen and seven compounds which made up 98.4 and 100 % of the respective oils were identified using capillary GC and GC-MS with a DB-5 column. These oils contained high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons with β-pinene being the main compound found in the leaves (39.1 %) and the stems (46.7 %) followed by α-pinene (22.3 %) and β-caryophyllene (13.7 %) which was found in the leaf oil and 1,8-cineole (17.7 %) and α-pinene (16.9 %) in the stem oil. Antioxidant test by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that the leaf oil was a stronger antioxidant (31.1 %) than Trolox (28.4 %), whereas the stem oil was the weakest antioxidant (23.9 %). β-Carotene bleaching (BCB) in linoleic acid showed that both oils were weaker antioxidants than butylated hydroxytoluene (96.8 % inhibition). However, the stem oil (79.8 %) showed a good inhibition whereas the leaf oil possessed a moderate capacity (54.7 %) to prevent the oxidation by linoleic acid. (author)

  17. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar. A suspension of ginger rhizomes with 12% of starch was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis process to obtain hydrolyzed with 85.6% of glucose. After the alcoholic fermentation the wine was obtained with 40.3% ethanol. The acetic fermentation process of ginger alcoholic solution followed a completely randomized design in a factorial for three factors at two levels. The independent variables were: temperature, nutrients and proportion of "strong vinegar" and alcoholic solution (initial acidity. Results showed variation from 2.74 to 3.70% for dry extract and 2.13 to 2.83 % for ash in vinegars. The profile of organic acids of ginger vinegars showed the presence of acetic, citric, malic and succinic acids in all treatments. The condition of 20°C, initial acidity 1:1,with addition of nutrients allow obtaining good quality vinegars and higher GK yields

  18. Morphology, distribution, and chromosome counts of two varieties of Hedychium villosum (Zingiberaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei YU; W. John KRESS; Jiang-Yun GAO

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy is a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. Two varieties of Hedychium villosum, var. villosum and var. tenuiflorum, primarily differ in plant and flower size. Chromosome number suggests that var. tenuiflorum is diploid (2n = 34) and var. villosum is tetraploid (2n = 68). Although the flowers of the two varieties do not have any difference in floral shape, each can be easily distinguished morphologically because the shoots, leaves, and flowers of the tetraploid var. villosum are consistently larger than the diploid var. tenuiflorum. The two varieties each possess distinct geographic ranges and habitats, and no sympatric distribution has been found.The tetraploid var. villosum has a broader geographic distribution range and more diverse ecological habitats than the diploid var. tenuiflorum. The two varieties are also completely reproductively isolated due to the non-overlap of their flowering times. The two varieties should be recognized as two distinct species as they fulfill the requirements of various species concepts. Thus, we suggested that the tetraploid var. villosum should be kept as Hedychium villosum and the diploid var. tenuiflorum should be renewed to Hedychium tenuiflorum.

  19. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W; Kjaer, S K; Dahl, C

    1991-01-01

    Thirty women participated in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial of the efficacy of a natural product, the powdered root of ginger (Zingiber officinale), and placebo in hyperemesis gravidarum. Three patients had to be withdrawn. Each woman swallowed capsules containing either 250 mg ginger...

  20. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Hedychium putaoense (Zingiberaceae, a new species from Putao, Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedychium putaoense Y.H. Tan & H.B. Ding, a new species of Zingiberaceae from Putao, Kachin state, Northern Myanmar, is described and illustrated. It is similar to H. densiflorum Wall. and H. longipedunculatum A.R.K. Sastry & D.M. Verma, but differs by its very small bract (4–6 × 2.5–3 mm vs. 18–19 × 5–5.5 mm and ca. 11 × 7 mm, respectively, semicircle and dark red bracteole, orange flower and broadly falcate to lanceolate lateral staminodes.

  2. GINGER: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.; Belfi, Jacopo; Ni, Wei-Tou; Beverini, Nicolo; Carelli, Giorgio; Maccioni, Enrico; Porzio, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity) is a proposal for an Earth-based experiment to measure the Lense-Thirring (LT) and de Sitter effects. GINGER is based on ring lasers, which are the most sensitive inertial sensors to measure the rotation rate of the Earth. We show that two ring lasers, one at maximum signal and the other horizontal, would be the simplest configuration able to retrieve the GR effects. Here, we discuss this configuration in detail showing that it would have the capability to test LT effect at 1%, provided the accuracy of the scale factor of the instrument at the level of 1 part in 1012 is reached. In principle, one single ring laser could do the test, but the combination of the two ring lasers gives the necessary redundancy and the possibility to verify that the systematics of the lasers are sufficiently small. The discussion can be generalised to seismology and geodesy and it is possible to say that signals 10-12 orders of magnitude below the Earth rotation rate can be studied; the proposed array can be seen as the basic element of multi-axial systems, and the generalisation to three dimensions is feasible adding one or two devices and monitoring the relative angles between different ring lasers. This simple array can be used to measure with very high precision the amplitude of angular rotation rate (the length of the day, LOD), its short term variations, and the angle between the angular rotation vector and the horizontal ring laser. Finally this experiment could be useful to probe gravity at fundamental level giving indications on violations of Einstein Equivalence Principle and Lorenz Invariance and possible chiral effects in the gravitational field.

  3. PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Hedychium coronarium RHIZOMES AND STARCH CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE RIZOMAS E AMIDO DO LÍRIO-DO-BREJO (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez ascheri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition of Hedychium coronarium rhizomes and isolate and characterize their starch by conducting physical and physicochemical analyses. The chemical composition of isolated starch granules was also determined, as well as shape, size, particle distribution size by laser diffraction, paste viscosity by rapid visco-analysis, swelling power, water solubility index, thermal property by differential scanning calorimetry, and crystallinity by X-ray diffraction. Rhizomes presented high water content and low lipids, carbohydrates, ash, protein and fiber levels. Due to its low dry matter content (17.3%, with 21.97% of starch, as well as long fibers and latex, which hamper starch extraction, the white ginger lily rhizomes are not interesting as a starch source. The isolated starch showed 99.2% purity, with 37.2% of amylase content. The starch granules presented an irregular polyhedral shape and average size of 38.2 ?m. The crystalline structure of the starch granules was type A, which is maintained by strong internal associative forces that reduce water solubility. The starch gelatinization temperature occurs between 73.1ºC and 78.7°C. The starch paste viscosity profile showed high stability at 95°C and high tendency to retrograde, suggesting its use in adhesive and food industries

  4. Characterization of two monoterpene synthases involved in floral scent formation in Hedychium coronarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuechong; Yu, Rangcai; Fan, Yanping

    2014-10-01

    Hedychium coronarium, a perennial herb belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, is cultivated as a garden plant or cut flower as well as for medicine and aromatic oil. Its flowers emit a fresh and inviting scent, which is mainly because of monoterpenes present in the profile of the floral volatiles. However, fragrance produced as a result of monoterpenes has not been well studied. In the present study, two novel terpene synthase (TPS) genes (HcTPS7 and HcTPS8) were isolated to study the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in H. coronarium. In vitro characterization showed that the recombinant HcTPS7 was capable of generating sabinene as its main product, in addition to nine sub-products from geranyl diphosphate (GPP). Recombinant HcTPS8 almost specifically catalyzed the formation of linalool from GPP, while it converted farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to α-bergamotene, cis-α-bisabolene, β-farnesene and other ten sesquiterpenes. Subcellular localization experiments revealed that HcTPS7 and HcTPS8 were located in plastids. Real-time PCR analyses showed that HcTPS7 and HcTPS8 genes were highly expressed in petals and sepals, but were almost undetectable in vegetative organs. The changes of their expression levels in petals were positively correlated with the emission patterns of sabinene and linalool, respectively, during flower development. The results indicated that HcTPS7 and HcTPS8 were involved in the biosynthesis of sabinene and linalool in H. coronarium flowers. Results on these two TPSs first characterized from H. coronarium provide new insights into molecular mechanisms of terpene biosynthesis in this species and also lay the basis for biotechnological modification of floral scent profile in Hedychium.

  5. Genetic diversity and relationship of Hedychium from Northeast India as dissected using PCA analysis and hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Supriyo; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kesari, Vigya; Parida, Ajay; Mitra, Sudip; Rangan, Latha

    2014-12-01

    Molecular genetic fingerprints of eleven Hedychium species from Northeast India were developed using PCR based markers. Fifteen inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and five amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers produced 547 polymorphic fragments. Positive correlation (r = 0.46) was observed between the mean genetic similarity and genetic diversity parameters at the inter-species level. AFLP and ISSR markers were able to group the species according to its altitude and intensity of flower aroma. Cophenetic correlation coefficients between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix were significant for ISSR (r = 0.89) compared to AFLP (r = 0.83) markers. This genetic characterization of Hedychium from Northeast India contributes to the knowledge of genetic structure of the species and can be used to define strategies for their conservation and management.

  6. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker-Gawl

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Miguel; Viana, Hugo; Rainha, Nuno; Neng, Nuno R.; Rosa, José Silvino; Nogueira, José M. F.; Barreto, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Hedychium gardnerianum leaf essential oils from S. Miguel Island were determined. All the oils inhibited acetylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of approximately 1 mg/mL, showing no statistical differences between collection sites. Three oils presented mixed inhibition, whilst one was almost truly competitive. This activity can be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes, which constituted more than 60% of the composi...

  7. Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as ...

  8. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  9. Morphometric and agronomic characterization of 56 ginger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-04-30

    Apr 30, 2016 ... 2011). Ginger is native to India and South East ... al., 2012), in vitro tissue culture (Hiremath, 2006 ;. Hossain et al. ... and Malaysia (Jatoi and Watanabe, 2013). However ..... conditions have a great influence on expression of.

  10. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  11. Composition of Hedychium Malayanum Rhizome Essential Oil and Its Antioxidant Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Yahya Abdo; Wan Yaacob Wan Ahmad; Laily Bin Din; Nazlina Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The Hedychium malayanum rhizome oil with a yield of 0.079 % was obtained after hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Nineteen compounds representing 99.5 % of the total amount of oil were identified using capillary GC and GC-MS with a DB-5 column. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes (99.0 %) with 1,8-cineole (37.7 %), β-pinene (35.2 %) and α-pinene (10.9 %) being the most abundant constituents. The oil was studied for its antioxidant activities by three different tests, involving its effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (radical scavenging activity, RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) in linoleic acid system. The oil showed fairly good activities toward all the above tests compared to the standards except in the case of FIC, where the standard ascorbic acid possessed weaker chelating ability than the oil. RSA was calculated as IC_5_0, and the respective values for gallic acid, ascorbic acid and the oil were 1.8 ± 0.06, 3.5 ± 0.30 and 140.3 ± 1.46 μg/mL. For BCB, the oil and standard BHT had possessed high and very high capacity (87.2 ± 1.00 and 96.8 ± 0.21 % respectively) to prevent the oxidation by linoleic acid. FIC activity showed that the oil and standard ascorbic acid were weaker chelating than EDTA (IC_5_0 86.9 ± 0.70 μg/ mL). However, the oil showed a fairly good chelating (IC_5_0 283.3 ± 5.26 μg/ mL) whereas the ascorbic acid possessed a weak activity to chelate Fe"2"+ (IC_5_0 1428.6 ± 7.04 μg/ mL). (author)

  12. 40 CFR 721.10141 - Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. 721... Substances § 721.10141 Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum (PMN P-06...

  13. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% and 21.44% for tomato and ginger respectively, implying that the producers/marketers of both tomato and ginger will make highest returns if they stored and sold to other (urban/international) markets during periods of ...

  14. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, D L; De Rooster, K; Du Toit, L W [Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Inst., Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1979-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process.

  15. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, D.L.; De Rooster, K.; Du Toit, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process

  16. A Study of Ginger Herbal Pharmacopuncture for Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Woo Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to present the standard for practical application of ginger herbal pharmacopuncture Material and Methods : We refer to ancient literatures and the recent papers for ginger. Conclusions : The following results have been obtained 1. The effect of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe is to "release exterior", "balance nutrient & defe nsive qi", "resolve phlegm", "arrest coughing", "warm the lungs". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating fever, chilling sign, headchae, snuffle and gasping cough due to cold affection and treating the symptoms like sputum and asthma that be revealed by pulmonary disease. 2. The effect of ginger is to "warm spleen and stomach", "arrest vomiting" "promote normal flow of water". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea due to phlegm & dampness and treating edema. 3. The effect of ginger is to eliminate blood stasis. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating contusion, blood stasis, sprain and gynecologic disease. 4. Ginger can treat myalgia and pain due to wind-damp and have anti-inflammatory effect in pharmacology. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating disease of joint, ligament and muscle. 5. Ginger can resolve phlegm and resuscitate. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating unconsciousness. But, treating incipient cardiovascular accident, it needs to call your special attention to the danger of blood pressure increase. 6. In pharmacology, ginger is effective for antitumor, antioxidant effects and activating immunocyte. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating broadly varieties of tumor and allergic disease.

  17. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  18. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  19. Anticoagulant activity of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines with anticoagulant therapeutic claims could serve as veritable sources of new oral anticoagulant drugs with possible wider safety margins than the currently available ones. Objectives: This work was aimed at evaluating a Ginger Rhizome Methanolic Extract in vivo in rats for its potential ...

  20. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  1. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  2. Chemical and microbial quality of irradiated ground ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh ground ginger was irradiated with a 10-kGy ionizing radiation dose from a Cobalt-60 source. Gamma radiation decreased most of the extractable volatile flavor components. Those known to contribute to typical ginger flavor, e.g., zingiberene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta-bisabolene, farnesene isomers, arcurcumene, and alpha-cubebene, decreased 27-59% following irradiation. Most odors recognized through gas chromatography/olfactometry produced similar patterns from irradiated and nonirradiated samples. The radiation treatment reduced the aerobic microbial population from 10(8) to 10(1) CFU/g. Sensory qualities of flavor, color and odor of ginger powder were similar for treated and untreated ginger

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, E.C.; Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert. (auth.)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, E C; Patel, J D; Shah, J J [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Biosciences

    1980-06-01

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert.

  5. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker-Gawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvino Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Hedychium gardnerianum leaf essential oils from S. Miguel Island were determined. All the oils inhibited acetylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of approximately 1 mg/mL, showing no statistical differences between collection sites. Three oils presented mixed inhibition, whilst one was almost truly competitive. This activity can be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes, which constituted more than 60% of the composition of the oils. Regarding the antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH method, all the oils presented activities similar to reference compounds, although with statistical differences between collection sites. Cytotoxicity measured using Artemia salina classified these oils as moderately toxic, with LC50 values ranging from 300 to 500 µg/mL. These results indicate a possible application of these oils in aromatherapy as coadjuvants in the treatment of cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer, since they may contribute to increase acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and simultaneously fight deleterious oxidations responsible by neurological degeneration.

  6. Ginger-supplemented diet ameliorates ammonium nitrate-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of ginger to repair the oxidative stress induced by ammonium nitrate. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups; they underwent an oral treatment of ammonium nitrate and/or ginger (N mg/kg body weight + G% in diet) during 30 days. Group I served as control (C); ...

  7. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is the second most widely cultivated spice in Ethiopia, next to chilies. Recently, there has been huge demand for clean planting material of improved ginger cultivars, though it is difficult to meet the demand of planting materials using the conventional propagation techniques due to ...

  8. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  9. Nigeria in World Ginger Trade: An analysis of performance from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the performance of Nigeria in the world ginger trade using available secondary data from the United Nations commodity trade statistics. The trade performance of Nigeria was based on world ginger export characteristics, value of trade and quantity traded from 2008 to 2012 assessed on yearly and ...

  10. Use of gemcitabine and ginger extract infusion may improve the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination of effective chemopreventive agent (such as ginger) with chemotherapeutic agents may enhance efficacy while reducing toxicity to normal tissues, resulting in better survival. In this study, we observed that treatment of human cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa with ethanolic ginger extract in combination with ...

  11. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in maleWistar rats ...

  12. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  13. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...

  14. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathilake KDPP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available KDPP Gunathilake,1 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a globally known food and flavoring ingredient which is also reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits. Over the last 2 decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify bioactive constituents and medicinal potential of ginger. This review deliberates chemical composition as well as the most recent research findings on potential health benefits of ginger, including its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antiplatelet aggregation, chemopreventive, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic properties. Keywords: ginger, gingerols, medicinal properties, Zingiber officinale, health

  15. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GINGER OIL AGAINST FOOD BORN PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAHA, S.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of ginger oil against Food Born pathogens and the effect of heating, microwave heating and gamma irradiation on microbiological quality and antibacterial activity of ginger oil. Growth and survival of A. hydrophila and L. monocytogenes in broth media and carrot juice with different concentrations of ginger oil was also studied. Gram-negative bacteria were more resistant than gram-positive bacteria. Heating at 80 0 C for 10 min did not change the antibacterial activity of ginger oil, whereas heating at 100 0 C for 5 min and autoclaving at 121 0 C for 15 min caused slight reduction in antibacterial activity in most microorganisms tested. Heating by microwave of ginger oil destroyed its antibacterial activity against B. cereus although it still works against other microorganisms tested. The dose 6 kGy caused slight reduction in antibacterial activity of ginger oil, whereas the dose 10 kGy caused markedly reduction in antibacterial activity of ginger oil against most microorganisms tested. Ginger oil was more effective on L. monocytogenes as compared with its effect on A. hydrophila in tryptone soya broth at 4 0 C or 25 0 C. Supplementation of ginger oil with carrot juice was more effective on A. hydrophila and L. monocytogenes than in tryptone soya broth and this effect was increased with increasing the time of incubation and the concentration of ginger oil. These results support the notion that plant essential oils may have an important role as pharmaceuticals and food preservatives

  17. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  19. Atheroprotective potentials of curcuminoids against ginger extract in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, M M; Younis, N N; Elswefy, S E; Abdallah, F R; El-Dahmy, S I; Elnagar, G; Kassem, H M

    2015-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic potentials of total ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract (TGE) or curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), members of family Zingiberaceae, were compared in hypercholesterolaemia. Rabbits were fed either normal or atherogenic diet. The rabbits on atherogenic diet received treatments with TGE or curcumenoids and placebo concurrently for 6 weeks (n = 6). The anti-atherogenic effects of curcuminoids and ginger are mediated via multiple mechanisms. This effect was correlated with their ability to lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. Ginger extract exerted preferential effects on plasma lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol synthesis and inflammatory status. Curcuminoids, however, showed superior antioxidant activity.

  20. Technology of sprouting inhibition by irradiation for ginger storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuangqing; Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Lei Peng

    2003-01-01

    The study results showed that the proper irradiation dose for ginger sprouting inhibition was 0.08-0.40 kGy and the maximum tolerable irradiation dose for ginger was 0.4 kGy. Treatment with proper irradiation combined with PE film package could keep ginger fresh after 120 days of storage and the fresh ratio was above 90%. In order to obtain good storage results, keeping lower absorbed dose ununiformity was necessary. Content of V C and Ca was not affected by the irradiation with 0.08-0.25 kGy

  1. Effect of methotrexate combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... the same MTX dose combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis oral administration. The doses of ... Propolis (bee glue) is a natural antioxidant produced .... labeled by VIC fluorescent dye and the three target gene cDNA.

  2. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Asl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods: 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results: MDMA treatment resulted in a significant increase in caspase 3, 8, and 9 as compared to the sham group (p<0.001. Ginger administration however, appeared to significantly decrease the same (p<0.001. Discussion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to the improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. In vitro mutagenesis of red ginger (Alpinia purpurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamseejan, S.; Ubonprasert, B.; Kareeros, P.; Pungkan, V.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma rays and in vitro culture techniques were used for mutation induction experiment in red ginger. Shoot clusters of red ginger were treated with gamma rays at 0, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy. Treated shoots were then isolated and transferred individually to fresh medium. L D 50 was calculated based on a number of surviving plants in each treatment at 30 days after irradiation. L D 50 for in vitro vulture of red ginger was approximately 20 Gy. In an attempt to isolate mutants by sub culturing 3 times at 1 month interval, two mutants were isolated. One mutant has a normal growth with numerous white streaks on green leaves. The other mutant has darkly wrinkled leaves with abnormal plant type. These mutants were both isolated from in vitro culture of red ginger treated with 10 Gy of gamma rays

  4. Antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Ginger extracts were obtained using solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanolic soxhlet and water. The extracts were assayed for antibacterial activity and bacterial growth inhibition activity. The results showed that all the extracts except the ...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the the quality of ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, K.; Khawaja, M.A.; Salahuddin' Kausar, T.

    1998-01-01

    Ginger (Zingebar officinale) was irradiated with gamma rays (10 k and 100 k rad) and stored at room temperature in sand, in refrigerator and deep freezer. 10 k rad. dose was most appropriate because it kept the texture of ginger intact for a longer storage period without affecting its important food ingredients i.e. moisture, soluble, insoluble ash and proteins, total sugar, soluble and reducing sugar contents. (author)

  6. Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2015-09-01

    Gingerols are the major pungent compounds present in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and are renowned for their contribution to human health and nutrition. Medicinal properties of ginger, including the alleviation of nausea, arthritis and pain, have been associated with the gingerols. Gingerol analogues are thermally labile and easily undergo dehydration reactions to form the corresponding shogaols, which impart the characteristic pungent taste to dried ginger. Both gingerols and shogaols exhibit a host of biological activities, ranging from anticancer, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic to various central nervous system activities. Shogaols are important biomarkers used for the quality control of many ginger-containing products, due to their diverse biological activities. In this review, a large body of available knowledge on the biosynthesis, chemical synthesis and pharmacological activities, as well as on the structure-activity relationships of various gingerols and shogaols, have been collated, coherently summarised and discussed. The manuscript highlights convincing evidence indicating that these phenolic compounds could serve as important lead molecules for the development of therapeutic agents to treat various life-threatening human diseases, particularly cancer. Inclusion of ginger or ginger extracts in nutraceutical formulations could provide valuable protection against diabetes, cardiac and hepatic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  8. Ginger Stimulates Hematopoiesis via Bmp Pathway in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Moshal, Karni S.; Grimes, Matthew; Zahora, Braden; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin; Leung, TinChung

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is a hematologic disorder with decreased number of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells differentiate, are conserved in humans, mice and zebrafish. The only known agents available to treat pathological anemia are erythropoietin and its biologic derivatives. However, erythropoietin therapy elicits unwanted side-effects, high cost and intravenous or subcutaneous injection, warranting the development of a more cost effective and non-peptide alternative. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine; however, to date there is no scientific research documenting the potential of ginger to stimulate hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized gata1:dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos to investigate the effect of ginger extract on hematopoiesis in vivo and we identified its bioactive component, 10-gingerol. We confirmed that ginger and 10-gingerol promote the expression of gata1 in erythroid cells and increase the expression of hematopoietic progenitor markers cmyb and scl. We also demonstrated that ginger and 10-gingerol can promote the hematopoietic recovery from acute hemolytic anemia in zebrafish, by quantifying the number of circulating erythroid cells in the dorsal aorta using video microscopy. We found that ginger and 10-gingerol treatment during gastrulation results in an increase of bmp2b and bmp7a expression, and their downstream effectors, gata2 and eve1. At later stages ginger and 10-gingerol can induce bmp2b/7a, cmyb, scl and lmo2 expression in the caudal hematopoietic tissue area. We further confirmed that Bmp/Smad pathway mediates this hematopoiesis promoting effect of ginger by using the Bmp-activated Bmp type I receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin, LND193189 and DMH1. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a strong foundation to further evaluate the molecular mechanism of ginger and its bioactive components during hematopoiesis and to investigate their

  9. Determination of flavonoids, phenolic acid and polyalcohol in Butea monosperma and Hedychium coronarium by semi-preparative HPLC Photo Diode Array (PDA Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi preparative HPLC method with PDA Detector was proposed for the determination of one phenolic acid, three flavonoids and one polyalcohol from Butea monosperma and Hedychium coronarium in gradient elution system. The influence of composition of the mobile phase concentration of the mix modifier and temperature on the separation of gallic acid, quercetin, iso-butrin, butrin and eugenol for 90 min was studied. Two different gradient programmes were used to separate these components. The lower limit of quantification of phenolic acid, flavonoids and eugenol is 0.050–0.150 μg/mL and was determined by the least square method and a good correlation was obtained for all separated components.

  10. The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents ... The preservative effects of garlic and ginger was compared with that of sodium ... reduced health risks of infection and/or intoxication from their consumption.

  11. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger ) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis . Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis . Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. The IC 50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis . It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.

  12. Effects of pricking, sun-drying and sieving on Ginger (Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pricking, sun drying and sieving on the color retention of Nigerian yellow bark ginger were investigated. The exterior and interior surface of fresh, pricked and sun dried medium sized Nigerian ginger rhizomes (Tafin giwa) were analysed for colour variation. The colour values of the exterior surface of fresh ginger ...

  13. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenabi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of ginger in providing relief to patients of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: The clinical trial was conducted at Toyserkan Azad University in western Iran from July 10 to September 5, 2010. It comprised of 70 female students of the university with primary dysmenorrhoea. The subjects were randomly divided in to two equal groups and were given either placebo or ginger in capsule form for 3 days in first menstruation cycles. They graded the severity of their pain using a visual analogue scale. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess response to treatment. Wilcoxor's rank-sum test was used to compare the severity of pain in the two groups. Results: Compared with the baseline, the decrease in the visual analogue scores of post-therapy pain in the ginger group was significantly greater than that for placebo group. In the ginger group, 29 (82.85%) subjects reported an improvement in nausea symptoms, compared with 16 (47.05%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Ginger is effective in minimising the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhoea. (author)

  14. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  15. en flores de ginger (Alpinia purpurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de 3 condiciones de luz (completa-548,63 W m-2, media luz-280,02 W m-2, sombra-76,38 W m-2, el uso de repelentes (ajo más chile, neem y pichichío y el uso de bolsas de exclusión, en el daño de Cholus pilicauda a las flores de ginger rosado (Alpinia purpurata en una plantación asociada con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana. El embolse de las flores redujo significativamente el número de flores dañadas, independientemente de la intensidad lumínica. No se encontró diferencias entre el número de flores dañadas con el uso de Azatina®

  16. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Update on the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Pereira, Manisha Maria; D'Souza, Jason Jerome; Pallaty, Princy Louis; Bhat, Harshith P; Popuri, Sandhya

    2011-07-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger, is one of the most widely used spice and condiment. It is also an integral part of many traditional medicines and has been extensively used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, Tibb-Unani, Srilankan, Arabic, and African traditional medicines, since antiquity, for many unrelated human ailments including common colds, fever, sore throats, vomiting, motion sickness, gastrointestinal complications, indigestion, constipation, arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, and helminthiasis. The putative active compounds are nonvolatile pungent principles, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone. These compounds are some of the extensively studied phytochemicals and account for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and gastroprotective activities. A number of preclinical investigations with a wide variety of assay systems and carcinogens have shown that ginger and its compounds possess chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects. A number of mechanisms have been observed to be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger. The cancer preventive activities of ginger are supposed to be mainly due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant pathways, alteration of gene expressions, and induction of apoptosis, all of which contribute towards decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. This review provides concise information from preclinical studies with both cell culture models and relevant animal studies by focusing on the mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action. The conclusion describes directions for future research to establish its activity and utility as a human cancer preventive and therapeutic drug. The above-mentioned mechanisms of ginger seem to be promising for cancer prevention; however, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of ginger.

  18. Irradiated pepper and ginger detected by viscosity and starch measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmueler, F.; Meier, W.

    1999-01-01

    Starch and rheological measurements of alkaline suspensions of white pepper, black pepper and ginger are a useful tool to distinguish not irradiated samples from the gamma-treated spices (dose gtoreq 2 kGy). In addition it is shown that starch is not the material which determines the different rheological behaviour of the alkaline suspensions of the spices. The differences in the viscosity data are rather due to irradiation damages of polymers which are enriched in the cell wall material of the pepper grains and the roots of the ginger

  19. Solid state fermentation of Trichoderma viride for enhancement phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2018-05-04

    The phenolic content of methanolic and water extracts of ginger fermented by Trichoderma spp. during solid state fermentation (SSF) was detected as compared with unfermented ginger. The total phenolic content of fermented ginger increased several times. The highest phenolic content of ginger was detected after SSF by T. viride. The optimal physiological conditions for the maximum production of the phenolic content and β-glucosidase activity of fermented ginger by T. viride were detected at day 7 incubation, pH 6.0, 30°C and 30% moisture. There are consistent between the maximum production of β-glucosidase and phenolic content. The SSF of ginger by T. viride greatly enhanced the antioxidant potency of phenolic compounds by using DPPH and ABTS assays. Potent antibacterial activity was appeared by phenolic compounds of fermented ginger against all the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Ginger and its Active Constituents: Potential for New Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.

  1. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  2. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  3. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  5. Possible hypocholesterolemic effect of ginger and rosemary oils in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group (Ic): rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of rosemary oil. Group (Id): Rats received i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of ginger oil and rosemary oil (1:1). The second main ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-02-01

    Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believed that ginger was a vermifuge as well as a remedy for paralysis and obstructive jaundice. They also revealed that this phytomedicine cures diarrhea due to corrupted food. This study aimed to compare the medicinal properties (afaal) of ginger in ITM with those indicated in modern research. Results of this study showed that the modern phytotherapy confirmed some of the properties of ginger. In addition, some of the properties of this phytomedicine have not been studied yet. By studding the ITM literature, herb elements or in other words ITM keywords, researchers can predict and state some unknown or less known potential pharmacologic effects of medicinal plants.

  7. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Folmer, V N; Bliddal, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral ginger for symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by carrying out a systematic literature search followed by meta-analyses on selected studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ...

  8. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  9. Use of gemcitabine and ginger extract infusion may improve the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Key words: Gemcitabine, ginger, chemotherapy, chemoprevention, cytotoxicity, cervical cancer. INTRODUCTION ... leading to side effects such as nausea and vomiting. (64%) ... indole- 3 -carbinol (I3C), curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin- 3 ... kindly provided by Dr. K. Satyamoorthy (Manipal University, India).

  10. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...

  11. Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Sodium Arsenite- Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenite is a major environmental chemical and a known reproductive toxicant via the depression of spermatogenesis and androgenesis in males. The possibility of sodium arsenite reproductive toxicity been caused by autooxidation was investigated in this study taking advantage of the anti-oxidant properties of ginger and ...

  12. Effect Of Ginger Extract On Gasoline Associated Immunitoxicities In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ginger extracts on gasoline associated immunotoxicities in wistar rats was studied. Fifteen wistar rats were randomly assigned into three study groups. Group 1 was the control, while groups 2 and 3 received daily treatment by inhalation of gasoline vapour. The animals in group3 were also treated with 100mg ...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw cassava starch has been used as thickener and binder in the formulation of water based paint, but with a problem of loss of viscosity in a very short period. This study evaluates the modification of cassava starch using active component of ginger extract and its use as a water- based paint thickener. 150 g of starch in ...

  14. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-07-01

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on histology, blood profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on the histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers. The birds were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments replicated three times in a completely Randomized Design.

  16. ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on intestinal, caeca microbial loads and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on growth, carcass and microbial population of broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to three treatments replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment consisted ...

  17. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of two spices namely ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) were prepared in 0.4, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6% concentrations. Soymilk and kunuzaki, were treated, respectively with the different concentrations and stored at ambient temperature for 5 days. The microbial load and identification were ...

  18. Hypoglycemic Interactive Effects of Ginger Eextract and Eendurance Training in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia due to non-regulation of blood glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic interactive effects of Ginger extract and endurance training in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 40 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, endurance training, Ginger extract and endurance training with Ginger extract. The training groups ran 8 to 16 meters per minute for four weeks, five sessions per week, and each session for 30 minutes on treadmill. Ginger extract groups received daily 100 mg/kg Ginger extract intraperitoneal for four weeks. At the end, levels of fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 software using dependent T-test, one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Findings: Levels of fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in endurance training group, Ginger extract group and endurance training with Ginger extract group were significantly lower than control group. Also, levels of fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in endurance training with Ginger extract group were significantly lower than endurance training group and Ginger extract group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Endurance training with use of Ginger extract has hypoglycemic interactive effects on improving glucose indices in diabetic rats, leading to a decrease in levels of fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Comparison ginger and resistance training on primary dysmenorrhea in female students of Shiraz university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Saadat nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some remedies have been suggested for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, some free of side effects treatment methods such as herbal drugs and exercise are especially important .The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ginger and resistance training on physical and psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: 60 nonathletic female collegiate students of Shiraz university participated in this study voluntarily and were divided randomly to 4 groups including 15 persons ( exercise +placebo, exercise + ginger, ginger, and placebo. Ginger groups were prescribed 250 mg of ginger, four times a day for 3 days from beginning of menstruation and placebo groups were recommended the same prescription with 250 mg of placebo drug. Exercise with ginger or placebo groups participated in 2 months of progressive resistance training (3 times a week besides consuming Ginger or placebo drugs. Menstrual symptoms were recorded with using validated questionnaire, before intervention and during two consecutive periods of menstruation. The analysis was performed with using Covariate analysis of variance with repeated measures by SPSS version 16 . Results: A significant reduction was found in physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea in groups of Ginger but no significant statistically changes were found within other groups. Comparison of four groups indicated more significant reduction of physical symptoms in ginger groups compared with other groups. There were no significant difference in psychologic symptoms within and between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Ginger is recommended for treatment of physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

  20. Composition and in vitro cytotoxic activities of essential oil of Hedychium spicatum from different geographical regions of western Himalaya by principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Sanjeev; Datta, Dipak; Dixit, Prateek; Kumar, Anil; Meena, Baleshwar; Rana, T S; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Hedychium spicatum has been widely used in traditional medicines. The present study deals with the evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of rhizome essential oils from four different regions of the Western Himalaya (India) along with comparative correlation analysis to characterise the bioactive cytotoxic component. The essential oils were coded as MHS-1, MHS-2, MHS-3 and MHS-4, and characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS. The main volatile compounds identified were 1,8-cineol, eudesmol, cubenol, spathulenol and α-cadinol. In vitro cytotoxic activities were assessed against human cancer cell lines such as, the lung (A549), colon (DLD-1, SW 620), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), head and neck (FaDu), and cervix (HeLa). MHS-4 is significantly active in comparison to other samples against all cancer cell lines. Sample MHS-4 has major proportion of monoterpene alcohol mainly 1,8-cineol. Principal components analysis was performed for the experimental results and all four samples were clustered according to their percentage inhibition at different doses.

  1. Phytochemicals Boost Anti-inflammatory Effect Against Gamma Radiation: Activities of Ginger and Coriander Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, H.S.; Hassan, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemicals are known to modulate immune function, and possess antitumor and antimicrobial properties. The present study is conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of ginger and coriander extracts against tumor cells (MTT), anti-fungal and antioxidant activities of Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) seed were evaluated. Essential oil of both plants showed 100% inhibition against Alternaria Alternata pathogen. The antioxidant activity showed the highest activities for ginger ( methanol extract), where as the lowest activity was for Coriander (water extract). To study the antioxidant and radio-protective effect of Ginger and Coriander, Swiss albino mice were exposed to shot dose 4 Gy γ radiation after 14 days oral administration of ginger (100 mg/Kg b.wt) and coriander extracts ( 600 mg/kg b.wt). After irradiation, anti-inflammatory mediators and phospholipase A2 were examined. In conclusion, Ginger and Coriander showed significant antioxidant and radio-protective effects

  2. Aqueous Extract Composition of Spent Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum) from Essential Oil Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Mentari, G. P.; Khasanah, L. U.; Utami, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale var Amarum) is widely used as raw material for essential oil production in Indonesia and contain high functional compounds. After producing essential oil, distillation leave less valuable spent ginger. This research was conducted to determine the bioactive compounds remained in aqueous extract of the spent ginger. The extracts were produced at various combination of temperature (55, 75, 95°C) and duration (15, 30, 45 minutes). The extract composition was observed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry analysis. The temperature and time of maceration extraction affected the content of compounds in spent ginger aqueous extracts. The extracts contained four largest components of α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene. The aqueous extracts from spent ginger contained the compounds which may contribute to distinctive flavor of ginger and also bioactive function.

  3. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger Rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated dried ginger rhizomes were evaluated to determine the effect of radiation and storage on these constituents of ginger. Dried ginger rhizomes were subjected to 0, 5 and 10 kilogray (kGy) doses of gamma rays from 60Co source. The oleoresin and gingerol contents were monitored for 9 months. Radiation treatment (10 kGy) reduced the decrease of the oleoresin content of ginger during the storage period by 14% in unground samples and 11% in ground samples. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the 6-gingerol content of the ground ginger decreased by 65.6, 67.4 and 70.4% for the 0, 5, and 10 kGy samples, respectively, while the corresponding values for the ungrounded ginger samples were 37.8, 40.0 and 44.3% at the end of the storage period

  4. [Freeze drying process optimization of ginger juice-adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing and stability of freeze-dried ginger juice powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Guo, Feng-Qian; Zang, Chen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2018-02-01

    Ginger juice, a commonly used adjuvant for Chinese materia medica, is applied in processing of multiple Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Because of the raw materials and preparation process of ginger juice, it is difficult to be preserved for a long time, and the dosage of ginger juice in the processing can not be determined base on its content of main compositions. Ginger juice from different sources is hard to achieve consistent effect during the processing of traditional Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Based on the previous studies, the freeze drying of ginger juice under different shelf temperatures and vacuum degrees were studied, and the optimized freeze drying condition of ginger juice was determined. The content determination method for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shagaol in ginger juice and redissolved ginger juice was established. The content changes of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-gingerol, 6-shagaol, volatile oil and total phenol were studied through the drying process and 30 days preservation period. The results showed that the freeze drying time of ginger juice was shortened after process optimization; the compositions basically remained unchanged after freeze drying, and there was no significant changes in the total phenol content and gingerol content, but the volatile oil content was significantly decreased( P <0.05). Within 30 days, the contents of gingerol, total phenol, and volatile oil were on the decline as a whole. This study has preliminarily proved the feasibility of freeze-drying process of ginger juice as an adjuvant for Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  6. Effect of Tragacanth as Binding Agents to Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) Lozenges

    OpenAIRE

    Taurina, Wintari; Syukri, Yandi; Triastuti, Asih

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) is a traditional plants usually used to relieve pain, rheumatism, and neutralize poison. The aim of this study was to get the optimum concentration of tragacanth as a binding agent in ginger lozenges formulation. The components from ginger were extracted using percolation with ethanol 70% and then evaporated using rotary evaporator. Lozenges were made in three formulas ; formula 1 (5%), 2 (7,5%), 3 (10%) of tragacanth using wet granulation method. Granules a...

  7. Ginger effects on control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meisam Ebrahimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN in the anticipatory and acute phase is the most common side effect in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger capsules on the alleviation of this problem. Methods : This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 women with breast cancer between August till December 2009 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. These patients underwent one-day chemotherapy regime and suffering from chemotherapy-induced nausea. After obtaining written consent, samples were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic effects of chemotherapy drugs used. The intervention group received ginger capsules (250 mg, orally four times a day (1 gr/d and the same samples from the placebo group received starch capsules (250 mg, orally for three days before to three days after chemotherapy. To measure the effect of capsules a three-part questionnaire was used, so the samples filled every night out these tools. After collecting the information, the gathered data were analyzed by statistical tests like Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square using version 8 of STATA software. Results : The mean ± SD of age in the intervention and placebo groups were 41.8 ± 8.4 and 45.1 ± 10 years, respectively. Results indicated that the severity and number of nausea in the anticipatory phase were significantly lower in the ginger group compared with placebo group (P=0.0008, P=0.0007, respectively. Also, the intensity (P=0.0001 and number (P=0.0001 of nausea in the acute phase were significantly lower in the ginger group. On the other hand, taking ginger capsules compared with placebo did not result in any major complications. Conclusion: Consuming ginger root powder capsules (1 gr/d from three days before chemotherapy till three days after it in combination with the standard anti-emetic regimen can

  8. Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangprayool, Thitiya; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-09-01

    The extract of ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess anti-hyperactivity and anti-inflammation on airway. The present study described brochodilatory activity of ginger oil and identified its active compound. Ginger oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. The compositions of ginger oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Citral, eucalyptol and camphene were found to be the major components. Ginger oil and citral, but not camphene, suppressed rat tracheal contraction induced by carbachol (CCh). Consistent with previous report, eucalyptol showed a relaxing effect on rat airway. Since the content of eucalyptol in ginger oil was relatively low, the contribution of eucalyptol to the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil was small. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the myorelaxing effect, propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) and L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) were used to block the inhibitory effects of ginger oil and citral. It was found that propranolol, but not indomethacin and L-NAME, reversed bronchodilatory effects of both ginger oil and citral, suggesting that a possible mechanism involved β-adrenergic receptor. This study provides the pharmacological basis supporting the therapeutic potential of Z. officinale rhizomes as a bronchodilator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile compounds of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gingers were irradiated at a dose of 0.05 kGy to inhibit sprouting and conserve quality. Effects of gamma irradiation on the flavor compounds of ginger were studied. After 3 months of storage after irradiation, the quantities of some major volatile compounds such as alpha-zingiberene, alpha-bergamotene, neral, geranial, and alpha-curcumene were significantly lower in irradiated than in unirradiated ginger, although no difference was found immediately after irradiation. A triangle test showed no difference between irradiated and unirradiated gingers stored for 1 month at ambient temperature but showed significant difference after 5 months of storage

  10. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF MICRORHIZOMES IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to highlight an effective protocol for in vitro production of ginger microrhizomes. Microrhizomes were induced at the base of the in vitro derived shoots upon transfer to MS medium containing various concentrations of (30, 60 and 90 g/L, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine (3, 6 and 9 mg/L and grown under varying photoperiodism in addition to the MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L BAP and 60-90 g/L sucrose under 16-h photoperiod within 10 weeks of cultivation were the best conditions for microrhizomes induction. Ginger microrhizomes formation in vitro was found to be controlled by many factors, including the concentrations of BAP and sucrose as well as photoperiodism during culturing period.

  11. Study on the storage properties of irradiated ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Zhang Qizhi; Sun Hongchun; Lv Tiexin; Liu Xiaoyong

    2004-01-01

    The γ-ray irradiation could cause the loss of Vc during the early stage of storage, however, after 150 days' storage there were no significant differences of Vc content between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The content of reduced sugar was increased by irradiation especially with 150 and 250 Gy. When ginger were irradiated with 250 Gy and stored at room temperature for 120 days, the content of Met and Arg decreased obviously, but the contents of other 16 amino acids were not affected. The respiration rate of irradiated ginger reached its peak at 7-9 days of storage, and from then it kept lower level for the rest storage time. The electrolyte permeability increased slightly after γ-irradiation. Irradiation with 80-400 Gy had no effects on lipid isoenzyme zymogram

  12. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  13. Ginger From Ancient Times to the New Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believ...

  14. Developmental stage and pulsing in inflorescences of torch ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Nogueira Moraes Carneiro

    2014-11-01

    through scores on a 0-4 point scale. Commercial vase life of stalks is longer (10 days when inflorescences are harvested with 1/3 bracts opened. It is recommended to carry out pulsing in torch ginger flower stems with concentration of 20% sucrose for 24h for inflorescences harvested with 1/3 or 2/3 of the bracts opened.

  15. Leaf Area Estimation Models for Ginger ( Zingibere officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to develop leaf area estimation models for three cultivars (37/79, 38/79 and 180/73) and four accessions (29/86, 30/86, 47/86 and 52/86) of ginger. Significant variations were observed among the tested genotypes in leaf length (L), leaf width (W) and actual leaf area (ALA). Leaf area was highly ...

  16. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  17. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  18. Caracterização anatômica e fitoquímica de folhas e rizomas de Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae Anatomical and phytochemical characterization of leaves and rhizomes from Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.G Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a grande potencialidade na utilização de Hedychium coronarium, na medicina popular e também como biorremediadora no tratamento de efluentes, objetivou-se uma diagnose dos órgãos, folha e rizoma, para elucidar resultados estruturais e fitoquímicos. A folha é anfiestomática, com predominância de estômatos na face abaxial. Em ambas as superfícies foliares há projeções de cera epicuticular sobre as paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas. O mesofilo dorsiventral apresenta hipoderme multisseriada (3 camadas em ambos os lados. O parênquima clorofiliano é diferenciado em paliçádico (1-2 camadas e lacunoso (4-5 camadas com muitos espaços intercelulares e ocorrência de idioblastos cristalíferos. Na nervura central, o aerênquima ocorre em único arco na região abaxial. Os feixes vasculares distribuem-se aleatoriamente e são de diferentes tamanhos, pequenos, médios e grandes, envolvidos por fibras. Os feixes menores localizam-se no lado abaxial da nervura. A triagem fitoquímica das folhas mostrou a presença de saponinas e ausência de taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides e flavonóides. Por meio de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada foram identificadas as presenças de cariofileno e mirceno no óleo essencial bruto obtido a partir das folhas de H. coronarium.Due to the great potentiality regarding the use of Hedychium coronarium in folk medicine and also as a bioremediator in effluent treatment, this study aimed to diagnose leaf and rhizome in order to elucidate structural and phytochemical results. Hedychium coronarium leaf is amphistomatal, with predominance of stomata on the abaxial surface. On both leaf surfaces, there are epicuticular wax projections over the anticlinal walls from epidermal cells. The dorsiventral mesophyll presents multiseriate (3 layers hypoderm on both sides. The chlorophyllian parenchyma is differentiated into palisade (1-2 layers and spongy (4-5 layers with many intercellular spaces and some

  19. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  20. Quality changes and freezing time prediction during freezing and thawing of ginger

    OpenAIRE

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects of different freezing rates and four different thawing methods on chemical composition, microstructure, and color of ginger were investigated. Computer simulation for predicting the freezing time of cylindrical ginger for two different freezing methods (slow and fast) was done using ANSYS ? Multiphysics. Different freezing rates (slow and fast) and thawing methods significantly (P?

  1. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)–A promising spice for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The various spices belonging to the genus Curcuma are well known for their multiple uses as medicines, cosmetics, dyes, flavourings and neutraceuticals. Extensive work has been carried out on Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingber offcinale. (ginger), but Curcuma amada (mango ginger) is an untapped medicinal plant of ...

  2. In vitro propagation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through direct organogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, Thayamini H

    2013-12-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial herb. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and commercially cultivated in most tropical regions of the world. The underground rhizomes are the planting materials in a conventional propagation of ginger however it has a low multiplication rate. It is known that there are possible methods are available for rapid vegetative propagation of ginger through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions but it is necessary to find the best protocol for in vitro multiplication of ginger. Limited studies on the tissue culture technology of ginger are available in Sri Lanka. However, significant efforts have been made in the procedure for in vitro micropropagation in the other ginger growing countries. The available literature with respect to in vitro plant regeneration has been perused and this review mainly focused on the in vitro propagation via direct organogenesis from rhizome buds or shoot tips of ginger often used as explants. This review article may be an appropriate and effective guidance for establishing in vitro cultures and subsequent production of in vitro plantlets in clonal propagation of ginger.

  3. Screening edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-two edible ginger and turmeric cultivars were screened for resistance or tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita. Plants were raised in 66 L grow bags in greenhouses in Hawaii according to established practices for producing bacterial wilt-free ginger. Three months after planting, each grow bag ...

  4. Effect of mulching on growth of ginger in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigates effect of mulching on growth of ginger in ishiagu, ebonyi state, Nigeria. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, during the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons, using ginger as test crop. In 2009, there was less ...

  5. The characteristics of ginger-like rock and its geological significance in Northern Zhungeer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rengui

    1998-01-01

    The author studies the characteristics of ginger-like stratum and its genesis in northern Zhungeer basin. There are many ginger-like strata of Tertiary-Quaternary exist in northern Zhungeer basin. It shows a good prospect for the formation of Tertiary sandstone type Uranium deposit which can be leached in-situ

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant impact of ginger-based kombucha on the murine breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafzoon, Samaneh; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Halabian, Raheleh

    2017-10-21

    Background Abnormal metabolism is a common event in cancerous cells. For example, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, particularly due to aerobic respiration during invasive stage, results in cancer progression. Herein, the impact of kombucha tea prepared from ginger on the alteration of antioxidant agents was assessed in the breast cancer animal model. Methods Two types of kombucha tea with or without ginger were administered to BALB/c mice before and after tumor challenge. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in tumor, liver and kidney. Results Administration of kombucha ginger tea significantly decreased catalase activity as well as GSH and MDA level in tumor homogenate (pkombucha ginger tea (pkombucha prepared from ginger could exert minor antioxidant impacts by balancing multi antioxidant factors in different tissues in the breast cancer models.

  7. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  8. Effect of Two Ginger Varieties on Arginase Activity in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an herbal therapy for treating several cardiovascular diseases, however, information on its mechanism of action is limited. The present study assessed the effect of two ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa) on the arginase activity, atherogenic index, levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma lipids in rats fed with a high-cholesterol (2%) diet for 14 days. Following the treatment period, it was found that feeding a high-cholesterol diet to rats caused significant (p ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) caused significant (p ginger and turmeric) inhibited arginase activity and prevented hypercholesterolemia in rats that received a high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these activities of ginger and turmeric represent possible mechanisms underlying its use in herbal medicine to treat several cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  10. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  11. The response of red ginger (Zinggiber officinalle var rubra) with various processing in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, E. Z. J.; Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.

    2018-02-01

    Red ginger contains high antioxidants and have anti -inflamatory properties. Ginger also has the ability to treat kimiatif, antiemetic, antinausea, and antiparasitik. The aim of this experiment was identified the response of red ginger in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Eimeria tenella were infected by 10.000 oocysts / head and red ginger solution were aplicated with 1% concentration. The treatments consist of KP (positive control), KO (coccidiostat), K1 (red ginger powder), K2 (extracted red ginger by ethanol) and K3 (extracted red ginger by water) . The results showed that the treatment of red ginger was significant effect (PEimeria tenella. The comparison between extracted red ginger by ethanol is better than by water or in powder form to decreased. The utilization of red ginger showed the percentage of heterophile and eosinophile close to normal when compared with positive control. Assesment of caecum lesion score was not significant (P>0.05) different effect between all the treatments. It is concluded that the treatment by red ginger better than coccidiostat and positive control.

  12. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  13. Two new species of Gingers (Zingiberaceae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Gowda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of gingers (Zingiberaceae, Globba sherwoodiana W.J. Kress & V. Gowda sp. nov., and Curcuma arracanensis W.J. Kress & V. Gowda sp. nov., from Myanmar are described. The new species of Globba is currently only known in cultivation and is commonly grown and sold in markets in Myanmar. In contrast C. arracanensis has been collected from a single restricted region in the cloud forests of the Rakhine Yoma above the Bay of Bengal in western Myanmar. Three-locus DNA barcodes were generated as aids for the identification of the two new species.

  14. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive, non-native plants (or environmental weeds) have long been recognized as a major threat to the native biodiversity of oceanic islands (Cronk & Fuller, 1995; Denslow, 2003). Globally, several hundred non-native plant species have been reported to have major impacts on natural areas on oceanic islands (Kueffer et al., 2009). In Hawaii, at least some 50 non-native plant species reach dominance in natural areas (Kueffer et al., 2009) and many of them are known to impact ecosystem processes or biodiversity. One example is the invasive Australian tree fern (Cyathea cooperi), which has been shown to be very efficient at utilizing soil nitrogen and can grow six times as rapidly in height, maintain four times more fronds, and produce significantly more fertile fronds per month than the native Hawaiian endemic tree ferns, Cibotium spp. (Durand & Goldstein, 2001a, b). Additionally, while native tree ferns provide an ideal substrate for epiphytic growth of many understory ferns and flowering plants, the Australian tree fern has the effect of impoverishing the understory and failing to support an abundance of native epiphytes (Medeiros & Loope, 1993). Other notorious examples of invasive plant species problematic for biodiversity and ecosystem processes in Hawaii include miconia (Miconia calvescens), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), albizia (Falcataria moluccana), firetree (Morella faya), clidemia (Clidemia hirta), kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), and fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to name just a few. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis) is a recent example of a seriously problematic invasive species for Hawaii’s agriculture and is damaging certain high-elevations native ecosystems as well.

  15. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  16. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Marx

    Full Text Available The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date.Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome.Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings.Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases.The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  17. Topical Ginger Treatment With a Compress or Patch for Osteoarthritis Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therkleson, Tessa

    2014-09-01

    This article is a report of a study evaluating changes in health status before and after topical ginger treatment for adults with moderate to severe osteoarthritis. In 2011, 20 adults with chronic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 7 consecutive days of topical ginger treatment by trained nurses: Group 1 received a manually prepared ginger compress and Group 2 a standardized ginger patch. Participants had the option to continue self-treatment using the ginger patch for a further 24 weeks. A brief arthritis health questionnaire was completed weekly for 3 weeks and 4 weekly for 24 weeks. The mean scores for Group 1 and Group 2 show a notable decline following 1-week topical ginger treatment; scores in pain, fatigue, global effect, and functional status reduced by 48%, 49%, 40%, and 31%, respectively, whereas health satisfaction improved from 80% dissatisfied to 70% satisfied. Scores for all participants in all five domains progressively reduced over the following 24 weeks of self-treatment. Topical ginger treatment has the potential to relieve symptoms, improve the overall health, and increase independence of people with chronic osteoarthritis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisiere, Julien; Mousset, Pierre-Yves; Lafay, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. PMID:29614764

  19. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of ginger in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Kholy, Wael

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in neuronal damage caused by increased intracellular glucose leading to oxidative stress. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress markers. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time, whether the antioxidant properties of ginger has beneficial effects on the structural brain damage associated with diabetes. We investigated the observable neurodegenerative changes in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum after 4, 6, and 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and the effect(s) of ginger (500 mg/kg/day). Sections of frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using light microscopy. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical assessments of the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Ki67 were performed. Our results revealed a protective role of ginger on the diabetic brain via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In addition, this study revealed that the beneficial effect of ginger was also mediated by modulating the astroglial response to the injury, reducing AChE expression, and improving neurogenesis. These results represent a new insight into the beneficial effects of ginger on the structural alterations of diabetic brain and suggest that ginger might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic-induced damage in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghbooli, Mehdi; Golipour, Farhad; Moghimi Esfandabadi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehran

    2014-03-01

    Frequency and torment caused by migraines direct patients toward a variety of remedies. Few studies to date have proposed ginger derivates for migraine relief. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ginger in the ablation of common migraine attack in comparison to sumatriptan therapy. In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who had acute migraine without aura were randomly allocated to receive either ginger powder or sumatriptan. Time of headache onset, its severity, time interval from headache beginning to taking drug and patient self-estimation about response for five subsequent migraine attacks were recorded by patients. Patients(,) satisfaction from treatment efficacy and their willingness to continue it was also evaluated after 1 month following intervention. Two hours after using either drug, mean headaches severity decreased significantly. Efficacy of ginger powder and sumatriptan was similar. Clinical adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan. Patients' satisfaction and willingness to continue did not differ. The effectiveness of ginger powder in the treatment of common migraine attacks is statistically comparable to sumatriptan. Ginger also poses a better side effect profile than sumatriptan. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics for pattern recognition of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Kong, Weijun; Wei, Jianhe; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Yang, Meihua

    2014-03-01

    Ginger, the fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae), has been used worldwide; however, for a long time, there has been no standard approbated internationally for its quality control. To establish an efficacious and combinational method and pattern recognition technique for quality control of ginger. A simple, accurate and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) detection was developed for establishing the chemical fingerprints of 10 batches of ginger from different markets in China. The method was validated in terms of precision, reproducibility and stability; and the relative standard deviations were all less than 1.57%. On the basis of this method, the fingerprints of 10 batches of ginger samples were obtained, which showed 16 common peaks. Coupled with similarity evaluation software, the similarities between each fingerprint of the sample and the simulative mean chromatogram were in the range of 0.998-1.000. Then, the chemometric techniques, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were applied to classify the ginger samples. Consistent results were obtained to show that ginger samples could be successfully classified into two groups. This study revealed that HPLC-PDA method was simple, sensitive and reliable for fingerprint analysis, and moreover, for pattern recognition and quality control of ginger.

  3. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McKavanagh, Daniel; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Bird, Robert; Ried, Karin; Chan, Alexandre; Isenring, Liz

    2015-01-01

    The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome. Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings. Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases). The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  4. Is ginger beneficial for nausea and vomiting? An update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; Isenring, Liz

    2015-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting can pose a significant burden to patients in a variety of clinical settings. Previous evidence suggests that ginger may be an effective treatment for these symptoms; however, current evidence has been mixed. This article discusses recent clinical trials that have investigated ginger as a treatment for multiple types of nausea and vomiting. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of ginger will be discussed. This article identified nine studies and seven reviews that investigated ginger for morning sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, chemotherapy-induced, and antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting. All studies reported that ginger provided a significant reduction in nausea and vomiting; however, the clinical relevance of some studies is less certain. Common limitations within the literature include the lack of standardized extracts, poorly controlled or blinded studies, and limited sample size. In addition, recent evidence has provided further support for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism as a mechanism by which ginger may exert its potentially beneficial effect on nausea and vomiting. The results of studies in this article suggest that ginger is a promising treatment for nausea and vomiting in a variety of clinical settings and possesses a clinically relevant mechanism. However, further studies are required to address the limitations in the current clinical literature before firm recommendations for its use can be made.

  5. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stanisiere

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP. However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety.

  6. A systematic review of the evidence for topical use of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingshuang; Leach, Matthew J; Bradley, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The use of ginger as a topical intervention is widely advocated in the popular media. However, there has been no attempt to date to synthesize the evidence for topically administered ginger. To systematically review and synthesize the best available evidence of effectiveness for topical ginger in any condition. CAM on PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, National Library of Australia, The Cochrane Library, TRIP, pertinent texts, and bibliographies of relevant papers. Data sources were systematically searched for studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of topical ginger, in any form and for any condition, regardless of study design. Studies were limited to those published between 1980 and 2010, and published in English, Mandarin, Cantonese, or Taiwanese. Data were extracted by two authors, independently, using standardized templates. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, including three randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial. All studies differed in terms of study population, outcome measures, comparative interventions, and dose and form of ginger used, and thus, were not amenable to meta-analysis. Findings from all trials favored usage of ginger for most outcomes. However, the small sample sizes and inadequate methodological reporting indicate a high risk of bias and the need for caution when interpreting these results. Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of topically administered ginger for any condition. Until the findings of these studies are corroborated by more robust research, and the safety of ginger is adequately established, clinicians should remain cautious about using topical ginger in clinical practice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.

  8. ANALYSIS OF GINGER FARMING BUSINESS IN PEAT LAND IN WEST KALIMANTAN (Case study: Ginger Farmer in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carolina Kilmanun

    2016-07-01

    Peat land potential as agricultural land in Indonesia is quite large of about 6 million hectaresout of 21 million hectares or 11% of land area in Indonesia. The utilization of peat land as agricultural land requires accurate and careful planning, appropriate technological application, and proper management because of its marginal and fragile ecosystem. Peat land has a big potential as agricultural land because this land contains high organic material. Theproblem is that the pH is very low so that it is not good for agricultural land. However, the research in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency proved that doing ginger farming business in peat land could increase the farmers’ income and welfare. The research aims to: 1 study problems faced in doing ginger farming business, 2 know ginger farmer’s income. Data collection was done by using Focus Group Discussion method and R/C Ratio analysis. The research result found out that the main problem in ginger farming business was that of rotten tuber. Based on the analysis result it was found that R/C ratio obtained in ginger farming business was 3.4. Total revenue obtained was Rp75,000,000with the profit over cash expense was Rp53,620,000 and the profit over total expense was Rp53,470,000. Theresearch concluded that: 1 there need be a serious handling of rotten tuber disease in ginger plant, 2 doing ginger farming business could increase income and welfare of the peat land farmers in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency.

  9. Antioxidant activities of ginger extract and its constituents toward lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Chen, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jianhao; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-01-15

    Lipid oxidation-a major cause of food product deterioration-necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60°C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180°C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  11. Radiation sensitivity of two Ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Ene, L.S.O.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mutability and radiosensitivity of two local ginger varieties in Nigeria ''Tafin Giwa'' (UG 1) and ''Yatsun Biri'' (UG 2) were studied using gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. There was a high frequency of chlorophyll mutations indicating a high mutability in ginger. GR 50 was obtained at 5.0 and 6.0 Gy in UG1, and UG2, respectively, while LD50 was obtained at 8.75 Gy in both varieties. The dose limitation range for ginger was estimated to be 5.0-9.0 Gy [es

  12. Edible Film from Polyblend of Ginger Starch, Chitosan, and Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariningsih, N.; Putra, Y. P.; Pamungkas, W. P.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Polyblend ginger starch/chitosan based edible film has been succesfully prepared and characterized. The purpose of this research was to produce edible film from polyblend of ginger starch, chitosan, and sorbitol as plasticizer. The resulted edible film were characterized by using FTIR, TGA and UTM. Edible film of ginger starch had OH vibration (3430 cm-1). Besides, edible film had elongation up to 15.63%. The thermal degradation of this material reached 208°C indicating high termal stability. The water uptake of the edible film was 42.85%. It concluded that edible film produce in this research has potential as a packaging.

  13. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  14. Effects of ethanolic extract of garlic, roselle and ginger on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... Efficiency of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and roselle on quality attributes of ... with food containing natural additives, which might be more healthful. ..... properties and mycotoxins contents of Tilapia fish-fillets after solar.

  15. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  16. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Alavinia, Mohammad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (pginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also chiefly used medicinally for indigestion, stomachache, malaria, fevers, common cold, and motion sickness. The literature survey revealed that there is no study conducted on the determination of metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. Hence it is worthwhile to determine the levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. The levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivated in four different regions of Ethiopia and the soil where it was grown were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 0.5 g of oven dried ginger and soil samples were digested using 3 mL of HNO3 and 1 mL of HClO4 at 210°C for 3 h and a mixture of 6 mL aqua-regia and 1.5 mL H2O2 at 270°C for 3 h, respectively. The mean metal concentration (μg/g dry weight basis) ranged in the ginger and soil samples, respectively, were: Ca (2000-2540, 1770-3580), Mg (2700-4090, 1460-2440), Fe (41.8-89.0, 21700-46900), Zn (38.5-55.2, 255-412), Cu (1.1-4.8, 3.80-33.9), Co (2.0-7.6, 48.5-159), Cr (6.0-10.8, 110-163), Mn (184-401, 1760-6470), Ni (5.6-8.4, 14.1-79.3) and Cd (0.38-0.97, 0.24-1.1). The toxic metal Pb was not detected in both the ginger and soil samples. There was good correlation between some metals in ginger and soil samples while poor correlation between other metals (Fe, Ni, Cu). This study revealed that Ethiopian gingers are good source of essential metals and free from toxic

  18. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale (ginger has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  19. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H.; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2012-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update. PMID:23243452

  20. Comparison the effects of Ginger and Curcumin in treatment of premenstrual syndrome

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    Samira khayat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most women at reproductive ages experience the premenstrual syndrome (PMS. Different methods have been suggested for the treatment of this syndrome and one of them is using herbal medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ginger and curcumin on severity of symptoms of PMS. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 105 students with PMS symptoms were randomly assigned to ginger, curcumin and placebo groups. Participants received two capsules daily from seven days before menstruation to three days after menstruation for three cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP questionnaire. Data of before interventions and 1, 2 and 3 months after interventions were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA and indepented t-test. SPSS-18 software was used for analyses and P<0/05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of PMS symptoms severity were similar in three groups before the intervention [( 110/2±30/7 in ginger group, 103/6±39/1 in curcumin group and106/7±44/65 in placebo group p=0/79], but after interventions there were significant differences between groups [(47/06 ±33/4 in ginger group, 29/74±11/6 in curcumin group and106±48/7 in placebo group P<0/0001]. Also, there was a significant difference between effects of curcumin and ginger (P=0/008. Conclusion: Ginger and curcumin are effective in reduction of severity of psychological, physical and behavioral symptoms of PMS and the effect of curcumin is more than ginger. Results of present study suggest curcumin and ginger as treatment for PMS.

  1. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghlool, Sameh S.; Shehata, Basim A.; Abo-Seif, Ali A.; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and m...

  2. Assessment of systemic effects of ginger on salivation in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia

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    Goli Chamani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Our aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of ginger capsule (Zintoma herbal capsule in the relief of symptoms in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia. METHODS: This study was a randomized double-blind, parallel clinical trial of ginger usage in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Sixty-one subjects were selected from patients with xerostomia of Imam Khomeini Cancer Institute, Tehran, Iran. Subject-based dry mouth scores derived from 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS were recorded at baseline. Patients also completed a questionnaire on the first visit regarding the symptoms of xerostomia. The patients received ginger capsule (30 persons or placebo (31 persons three times daily over a 2-weeks period. At the end of day 14, dry mouth scores derived from VAS were recorded again and patients responded to the additional variables regarding dry mouth symptoms and quality of life issues. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: The mean treatment effect on day 14 was 33.7 ± 20.9 mm in the ginger group and 23.6 ± 17.3 mm in the placebo group. The analysis indicated marginally significant improvement of xerostomia with ginger prescription (P = 0.057. At the end of intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding improvement of quality of life or dry mouth symptoms. CONCLUSION: It seems that ginger could be helpful in the treatment of xerostomia. Since ginger is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects further studies in larger group of patients are recommended to provide the effect of ginger on different complaints of xerostomia.

  3. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  4. Relationship of Mycotoxins Accumulation and Bioactive Components Variation in Ginger after Fungal Inoculation

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    Zhixin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. The results showed that consecutive incubation of ginger with A. flavus and A. carbonarius within 20 days resulted in the production and accumulation of aflatoxins (especially AFB1 and ochratoxin A, as well as the constant content reduction of four bioactive components, which were confirmed through the scanning electron microscope images. Significantly negative correlation was expressed between the mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger, which might influence the quality and safety of it. Furthermore, a new compound was detected after inoculation for 6 days, which was found in our study for the first time.

  5. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  6. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ginger attenuated di (n-butyl phthalate-induced reproductive toxicity in pubertal male rabbits

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    S. S. Oda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of di (n-butyl phthalate (DBP on reproductive functions in male rabbits and the probable protective role of ginger. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into 4 groups: control group; DBP group (520 mg/kg body weight [BW] DBP orally, DBP+ginger group (520 mg/kg BW DBP and 400 mg/kg BW ginger and ginger group (400 mg/kg BW ginger orally. Treatments were given three-times/week. After 7 wk of the experiment, DBP induced significant reduction in testis and prostate weights, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, sperm counts both mass and progressive sperm motility and live sperms percentage as well as significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde compared to control group. No significant changes were detected in epididymal weights, serum FSH and serum LH concentrations and testicular total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all treated groups. DBP induced considerable histopathological alterations in testis and to minimal extent in epididymis and prostates. Ginger treatment attenuated the significant changes to a certain extent induced by DBP intoxication in male rabbits probably due to its potential to scavenge free radicals.

  8. Suites of terpene synthases explain differential terpenoid production in ginger and turmeric tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jo Koo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale and turmeric (Curcuma longa contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+-germacrene D synthase and (S-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (--caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+-α-turmerone and (+-β-turmerone, are produced from (--α-zingiberene and (--β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

  9. Effect of Ginger on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty six female albino rats arranged equally into six groups were used in the present study for one month to evaluate the role of ginger intake on radiation induced biochemical and histological changes and to assess the role of ginger as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet as well. These six groups are: control, ginger (2%.), irradiated (4.5 Gy), irradiated plus ginger, high fat diet and high fat diet plus ginger. Irradiation caused high significant decrease in T 4 and high significant increase in cholesterol, total protein, albumin, fasting blood sugar. A/G ratio with loss of lobular architecture of liver and lymphocytic aggregation in the lung, On the other hand high fat diet caused high significant decrease of T 4 and total globulins, significant increase of T 3 , blood sugar, A/G ratio and cholesterol with vacuolar degeneration changes of hepatic cells and moderate changes of peri bronchiolar area, ginger intake was able to bring most of irradiation induced biochemical and histological changes to non irradiated control level in female rats. It also had a hypocholesterolemic effect on animal fed high fat diet

  10. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad

    2015-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting. Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs. 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Effects of Ginger on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibi, Hadi; Imani, Hossein; Atabak, Shahnaz; Najafi, Iraj; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    ♦ In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease is lipid abnormalities. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins in PD patients. ♦ In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 PD patients were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1,000 mg ginger daily for 10 weeks, while the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and at the end of week 10, 7 mL of blood were obtained from each patient after a 12- to 14-hour fast, and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were measured. ♦ Serum triglyceride concentration decreased significantly up to 15% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (p ginger reduces serum triglyceride concentration, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. Effects of ginger on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, and inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Hossein; Tabibi, Hadi; Najafi, Iraj; Atabak, Shahnaz; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Leila

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, and systemic and vascular inflammatory markers in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 patients on PD were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1000 mg/d ginger for 10 wk, whereas the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and the end of week 10, serum concentrations of glucose, carboxymethyl lysine, pentosidine, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), and sE-selectin were measured after a 12- to 14-h fast. Serum fasting glucose decreased significantly up to 20% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (P ginger reduces serum fasting glucose, which is a risk factor for hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease, in patients on PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Role of Ginger in Restoring Antioxidant Enzymes during Hepato carcinogenesis Induced by Diethylnitrosamine in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; EI-Tawil, G.A.; Mostafa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ginger is a dietary natural product, which has antioxidant and anti carcinogenic properties. Its chemo prevention effect against hepato carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in gamma-irradiated rats was studied, in the present study. Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group I served as control. Group 2 exposed to gamma-rays alone (4 fractionated doses; 3 Gy/ week up to a total dose of 12 Gy). Group 3 received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of DEN/ week at a dose of 30 mg/ Kg body wt consecutive for 10 weeks. Group 4 administered orally five days a week with ginger (50 mg/ 100 g body wt) there exposed to gamma-rays. Group 5 pre treated with ginger then injected with DEN. Group 6 injected with DEN and then exposed to gamma-rays. Group 7 pre treated with ginger then injected with DEN pre-irradiation. Our findings demonstrate gamma-irradiation and/ or DEN caused significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in both blood and liver tissue. Also, they increase plasma and liver lipid peroxidation (LP), plasma alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and liver conjugated diene (CD). Orally administration of ginger to animals ameliorates such changes. It could be concluded that ginger has antioxidant and anti carcinogenic properties might protect against hepato carcinoma and gamma-radiation

  15. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miri; Bae, Jungdon; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2008-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated. This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978, Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, causing periodontal diseases. Thereafter, five ginger constituents were isolated by a preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic method from the active silica-gel column chromatography fractions, elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and their antibacterial activity evaluated. In conclusion, two highly alkylated gingerols, [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol effectively inhibited the growth of these oral pathogens at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6-30 microg/mL. These ginger compounds also killed the oral pathogens at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range of 4-20 microg/mL, but not the other ginger compounds 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerol, 3,5-diacetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol and galanolactone.

  16. Wilderness And Biodiversity Of Gingers In The Valley District Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Devi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zingiberaceae one of the ten largest monocotyledonous families in India consisting of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal and tuberous rhizomes comprising about 52 genera and more than 1300 species distributed throughout tropical Africa Asia and America. It is also an important natural resources that provides many useful products for food spices medicines dyes perfumes and aesthetics to man. The gingers are well-known for their medicinal and economic significance. The plants either have or believed to possess certain spiritual or magical effect. In the context of climate variation anthropogenic factors affect the climate. 27 species of 7 genera have been used extensively by the different communities inhabiting in the valley districts of Manipur.

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  18. Ginger: Measuring Gravitomagnetic Effects by Means of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    GINGER is a proposal for a new experiment aimed to the detection of the gravito-magnetic Lense-Thirring effect at the surface of the Earth. A three-dimensional set of ring lasers will be mounted on a rigid "monument". In a ring laser a light beam traveling counterclockwise is superposed to another beam traveling in the opposite sense. The anisotropy in the propagation leads to standing waves with slightly different frequencies in the two directions; the resulting beat frequency is proportional to the absolute rotation rate in space, including the gravito-magnetic drag. The experiment is planned to be built in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy and is based on an international collaboration among four Italian groups, the Technische Universität München and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch (NZ).

  19. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  20. Larsenianthus, a new Asian genus of Gingers (Zingiberaceae with four species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Larsenianthus W.J.Kress & Mood, gen. nov. is described with one new combination and three new species. Larsenianthus careyanus (Benth. W.J.Kress & Mood, comb. nov., is widespread in India and present-day Bangladesh; L. wardianus W.J.Kress, Thet Htun & Bordelon, sp. nov., is from upper Myanmar in Kachin State; L. assamensis S.Dey, Mood, & S.Choudhury, sp. nov., is restricted to Assam, India; and L. arunachalensis M.Sabu, Sanoj & T.Rajesh Kumar, sp. nov., has only been found in Arunachal Pradesh, India. A phylogenetic analysis using the plastid trnK intron and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data indicates that the four species of Larsenianthus form a monophyletic lineage that is sister to Hedychium, a geographically widespread genus of about 50 species in tribe Zingibereae of subfamily Zingiberoideae. A dichotomous key and three-locus DNA barcodes are provided as aids for the identification of the four species of Larsenianthus.

  1. Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

  2. Propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium Thermodynamic properties of water adsortion of the starch of rhizome of swamp lily (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as propriedades termodinâmicas (entalpia diferencial, entropia diferencial, entalpia integral e entropia integral do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium por meio de isotermas de adsorção de água. As isotermas foram determinadas em atividades de água no intervalo de 0,11 a 0,84, sob temperaturas que variaram de 30 a 50 °C. A Equação de GAB, que se ajustou bem às isotermas experimentais, foi utilizada para estimar as propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção. As isotermas apresentaram ligeira inversão, indicando a precença de amido danificado. A entalpia diferencial e a entropia diferencial aumentaram com a diminuição da umidade de equilíbrio e correlacionaram entre si confirmando a compensação química linear. Um modelo exponencial do tipo Y = b.e(a/Xe descreveu adequadamente a dependência destas propriedades diferenciais ao teor de umidade de equilíbrio. A entalpia integral e a entropia integral aumentaram continuamente com o teor de umidade de equil��brio, porém com valores negativos para a entropia integral. Estas propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água demonstraram que o amido extraído dos rizomas do lírio-do-brejo possui baixa higrocopicidade apesar da ocorrência de grânulos de amido danificados.Thermodynamic properties where determined (differential enthalpy, of differential entropy, integral enthalpy, and integral entropy of the starch of rhizomes of swamp lily through water adsorption isotherms. The isotherms were determined in water activities in the range of 0.11 to 0.84, in temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C. The GAB equation which fits well to the experimental isotherms was used to estimate the properties of thermodynamic adsorption. The slight reversal of the isotherms indicates damaged starch. The enthalpy and entropy differential gap increased with the decrease in moisture and correlated to each other confirming the chemical linear compensation. An

  3. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  4. Analysis of ginger drying inside a natural convection indirect solar dryer: An experimental study

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    S. K. Sansaniwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a natural convection indirect solar cabinet dryer has been fabricated to study the drying behaviour of ginger rhizomes in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db. Various experiments were conducted during the months of March and April 2014 at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar (29o5’5’’N, 75o45’55’’E, India. Experimental data obtained were used to evaluate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. Considering these constants, the average value of convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained and observed to decrease with increase in mass of ginger samples and progression of drying days with variation from 0.59 to 5.42 W/m2˚C for different mass of ginger samples. The moisture removing rate was reported to increase with increase in mass of ginger samples and decreases significantly with the progression of drying days. The average collector efficiency was also observed to vary from 14.97 to 16.14% under increasing and decreasing trends of solar radiations from morning to noon and noon to evening respectively. Modified page model was reported best for describing the drying behaviour of different mass of ginger samples. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty ranged from 29.19 to 46.25%.

  5. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]).

  6. Effectiveness of Ginger Essential Oil on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ri; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy with ginger essential oil on nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients. This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group and repeated measures. The experimental group (n = 30) received ginger essential oil inhalation. The placebo control group (n = 30) received normal saline inhalation. The level of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured using a Korean version of the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 h after aromatherapy administration. The data were collected from July 23 to August 22, 2012. Nausea and vomiting scores were significantly lower in the experimental group with ginger essential oil inhalation than those in the placebo control group with normal saline. In the experimental group, the nausea and vomiting scores decreased considerably in the first 6 h after inhaled aromatherapy with ginger essential oil. Findings indicate that ginger essential oil inhalation has implications for alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients.

  7. Suppression of Rhizome Rot in Organically Cultivated Ginger Using Integrated Pest Management

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    Chang-Ki Shim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to control ginger rhizome rot treated with the combined treatment, the hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and eggshell calcium in organic ginger farm. Early symptoms of leaf yellowing and plant wilt began in the chemical fertilizer treatment on July 1. Ginger rhizome rot was more progressed on October 2, and stem browning and dead plant showed a high disease incidence with from 36.7% to 43.0%. On the other hand, the combined treatment did not occur at all until July 1 and delayed the disease incidence to October 2. It showed a low disease incidence of 1.3% to 1.7%. In the combined treatment, the content of soil Na, Fe, Cu was decreased and organic matter was increased twice with 31.6% than previous. Population density of Pythium sp. is lower in the combined treatment (0.3-2.0×103 cfu/g than the chemical fertilizer treatments (12.0-12.3×103 cfu/g. The combined treatment, hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and the eggshell calcium is able to control the ginger rhizome rot in organically cultivated ginger field.

  8. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Syaripah; Azian Morad, Noor; Iwai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  9. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaapar, Syaripah Zaimah Syed; Iwai, Yoshio; Morad, Noor Azian

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  10. Effect of Soil Fumigation on Degradation of Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Laboratory and Ginger Field Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Li, Jun; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Guo, Meixia; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Cao, Aocheng

    2016-11-23

    Herbicides are usually applied to agricultural fields following soil fumigation to provide effective weed control in high-value cash crops. However, phytotoxicity has been observed in ginger seedlings following the application of herbicides in fumigated fields. This study tested a mixture of herbicides (pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen) and several fumigant treatments in laboratory and field studies to determine their effect on the growth of ginger. The results showed that soil fumigation significantly (P oxyfluorfen was extended by an average of about 1.19 times in the field and 1.32 times in the laboratory. Moreover, the extended period of herbicide degradation in the fumigant and nonfumigant treatments significantly reduced ginger plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and the chlorophyll content. The study concluded that applying a dose below the recommended rate of these herbicides in chloropicrin (CP) or CP + 1,3-dichloropropene fumigated ginger fields is appropriate, as application of the recommended herbicide dose in fumigated soil may be phytotoxic to ginger.

  11. Preventive and curative effects of ginger extract against histopathologic changes of gentamicin-induced tubular toxicity in rats

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    Hamid Nasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentamicin (GM is a commonly used aminoglycoside, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. This study was designed to evaluate the curative and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against gentamicin tubular toxicity in rats. The phenolic and flavonoid components and antioxidant activity of ginger were also evaluated. Methods: In a preclinical study, 50 male Wistar rats were designated into 5 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group I: vehicle. Group II: 200 mg/kg/d of ginger for 3 days then, GM (80 mg/kg for 7 days. Group III: 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 3 days, then ginger plus GM for 7 days. Group IV: GM for 7 days. Group V: GM for 10 days. Group VI: GM for 7 days, then 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 10 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were histologically evaluated. Results: Ginger could prevent degeneration of the renal cells and reduce the severity of tubular damage caused by gentamicin. However, it could not regenerate the GM degeneration. Conclusions: The results indicate that ginger is effective as a prophylaxis agent, but has not curative effect.

  12. Combination of Antioxidants from Different Sources Could Offer Synergistic Benefits: A Case Study of Tea and Ginger Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon A; Enujiugha, Victor N; Omoba, Olufunmilayo S; Sanni, David M

    2015-11-01

    Tea and ginger are plants with high antioxidant potential. Combinations of antioxidants from different sources could also produce synergistic antioxidant effects. This study investigated the influence of solvent on antioxidant content of tea, ginger, and tea + ginger blends. Under the investigated extraction conditions, water was the most effective extraction solvent to maximise peroxide scavenging and iron chelating activity of tea, ginger, and their blends. Aqueous ethanol was the most effective solvent to maximise ABTS radical scavenging activity and ethanol was the best solvent to maximise DPPH radical scavenging activity. A good multivariate regression model that explains the relationship between the total flavonoid content of the extracts and their antioxidant activities was obtained (R2 and Q2 of 0.93 and 0.83, respectively). Extracts of tea-ginger blends exhibited synergistic effects in their ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  13. Transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Liao, Qinhong; Zou, Yong; Liu, Yiqing; Lan, Jianbin

    2017-10-23

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a popular flavoring that widely used in Asian, and the volatile oil in ginger rhizomes adds a special fragrance and taste to foods. The bioactive compounds in ginger, such as gingerols, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids, are of significant value to human health because of their anticancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as a non-model plant, knowledge about the genome sequences of ginger is extremely limited, and this limits molecular studies on this plant. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds in matured ginger rhizome (MG), young ginger rhizome (YG), and fibrous roots of ginger (FR). A total of 361,876 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly. The expression of genes involved in the pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds differed between tissues (MG, YG, and FR). Two pathways that give rise to volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids, the "terpenoid backbone biosynthesis" and "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis" pathways, were significantly enriched (adjusted P value < 0.05) for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.005) both between the FR and YG libraries, and the FR and MG libraries. Most of the unigenes mapped in these two pathways, including curcumin synthase, phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase, trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, were expressed to a significantly higher level (log 2 (fold-change) ≥ 1) in FR than in YG or MG. This study provides the first insight into the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in ginger at a molecular level and provides valuable genome resources for future molecular studies on ginger. Moreover, our results establish that bioactive compounds in ginger may predominantly synthesized in the root and then transported to

  14. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

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    Rahnama Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015 and protocol two (P = 0.029. There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017 but not for protocol two (P = 0.210. Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

  15. An Enhanced GINGER Simulation Code with Harmonic Emission and HDF5 IO Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William M.

    2006-01-01

    GINGER [1] is an axisymmetric, polychromatic (r-z-t) FEL simulation code originally developed in the mid-1980's to model the performance of single-pass amplifiers. Over the past 15 years GINGER's capabilities have been extended to include more complicated configurations such as undulators with drift spaces, dispersive sections, and vacuum chamber wakefield effects; multi-pass oscillators; and multi-stage harmonic cascades. Its coding base has been tuned to permit running effectively on platforms ranging from desktop PC's to massively parallel processors such as the IBM-SP. Recently, we have made significant changes to GINGER by replacing the original predictor-corrector field solver with a new direct implicit algorithm, adding harmonic emission capability, and switching to the HDF5 IO library [2] for output diagnostics. In this paper, we discuss some details regarding these changes and also present simulation results for LCLS SASE emission at λ = 0.15 nm and higher harmonics

  16. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  17. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzilah, R. Hanum; Sobhana, B. Arianto; Mahfud, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed to extract essential oil from ginger. The optimal condition for microwave assisted extraction of ginger were determined by resposnse surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables. The variables is were microwave power 400 - 800W as X1, feed solvent ratio of 0.33 -0.467 as X2 and feed size 1 cm, 0.25 cm and less than 0.2 cm as X3. The correlation analysis of mathematical modelling indicated that quadratic polynomial could be employed to optimize microwave assisted extraction of ginger. The optimal conditions to obtain highest yield of essential oil were : microwave power 597,163 W : feed solvent ratio and size of feed less than 0.2 cm.

  18. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO 2 , while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beih, N.M.; Galal, S.M.; Fahmy, N.M.; Abd El-Azime, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl 4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl 4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  1. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Compounds from Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, K.M.; Seo, H.Y.; Gyawali, Rajendra; Shim, S.L.; Yang, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on volatile components of Korean dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied and compared with non-irradiated sample. Volatile compounds from non- and irradiated samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A total of 83 and 71 compounds were identified and quantified from non-and irradiated dried ginger at dose of 10 kGy. Identified components were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and miscellaneous compounds

  2. Characteristic fingerprint based on gingerol derivative analysis for discrimination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) according to geographical origin using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudthavorasit, Soparat; Wongravee, Kanet; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun

    2014-09-01

    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of ginger and garlic addition during cooking on the volatile profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Lin; Tu, Zong-Cai; Zhang, Lu; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hui; Pang, Juan-Juan; Tang, Ping-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ginger and garlic have long been used in Asian countries to enhance the flavor and to neutralize any unpleasant odors present in fish soup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the amount of volatile components present in fish soup compared to boiled water solutions of ginger and garlic. The fish soup was prepared by boiling oil-fried grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) with or without ginger and/or garlic. Generally, boiling garlic and ginger in water led to a decrease in the amount of the principal volatile constituents of these spices, together with the formation of some new volatiles such as pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal. The results showed that 16 terpenes present in raw ginger, predominantly camphene, β -phellandrene, β -citral, α -zingiberene, and ( E )-neral, were detected in fish soup with added ginger and thus remained in the solution even after boiling. Similarly, 2-propen-1-ol and three sulfur compounds (allyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide) present in raw garlic, were present in trace amounts in the boiled garlic solution, but were present in considerably larger amounts in the boiled fish solution with garlic or garlic plus ginger. In conclusion, the effect of adding spices on the volatile profile of grass carp soup can be attributed to the dissolution of flavor volatiles mainly derived from raw spices into the solution, with few additional volatiles being formed during boiling. In addition, boiling previously fried grass carp with spices led to enhanced volatile levels compared to boiled spice solutions.

  4. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  5. The effect of mefenamic acid and ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Motahari-Tabari, Narges; Alipour, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and ginger on pain management in primary dysmenorrhea. One hundred and twenty-two female students with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea were randomly allocated to the ginger and mefenamic groups in a randomized clinical trial. The mefenamic group received 250 mg capsules every 8 h, and the ginger group received 250 mg capsules (zintoma) every 6 h from the onset of menstruation until pain relief lasted 2 cycles. The intensity of pain was assessed by the visual analog scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t test, Chi-square, Fisher exact test and repeated measurement. The pain intensity in the mefenamic and ginger group was 39.01 ± 17.77 and 43.49 ± 19.99, respectively, in the first month, and 33.75 ± 17.71 and 38.19 ± 20.47, respectively, in the second month (p > 0.05). The severity of dysmenorrhea, pain duration, cycle duration and bleeding volume was not significantly different between groups during the study. The menstrual days were more in the ginger group in the first (p = 0.01) and second cycle (p = 0.04). Repeated measurement showed a significant difference in pain intensity within the groups by time, but not between groups. Ginger is as effective as mefenamic acid on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Ginger does not have adverse effects and is an alternative treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.

  6. Is ginger effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome? A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Palsson, Olafur S; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E

    2014-02-01

    Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but no data exists about its effectiveness. Double blind randomized controlled trial. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Forty-five IBS patients were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, 1g of ginger, and 2g of ginger daily for 28 days. The IBS severity scale (IBS-SS) was administered, as well as adequate relief of symptoms scale. A responder was defined as having at least 25% reduction in IBS-SS post-treatment. There were 57.1% responders to placebo, 46.7% to 1g and 33.3% to 2g of ginger. Adequate relief was reported by 53.3% on placebo and 53.3% in both ginger groups combined. Side effects were mild and reported by 35.7% in the placebo and 16.7% in the ginger groups. This double blind randomized controlled pilot study suggests ginger is well tolerated but did not perform better than placebo. Larger trials are needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  8. Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Porouhan, Pezhman; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

  9. Production of a novel wheat gluten hydrolysate containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory tripeptides using ginger protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Hayashida, Osamu; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2017-09-01

    Wheat gluten is a Pro-rich protein complex comprising glutenins and gliadins. Previous studies have reported that oral intake of enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten has beneficial effects, such as suppression of muscle injury and improvement of hepatitis. Here, we utilized ginger protease that preferentially cleaves peptide bonds with Pro at the P 2 position to produce a novel type of wheat gluten hydrolysate. Ginger protease efficiently hydrolyzed gluten, particularly under weak acidic conditions, to peptides with an average molecular weight of ginger protease can be used as a functional food for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  11. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  12. Effects of ginger and expectations on symptoms of nausea in a balanced placebo design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Weimer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ginger effects on (experimental nausea have been described, but also strong placebo effects and sex differences when nausea is involved. The "balanced placebo design" has been proposed to allow better separation of drug and placebo effects. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women were randomly assigned to receive an antiemetic ginger preparation or placebo, and half of each group was told to have received drug or placebo. They were exposed to 5×2 min body rotations to induce nausea. Subjective symptoms and behavioral (rotation tolerance, head movements and physiological measures (electrogastrogram, cortisol were recorded. Groups were balanced for sex of participants and experimenters. RESULTS: Ginger and the information given did not affect any outcome measure, and previous sex differences could not be confirmed. Adding the experimenters revealed a significant four-factorial interaction on behavioral but not on subjective or physiological measures Men who received placebo responded to placebo information when provided by the male experimenter, and to ginger information when provided by the female experimenter. This effect was not significant in women. CONCLUSION: The effects of an antiemetic drug and provided information interact with psychosocial variables of participants and experimenters in reports of nausea.

  13. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlool, Sameh S; Shehata, Basim A; Abo-Seif, Ali A; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A

    2015-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally on a daily basis for 14 days prior to a single intra-peritoneal administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Indomethacin administration resulted in significant ulcerogenic effect evidenced by significant elevations in ulcer number, ulcer index, and blood superoxide dismutase activity accompanied by significant decreases in gastric mucosal nitric oxide and glutathione levels. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxides and histamine content were observed. Alternatively, pretreatment with famotidine, ginger or marshmallow significantly corrected macroscopic and biochemical findings, supported microscopically by results of histopathological study. These results demonstrate that administration of either ginger or marshmallow extract could protect against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats presumably via their antioxidant properties and inhibition of histamine release.

  14. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helal, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was irradiated at doses of 0,5, 10 and 15 kGy. The irradiated as well as non-irradiated oil were tested for their antibacterial activity against one strain of food poisoning bacteria (Bacillus cereus), one strain of the indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli), two strains of human pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), one strain of food spoilage bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and one strain of plant pathogenic bacteria(Pseudomonas citri). In addition, the studied oils were tested for their antifungal activities against five strains of plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Alternaria alternata) to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of the tested oil. The obtained results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation. While, Trichoderma viride appeared to be the most resistant fungus with non-irradiated and irradiated ginger essential oil treatments. The ginger essential oil irradiated at dose of 10 kGy appeared to be the best one for inhibition the growth of most tested bacteria and fungi under investigation. Also, changes in chemical constituents of ginger essential oil as affected by gamma radiation were investigated by Gas Chromatography

  15. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  16. Evaluation of edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for root-knot nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible ginger and turmeric roots are important agricultural commodities for the State of Hawaii. Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. are major factors hindering optimum production. An evaluation of tolerance and resistance to M. incognita was undertake...

  17. Ginger Phytochemicals Inhibit Cell Growth and Modulate Drug Resistance Factors in Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Ming; Kao, Chiu-Li; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Lo, Yi-Ching; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2017-09-05

    Ginger has many bioactive compounds with pharmacological activities. However, few studies are known about these bioactive compounds activity in chemoresistant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer properties of ginger phytochemicals in docetaxel-resistant human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we isolated 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 4-shogaol, 6-shogaol, 10-shogaol, and 6-dehydrogingerdione from ginger. Further, the antiproliferation activity of these compounds was examined in docetaxel-resistant (PC3R) and sensitive (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines. 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol at the concentration of 100 μM significantly inhibited the proliferation in PC3R but 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol displayed similar activity in PC3. The protein expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTπ) is higher in PC3R than in PC3. In summary, we isolated the bioactive compounds from ginger. Our results showed that 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol inhibit the proliferation of PC3R cells through the downregulation of MRP1 and GSTπ protein expression.

  18. Price variation of tomatoes and ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed price of tomatoes and ginger in Giwa market, Kaduna State to identify seasonal price patterns and their expected changes over time. The analytical approach in this study was based on the price multiplicative model. The study based preliminary on secondary data collected from NAERLS weekly ...

  19. Ginger and Its Constituents: Role in Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, a cancer of different organs of the digestive system, is one of the most common cancers around the world. The incidence and death rate of some of these cancers are very high. Although a large variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced since the last few decades to combat GI cancer, most of them are very expensive and have side effects. Therefore, the compounds derived from natural sources, which are considered to be safe and cost effective, are needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most widely used natural products consumed as a spice and medicine for treating nausea, dysentery, heartburn, flatulence, diarrhea, loss of appetite, infections, cough, and bronchitis. Experimental studies showed that ginger and its active components including 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol exert anticancer activities against GI cancer. The anticancer activity of ginger is attributed to its ability to modulate several signaling molecules like NF-κB, STAT3, MAPK, PI3K, ERK1/2, Akt, TNF-α, COX-2, cyclin D1, cdk, MMP-9, survivin, cIAP-1, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspases, and other cell growth regulatory proteins. In this review, the evidences for the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of ginger extract and its active components using in vitro, animal models, and patients have been described. PMID:25838819

  20. Ginger extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidrusli, A.; Suryanto; Mahmood, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ginger extract as corrosion inhibitor from natural resources was studied to prevent corrosion of mild steel in acid media. Ginger rhizome was extracted to produce green corrosion inhibitor (G-1) while ginger powder bought at supermarket was also extract to form green corrosion inhibitor (G-2). Effectiveness of inhibitor in preventing corrosion process of mild steel was studied in 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid. The experiment of weight loss method and polarization technique were conducted to measure corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel in solution containing 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid with various concentration of inhibitor at room temperature. The results showed that, the rate of corrosion dropped from 8.09 mmpy in solution containing no inhibitor to 0.72 mmpy in solution containing 150g/l inhibitor while inhibition efficiency up to 91% was obtained. The polarization curve in polarization experiments shows that the inhibition efficiency is 86% with high concentration of inhibitor. The adsorption of ginger extract on the surface of mild steel was observed by using optical microscope and the characterization analysis was done by using pH measurement method. When high concentration of green inhibitor in the acid solution is used, the pH at the surface of steel is increasing.

  1. Effects of ginger extract on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuhua; Li Jingshun; Wang Chunhua; Pan Qin; Yang Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the effects of extract of ginger on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. Methods: Mice were treated with three different doses of extract of ginger: high dose (9.3 mL·kg -1 ), middle dose (4.7 mL·kg -1 ), and low dose (2.3 mL·kg -1 ). All mice were irradiated once with 2.0 Gy X-ray. At the same time, the negative group (treated with vegetable oil only) and positive one (irradiated as well as extract of ginger groups after treated with vegetable oil) were set up. The changes of activities of enzymes in testes of mice were observed. Results: After irradiated, in the group of high dose the activity of G-6-PD was decreased but the activity of LDH was increased (P 0.05). In every group, SDH had no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The proper dose of extract of ginger has significant effects on stabilization of testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  2. Ginger augmented chemotherapy: A novel multitarget nontoxic approach for cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Roopali; Rida, Padmashree C G; Kucuk, Omer; Aneja, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Cancer, referred to as the 'disease of civilization', continues to haunt humanity due to its dreadful manifestations and limited success of therapeutic interventions such as chemotherapy in curing the disease. Although effective, chemotherapy has repeatedly demonstrated inadequacy in disease management due to its debilitating side effects arising from its deleterious nonspecific effects on normal healthy cells. In addition, development of chemoresistance due to mono-targeting often results in cessation of chemotherapy. This urgently demands development and implementation of multitargeted alternative therapies with mild or no side effects. One extremely promising strategy that yet remains untapped in the clinic is augmenting chemotherapy with dietary phytochemicals or extracts. Ginger, depository of numerous bioactive molecules, not only targets cancer cells but can also mitigate chemotherapy-associated side effects. Consequently, combination therapy involving ginger extract and chemotherapeutic agents may offer the advantage of being efficacious with reduced toxicity. Here we discuss the remarkable and often overlooked potential of ginger extract to manage cancer, the possibility of developing ginger-based combinational therapies, and the major roadblocks along with strategies to overcome them in clinical translation of such inventions. We are optimistic that clinical implementation of such combination regimens would be a much sought after modality in cancer management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ginger-Mechanism of action in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Ried, Karin; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Liz

    2017-01-02

    Despite advances in antiemetic therapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still poses a significant burden to patients undergoing chemotherapy. Nausea, in particular, is still highly prevalent in this population. Ginger has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal complaints and has been suggested as a viable adjuvant treatment for nausea and vomiting in the cancer context. Substantial research has revealed ginger to possess properties that could exert multiple beneficial effects on chemotherapy patients who experience nausea and vomiting. Bioactive compounds within the rhizome of ginger, particularly the gingerol and shogaol class of compounds, interact with several pathways that are directly implicated in CINV in addition to pathways that could play secondary roles by exacerbating symptoms. These properties include 5-HT 3 , substance P, and acetylcholine receptor antagonism; antiinflammatory properties; and modulation of cellular redox signaling, vasopressin release, gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate. This review outlines these proposed mechanisms by discussing the results of clinical, in vitro, and animal studies both within the chemotherapy context and in other relevant fields. The evidence presented in this review indicates that ginger possesses multiple properties that could be beneficial in reducing CINV.

  4. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Winarti Andayani; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  6. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Powder Supplement on Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: a Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited evidence that ginger (Zingiber Officinale powder consumption is effective to relieve the pain and inflammation due to special phytichemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger powder supplementation in pain improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 outpatients with knee osteoarthritis of moderate pain. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: receiving ginger powder supplement and placebo. Ginger and placebo groups received two identical capsules per day for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg ginger powder or starch. Pain severity was measured by VAS (Visual Analog Scale at first and after 3 months. A responder was defined as a reduction in pain of > 1.5 cm on a visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in severity of pain. However, after ginger supplementation, pain score decreased in ginger group. After 12 weeks, Pain reduction was more significant in ginger group than placebo. Response to intervention was 88% and 14% in ginger and placebo groups, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between both groups in response to intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ginger powder supplementation was effective in reducing pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, therefore it is recommended as a safe supplement for these patients

  7. Antischistosomal activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Schistosoma mansoni harbored in C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; Eid, Refaat A; Adly, Mohamed A

    2011-08-01

    The repeated chemotherapy of schistosomiasis has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant schistosome strains. The development of such resistance has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. Many medicinal plants were studied to investigate their antischistosomal potency. The present work aimed to evaluate antischistosomal activity of crude aqueous extract of ginger against Schistosoma mansoni. Sixteen mice of C57 strain were exposed to 100 ± 10 cercariae per mouse by the tail immersion method; the mice were divided into two groups: untreated group and ginger-treated one. All mice were sacrificed at the end of 10th week post-infection. Worm recovery and egg counting in the hepatic tissues and faeces were determined. Surface topography of the recovered worms was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological examination of liver and intestine was done using routine histological procedures. The worm burden and the egg density in liver and faeces of mice treated with ginger were fewer than in non-treated ones. Scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms recovered from mice treated with ginger lost their normal surface architecture, since its surface showed partial loss of tubercles' spines, extensive erosion in inter-tubercle tegumental regions and numerous small blebs around tubercles. Histopathological data indicated a reduction in the number and size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver and intestine of treated mice compared to non-treated mice. The results of the present work suggested that ginger has antischistosomal activities and provided a basis for subsequent experimental and clinical trials.

  8. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  9. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  10. Bioflavonoids Effects of Ginger on Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajhosieni Laleh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ginger is a strong antioxidant and long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic animals, and it has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Prevalence oxidative stress among urban life and changes in antioxidant capacity are considered asplay an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n = 40 were divided into three groups, control group (n = 10 and Ginger Quercetin group that received 100 mg/kg (gavage, (n = 10, and diabetic group, which received 55 mg/kg intra peritoneal (IP STZ (n = 20, which was subdivided to two groups of 10; STZ group and treatment group. Treatment group received 55 mg/kg (IP STZ plus100 mg/kg ginger, daily for, 8 weeks, respectively; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (IP. Diabetes was induced by a single (IP injection of STZ (55 mg/kg. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28 day after inducing diabetic 5 cc blood were collected for total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein levels and kidney tissues of rat in whole groups were removed then prepared for apoptosis analysis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL method. Results: Apoptotic cells significantly decreased in group that has received 100 mg/kg ginger (P < 0.05 in comparison to experimental groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Since in our study 100 mg/kg ginger have significantly preventive effect on kidney cells damages by reducing number of apoptotic cells in kidney and hence it seems that using it can be effective for treatment in diabetic rat.

  11. Investigating the effects of inhaling ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-12-01

    There is a knowledge gap regarding the effects of ginger essence on postoperative nausea and vomiting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. This study was conducted from third April to first October 2014 in Labbafinejad hospital, Tehran, Iran. Totally, 120 nephrectomy patients were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the control groups. After nephrectomy, we applied two drops of ginger essence to a 2 × 2-inch gauze that was attached to the patients' collars in the treatment group to allow patients to inhale the evaporated essence along with the air room and then repeated every 30 min for two hours. The control group was similarly treated with normal saline. Nausea was assessed using a visual analogue scale every 30 min for two hours and at the sixth hour after surgery. The paired- and independent-samples t and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used for data analysis. The means nausea intensity were in the treatment and the control groups were 7.09 ± 1.59 and 7.40 ± 1.71 at thirty minutes after surgery (P value > 0.05). However, the mean nausea intensity in the treatment group at the four subsequent times were significantly lower than the control group (P value ginger essence has positive effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting. Using ginger essence for managing postoperative nausea and vomiting is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys. The fructose control rats were treated with 10% fructose in drinking water over 5 weeks. The fructose consumption in ginger-treated rats was adjusted to match that of fructose control group. The ethanolic extract of ginger was co-administered (once daily by oral gavage). The indexes of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined enzymatically, by ELISA and/or histologically. Gene expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR. In addition to improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, supplement with ginger extract (50 mg/kg) attenuated liquid fructose-induced kidney injury as characterized by focal cast formation, slough and dilation of tubular epithelial cells in the cortex of the kidneys in rats. Furthermore, ginger also diminished excessive renal interstitial collagen deposit. By Real-Time PCR, renal gene expression profiles revealed that ginger suppressed fructose-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2. In accord, overexpression of two important macrophage accumulation markers CD68 and F4/80 was downregulated. Moreover, overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were downregulated. Ginger treatment also restored the downregulated ratio of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to PAI-1. The present results

  13. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  14. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  15. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE...

  16. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group. Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02 in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5 in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39 was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13 after three month of treatment (p=0.02. In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men.

  17. Evaluation of daily ginger consumption for the prevention of chronic diseases in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiulei; Feng, Qiyan; Guo, Xiaoyan; Li, Shuguang; Li, Rong; Chu, Dan; Ma, Yunbo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess daily ginger consumption and explore its correlation with chronic diseases among adults and to analyze further how different levels of ginger intake affect the prevalence of chronic diseases. We examined the prevalence rate of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease [CHD], hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, fatty liver, anemia, and tumor), as well as the daily ginger intake in a large cross-sectional study. In all, 4628 participants (1823 men and 2805 women) ages 18 to 77 y completed face-to-face dietary and health questionnaires. We extracted diagnoses and investigation results from the participants' health records. The association between the level of ginger intake (0-2 g/d, 2-4 g/d, and 4-6 g/d) and the prevalence of chronic diseases was analyzed by using χ 2 statistical test and unconditional logistic model. Overall, daily ginger consumption was associated with decreased risk for hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.98) and CHD (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) in adults ages ≥18 y. Differences were also observed in adults ages ≥40 y: hypertension (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99), CHD (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97). However, after 20 y, no association was seen for hypertension but there was still a difference between ginger consumption and CHD in adults ages ≥60 y (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96). Again, the probability of illness (hypertension or CHD) decreased when the level of daily ginger intake increased. These data indicate that ginger has a potential preventive property against some chronic diseases, especially hypertension and CHD, as well as its ability to reduce the probability of illness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaati, Fateme; Najafi, Safa; Kashaninia, Zahra; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) places a significant burden on the patient. Herbal agents are the most commonly complementary therapies used among the public. This study was done to determine the effect of ginger and chamomile capsules on nausea and vomiting in cases undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). In a randomized, double-blind and clinical trial study, 65 women with BC undergoing chemotherapy were referred to Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran, between May 2013 to June 2014. Regimen for ginger group for 5 days before and 5 days after chemotherapy was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of powdered ginger root in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and aprepitant (DMA) capsules. Chamomile group similarly was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of Matricaria chamomilla extract in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. Control group, routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. There were no significant differences between the ginger, chamomile and control groups regarding age. Drugs used for chemotherapy were identical and duration of disease was also matched (1-4 months). Ginger and chamomile were both significantly effective for reducing the frequency of vomiting, there being no significant difference between the ginger and chamomile groups. Moreover, unlike the chamomile, ginger significantly influenced the frequency of nausea. According to the findings of this study, it should be declared that taking ginger capsules (1 g/day) might relieve CINV safely. Nurses dealing directly with cancer patients should be responsible for providing educational programs for patients and their families about how to deal with their drug regimens and associated side effects.

  19. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar; Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H 2 SO 4 was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H 2 SO 4 medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface

  20. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  1. The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablou, Tahereh; Aryaeian, Naheed; Valizadeh, Majid; Sharifi, Faranak; Hosseini, AghaFatemeh; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 70 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. They allocated randomly into ginger group and control group. They consumed 1600 mg ginger versus 1600 mg wheat flour placebo daily for 12 weeks. Serum sugar, lipids, CRP, PGE2 and TNFα were measured before and after intervention. Ginger reduced fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA, triglyceride, total cholesterol, CRP and PGE₂ significantly compared with placebo group (p  0.05). Ginger improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile, and reduced CRP and PGE₂ in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore ginger can be considered as an effective treatment for prevention of diabetes complications.

  2. Efficacy of ginger in alleviating the severe radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological impactions pregnant female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation

  3. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  4. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Iraji, Aida

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results in the ethanol group indicate that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups ( P < .05). In ginger-ethanol group, ginger improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA compared to ethanol group ( P < .05). It can be concluded that ginger protects the ethanol-induced testicular damage and improves the hormonal levels, trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA.

  5. Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Zahra; Shojaei, Esphandiar; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the potential benefits of ginger in preventing antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity have been evaluated in patients with tuberculosis. Patients in the ginger and placebo groups (30 patients in each group) received either 500 mg ginger (Zintoma)(®) or placebo one-half hour before each daily dose of antituberculosis drugs for 4 weeks. Patients' gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain) and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity were recorded during the study period. In this cohort, nausea was the most common antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Forty eight (80%) patients experienced nausea. Nausea was more common in the placebo than the ginger group [27 (90%) vs 21 (70%), respectively, p = 0.05]. During the study period, 16 (26.7%) patients experienced antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients in the ginger group experienced less, but not statistically significant, antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity than the placebo group (16.7% vs 36.7%, respectively, p = 0.07). In conclusion, ginger may be a potential option for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Ginger Extract Suppresses Inflammatory Response and Maintains Barrier Function in Human Colonic Epithelial Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunyoung; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2017-05-01

    The beneficial effects of ginger in the management of gastrointestinal disturbances have been reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory potential of ginger extract was assessed in a cellular model of gut inflammation. In addition, the effects of ginger extract and its major active compounds on intestinal barrier function were evaluated. The response of Caco-2 cells following exposure to a mixture of inflammatory mediators [interleukin [IL]-1β, 25 ng/mL; lipopolysaccharides [LPS], 10 ng/mL; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, 50 ng/mL; and interferon [INF]-γ, 50 ng/mL] were assessed by measuring the levels of secreted IL-6 and IL-8. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were measured. Moreover, the degree of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibition was examined, and the intestinal barrier function was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran transfer. It was observed that ginger extract and its constituents improved inflammatory responses by decreasing the levels of nitrite, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 via NF-κB inhibition. The ginger extract also increased the TEER and decreased the transfer of FITC-dextran from the apical side of the epithelium to the basolateral side. Taken together, these results show that ginger extract may be developed as a functional food for the maintenance of gastrointestinal health. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  8. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  9. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  10. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P vaginal candidiasis.

  11. Biological effects of 60Co γ-irradiation on Laiwu ginger VM1 growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ming; Huang Jinli; Wei Yuxia; Guan Qiuzhu; Zhang Zhenxian

    2008-01-01

    Rhizome of Laiwu ginger were treated with γ-irradiation at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy. The results showed that 60 Co γ-irradiation inhibited the rhizome burgeoning, and decreased the survival rate of the seedlings, rate of leaf- expansion and the growth of plants (VM 1 ). The inhibition effects became stronger with the increase of the irradiation dose. Different bands were found through the analysis of POD, EST isozymes and RAPD of VM 1 plants, which showed that variation on molecular level occurred in VM 1 plants. LD 30-40 was appropriate for the irradiation of rhizomes of Laiwu ginger and the optimal irradiation dose was about 20- 30 Gy. (authors)

  12. Comparative Study of Powdered Ginger Drink Processed by Different Method:Traditional and using Evaporation Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriyana, Wuri; Taufika Rosyida, Vita; Nur Hayati, Septi; Darsih, Cici; Dewi Poeloengasih, Crescentiana

    2017-12-01

    Ginger drink is one of the traditional beverage that became one of the products of interest by consumers in Indonesia. This drink is believed to have excellent properties for the health of the body. In this study, we have compared the moisture content, ash content, metal content and the identified compound of product which processed with traditional technique and using an evaporator machine. The results show that both of products fulfilled some parameters of the Indonesian National Standard for the traditional powdered drink. GC-MS analysis data showed the identified compound of both product. The major of hydrocarbon groups that influenced the flavor such as zingiberene, camphene, beta-phelladrine, beta-sesquepelladrine, curcumene, and beta-bisabolene were found higher in ginger drink powder treated with a machine than those processed traditionally.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites.

  14. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks

    OpenAIRE

    Crassina, K.; Sudha, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality a...

  15. Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

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    Usama K. Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats. Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage. Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation. The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels. Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis. The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products.

  16. Preliminary study on a polymer carrier containing ginger extract with possible applications in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia-Cristina Borcan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize a polyurethane drug delivery system used for a ginger extract with possible applications in cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS The obtained procedure is based on a poly-addition reaction between a diisocyanate and a mixture of polyols and a spontaneous emulsification in the presence of a surfactant. Only aliphatic compounds were used as raw materials and no other chemicals were added as reaction catalyst or promoters. RESULTS Nanostructures sized between 92 and 128 nm, with a medium tendency of agglomeration and very stable to thermal degradation between 30 and 300oC were obtained. We observed the fact that nanostructures’ diluted aqueous solution presents a pH around 6.7 and no evidence of any irritation potential was found after using different assays. CONCLUSIONS The obtained nanostructures can be used as a polymer carrier for ginger extract based on our results. Graphical abstract: Chemical structures of: (a gingerol, (b eucalyptol, (c borneol. REFERENCES 1. Prasad EM, Mopuri R, Islam MS, Kodidhela LD. Cardioprotective effect of Vitex negundo on isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in wistar rats: A dual approach study. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 [epub ahead of print]. 2. Abdel-Naeem HH, Mohamed HM. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain. Meat Sci. 2016;118:52-60. 3. Shirpoor A, Rezaei F, Fard AA, Afshari AT, Gharalari FH, Rasmi Y. Ginger extract protects rat’s kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:698-704.

  17. Changes in Nutritional Metabolites of Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4% and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%. In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW, while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.

  18. Effect of Sucrose and Growth Regulator’s Level on Ginger Micropropagation

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    Resham Babu Amgai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is most important cash crop of the hilly region of Nepal. However, availability of disease free planting material (rhizome is the major problem faced by Nepalese farmers. Tissue culture is the only option to produce disease free rhizome of ginger. Suitable culture media combination is most important for the production of planting material in ginger through tissue culture. Therefore, effect of different level of sucrose and growth regulators on micro-propagation of ginger was studied using local collection ‘Kaski Local’. Early stage bud was used as explant. MS basal media with different level of sucrose and growth regulators was used as tissue culture media. 30 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 30 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA, 60 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5mg/L NAA, 90 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA was used in this study. The explants were surface sterilized, cultured and incubated at 25±2°C, 90-95% relative humidity and 14:10 hours light:dark photoperiod for 8 weeks. Increased level of the sucrose increased the rhizome weight, however, addition of NAA produced more positive effect for this. MS basal media with 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA produced higher rhizome weight.

  19. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of Ginger and Its Constituents on Airway Smooth Muscle Relaxation and Calcium Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviski, Matthew E.; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100–300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca2+ responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(−)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca2+]i regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β2-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:23065130

  1. Effect of red and yellow ginger on growth performance and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the red and yellow ginger on performance, nutrient digestibility and total antioxidant capacity of broiler chickens. In a 2×2×2+1 factorial design, a total of two hundred and sixteen, three weeks old broiler chicken with initial weight of 430 g (± 0.1g SE) were assigned to ...

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of ginger (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) : Global yield and composition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-11-01

    An experiment to observe the effect of temperature and time process in ginger rhizome-Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) using CO2 as the solvent has been conducted. The ginger rhizome (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) was washed, drained, sliced, sun-dried, and then stored in a sealed bag prior to usage. The temperature and time process variables are each 35, 40, 45°C and 2, 4, 6 hours respectively with the pressure variable are 3500, 4000, and 4500 psi. It is found that the highest yield (2.9%) was achieved using temperature of 40°C and pressure of 4500 psiwith the process time of 4 hours. However, using the curve-fitting method, it is suggested to use 42°C as the temperature and 5 hours, 7 minutes, and 30 seconds (5.125 Hours) as the time process to obtain the highest yield. The temperature changes will affect both solvent and vapor pressure of diluted compounds of the ginger which will influence the global yield and the composition of the extract. The three major components of the extract are curcumene, zingiberene, and β - sesquipellandrene,

  3. Ginger species in Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo: Inventory and collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimanto

    2017-05-01

    This research is aimed to inventory and collect ginger species from Borneo, especially from Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo forest. This research was conducted by surveys and using a purposive sampling method. The characterization of Borneo gingers also used a guide to ginger of Borneo. The results showed that there are 19 species which have been recorded in this forest. Amomum, Alpinia, Plagiostachys, Globba, Hornstedtia, Plagiostachys, Zingiber, is genus that found in the forest. The life collections are conserved in Purwodadi Botanical Gardens. The species of Zingiberaceae are Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K. Schum., Alpinia aquatica (Retz.) Roscoe, Alpinia capitellata Jack, Alpinia beamanii R.M.Sm. Amomum oliganthum K. Schum, Etlingera pauciflora (Ridl.) R.M.Sm, Elettaria surculosa (K.Schum) B.L. Burrt&R.M. Sm, Hornstedtia rumphii (Sm.) Valeton, Hornstedtia conica Ridl, Hornstedtia reticosa Valeton, Globba pumila Ridl, Plagiostachys bracteolata R.M. Sm, Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl, Plagiostachysbreviramosa Cowley, Zingiber aromaticum Noronha, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr, and Zingiber leptostachyum Valeton.

  4. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  5. The Effect of Turmeric , Cardamom and Ginger on in vitro Albumin Glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheikh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disease in the world that imposes a tremendous health and societal burden whether that burden is measured in terms of sickness , use of health systems resources or costs. Hyperglycemia is the most important clinical sign of diabetes leading to glycation of the various proteins in the body that leads to change in their nature , structure and biochemical activity. One of the probable methods in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is decrease or inhibition of this reaction. It seems that Turmeric , Cardamom and Ginger are useful for this purpose. The main goal of this research is to determine the effect of above agents on in vitro albumin glycation. In the presence of various concentration of these agents , albumin was glycated and evaluated using TBA method. Results showed that these food additives have inhibitory effects on albumin glycation reaction with the concentraction of 1 g/dl , 0.2 g/dl and 0.1 g/dl. Among these agents , Ginger had the most inhibitory effect (78% with the concentration of 1 g/dl. The sequence of effect is : Ginger > Cardamom > Turmeric These findings showed that these agents decrease albumin glycation reaction.

  6. Effect of combined administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and atorvastatin on the liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeba, Gehan H; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2010-12-01

    Ginger is known to possess hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Combination therapy often takes advantage of complementary effects of different agents. This study investigated the combined effect of ginger extract (GE) and atorvastatin on lipid profile and on atorvastatin-induced hepatic injury. Rats were randomized into: control; GE (400 mg/kg); atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E, and atorvastatin (80 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E. Administration of 80 mg/kg atorvastatin for 4 weeks had major hepatotoxic effect whereas the lower dose (20 mg/kg) seems to cause mild liver injury. Besides lowering serum total cholesterol and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), atorvastatin significantly increased serum aminotransferases, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Concurrent administration of GE and atorvastatin had the opposite effect. Histopathological study revealed that GE reduced liver lesions induced by atorvastatin. The results indicate that the ability of ginger to lower serum cholesterol and to decrease aminotransferases, MDA and NO is clinically important, because its chronic administration will neither lead to side-effects nor to hepatic changes as occurs with high atorvastatin doses. Therefore, combination regimens containing GE and low dose of statins could be advantageous in treating hypercholesterolemic patients which are susceptible to liver function abnormalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of ginger extract on smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mamaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulorumen hypomotility leads to the impaired physiologic functions of the digestive tract. Prokinetic action of ginger has been demonstrated in the laboratory animals and human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on contraction and motility of reticulum and rumen of ruminants. Collected samples of reticulum and rumen from eight sheep were investigated in vitro. The extract at the concentration of 0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1 had no effect on any preparations. Contraction of reticulum and rumen preparations was occurred at 10.0 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations (p < 0.05. Concentration of 1000 mg L-1 caused a relaxation in preparations contracted with 10.0 and 100 mg L-1. Likewise, the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited ACh-induced contraction in both tissues. Six sheep were involved in electromyographic study. Administration of 40 mg kg-1 of the extract increased the overall frequency of contractions of the reticulum and rumen at the subsequent three days with the prominent increase at the second day (p < 0.05. Results of in vitro study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger contained spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. The results in vivo study represented evidences that the extract may have stimulant effect on reticulorumen motility in 40 mg kg-1 concentration.

  8. The GINGER project and status of the GINGERino prototype at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, A.; Belfi, J.; Bosi, F.; Di Virgilio, A.; Beverini, N.; Carelli, G.; Maccioni, E.; Santagata, R.; Simonelli, A.; Beghi, A.; Cuccato, D.; Donazzan, A.; Naletto, G.

    2016-05-01

    GINGER (Gyroscopes IN GEneral Relativity) is a proposal for measuring in a ground-based laboratory the Lense-Thirring effect, known also as inertial frame dragging, that is predicted by General Relativity, and is induced by the rotation of a massive source. GINGER will consist in an array of at least three square ring lasers, mutually orthogonal, with about 6-10 m side, and located in a deep underground site, possibly the INFN - National Laboratories of Gran Sasso. The tri-axial design will provide a complete estimation of the laboratory frame angular velocity, to be compared with the Earths rotation estimate provided by IERS with respect the fixed stars frame. Large-size ring lasers have already reached a very high sensitivity, allowing for relevant geodetic measurements. The accuracy required for Lense-Thirring effect measurement is higher than 10-14 rad/s and therefore Earth angular velocity must be measured within one part in 10-9. A 3.6 m side, square ring laser, called GINGERino, has been recently installed inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratories in order to qualify the site for a future installation of GINGER. We discuss the current status of the experimental work, and in particular of the GINGERino prototype.

  9. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  10. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Ginger Supplementation on Proinflammatory Cytokines in Older Patients with Osteoarthritis: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Naderi, Zahra; Dehghan, Ali; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Fallah Huseini, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence that ginger powder consumption can relieve pain and inflammation due to specific anti-inflammatory phytochemical constitutents. This study investigates the effect of ginger supplementation on proinflammatory factors in participants (n = 120) of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 3-month clinical trial investigating knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the ginger group (GG) or the placebo group (PG). Administered daily for 3 months, participants in the GG intervention received capsules containing 500 mg of ginger powder, while PG participants received capsules filled with 500 mg starch. Serum samples collected at baseline and 3 months were analyzed for serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). At baseline, proinflammatory cytokine concentrations did not differ by group. However, at 3 months, both cytokines decreased in the GG relative to the PG. The results of this study indicate that ginger supplementation may have a promising benefits for knee osteoarthritis and may, therefore, may warrant further study.

  12. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  14. Assay of 6-gingerol in CO2 supercritical fluid extracts of ginger and evaluation of its sustained release from a transdermal delivery system across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-07-01

    Ginger has been widely used as healthy food condiment as well as traditional Chinese medicine since antiquity. Multiple potentials of ginger for treatment of various ailments have been revealed. However, the biological half-life of 6-gingerol (a principal pungent ingredient of ginger) is only 7.23 minutes while taken orally. Delivery of ginger compositions by routes other than oral have scarcely been reported. Therefore, we studied a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of ginger to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism, avoid gastrointestinal degradation and achieve long persistent release of effective compositions. After establishment of a HPLC analysis method of 6-gingerol, assays of 6-gingerol were performed to compare two kinds of ginger extracts. Then, the characteristics of transdermal delivery of 6-gingerol in TDDS were exhibited. The results showed that the contents of 6-gingerol in two kinds of ginger extracts were significantly different. The maximal delivery percentage of 6-gingerol across rat skin at 20 h was more than 40% in different TDDS formulations. TDDS may provide long-lasting delivery of ginger compounds.

  15. Effect of sanhuangwuji powder, anti-rheumatic drugs, and ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with peptic ulcer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Defang; Guo, Mingyang; Hu, Yonghe; Liu, Taihua; Yan, Jiao; Luo, Yong; Yun, Mingdong; Yang, Min; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Linglin

    2015-06-01

    To observe the efficacy and safety of oral sanhuangwuji powder, anti-rheumatic drugs (ARDs), and ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at zusanli (ST 36) on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated by peptic ulcer. This prospective randomized controlled study included 180 eligible inpatients and outpatients randomly assigned to an ARD treatment (n.= 60), ginger-partitioned stimulation (n = 60), or combination treatment (n = 60). Patients assigned to the ARD group were given oral celecoxib, methotrexate, and esomeprazole. Patients assigned to the ginger-partitioned stimulation group were given ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at zusanli (ST 36) in addition to the ARDs. Patients in the combination treatment group were given oral sanhuangwuji powder, ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at susanli (ST 36), and ARDs. All patients were followed up for 2 months to evaluate clinical effects and safety. The study was registered in the World Health Organization database at the General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command Chinese People's Liberation Army (ChiCTR-TCC12002824). The combination treatment group had significantly greater improvements in RA symptoms, laboratory outcomes, and gastrointestinal symptom scores, compared with the other groups (P ginger-partitioned stimulation group (χ2= 6.171, P ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at zusanli (ST 36), oral sanhuangwuji powder, and ARDs had a better clinical effect for RA with complicated peptic ulcer, compared with ARD treatmentalone or in combination with ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation.

  16. Sampling and analytical variability associated with determination of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A in capsular ginger powder sold as a dietary supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety of botanicals is of primary concern to the consumers of medicinal plants and dietary supplements. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration generally recognize ginger as safe. Ginger roots could be contaminated with mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by molds during productio...

  17. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Chemical characterisation and allelopathic potential of essential oils from leaves and rhizomes of white ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEssential oils have the potential to be used as bioherbicides, and possess the advantage of their biodegradability, high structural diversity and reduced natural resistance to weeds. The essential oils of the leaves and rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium, an exotic invasive plant adapted to different regions of Brazil, were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterised chemically by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allelopathic activity was determined using methodologies that evaluate the effects of volatility and direct contact on seed germination and seedling vigour in the lettuce. The major constituents of the essential oil from the leaves were β-pinene (46.9%, α-pinene (19.2% and β-caryophyllene (13.2% and from the rhizomes, β-pinene (41.5%, 1.8-cineole (23.6% and α-pinene (13.1%. When analysing the volatile effects of the essential oils, it was seen that their concentration did not affect seedling first germination count or total germination. The essential oil from the rhizomes was more effective than the essential oil from the leaves in reducing seedling response for SGI, dry weight, and length of the roots and shoots. When evaluating the effect of direct contact with the essential oils, it was seen that both oils reduced the response of all the variables under evaluation, and that in addition, the oil from the rhizomes caused greater reductions than that from the leaves, again for all variables. These results can be attributed to the higher levels of monoterpenes present in the essential oil from the rhizomes, mainly the presence of 1.8-cineole.

  19. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Muhammad S.; Ni, Yu-Ming; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that ginger consumption has anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, glucose-sensitizing, and stimulatory effects on the gastrointestinal tract. This study assessed the effects of a hot ginger beverage on energy expenditure, feelings of appetite and satiety and metabolic risk factors in overweight men. Methods Ten men, age 39.1 ± 3.3 y and body mass index (BMI) 27.2 ± 0.3 kg/m2, participated in this randomized crossover study. Resting state energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry and for 6 h after consumption of a breakfast meal with or without 2 g ginger powder dissolved in a hot water beverage. Subjective feelings of satiety were assessed hourly using visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken fasted and for 3 h after breakfast consumption. Results There was no significant effect of ginger on total resting energy expenditure (P = 0.43) or respiratory quotient (P = 0.41). There was a significant effect of ginger on thermic effect of food (ginger vs control = 42.7 ± 21.4 kcal/d, P = 0.049) but the area under the curve was not different (P = 0.43). VAS ratings showed lower hunger (P = 0.002), lower prospective food intake (P = 0.004) and greater fullness (P = 0.064) with ginger consumption versus control. There were no effects of ginger on glucose, insulin, lipids, or inflammatory markers. Conclusions The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:22538118

  20. Evaluation of the functional food potential of bamirad (a ginger-spiced) cheese produced in the western highlands of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, M.S.; Anyangwe, F.F.; Anselme, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cheese was modified to enhance its functional characteristics thereby encouraging its consumption. Consequently, a ginger-spiced cheese (Ramirad) was produced and the effects of feed supplementation with cheese on blood lipid profile were evaluated using 36 male Wistar rats in four groups. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. There were significant (P<0.05) changes indicating: weekly increases of triacylglycerols for all treatments, higher total cholesterol for the 0.0 % ginger treatment, and a decline of low-density lipoprotein for 1.0 % ginger treatment. The LDL/HDL ratio was very low, indicating that this cheese is a functional food, a potential exploitable for the well-being of the consumer. (author)

  1. Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2: the effect of the SFE pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Moreschi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrolysis of fresh and dried turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and ginger (Zingiber officinale R. in the presence of subcritical water + CO2 was studied. The hydrolysis of ginger and turmeric bagasses from supercritical fluid extraction was also studied. The reactions were done using subcritical water and CO2 at 150 bar, 200 °C and reaction time of 11 minutes; the degree of reaction was monitored through the amount of starch hydrolyzed. Process yields were calculated using the amount of reducing and total sugars formed. The effects of supercritical fluid extraction in the starchy structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Higher degree of hydrolysis (97- 98 % were obtained for fresh materials and the highest total sugar yield (74% was established for ginger bagasse. The supercritical fluid extraction did not significantly modify the degree of hydrolysis in the tested conditions.

  2. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  3. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  4. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs.

  5. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  6. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, E M; Folmer, V N; Bliddal, H; Altman, R D; Juhl, C; Tarp, S; Zhang, W; Christensen, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral ginger for symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by carrying out a systematic literature search followed by meta-analyses on selected studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral ginger treatment with placebo in OA patients aged >18 years. Outcomes were reduction in pain and reduction in disability. Harm was assessed as withdrawals due to adverse events. The efficacy effect size was estimated using Hedges' standardized mean difference (SMD), and safety by risk ratio (RR). Standard random-effects meta-analysis was used, and inconsistency was evaluated by the I-squared index (I(2)). Out of 122 retrieved references, 117 were discarded, leaving five trials (593 patients) for meta-analyses. The majority reported relevant randomization procedures and blinding, but an inadequate intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Following ginger intake, a statistically significant pain reduction SMD = -0.30 ([95% CI: [(-0.50, -0.09)], P = 0.005]) with a low degree of inconsistency among trials (I(2) = 27%), and a statistically significant reduction in disability SMD = -0.22 ([95% CI: ([-0.39, -0.04)]; P = 0.01; I(2) = 0%]) were seen, both in favor of ginger. Patients given ginger were more than twice as likely to discontinue treatment compared to placebo ([RR = 2.33; 95% CI: (1.04, 5.22)]; P = 0.04; I(2) = 0%]). Ginger was modestly efficacious and reasonably safe for treatment of OA. We judged the evidence to be of moderate quality, based on the small number of participants and inadequate ITT populations. Prospero: CRD42011001777. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract.

  8. Effect injection of Ginger Extract on Development and Nucleus position of “Sangkuriang” Catfish Clarias sp. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of methods could be applied to continuously meet the need of fish fry including catfish (Clarias sp. is artificial propagation by inducing ovulation and spawning.   As an alternative of existing method, in this study, ginger extract was intramuscularly injected to induce development of catfish eggs.  Ginger is known as an important regulator of the balance of arachidonat cycle.  The dose of ginger extract injected was 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg broodstock.  The results of study showed that injection 100% of ginger extracts in all doses was insignificantly inducing development of egg diameter and its nucleus position of catfish.  Other chemicals exist in ginger extract might be functions as an obstacle for egg development of catfish. Keywords: catfish, Clarias sp., ginger, ovulation, egg   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan benih ikan termasuk lele (Clarias sp. secara kontinyu adalah penggunaan teknologi pembiakan buatan melalui perangsangan ovulasi dan pemijahan. Sebagai alternatif teknik yang sudah ada, dicobakan perangsangan perkembangan telur ikan lele menggunakan bahan ekstrak jahe yang dilakukan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskular. Jahe telah dikenal sebagai suatu pengatur penting atas keseimbangan siklus arakidonat. Dosis ekstrak jahe yang disuntikkan adalah 0, 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 mL/kg induk. Penyuntikan 100% ekstrak jahe pada semua dosis perlakuan belum dapat merangsang perkembangan diameter dan posisi inti sel telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Adanya bahan lain yang terdapat pada jahe diduga sebagai penghambat bagi perkembangan telur ikan lele. Kata kunci: Ikan lele, Clarias sp., jahe, ovulasi,  sel telur

  9. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar [Kandaswami Kandar' s College, Namakkal (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar [PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

  10. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  11. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  12. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Su-Bei; Wang, Ya; Chang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, trans-1,8-cineole-3,6-dihydroxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and 5,9-dihydroxy borneol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with four known monoterpenoid glycosides (3-6), were isolated from the water-soluble constituents of the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed that compounds 1 and 3 possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  13. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling

  14. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  15. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group ...

  16. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  17. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  18. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, J.T.; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2002-01-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13 deg. C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes

  19. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  20. Efficacy of Ginger for Alleviating the Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, James W; Zhang, Xin; Kim, Da Sol; Park, Sunmin

    2015-12-01

    There has been no attempt to date to synthesize the available evidence for the efficacy of ginger for treating primary dysmenorrhea. This systematic review evaluates the current evidence for the effectiveness of ginger for treating primary dysmenorrhea. Literature searches were conducted using 12 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Search terms used were: "ginger" or "Zingiber officinale" and "dysmenorrhea" and "pain." Studies using ginger as a treatment of primary dysmenorrhea were considered for inclusion. The major outcome of primary dysmenorrhea was assessed using a pain visual analogue score (PVAS). Initial searches yielded 29 articles. Of these original results, seven met specific selection criteria. Four of the RCTs compared the therapeutic efficacy of ginger with a placebo during the first 3-4 days of the menstrual cycle and were included in the meta analysis. The meta-analysis of these data showed a significant effect of ginger in reducing PVAS in subjects having primary dysmenorrhea (risk ratio, -1.85; 95% CI of -2.87, -0.84, P = 0.0003). Six RCTs out of 7 exhibited low to moderate of risk of bias. Collectively these RCTs provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of 750-2000 mg ginger powder during the first 3-4 days of menstrual cycle for primary dysmenorrhea. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties of ground cinnamon, ginger, fennel and fenugreek, and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel was investigated. Ground ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek were obtained from a Dutch trade company. Ginger originated from China, cinnamon was produced in Indonesia and fennel and fenugreek were produced in India. The samples were ground by the trade companies and divided in three parts. One part was fumigated by the trade companies at ambient temperatures during eight hours with ethylene oxide (EO) at a concentration of 1500/m 3 . The second part was gamma irradiated at room temperature in aluminium/polyethylene bags at the 40 KCi cobalt-60 research source of the pilot plant for food irradiation in Wageningen. The untreated, fumigated and irradiated samples were stored in gas-impermeable packages. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 KGy dose, for fennel, 6-10 KGy and for fenugreek 6-8 KGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercial established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil content of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Irradiation of ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14% while fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. Between the untreated irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found

  2. Individually and Combined Water-Based Exercise With Ginger Supplement, on Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Indices, Among the Obese Women With Breast Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Niloofar; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Fathi Bayatiyani, Zohreh

    2015-12-01

    Breast neoplasms has known as the most common cancer among the women worldwide, and relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer has been recognized since many years ago. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-weeks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers that have related to metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in obese women with breast neoplasms. Forty women whose have diagnosed with breast neoplasms have volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects have randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group have orally received 4 capsules, 7 days a week and for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program have collected at a progressive intensity and time, have ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sampling has collected at the pretest and post-test. The ginger supplementation and the water-base exercise have resulted in a reduction of hs-CRP, IL-10, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, LDL-C, TG; but an increase in HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C. The water-base exercise and ginger supplement group have significantly shown larger positive effect in all outcomes, in comparison with the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups. Findings have suggested that obese breast neoplasms survivors have commonly shown metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation, which placed them at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, data has indicated a protective effect of the nondrug strategies, such as water-base exercise and ginger supplementation have played an important role in pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic responses, among diagnosed breast neoplasms.

  3. Ginger and Zingerone Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice, Assessed by Nuclear Factor-κB Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Cheng, Hui-Man; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-08

    Ginger is a commonly used spice in cooking. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of ginger and its component zingerone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bioluminescent imaging. Ginger and zingerone significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities in cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal inhibition (84.5% ± 3.5% and 96.2% ± 0.6%) was observed at 100 μg/mL ginger and zingerone, respectively. Moreover, dietary ginger and zingerone significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in sera by 62.9% ± 18.2% and 81.3% ± 6.2%, respectively, and NF-κB bioluminescent signals in whole body by 26.9% ± 14.3% and 38.5% ± 6.2%, respectively. In addition, ginger and zingerone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luminescent intensities in most organs, and the maximal inhibition by ginger and zingerone was observed in small intestine. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that ginger and zingerone decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-, CD11b-, and p65-positive areas in jejunum. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ginger and zingerone were likely to be broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents in most organs that suppressed the activation of NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice.

  4. Generation of autotetraploid plant of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Hua, Wei; Jian-Hua, Miao; He-Ping, Huang; Shan-Lin, Gao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zingiber officinale Rosc. is not only an important medical plant in China, but also one of the most commonly used plant spices around the world. Early researches in Z. officinale Rosc. were focused on rapid propagation, germplasm preservation, and somatic embryogenesis, only a few reports focused on the generation of tetraploid ginger plants with colchicines treatment in vitro. Materials and Methods: The adventitious buds were submerged into different concentrations of colchicine water solution for different time to induce polyploid plants, and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Eighteen selected tetraploid lines were transferred to the field, and the leaf characteristics, rhizome yield, contents of volatile oil and gingerol were respectively evaluated to provide evidence of high-yield and good qualities of tetraploid ginger. Results: The induction rate reached as high as 33.3% of treated buds. More than 48 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploidy characteristics. All of the 18 selected tetraploid lines possessed higher rhizome yield and overall productivity of volatile oil and gingerol than those of the control. Conclusion: Five elite lines have been selected for further selection and breeding new varieties for commercial production in agricultural production. PMID:21969790

  5. Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yong Qing Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil on soft tissue injury (swelling. Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation. The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury.

  6. Increasing temperature causes flowering onset time changes of alpine ginger Roscoea in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmalingam Mohandass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent herbarium-based phenology assessments of many plant species have found significant responses to global climate change over the previous century. In this study, we investigate how the flowering phenology of three alpine ginger Roscoea species responses to climate change over the century from 1913 to 2011, by comparing between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. According to the observations, flowering onset of the three alpine ginger species occurred either 22 days earlier or was delayed by 8–30 days when comparing the mean peak flowering date between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. It is likely that this significant change in flowering onset is due to increased annual minimum and maximum temperatures and mean annual temperature by about 0.053°C per year. Our results also show that flowering time changes occurred due to an increasing winter–spring minimum temperature and monsoon minimum temperature, suggesting that these Roscoea species respond greatly to climate warming resulting in changes on flowering times.

  7. Detection of Irradiated Tubers (Ginger and Potato) Using Photostimulated Luminescence Technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2016-01-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement was conducted to detect irradiated gingers (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) after dark storage for 1 week, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all the samples were correctly distinguished between non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 50, 150 and 500 Gy based on photon count values. The PSL signal stability of irradiated samples (150 and 500 Gy) appeared to fade upon 6 months storage but remained well above upper threshold values of 5000 photon counts/ 60 s (PCs) for irradiated gingers and potatoes. The PCs of irradiated tubers showed a general trend of increase with the increase in doses up to 500 Gy. Samples showed highest intensity after irradiation. The differences in intensity to irradiation are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each tuber sample. Tubers irradiated at doses higher than 150 Gy, showed sensitivity index ratio of less than 10. Sensitivity Index was suggested for irradiated samples at doses slightly above 150 Gy. Irradiated samples at doses less than 150 Gy should be subjected for further investigation using thermoluminescence (TL) analysis. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated tubers. (author)

  8. GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity), a ring lasers array to measure the Lense-Thirring effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.

    The purpose of the GINGER is to perform the first test of general relativity (not considering the gravitational redshift measurements) in a terrestrial laboratory, using light as a probe. The experiment will complement the ones in space, performed or under way, with an entirely different technique and at a far lower cost. The methodology is based on ring-lasers, which are extremely accurate rotation sensors and can not only sense purely kinematical rotations (Sagnac effect accounting for the Earth rotation, polar motion of the terrestrial axis, local rotational movements of the laboratory due to the Earth crust dynamics...), but also general relativistic contributions such as the de Sitter effect (coupling between the gravito-electric field of the earth and the kinematical rotation) and the Lense-Thirring effect (inertial frame dragging due to the angular momentum of the earth). In order to reveal the latter effects, ring-laser response must be improved to be able to measure the effective rotation vector (kinematic plus GR terms) with an accuracy of 1 part in 109 or better. This is a challenging technological aspect, which however has been accurately taken into account by designing a system of ring lasers that will be implemented in this project. A ring laser have been installed inside the underground laboratory of GranSasso, with the purpose to see if an underground location is the right choice for GINGER. The apparatus and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  9. INFLUENCE OF GINGER ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY DIAZINON PESTICIDE OR FAT IN MALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFIFI, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of ginger extract (100 mg/kg b.wt) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administered daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon at the level of 40 mg/kg b.wt for five weeks and/or high fat (butter oil) at the dose level 16 ml/kg b.wt for five weeks.The data showed that the pesticide and high fat caused disturbance in liver function and significant decrease in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) and levels of total protein. Moreover, these changes were associated with disturbances in the carbohydrate metabolism in liver through the significant increase in liver glycogen, lactate and bilirubin levels, with significant decrease in serum glucose levels. Also, disturbance in liver lipid metabolism was occurred through significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol. Moreover, a significant decrease in serum testosterone level was also observed.The results showed that extended administration of ginger extract during diazinon pesticide and/or high fat treatment minimized the disturbance and injury induced in liver function and testis.

  10. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  11. A SynoviocyteModel for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Response to Ibuprofen, Betamethasone, and Ginger Extract—A Cross-Sectional In Vitro Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Søren; Bartels, Else Marie; Stockmarr, Anders

    2012-01-01

    synovial membrane or joint fluid. Cells were cultivated and exposed to no or TNF-α stimulation without, or in the presence of, betamethasone, ibuprofen, or a standardized ginger extract. Concentrations of a panel of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines were mapped for each culture and condition. Our......, and IL-8 release in all groups. Ibuprofen showed no effect on cytokine production, while ginger extract was similar to betamethasone. Ginger extract was as effective an anti-inflammatory agent as betamethasone in this in vitro model. Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes from OA and RA subjects promise...

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Estelle; Visser, Janicke; Koen, Nelene; Musekiwa, Alfred

    2014-03-19

    Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) occur commonly. Possible harmful side-effects of conventional medicine to the fetus create the need for alternative options to relieve NVP. This systematic review (SR) investigated current evidence regarding orally administered ginger for the treatment of NVP. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of ginger in treating NVP. The secondary objective was to assess the safety of ginger during pregnancy. A comprehensive electronic bibliographic database search was carried out. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy of orally administered ginger, as treatment for NVP in pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy, published in English, were included. Two researchers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. RevMan5 software (Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis. p Ginger significantly improved the symptoms of nausea when compared to placebo (MD 1.20, 95% CI 0.56-1.84, p = 0.0002, I² = 0%). Ginger did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting episodes during NVP, when compared to placebo, although there was a trend towards improvement (MD 0.72, 95% CI -0.03-1.46, p = 0.06, I² = 71%). Subgroup analyses seemed to favor the lower daily dosage of ginger for nausea relief. Ginger did not pose a significant risk for spontaneous abortion compared to placebo (RR 3.14, 95% CI 0.65-15.11, p = 0.15; I² = 0%), or to vitamin B₆ (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.17-1.42, p = 0.19, I² = 40%). Similarly, ginger did not pose a significant risk for the side-effects of heartburn or drowsiness. This review suggests potential benefits of ginger in reducing nausea symptoms in pregnancy (bearing in mind the limited number of studies, variable outcome reporting and low quality of evidence). Ginger did not significantly affect vomiting episodes, nor pose a risk for side-effects or adverse events during pregnancy. Based on evidence from this SR, ginger could be considered a harmless and possibly

  13. EFFERVESCENT TABLETS FORMULATION OF GINGER RHIZOME (Zingiber officinale Rosc. WITH VARIATION OF CITRIC ACID AND TARTARIC ACID LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has efficacy as an anti-emetic. Ginger rhizome is usually consumed as instant beverages, so that need to be made into a dosage form that more effective, efficient and attractive. This research aims to formulate ginger into effervescent tablets by using variation of the levels of citric acid and tartaric acid. Dried extract of ginger was made with percolation method using ethanol 70% and evaporated using spray dryer. Extract was made for 5 formulas with variation of acid source using smelting method. Granules were tested its physical properties include flow time, tap index, angle of repose, water absorption, compactibility, mass density, water content, and total phenolic level. Granules were compressed become tablets and tested for physical properties include weight uniformity, friability, hardness, dissolve time, flavor response test and total phenolic level. Data were analyzed with Anova One Way using 95% confidence level. The result shown that formula III was the best formula because it meets the physical requirements of granules and tablets. While the formula V (100% tartaric acid was a formula that provides the greatest stability phenolic levels.

  14. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  15. Can ginger ameliorate chemotherapy-induced nausea? Protocol of a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Ried, Karin; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Daniel; Thomson, Damien; Sali, Avni; Isenring, Liz

    2014-04-09

    Preliminary research shows ginger may be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting but significant limitations need to be addressed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. In a double-blinded randomised-controlled trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients will be randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of a standardised ginger extract or placebo per day. The study medication will be administrated as an adjuvant treatment to standard anti-emetic therapy and will be divided into four capsules per day, to be consumed approximately every 4 hours (300 mg per capsule administered q.i.d) for five days during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. Acute, delayed, and anticipatory symptoms of nausea and vomiting will be assessed over this time frame using a valid and reliable questionnaire, with nausea symptoms being the primary outcome. Quality of life, nutritional status, adverse effects, patient adherence, cancer-related fatigue, and CINV-specific prognostic factors will also be assessed. Previous trials in this area have noted limitations. These include the inconsistent use of standardized ginger formulations and valid questionnaires, lack of control for anticipatory nausea and prognostic factors that may influence individual CINV response, and the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. This trial is the first to address these issues by incorporating multiple unique additions to the study design including controlling for CINV-specific prognostic factors by recruiting only chemotherapy-naïve patients, implementing a dosing schedule consistent with the pharmacokinetics of oral ginger supplements, and independently analysing ginger supplements before and after recruitment to ensure potency. Our trial will also be the first to assess the effect of ginger supplementation on cancer-related fatigue and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms experienced by oncology patients; this

  16. Impact of ginger aqueous extract on carbimazole induced testicular degenerative alterations and oxidative stress in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale aqueous extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, on testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by the antithyroid drug carbimazole in albino rats. Methods: Four groups of male albino rats were used. Group I served as control. Group II rats were treated with ginger aqueous extract (24 mg/mL. Group III rats were given orally carbimazole (1.35 mg/kg bw. Group IV rats were given carbimazole and ginger extract. Animals were sacrificed and their testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epididymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and Bax was detected in the testes. MDA, CAT and GSH were measured in the sera. Results: Treating rats with carbimazole revealed significant alterations in the tissue of testis including decreased seminiferous epithelium height, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubule and changes in the spermatogenic layers arrangement. Intertubular hemorrhage and congested blood vessels were noted. An increase in sperm head abnormalities was recorded. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in PCNA expression, while the increase in apoptotic rate was accompanied with an increase in Bax expression. Oxidative stress was demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde and decrease in activity of catalase and glutathione. Combined treatment of carbimazole and aqueous ginger extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical, immunohistochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by carbimazole. Conclusions: The ameliorative effects of ginger extract could be due to its antioxidant properties.

  17. Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) or ginger, which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints (myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase) was recorded. The results showed that the ginger extract has anticonvulsant effects in all the experimental treatment groups of seizure tested as it significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100mg/kg (p<0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (p<0.01) seizure 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ compared with control group. Based on the results the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory system, antioxidant mechanisms, oxidative stress and calcium channel inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-10-01

    Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

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    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  1. Modulatory role of ginger on some physiological and histological changes in female rats induced by gamma radiation and/or fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of ginger against the radiation and fat hazards in female rats. This study was carried out on 42 female albino rats (100-120 g) exposed to shot dose of gamma radiation (4.5 Gy) and/or feeding on diet contain 20% fat then treated with 2% ginger solution. The results showed that ginger minimized the physiological disorders (clotting time, cholesterol, Na + , K + , lipid peroxide and progesterone hormone) induced by gamma irradiation and/or fat. The histological examination revealed that exposure to gamma radiation or fat supplementation caused vacuolar epithelial lining of renal tubules and interstitial hemorrhage with fibrosis in kidney. Ginger treatment minimized the histological changes in kidney and lung

  2. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1) in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bua-In Saowaluck; Paisooksantivatana Yingyong; Weimer Bart C.; Chowpongpang Srimek

    2014-01-01

    Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.) is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant an...

  3. Protective Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract against Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-1β in Cultured Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Bahrampour Juybari, Kobra; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Kamarul, Tunku; Bagheri, Aboulfazl; Tekiyehmaroof, Neda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes. The effects of various concentrations of ginger extract on C28I2 human chondrocyte viability were evaluated in order to obtain noncytotoxic concentrations of the drug by methylthiotetrazole assay. The cells were pretreated with 5 and 25 μg/mL ginger extract for 24 h, followed by incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The effects of ginger extract on IL-1β-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation were examined. The mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1, glutathione peroxidase-3, and glutathione peroxidase-4 were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blotting. No cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration of ginger extract in C28I2 cells. Ginger extract pretreatment remarkably increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the IL-1β-induced elevation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 activity. Ginger extract could considerably reduce IL-1β-induced oxidative stress and consequent mitochondrial apoptosis as the major mechanisms of chondrocyte cell death. These beneficial effects of ginger extract may be due to its antioxidant properties. It may be considered as a natural herbal product to prevent OA-induced cartilage destruction in the clinical setting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  5. Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Analhuda Abdullah; Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Murad, Noor Azian; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29. The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined. The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

  6. Study of Local Herb Potency as Rumen Modifier: The Effect of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Var.Rubrum) on Parameters of Ruminal Fermentation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, A.; Widodo; Artama, W. T.; Yusiati, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Essential oil is one of rumen modifier alternatives due to its antimicrobial property. Red ginger is one of local herbs with high essential oil content. The effect of red ginger on rumen fermentation parameters was studied in this research using in vitro gas production method. Five level of red ginger meal was added to the diet to meet final essential oil concentration in fermentation medium of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L. Substrate of fermentation as microbial feed composed of Penisetum hybride, rice bran, and wheat pollard in ratio 60:20:20 DM basis. Fermentation was carried out for 24 h at 39°C. Total gas production was measured at the end of incubation and sample for methane analysis was taken. Medium sample was taken for analysis of pH, ammonium and VFA concentration, microbial protein and protozoa number. Data showed that addition of red ginger in the diet did not affect the pH, ammonia and VFA concentration, microbial protein and also protozoa number. However, red ginger addition significantly decrease ammonia concentration in all treatment. It could be concluded that addition of red ginger in the diet reduced degradation protein in the rumen as illustrated in lower ammonia concentration.

  7. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation.

  8. Comparing effects of metformin and ginger rhizome extract on the pituitary - gonad function in adult female rats with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Mahbobeh Foroozandeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Due to the prevalence of PCOS in worldwide, this study aimed to compare the effect of metformin with ginger on pituitary-gonad function in PCOS adult female rats was performed. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 adult female rats divided to control, sham PCOS and 7 experimental groups PCOS receiving metformin at 500mg/kg, the ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg/kg and ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg /kg with metformin at 500 mg/kg were used. All injections by gavage and for 28 days were conducted. After phlebotomizing the animals, to measure hormones FSH, LH and estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, their ovaries removed and after preparing tissue sections, follicles were counted. Data obtained by 18-SPSS software and ANOVA and Duncan were analyzed, then the significant difference of data at P> 0.05was considered. Results: The results showed that letrozole by creating PCOS causes to increase atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and reduce other follicles and FSH at P<0.01, and metformin and Ginger alone and together cause to reduce atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and increase other follicles and FSH at P<0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that metformin and Ginger alone or together cause to improve PCOS, and these improvements in both groups receiving simultaneous ginger with metformin can be seen more.

  9. A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Javadivala, Zeinab; Mahluji, Sepideh; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of Ginger or Oregano addition to diet of growing male Zraibi goats on growth rate and some physiological body functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm Project (Goats Farm), Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, at Inshas during 2011 on twenty four male Zaraibi goats (zaraibi kids) after weaning. The animals were healthy and clinically free of external and internal parasites and divided to three equal groups. Animals in the 1st group were fed the basal ration without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration with additive 1 gram daily from Ginger (Zingiber officinal) or Oregano(Origanum vulgare) /10 kg live body weight / kid, respectively. Changes of live body weight and dry matter feed intake of each animal were recorded individually every month. Blood samples were withdrawn in the end of experiment to determine blood components as well as immunity, kidney and liver functions, energy metabolites, heart healthy factor and some minerals. The results showed that the addition of Ginger or Oregano to diet of Zaraibi goats improved significantly live body weight, daily body weight gain and dry matter intake. The improvement in Ginger was better than with Oregano. In addition, significant increase of Hg values, RBC'S count as well as total protein and globulin levels was recorded in animals treated with Ginger or Oregano. In the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected by supplementation either with Ginger or Oregano. Moreover, supplementation decreased the factor related to heart disease (glucose, total cholesterol and total lipids) and improved the animal immunity, especially in Ginger supplement.

  11. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on the Body Weight, Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats Undergoing Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

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    E Sharifi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is used as an anti cancer medicine in chemotherapy. This is an alkalizing medicine and causes the binding of DNA strands, breaking of DNA and control of protein synthesis and RNA. The side effects of this medicine include lack of appetite, nausea, reduction in activity of sexual lymph nodes, causing amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Ginger includes many compounds, some of which are shogaols, gingerols, pyrogallols and sesquiterpenes. Ginger has anti nauseating, anti cancer, anti oxidant effects and eliminates free radicals. This medicine is used along with cyclophosphamide to reduce its destructive side effects in the body. Methods: For 21 days, the rats were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and rendered unconscious. Their testes were removed and tissue samples were provided from their testes. Results: The results showed that cyclophosphamide alone reduces body weight, testes weight and spermatogenesis as compared to the control group. In other experimental groups that were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide, increased dosage of ginger increased the body weight, the testes weight and spermatogenesis in comparison to the other experimental groups. Conclusion: It seems that compounds present in ginger are anti tumoral and control the production of active metabolites. Therefore, if administered together with Cyclophosphamide, it can be useful and effective in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  12. Photoluminescence study of carbon dots from ginger and galangal herbs using microwave technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni; Rahmawati, I.; Intan, R.; Zakaria, M.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dots are new type of fluorescent nanoparticle that can be synthesis easily from natural sources. We have synthesized carbon dots from ginger and galangal herbs using microwave technique and studied their optical properties. We synthesized colloidal carbon dots in water solvent by varying microwave processing time. UV-Vis absorbance, photoluminescence, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscope were utilized to study properties of carbon dots. We found that microwave processing time significantly affect optical properties of synthesized carbon dots. UV-Vis absorbance spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence results show that luminescent of carbon dots is dominated by recombination process from n-π* surface energy level. With further development, these carbon dots are potential for several applications.

  13. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  14. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  15. Evaluation of the Role of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation in the Treatment of Chemically- Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Sh.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Studies involve investigating the therapeutic role of ginger for better restoration of certain haematological parameters: (white blood cells count, red blood cells count, haemoglobin content, hematocrit value and platelets count ) Besides biochemical parameters (serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid ). Tissue parameters in both kidney and lung tissues: were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) and histopathological changes of kidney and lung tissues. Cancer induced a significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, Hct value and platelets count with a significant increase in the serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Besides, it produced high levels of lung and kidney Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) with significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ginger + cisplatin + radiation manifested good amelioration against NDMA + CCl 4 group in the studied haematological and biochemical parameters. In histological investigation showed that rat groups treated with ginger alone showed no deviation from control group. While rats injected with NDMA + CCl 4 showed sever degenerative changes. On the other hand, groups injected with NDMA + CCl4 and treated with ginger + cisplatin + radiation group showed an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological lung and kidney profiles close to those of the control group when compared with NDMA + CCl 4

  16. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  17. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group 2 was a positive control, and Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were orally given CAE in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and GAE in the same doses, respectively for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out to assay activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Results: CAE and GAE significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass; normalized serum levels of liver enzymes; improved lipid profile; decreased blood glucose and leptin and increased insulin serum levels in obese diabetic rats. Both extracts also increased activity of kidney antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: CAE and GAE exhibit anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and anti-oxidant effects in obese diabetic rats. These results confirm the previous reports on both extracts. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are fully discussed and clarified. Our results affirm the traditional use of cinnamon and ginger for treating patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. The obese diabetic rat model used in this study is a novel animal model used in pharmacology researches. PMID:26401364

  18. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  19. Comparative study of the effect of dry and wet ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe spice on the proximate and microbial safety of soybean beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Oladele Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean beverage, most common nutritious local beverage in Nigeria and in the world, is a high protein beverage used as a dairy milk substitute with the limited utilization due to natural or ambient conditions that serve as growth medium for microorganisms. Hence, it has a short shelf life. This study examines the shelf life of soybean beverage preserved with the ginger spice (dried at 70 ˚C, 80 ˚C, 90 ˚C and 100 ˚C, and 2 g and 4 g of fresh/wet ginger respectively over 7-week period. The samples were (A: plain soybean beverage; B: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g of ginger dried at 100 ˚C; C: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 90 ˚C; D: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 80 ˚C; E: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C; F: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g fresh ginger; and G: 200 ml soybean beverage + 4 g fresh ginger respectively. The proximate, pH, microbial and sensory analyses of samples ranged as follows: 87.35% - 90.83% for the moisture content; 0.58% - 0.65% ash content; 4.65% - 4.96% protein; 0.10%-0.26% fibre content; 2.06% - 2.98% crude fat and 1.68% - 4.17% carbohydrate, and pH values ranged from 6.2 - 6.5. Microbiological analysis over storage period showed that the control sample ranged from 0.4×106 -8.3×106 cfu/ml, and treated samples from 0.4×106 to 2.4×106 cfu/ml. Low values of the samples treated with dry ginger spice were preserved better than others, probably due to preservative and anti-microbial properties of the spice. Sensory evaluation, carried out by twenty-eight persons, showed that the sample E: (200 ml soymilk+ 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C was most preferred (with respect to taste, aroma and overall acceptability, while there was a significant difference in the appearance of the samples.

  20. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  1. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  2. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kejing; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Zhengfu; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges in preserving better quality of fruit and vegetable products after processing. Recently, many attentions have been drawn to ginger rhizome processing due to its numerous health promoting properties. In our study, ginger rhizome slices were subjected to air-drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MD) and intermittent microwave & convective drying (IM&CD). Quality attributes of the dried samples were compared in terms of volatile compounds, 6, 8, 10-gingerols, 6-shogaol, antioxidant activities and microstructure. Results showed that AD and IR were good drying methods to preserve volatiles. FD, IR and IM&CD led to higher retention of gingerols, TPC, TFC and better antioxidant activities. However, FD and IR had relative high energy consumption and drying time. Therefore, considering about the quality retention and energy consumption, IM&CD would be very promising for thermo sensitive material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alteration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by chronic administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2015-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), daily for 1 week before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints, e.g., myoclonic, generalized clonic, and tonic extension phase, was recorded. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100 mg/kg (55.33 ± 1.91 versus 24.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (74.64 ± 3.52 versus 47.72 ± 2.31 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (102.6 ± 5.39 versus 71.82 ± 7.82 mg/kg, p < 0.01) seizure induced by PTZ compared with the control group. Based on the results, the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory systems, antioxidant mechanisms, and oxidative stress inhibition.

  4. Anticancer Effect of Ginger Extract against Pancreatic Cancer Cells Mainly through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autotic Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Miho; Iizuka, Mari; Kanematsu, Rie; Yoshida, Masato; Takenaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its major pungent components, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, have been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on several tumor cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of the ginger extract in pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ethanol-extracted materials of ginger suppressed cell cycle progression and consequently induced the death of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1 cells. The underlying mechanism entailed autosis, a recently characterized form of cell death, but not apoptosis or necroptosis. The extract markedly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decreased SQSTM1/p62 protein, and enhanced vacuolization of the cytoplasm in Panc-1 cells. It activated AMPK, a positive regulator of autophagy, and inhibited mTOR, a negative autophagic regulator. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine partially prevented cell death. Morphologically, however, focal membrane rupture, nuclear shrinkage, focal swelling of the perinuclear space and electron dense mitochondria, which are unique morphological features of autosis, were observed. The extract enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein attenuated cell death. Our study revealed that daily intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.0069) in a peritoneal dissemination model and suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.01) without serious adverse effects. Although [6]-shogaol but not [6]-gingerol showed similar effects, chromatographic analyses suggested the presence of other constituent(s) as active substances. Together, these results show that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug. PMID:25961833

  5. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-07-04

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  7. Anticancer Effect of Ginger Extract against Pancreatic Cancer Cells Mainly through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autotic Cell Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Akimoto

    Full Text Available The extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its major pungent components, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, have been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on several tumor cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of the ginger extract in pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ethanol-extracted materials of ginger suppressed cell cycle progression and consequently induced the death of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1 cells. The underlying mechanism entailed autosis, a recently characterized form of cell death, but not apoptosis or necroptosis. The extract markedly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decreased SQSTM1/p62 protein, and enhanced vacuolization of the cytoplasm in Panc-1 cells. It activated AMPK, a positive regulator of autophagy, and inhibited mTOR, a negative autophagic regulator. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine partially prevented cell death. Morphologically, however, focal membrane rupture, nuclear shrinkage, focal swelling of the perinuclear space and electron dense mitochondria, which are unique morphological features of autosis, were observed. The extract enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein attenuated cell death. Our study revealed that daily intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.0069 in a peritoneal dissemination model and suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.01 without serious adverse effects. Although [6]-shogaol but not [6]-gingerol showed similar effects, chromatographic analyses suggested the presence of other constituent(s as active substances. Together, these results show that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug.

  8. Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yuki; Nakahashi, Emiko; Obayashi, Momoko; Sugihara, Kento; Qiao, Shanlou; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Goto, Yuji; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Takeda, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of allergies has recently been increasing worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its extracts have been valued for their medical properties including antinausea, antiinflammation, antipyresis and analgesia properties. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effects of ginger and 6-gingerol, a major compound of ginger, using a mouse allergy model and primary/cell line culture system. In mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis, oral administration of 2% ginger diet reduced the severity of sneezing and nasal rubbing by nasal sensitization of OVA and suppressed infiltration of mast cells in nasal mucosa and secretion of OVA-specific IgE in serum. 6-Gingerol inhibited the expression of not only Th2 cytokines but also Th1 cytokines in OVA-sensitized spleen cells. Accordingly, 6-gingerol suppressed in vitro differentiation of both Th1 cells and Th2 cells from naïve T cells. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed both superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)- and anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation. 6-Gingerol also abrogated PMA plus ionomycin- and SEB-induced IL-2 production in T cells, suggesting that 6-gingerol affected T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction rather than the antigen-presentation process. Indeed, 6-gingerol inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, calcium release and nuclear localization of c-fos and NF-κB by PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that 6-gingerol suppresses cytokine production for T cell activation and proliferation, thereby not causing B cell and mast cell activation and resulting in prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of red ginger capsule supplementin reducing PGF2α concentrations and pain intensity in primary dysmenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, M.; Halim, B.; Ardinata, D.

    2018-03-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a gynecological disorder which most commonly occurs like a pain in the initial menstruation. One ofthe attempts to handle dysmenorrhea is by using anon-pharmacological method such as herbal therapy which uses red ginger. The research was at Akbid and Akper Harapan Mama, Deli Serdang Regency, with pre-experimental design and one group pretest-posttest. The samples were 32 female students as the respondents, taken by using non-probability or consecutive sampling technique. PGF2a content measurement by ELISA, theintensity of pain by Visual Analogue Scale and analyzed by using Wilcoxon test. PGF2α content before giving red ginger capsule supplement median was 156.50 pg/ml (min-max: 57-1037 pg/ml), after giving it was 101 (min-max: 22-785), pain intensity before giving it in the mean score of 2 was 15 respondents (47%), after giving it in the mean score of 0 was 14 respondents (44%). The result of statistic test on PGF2α content before and after giving it was p-value = 0.001, and pain intensity before and after giving it was p < 0.001 which indicated that there was asignificant decrease in PGF2α and pain intensity after giving it. Red ginger capsule supplement could decrease PGF2α content during primary dysmenorrhea.

  10. Identification of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Volatiles and Localization of Aroma-Active Constituents by GC-Olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xueli; Cao, Jianmin; Wang, Dabin; Qiu, Jun; Kong, Fanyu

    2017-05-24

    For the characterization of chemical components contributing to the aroma of ginger, which could benefit the development of deep-processed ginger products, volatile extracts were isolated by a combination of direct solvent extraction-solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and static headspace analysis. Aroma-impact components were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry, and the most potent odorants were further screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA). The AEDA results revealed that geranial, eucalyptol, β-linalool, and bornyl acetate were the most potent odorants, exhibiting the highest flavor dilution factor (FD factor) of 2187. SHDA indicated that the predominant headspace odorants were α-pinene and eucalyptol. In addition, odorants exhibiting a high FD factor in SHDA were estimated to be potent aroma contributors in AEDA. The predominant odorants were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as along with their oxygenated derivatives, providing minty, lemon-like, herbal, and woody aromas. On the other hand, three highly volatile compounds detected by SHDA were not detected by AEDA, whereas 34 high-polarity, low-volatility compounds were identified only by AEDA, demonstrating the complementary natures of SHDA and AEDA and the necessity of utilizing both techniques to accurately characterize the aroma of ginger.

  11. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  12. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J. The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.

  14. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  15. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  17. The use of different concentrations of ginger root oil to improve the mating propensity of the Medfly sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhl, Salma; Msaad Guerfali, M.; Kahlani, A.; Hamden, Haithem; Chevrier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The sterile insect technique in an efficient technique used to control fruit flies such as Medfly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tephritidae). Unfortunately, this technique involves mass breeding of huge quantities of target insects in the factory and sterilizing the males by exposing them to low doses of radiation. this procedure reduces the mating propensity of the sterile males which are the active agent of the technique. It was reported that the exposition of the sterile males to ginger root oil (Zingiber official Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)) improves the mating propensity of the sterile males in comparison with the non exposed ones. In this study, we exposed irradiated males at two different doses (100 and 110 Gy) to different concentrations of the ginger oil (20μl; 50μl; 80μl; 0.25 ml;0.5 ml; 1 ml) the third day after emergence. This study shows that the irradiated males at 100 Gy are more competitive in comparison with those irradiated at 110 Gy with a mating propensity percentage respectively of 60 and 35 %. regarding the exposition dose of the ginger oil, 1 ml gave the best mating propensity ( 42%) in comparison with the other concentrations

  18. Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger after inoculation with fungi by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wen, Jing; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Luo, Hongli; Wang, Jian; Yang, Meihua

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) have been detected frequently in food, agricultural products and traditional Chinese medicines, and their presence poses serious health and economic problems worldwide. Ginger can easily be polluted with mycotoxins. In this study, ginger samples were cultivated for 15 days after inoculation with fungi and were prepared based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction using methanol/water followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and analysed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for AFs and OTA. The limits of detection and quantification of AFs and OTA were 0.04-0.30 µg mL(-1) and 0.125-1.0 µg mL(-1) , respectively. The recoveries were 82.0-100.2%. After 15 days' cultivation, no macroscopic mildew was found in ginger. But, the content of AFB1 expressed an increasing trend in ginger, peel [less than the limit of quantification (LOQ)] to the innermost layer (51.86 µ mL(-1) ), AFB2 was only detected in the innermost layer at the level of 0.87 µ mL(-1) . A small amount (ginger after the two fungi were inoculated on the surface of ginger. The developed method was successfully applied to analyse five mycotoxins, and has many advantages including rapid determination and high sensitivity. Meanwhile, in practice, more attention should be paid to the safety and quality of ginger. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A comparison study of the nutritional, mineral and volatile compositions of three dry forms of ginger rhizomes, and antioxidant properties of their ethanolic and aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Jelled

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the most accessible dry forms of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale used as a spice and as a remedy in order to choose the best ginger for medicinal purpose. Methods: Freshly air dried ginger, commercially dry rhizomes and ginger available in powder form are investigated in terms of nutritional values (proximate and mineral compositions and volatiles profile. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts (decoctions and infusions were prepared for total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents determination. Also, three standard tests were established in order to estimate the best extract with the better antioxidant potential. Results: The results showed unlike proximate composition revealing different nutritional values. In fact, freshly dried ginger contained much ash, while already dry samples contained much protein. In addition, mineral contents of studied samples indicated their dissimilar richness especially in Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Solid phase micro-extraction gave volatile profiles with many interesting compounds, only 26 from the 51 identified components were common to studied samples with bioactive compounds predominance in freshly dried sample. Also, the antioxidant potential established by three different tests was higher in already dry samples and was positively correlated with their higher contents in the determined phytochemicals. The ethanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than aqueous extracts. Decoctions and infusions were almost similar proving that long cooking time did not affect ginger antioxidant potential. Conclusions: This work highlighted the benefits of traditional preparations of ginger as sources of bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants, and proved that the available commercial samples are not identical and encouraged analyzing samples before uses depending on needs.

  20. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Nayebifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1 in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026 and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001 groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 (P = 0.093, MCP-1(P = 0.075, and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 (P = 0.164. Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement.

  1. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  2. Ginger Oleoresin Alleviated γ-Ray Irradiation-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species via the Nrf2 Protective Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaihua; Li, Qing; Shi, Yang; Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing

    2017-01-01

    Unplanned exposure to radiation can cause side effects on high-risk individuals; meanwhile, radiotherapies can also cause injury on normal cells and tissues surrounding the tumor. Besides the direct radiation damage, most of the ionizing radiation- (IR-) induced injuries were caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which possess self-renew and multilineage differentiation capabilities, are a critical population of cells to participate in the regeneration of IR-damaged tissues. Therefore, it is imperative to search effective radioprotectors for hMSCs. This study was to demonstrate whether natural source ginger oleoresin would mitigate IR-induced injuries in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We demonstrated that ginger oleoresin could significantly reduce IR-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA strand breaks. In addition, the ROS-scavenging mechanism of ginger oleoresin was also investigated. The results showed that ginger oleoresin could induce the translocation of Nrf2 to cell nucleus and activate the expression of cytoprotective genes encoding for HO-1 and NQO-1. It suggests that ginger oleoresin has a potential role of being an effective antioxidant and radioprotective agent. PMID:29181121

  3. Effect of the Combination of Gelam Honey and Ginger on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Nur Fathiah Abdul Sani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic complications occur as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS due to long term hyperglycaemia. Honey and ginger have been shown to exhibit antioxidant activity which can scavenge ROS. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of gelam honey, ginger, and their combination. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 major groups which consisted of diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin intramuscularly (55 mg/kg body weight. Each group was further divided into 4 smaller groups according to the supplements administered: distilled water, honey (2 g/kg body weight, ginger (60 mg/kg body weight, and honey + ginger. Body weight and glucose levels were recorded weekly, while blood from the orbital sinus was obtained after 3 weeks of supplementation for the estimation of metabolic profile: glucose, triglyceride (TG, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH: oxidized glutathione (GSSG, and malondialdehyde (MDA. The combination of gelam honey and ginger did not show hypoglycaemic potential; however, the combination treatment reduced significantly (P<0.05 SOD and CAT activities as well as MDA level, while GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly elevated (P<0.05 in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats.

  4. Effect of the Combination of Gelam Honey and Ginger on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Sani, Nur Fathiah; Belani, Levin Kesu; Pui Sin, Chong; Abdul Rahman, Siti Nor Amilah; Zar Chi, Thent; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic complications occur as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to long term hyperglycaemia. Honey and ginger have been shown to exhibit antioxidant activity which can scavenge ROS. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of gelam honey, ginger, and their combination. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 major groups which consisted of diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin intramuscularly (55 mg/kg body weight). Each group was further divided into 4 smaller groups according to the supplements administered: distilled water, honey (2 g/kg body weight), ginger (60 mg/kg body weight), and honey + ginger. Body weight and glucose levels were recorded weekly, while blood from the orbital sinus was obtained after 3 weeks of supplementation for the estimation of metabolic profile: glucose, triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH): oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The combination of gelam honey and ginger did not show hypoglycaemic potential; however, the combination treatment reduced significantly (P < 0.05) SOD and CAT activities as well as MDA level, while GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. PMID:24822178

  5. Ginger extracts influence the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, A; Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, M; Ahangar-Parvin, R; Azizi, V; Khoramdel-Azad, H; Shamsizadeh, A; Ayoobi, A; Nemati, M; Hassan, Z M; Moazeni, S M; Khaksari, M

    2014-11-15

    The immunomodulatory effects of the IL-27 and IL-33 and the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger have been reported in some studies. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the ginger extract on the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In PBS-treated EAE mice the expression of IL-27 P28 was significantly lower whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly higher than unimmunized control mice. In 200 and 300 mg/kg ginger-treated EAE groups the expression of IL-27 P28 and IL-27 EBI3 was significantly higher whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower than PBS-treated EAE mice. The EAE clinical symptoms and the pathological scores were significantly lower in ginger-treated EAE groups. These results showed that the ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of the binding modes with important human cytochrome P450 enzymes, drug interaction potential, pharmacokinetics, and hepatotoxicity of ginger components using molecular docking, computational, and pharmacokinetic modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for the treatment of numerous ailments and improvement of body functions. It may be used in combination with prescribed drugs. The coadministration of ginger with therapeutic drugs raises a concern of potential deleterious drug interactions via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, resulting in unfavorable therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to determine the molecular interactions between 12 main active ginger components (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphelandrene, 6-gingerdione, (-)-zingiberene, and methyl-6-isogingerol) and human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) of the 12 ginger components using computational approaches and comprehensive literature search. Docking studies showed that ginger components interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 mainly through hydrogen bond formation, to a lesser extent, via π-π stacking. The pharmacokinetic simulation studies showed that the [I]/[Ki ] value for CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 ranged from 0.0002 to 19.6 and the R value ranged from 1.0002 to 20.6 and that ginger might exhibit a high risk of drug interaction via inhibition of the activity of human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, but a low risk of drug interaction toward CYP2C19-mediated drug metabolism. Furthermore, it has been evaluated that the 12 ginger components possessed a favorable ADMET profiles with regard to the solubility, absorption, permeability across the blood-brain barrier, interactions with CYP2D6, hepatotoxicity, and plasma protein binding. The validation results showed that there was no remarkable effect of ginger on the metabolism of warfarin in humans, whereas concurrent use of ginger and nifedipine exhibited a

  7. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paull, R.E.; Chen, N.J.; Goo, T.T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at 22.degree. Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  8. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

  9. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [es

  10. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (pcitric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (pcitric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  11. Micropropagation of ginger (zingiber officinale var. rubrum) using buds from microshoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraida, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum (ZOR) is cultivated for its medicinal value despite the constraints of longer life cycle. The study has established an efficient and reproducible protocol to micropropagate ZOR using buds generated on the surface of the ginger. Surface sterilized young buds of 0.5-1 cm and 2-4 cm cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with BAP showed the highest survival rate (55-65%) and produced the highest average number of microshoots per explant (3.2±0.06) respectively. MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin were used to evaluate shoot multiplication and root induction. BAP concentrations between 3.0-5.0 mg/L was very effective in promoting microshoots and resulted in 100% of microshoot propagation. Microshoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced the highest number of shoots while 0-0.5 mg/L BAP enhanced shoot length and 3mg/L NAA in combination with BAP produced highest number of roots. Microshoots maintained on MS medium supplemented with 4.5% sucrose produced the highest number of plantlets (23±2.5) and roots per explants (15.4±2.4) meanwhile reducing the length of lateral roots (2.6±0.2). (author)

  12. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile.

  13. [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eok-Cheon; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Shin-Jeong; Yang, Hyun-Ok; Han, Sanghwa; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2005-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor-promoting activities. Here, we describe its novel anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, [6]-gingerol inhibited both the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of human endothelial cells and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. It also blocked capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells in response to VEGF, and strongly inhibited sprouting of endothelial cells in the rat aorta and formation of new blood vessel in the mouse cornea in response to VEGF. Moreover, i.p. administration, without reaching tumor cytotoxic blood levels, to mice receiving i.v. injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, reduced the number of lung metastasis, with preservation of apparently healthy behavior. Taken together, these results demonstrate that [6]-gingerol inhibits angiogenesis and may be useful in the treatment of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases

  14. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component. - Highlights: ► Sample blends with small quantities of irradiated spices were evaluated. ► The PSL was inappropriate to detect irradiated ingredient in small quantity. ► TL glow curve shape and intensity could be used as conclusive evidence of irradiation. ► TL ratios of all irradiated and nonirradiated samples were <0.1.

  15. Whole plastome sequences from five ginger species facilitate marker development and define limits to barcode methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin N Vaughn

    Full Text Available Plants from the Zingiberaceae family are a key source of spices and herbal medicines. Species identification within this group is critical in the search for known and possibly novel bioactive compounds. To facilitate precise characterization of this group, we have sequenced chloroplast genomes from species representing five major groups within Zingiberaceae. Generally, the structure of these genomes is similar to the basal angiosperm excepting an expansion of 3 kb associated with the inverted repeat A region. Portions of this expansion appear to be shared across the entire Zingiberales order, which includes gingers and bananas. We used whole plastome alignment information to develop DNA barcodes that would maximize the ability to differentiate species within the Zingiberaceae. Our computation pipeline identified regions of high variability that were flanked by highly conserved regions used for primer design. This approach yielded hitherto unexploited regions of variability. These theoretically optimal barcodes were tested on a range of species throughout the family and were found to amplify and differentiate genera and, in some cases, species. Still, though these barcodes were specifically optimized for the Zingiberaceae, our data support the emerging consensus that whole plastome sequences are needed for robust species identification and phylogenetics within this family.

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Fawley, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup

  18. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  20. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  1. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  2. Comparative study of the effect of dry and wet ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) spice on the proximate and microbial safety of soybean beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola Oladele Dauda; Olufunmilola Adunni Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    Soybean beverage, most common nutritious local beverage in Nigeria and in the world, is a high protein beverage used as a dairy milk substitute with the limited utilization due to natural or ambient conditions that serve as growth medium for microorganisms. Hence, it has a short shelf life. This study examines the shelf life of soybean beverage preserved with the ginger spice (dried at 70 ˚C, 80 ˚C, 90 ˚C and 100 ˚C, and 2 g and 4 g of fresh/wet ginger respectively) over 7-week period. The sa...

  3. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Kasperek, Elwira; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Lucyna; Szwerc, Wojciech; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-02-20

    The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ( E , E )-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar -curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  4. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  5. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Koch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan. GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%; the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg; a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  6. Anti-cancer potential of a mix of natural extracts of turmeric, ginger and garlic: A cell-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Vemuri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related morbidity and mortality is a major health care concern. Developing potent anti-cancer therapies which are non-toxic, sustainable and affordable is of alternative medicine. This study was designed to investigate the aqueous natural extracts mixture (NE mix prepared from common spices turmeric, ginger and garlic for its free radical scavenging potential and anti-cancer property against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75 and MDA-MB 231. Qualitative analysis of their bioactive constituents from turmeric, ginger and garlic were done using liquid chromatography-ESI- mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. To the best of our knowledge, NE mix with and without Tamoxifen has not been tested for its anti-cancer potential. We observed that the NE mix induced apoptosis in all the breast cancer cell lines, but it was more prominent in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cell lines in comparison to MDA-MB 231 cell line. The extent of apoptosis due to combined treatment with NE mix-Tamoxifen was higher than Tamoxifen alone, indicating a potential role of the NE mix in sensitizing the ER-positive breast cancer cells towards Tamoxifen. In support to MTT assay, cell cycle analysis, our RT-PCR results also prove that the NE mix 10 μg, Tam 20 μg and combination of NE mix 10 μg-Tam 20 μg altered the expression of apoptotic markers (p53 and Caspase 9 leading to apoptosis in all three cell lines. Our data strongly indicate that our NE mixture is a potential alternative therapeutic approach in certain types of cancer. Keywords: Breast cancer, Antagonists, Natural extracts, Tamoxifen, Turmeric, Ginger, Garlic, LC-ESI-MS/MS

  7. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080. GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT. In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor. In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers, ginger and turmeric against mites, thrips and nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.D.; Majumder, M.Z.R.; Hahar, G.; Shahjahan, R.M.; Khan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of radiation on different developmental stages of mites, thrips, and nematodes were observed to determine their sterility doses and to develop a method for detection of irradiated and unirradiated specimens. A brief survey on cut-flower and tuber associated pests, and their biological study along with the tolerance level of host products were conducted. Mites Oligonychus biharensis (Hirst) and Tetranychus sp., as well as four species of thrips viz. Retithrips syriacus (Mayet), Haplothrips gowdeyi Franklin, Frankliniella intonsa Tribom, and Microcephalothrips abdominalis Crowford were recognized as common pests damaging plants and cut-flowers. Common species of nematodes infesting ginger and turmeric were Meloidogyne spp. and Ditylenchus spp. Results indicated that a dose 0.2 kGy and above caused complete sterility of male and female mites and insects. Various pre-adult developmental stages required less irradiation dose (0.05-0.1 kGy) for sterilization. Variation of melanization in treated and untreated life stages of mites and thrips could not be observed even at 0.2 kGy with the 2-methyl DOPA spot test. Inhibition of melanization in irradiated pupal stages of thrips were observed at doses above 0.4 kGy. Both irradiated and unirradiated thrips were identical in their protein banding pattern. Virtually no protein bands were observed in irradiated and unirradiated nematodes when samples were run on 5% PAGE in TBE. Tube rose and marigold treated with higher dose (0.3 to 0.5 kGy) caused no remarkable morphological degradation for 7-8 days after irradiation. Nematodes were resistant to radiation. Complete elimination and abnormalities of J 2 stages of Meloidogyne spp. and Ditylenchus spp. were not observed even at 4.0 kGy although significant weight loss and spoilage of tubers were recorded after 14 days of radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.

  10. Metabolism of ginger component [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Soroka, Dominique; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-05-01

    There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol (6S), a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of 6S in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. The in vitro metabolism of 6S was compared among five species using liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Following incubations with 6S, three major reductive metabolites 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), as well as two new oxidative metabolites (1E,4E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-deca-1,4-dien-3-one (M14) and (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-dec-1-en-3-one (M15) were found in all species. The kinetic parameters of M6 in liver microsomes from each respective species were quantified using Michaelis-Menten theory. A broad CYP-450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, precluded the formation of oxidative metabolites, M14 and M15, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor, eradicated the formation of the reductive metabolites M6, M9, and M11 in all species. Metabolites M14 and M15 were tested for cancer cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis and both showed substantial activity, with M14 displaying greater potency than 6S. We conclude that 6S is metabolized extensively in mammalian species mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, and that there are significant interspecies differences to consider when planning preclinical trials toward 6S chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Ginger Exerts Antistress Effects in Immobilization-Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sohee; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Kang, Bori; Kim, Seog-Young; Park, Seonyoung; Son, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Jo, Young-Hee; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Yangha

    2017-09-01

    Stress contributes to physiological changes such as weight loss and hormonal imbalances. The aim of the present study was to investigate antistress effects of high hydrostatic pressure extract of ginger (HPG) in immobilization-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups as follows: control (C), immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) (S), and immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) plus oral administration of HPG (150 mg/kg body weight/day) (S+G). Immobilization stress reduced the body weight gain and thymus weight by 50.2% and 31.3%, respectively, compared to the control group. The levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and corticosterone were significantly higher in the stress group, compared to the control group. Moreover, immobilization stress elevated the mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), which are related to catecholamine and corticosterone synthesis in the adrenal gland. HPG administration also increased the body weight gain and thymus weight by 12.7% and 16.6%, respectively, compared to the stress group. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Th, Dbh, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and P450scc were elevated by the HPG treatment when compared to the stress group. These results suggest that HPG would have antistress effects partially via the reversal of stress-induced physiological changes and suppression of mRNA expression of genes related to corticosterone and catecholamine synthetic enzymes.

  12. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-08-01

    To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r (2)=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  13. A molecular dynamics study of components of the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract inside human acetylcholinesterase: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuya, Teobaldo; Baptista, Leonardo; Celmar Costa França, Tanos

    2017-11-23

    Components of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts have been described as potential new drug candidates against Alzheimer disease (AD), able to interact with several molecular targets related to the AD treatment. However, there are very few theoretical studies in the literature on the possible mechanisms of action by which these compounds can work as potential anti-AD drugs. For this reason, we performed here docking, molecular dynamic simulations and mmpbsa calculations on four components of ginger extracts former reported as active inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE), and compared our results to the known HssAChE inhibitor and commercial drug in use against AD, donepezil (DNP). Our findings points to two among the compounds studied: (E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-on and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3- ethoxyphenyl) heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate, as promising new HssAChE inhibitors that could be as effective as DNP. We also mapped the binding of the studied compounds in the different binding pockets inside HssAChE and established the preferred interactions to be favored in the design of new and more efficient inhibitors.

  14. Stereological study of the effect of ginger's alcoholic extract on the testis in busulfan-induced infertility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bordbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods. Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods. Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105 and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00. Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility

  15. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  17. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  18. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Chen, Hao; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Zhenshuang

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was -1.00, (95% CI: -1.56, -0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (-21.24; 95% CI: -33.21, -9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.

  19. Combined effects of Chinese medicine feed and ginger extract bath on co-infection of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two important ectoparasites of freshwater fish. Co-infection by the two parasites leads to high fish mortality and results in heavy economic losses. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of medicated feed and a ginger extract b...

  20. The invasive white ginger lily ( Hedichium coronarium simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique Lanzi Saulino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium - J. Köenig, 1783 simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir. Invasive plants are believed to shift the trait composition of aquatic insects dwelling in banks of lentic ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the presence of the invasive white ginger lily (H. coronarium and the functional trait indices of the aquatic insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We sampled aquatic insects on the invaded and non-invaded banks of the reservoir and then analyzed the insect trait indices by estimating the Functional Dispersion (FDis, Functional Evenness (FEve and the Functional Divergence (FDiv, as well as the Community level Weight-Mean traits (CWM. Finally, we compared these indices between invaded and non-invaded banks as well as their relationship with the abiotic variables, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, depth and water temperature. The result confirmed that the invaded banks had lower values of functional indices as well as dissolved oxygen. However, this abiotic variable was found to have no effect on the functional indices. In addition, the white ginger lily bank presented higher contribution of collector-gathering to predator-piercer groups. We suggest that the invasion of white ginger lily promotes low heterogeneity habitat resulting in simplification on functional traits of aquatic insect assemblage.

  1. Targeted and untargeted-metabolite profiling to track the compositional integrity of ginger during processing using digitally-enhanced HPTLC pattern recognition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Reham S; Fathy, Hoda

    2018-03-30

    Tracking the impact of commonly applied post-harvesting and industrial processing practices on the compositional integrity of ginger rhizome was implemented in this work. Untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using digitally-enhanced HPTLC method where the chromatographic fingerprints were extracted using ImageJ software then analysed with multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. A targeted approach was applied using a new, validated, simple and fast HPTLC image analysis method for simultaneous quantification of the officially recognized markers 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in conjunction with chemometric Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). The results of both targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling revealed that peeling, drying in addition to storage employed during processing have a great influence on ginger chemo-profile, the different forms of processed ginger shouldn't be used interchangeably. Moreover, it deemed necessary to consider the holistic metabolic profile for comprehensive evaluation of ginger during processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  3. Tolerability of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), gentian (Gentiana lutea) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in patients with cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatani, Michael; Younus, Jawaid; Stitt, Larry; Malik, Nazish

    2015-03-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Gentian, ginger, and turmeric have traditionally been used to stimulate appetite. We tested these agents in combination, in a pilot study to assess tolerability in patients indicating 4/10 or worse anorexia on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and who were not currently on chemotherapy. We collected exploratory data on the patient's appetite using a visual analogue scale. Between 2009 and 2012, 17 patients were enrolled in arm 1 (turmeric 1 g and ginger 1 g orally twice daily, and gentiana lutea tincture 1 mL three times a day, for 14 days). The three patients enrolled in arm 2 received the same doses of ginger and turmeric but no gentian. All patients completed a daily appetite diary and a weekly symptom assessment. In arm 1, seven patients (41%) completed treatment. Seven patients (41%) stopped early because of unacceptable toxicity or patient-initiated discontinuation, and 3 stopped because of other reasons. All patients in arm 2 stopped taking the study medication within few days of starting the treatment, leading the study committee to recommend stopping the trial. The most common adverse effects attributed to study drugs were nausea (6 patients), vomiting (3), fatigue (3), diarrhea (2) and bloating (2). There was no statistically significant effect seen on appetite. At the doses used in this study, the combination of ginger, turmeric, and gentian is not tolerated well in cancer patients. Future studies should use fewer agents or lower doses.

  4. Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats.

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    Madkor, Hafez R; Mansour, Sherif W; Ramadan, Gamal

    2011-04-01

    Spices which show hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities may have a role in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The present study aimed to compare the modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on the metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg body weight, 15 min before STZ injection). Diabetic rats orally received either distilled water (as vehicle) or 200 mg/kg body weight of garlic bulb, ginger rhizome or turmeric rhizome powder suspension separately or mixed together (GGT mixture) for twenty-eight consecutive days. The results showed that these spices and their mixture significantly alleviated (80-97 %, P diabetic rats by increasing the production of insulin (26-37 %), enhancing the antioxidant defence system (31-52 %, especially GSH) and decreasing lipid peroxidation (60-97 %). The greatest modulation was seen in diabetic rats that received garlic and the GGT mixture (10-23 % more than that in the ginger and turmeric groups). In conclusion, garlic or the mix including garlic appears to have an impact on each of the measures more effectively than ginger and turmeric and may have a role in alleviating the risks of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.

  5. The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir

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    Hugo Henrique Lanzi Saulino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium – J. Köenig, 1783 simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir. Invasive plants are believed to shift the trait composition of aquatic insects dwelling in banks of lentic ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the presence of the invasive white ginger lily (H. coronarium and the functional trait indices of the aquatic insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We sampled aquatic insects on the invaded and non-invaded banks of the reservoir and then analyzed the insect trait indices by estimating the Functional Dispersion (FDis, Functional Evenness (FEve and the Functional Divergence (FDiv, as well as the Community level Weight-Mean traits (CWM. Finally, we compared these indices between invaded and non-invaded banks as well as their relationship with the abiotic variables, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, depth and water temperature. The result confirmed that the invaded banks had lower values of functional indices as well as dissolved oxygen. However, this abiotic variable was found to have no effect on the functional indices. In addition, the white ginger lily bank presented higher contribution of collector-gathering to predator-piercer groups. We suggest that the invasion of white ginger lily promotes low heterogeneity habitat resulting in simplification on functional traits of aquatic insect assemblage. Keywords: Biodiversity, Biological invasions, Functional diversity, Lentic system

  6. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer.

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    Lua, Pei Lin; Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on nausea, vomiting and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chemotherapy breast cancer patients. Single-blind, controlled, randomized cross-over study. Patients received 5-day aromatherapy treatment using either ginger essential oil or fragrance-matched artificial placebo (ginger fragrance oil) which was instilled in a necklace in an order dictated by the treatment group sequence. Two oncology clinics in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. VAS nausea score, frequency of vomiting and HRQoL profile (EORTC QLQ-C30 scores). Sixty female patients completed the study (age=47.3±9.26 years; Malay=98.3%; on highly emetogenic chemotherapy=86.7%). The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after ginger essential oil inhalation compared to placebo during acute phase (P=0.040) but not sustained for overall treatment effect (treatment effect: F=1.82, P=0.183; time effect: F=43.98, Paromatherapy on vomiting [F(1, 58)=0.29, P=0.594]. However, a statistically significant change from baseline for global health status (Paromatherapy is an effective complementary therapy for CINV. The findings for HRQoL were however encouraging with significant improvement in several domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

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    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  8. Changes in Blood Pressure, Body Composition, and Vo2max after 10 Weeks of High Intense Interval Training and Ginger Consumption in Overweight Women

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    Shila Nayebifar

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, HIIT and ginger consumption can be a good strategy to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures in women. Also, this kind of trainings is an effective approach in improving cardiorespiratory function and body composition in the population of overweight women.

  9. Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The initiation of obesity entails an imbalance wherein energy intake exceeds expenditure. Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is now a worldwide health problem. Food-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) stimulators represent potential treatment options for obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was previously shown to regulate the PPARγ signaling pathway in adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ginger in vivo and the mechanism of action in vitro. Energy expenditure was increased, and diet-induced obesity was attenuated in C57BL/6J mice treated with dietary ginger extract (GE). GE also increased the number of Type I muscle fibers, improved running endurance capacity and upregulated PPARδ-targeted gene expression in skeletal muscle and the liver. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol acted as specific PPARδ ligands and stimulated PPARδ-dependent gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle myotubes. An analysis of cellular respiration revealed that pretreating cultured skeletal muscle myotubes with GE increased palmitate-induced oxygen consumption rate, which suggested an increase in cellular fatty acid catabolism. These results demonstrated that sustained activation of the PPARδ pathway with GE attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved exercise endurance capacity by increasing skeletal muscle fat catabolism. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol may be responsible for the regulatory effects of dietary ginger on PPARδ signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ginger extract mitigates ethanol-induced changes of alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain isoforms gene expression and oxidative stress in the heart of male wistar rats.

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    Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef

    2017-09-01

    The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals as follows: Control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the β-MHC gene expression, 8- OHdG amount, and NADPH oxidase level. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the ratio of α-MHC/β-MHC gene expression to the amount of paraoxonase enzyme in the ethanol group compared to the control group was found. The consumption of Ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated the changes in MHC isoforms gene expression and reduced the elevated amount of 8-OHdG and NADPH oxidase. Moreover, compared to the consumption of ethanol alone, it increased the paraoxonase level significantly. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may in part be associated with MHC isoforms changes mediated by oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Ginger and turmeric expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for rhizome identity and development and the biosynthesis of curcuminoids, gingerols and terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) accumulate important pharmacologically active metabolites at high levels in their rhizomes. Despite their importance, relatively little is known regarding gene expression in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. Results In order to identify rhizome-enriched genes and genes encoding specialized metabolism enzymes and pathway regulators, we evaluated an assembled collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight different ginger and turmeric tissues. Comparisons to publicly available sorghum rhizome ESTs revealed a total of 777 gene transcripts expressed in ginger/turmeric and sorghum rhizomes but apparently absent from other tissues. The list of rhizome-specific transcripts was enriched for genes associated with regulation of tissue growth, development, and transcription. In particular, transcripts for ethylene response factors and AUX/IAA proteins appeared to accumulate in patterns mirroring results from previous studies regarding rhizome growth responses to exogenous applications of auxin and ethylene. Thus, these genes may play important roles in defining rhizome growth and development. Additional associations were made for ginger and turmeric rhizome-enriched MADS box transcription factors, their putative rhizome-enriched homologs in sorghum, and rhizomatous QTLs in rice. Additionally, analysis of both primary and specialized metabolism genes indicates that ginger and turmeric rhizomes are primarily devoted to the utilization of leaf supplied sucrose for the production and/or storage of specialized metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and putative type III polyketide synthase gene products. This finding reinforces earlier hypotheses predicting roles of this enzyme class in the production of curcuminoids and gingerols. Conclusion A significant set of genes were found to be exclusively or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of ginger and turmeric. Specific

  13. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

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    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. In silico investigation into the interactions between murine 5-HT3 receptor and the principle active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

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    Lohning, Anna E; Marx, Wolfgang; Isenring, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT 3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT 3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT 3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and a proposed allosteric binding site situated at the interface between the transmembrane region and the extracellular domain. These were assessed concurrently with the top-scoring poses of the docked ligands and included key active gingerols, shogaols and dehydroshogaols as well as competitive antagonists (e.g. setron class of pharmacologically active drugs), serotonin and its structural analogues, curcumin and capsaicin, non-competitive antagonists and decoys. Unexpectedly, we found that the ginger compounds and their structural analogs generally outscored other ligands at both sites. Our results correlated well with previous site-directed mutagenesis studies in identifying key binding site residues. We have identified new residues important for binding the ginger compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the ginger compounds and their structural analogues possess a high binding affinity to both sites. Notwithstanding the limitations of such theoretical analyses, these results suggest that the ginger compounds could act both competitively or non-competitively as has been shown for palonosetron and other modulators of CYS loop receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

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    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  16. Optimization of Physical Conditions for the Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Applying a Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Añorve-Morga, Javier; Salazar-Pereda, Verónica; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo; Contreras-López, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Since ancient times, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This rhizome possesses several chemical constituents; most of them present antioxidant capacity due mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, the physical conditions for the optimal extraction of antioxidant components of ginger were investigated by applying a Box-Behnken experimental design. Extracts of ginger were prepared using water as solvent in a conventional solid-liquid extraction. The analyzed variables were time (5, 15 and 25 min), temperature (20, 55 and 90 °C) and sample concentration (2, 6 and 10 %). The antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power assay while total phenolics were measured by Folin & Ciocalteu's method. The suggested experimental design allowed the acquisition of aqueous extracts of ginger with diverse antioxidant activity (100-555 mg Trolox/100 g, 147-1237 mg Fe 2+ /100 g and 50-332 mg gallic acid/100 g). Temperature was the determining factor in the extraction of components with antioxidant activity, regardless of time and sample quantity. The optimal physical conditions that allowed the highest antioxidant activity were: 90 °C, 15 min and 2 % of the sample. The correlation value between the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the content of total phenolics was R 2  = 0.83. The experimental design applied allowed the determination of the physical conditions under which ginger aqueous extracts liberate compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of them are of the phenolic type as it was demonstrated through the correlation established between different methods used to measure antioxidant capacity.

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  18. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  19. Genetic variation in Pythium myriotylum based on SNP typing and development of a PCR-RFLP detection of isolates recovered from Pythium soft rot ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, D P; Smith, M K; Aitken, E A B

    2017-10-01

    Pythium myriotylum is responsible for severe losses in both capsicum and ginger crops in Australia under different regimes. Intraspecific genomic variation within the pathogen might explain the differences in aggressiveness and pathogenicity on diverse hosts. In this study, whole genome data of four P. myriotylum isolates recovered from three hosts and one Pythium zingiberis isolate were derived and analysed for sequence diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A higher number of true and unique SNPs occurred in P. myriotylum isolates obtained from ginger with symptoms of Pythium soft rot (PSR) in Australia compared to other P. myriotylum isolates. Overall, SNPs were discovered more in the mitochondrial genome than those in the nuclear genome. Among the SNPs, a single substitution from the cytosine (C) to the thymine (T) in the partially sequenced CoxII gene of 14 representatives of PSR P. myriotylum isolates was within a restriction site of HinP1I enzyme which was used in the PCR-RFLP for detection and identification of the isolates without sequencing. The PCR-RFLP was also sensitive to detect PSR P. myriotylum strains from artificially infected ginger without the need for isolation for pure cultures. This is the first study of intraspecific variants of Pythium myriotylum isolates recovered from different hosts and origins based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of multiple genes. The SNPs discovered provide valuable makers for detection and identification of P. myriotylum strains initially isolated from Pythium soft rot (PSR) ginger by using PCR-RFLP of the CoxII locus. The PCR-RFLP was also sensitive to detect P. myriotylum directly from PSR ginger sampled from pot trials without the need of isolation for pure cultures. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Ginger Extract Reduces the Expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in the Sera and Central Nervous System of EAE Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Azizi, Sayyed-Vahab; Nemati, Maryam; Khoramdel-Azad, Hossain; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    IL-17/IL-23 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory properties of ginger are reported in previous studies. To evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in a model of EAE. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein and then treated with PBS or ginger extracts, from day +3 to +30. At day 31, mice were scarificed and the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 mRNA in spinal cord were determined by using real time-PCR. The serum levels of cytokines were measured by ELISA. The mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-23 P19 and IL-23 P40 in CNS and serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly higher in PBS-treated EAE mice than non-EAE group (pginger-treated EAE mice the mRNA expression of IL-17, P19 and P40 in CNS and serum IL-23 levels were significantly decreased as compared to PBS-treated EAE mice (pginger-treated EAE group had significantly lower expression of IL-17, P19 and P40 in CNS and lower serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels than PBS-treated EAE group (pGinger extract reduces the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in EAE mice. The therapeutic potential of ginger for treatment of MS could be considered in further studies.

  1. The hidden mechanism beyond ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) potent in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira M; Ezzat, Marwa I; Okba, Mona M; Menze, Esther T; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2018-03-25

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known anti-inflammatory drug in the Egyptian, Indian and Chinese folk medicines, yet its mechanism of action is unclear. To explore its mechanism of action and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated using protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in rats at doses 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg b.wt. All the tested extracts showed significant (p< 0.1) in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for AE that was more significant than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125μg/ml). Purification of AE led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G1, G2 and G8 exhibited potent activity in all the studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200mg/kg) showed significant reduction in production of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by 60%, 57%, 60%, 41%, 32% and 67%, respectively. AE at 100 and 200mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NO x level and in increasing the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and edema after administration of AE (200mg/kg) prior to

  2. Performance of an integrated approach for prediction of bond dissociation enthalpies of phenols extracted from ginger and tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Pham Cam; Chandra, Asit K.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the (RO)B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) with the PM6 method into a two-layer ONIOM is found to produce reasonably accurate BDE(O-H)s of phenolic compounds. The chosen ONIOM model contains only two atoms of the breaking bond as the core zone and is able to provide reliable evaluation for BDE(O-H) for phenols and tocopherol. Deviation of calculated values from experiment is ±(1-2) kcal/mol. BDE(O-H) of several curcuminoids and flavanoids extracted from ginger and tea are computed using the proposed model. The BDE(O-H) values of enol curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate are predicted to be 83.3 ± 2.0 and 76.0 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, respectively.

  3. The effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein, lipid profile and glycaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid profile, and glycaemia. Method: PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until July 2016 to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of ginger supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016035973. Results: From a total of 265 entries identified via searches, 9 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP concentrations following ginger supplementation [weighted mean difference (WMD−0.84 mg/L (95% CI −1.38 to −0.31, I2 56.3%]. The WMD for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c was −1.35 mg/dl (95% CI −2.04 to −0.58, I2 12.1% and −1.01 (95% CI −1.28 to −0.72, I2 9.4%, respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride significantly improved after ginger administration [1.16 mg/dl (95% CI 0.52 to 1.08, I2 12.3% and −1.63 mg/dl (95% CI −3.10 to −0.17, I2 8.1%, respectively]. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of ginger supplementation (slope −0.20; 95% CI −0.95 to 0.55; p=0.60. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that ginger supplementation significantly reduces serum CRP and improves glycaemia indexes and lipid profile. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and with a longer-term follow-up period should be considered for future investigations.

  4. The effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein, lipid profile and glycaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, and glycaemia. PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until July 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of ginger supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016035973. From a total of 265 entries identified via searches, 9 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP concentrations following ginger supplementation [weighted mean difference (WMD)-0.84 mg/L (95% CI -1.38 to -0.31, I 2 56.3%)]. The WMD for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c was -1.35 mg/dl (95% CI -2.04 to -0.58, I 2 12.1%) and -1.01 (95% CI -1.28 to -0.72, I 2 9.4%), respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride significantly improved after ginger administration [1.16 mg/dl (95% CI 0.52 to 1.08, I 2 12.3%) and -1.63 mg/dl (95% CI -3.10 to -0.17, I 2 8.1%), respectively]. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of ginger supplementation (slope -0.20; 95% CI -0.95 to 0.55; p =0.60). This meta-analysis suggests that ginger supplementation significantly reduces serum CRP and improves glycaemia indexes and lipid profile. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and with a longer-term follow-up period should be considered for future investigations.

  5. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

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    Lia P. NOBREGA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.O gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pertence à família Zingiberacea. É uma especiaria de grande importância comercial. Neste trabalho realizou-se extrações da oleoresina de gengibre com etanol, isopropanol e dióxido de carbono líquido e comparou-se a composição química de cada um dos extratos. A oleoresina obtida tem componentes das classes dos monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em todas as amostras. Ácidos carboxílicos foram encontrados nos extratos obtidos com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 2 horas. Os componentes que dão a característica pungente à oleoresina, os gingerois, foram detectados nas amostras obtidas com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 6 horas e, nas amostras obtidas com CO2 líquido, com 2 horas de extração.

  6. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Rohini; Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-12-01

      Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale), commonly known as ginger, has been widely used traditionally for a variety of medicinal purposes, one of which is for the treatment of pain. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from all human participant clinical trials that have assessed the efficacy of ginger for the treatment of any type of pain.   Following a protocol, multiple databases were sought using comprehensive search strategies for Z. officinale and pain together with a trial filter for randomized or controlled clinical trials. Trials testing the efficacy of Z. officinale, used as a sole oral treatment against a comparison condition in human adults suffering from any pain condition, were included.   Seven published articles, reporting a total of eight trials (481 participants), were included in the review. Six trials (two for osteoarthritis, one for dysmenorrhea, and three for experimentally induced acute muscle pain) found that the use of Z. officinale reduced subjective pain reports. The methodological quality of the included articles was variable. When assessed using the Jadad scale, which allows a score of between 0 and 5 to be given, included articles obtained Jadad ratings ranging from 2 to 5.   Due to a paucity of well-conducted trials, evidence of the efficacy of Z. officinale to treat pain remains insufficient. However, the available data provide tentative support for the anti-inflammatory role of Z. officinale constituents, which may reduce the subjective experience of pain in some conditions such as osteoarthritis. Further rigorous trials therefore seem to be warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ginger extract modulates Pb-induced hepatic oxidative stress and expression of antioxidant gene transcripts in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omnia Ismail; El-Nahas, Abeer Fekry; El-Sayed, Yasser Said; Ashry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized sources of natural antioxidants that can protect from oxidative stress, thus play an important role in chemoprevention of liver diseases. Ginger is used worldwide primarily as a spicy condiment. This study evaluated the ability of ginger extract (GE) to ameliorate oxidative-hepatic toxicity induced by lead acetate (PbAc) in rats. Five groups of animals were used: group I kept as control; groups II, IV, and V received PbAc (1 ppm in drinking water daily for 6 weeks, and kept for an additional 2 weeks without PbAc exposure); group III treated orally with GE (350 mg/kg body weight, 4 d per week) for 6 weeks; group IV (protective) received GE for 2 weeks before and simultaneously with PbAc; and group V (treatment) received GE for 2 weeks after PbAc exposure. GC-MS analysis of GE revealed its content of gingerol (7.09%), quercetin (3.20%), dl-limonene (0.96%), and zingiberene (0.18%). Treatment of PbAc-treated rats with GE has no effect on hepatic Pb concentrations. However, it maintained serum aspartate aminotransferase level, increased hepatic glutathione (157%), glutathione S-transferase (GST) (228%), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (138%) and catalase (CAT) (112%) levels, and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (80%). Co-treatment of PbAc group with GE upregulated mRNA expression of antioxidant genes: GST-α1 (1.4-fold), GPx1 (1.8-fold), and CAT (8-fold), while post-treatment with GE upregulated only mRNA expression of GPx1 (1.5-fold). GE has an antioxidant protective efficacy against PbAc-induced hepatotoxicity, which appears more effective than its therapeutic application. However, the changes in antioxidant gene expression were not reflected at the protein level.

  8. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical, sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel as well as on the sensory properties of fenugreek were investigated. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 kGy dose, for fennel 6-10 kGy and for fenugreek 6-8 kGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercially established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil contents of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Between the untreated, irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  9. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs

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    Przygodzka Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produced with or without dough fermentation step. The inhibitory effect against AGEs formation was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO systems. The antioxidant capacity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl- -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and cyclic voltammetry (CV, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents by HPLC and total phenolics (TPC by spectrophotometric assays. The study showed the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage. The results of the inhibitory activity were highly correlated in two applied model systems. Enrichment of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes with rutin improved their antioxidant properties. The correlation studies showed that the inhibitory effects of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes produced with dough fermentation step and enhanced with rutin against formation of AGEs were highly correlated with TPC, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of rutin enrichment was clearly seen in cakes obtained with dough fermentation step, even the inhibitory activity was slightly lower as compared to the cakes produced without dough fermentation.

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  11. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Increases Contents of Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Varieties

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    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid, and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara with CO2 enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO2. These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO2 conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO2 concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO2 enrichment.

  12. Identification and Concentration of Some Flavonoid Components in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

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    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting, and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%, and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1% as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay showed high activities (65.7% in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

  13. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  14. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

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    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  15. A Synoviocyte Model for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Response to Ibuprofen, Betamethasone, and Ginger Extract—A Cross-Sectional In Vitro Study

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    Søren Ribel-Madsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining if synovial cell cultures from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and healthy controls (HC differ and are suitable disease models in pharmacological studies, and tested their response to some anti-inflammatory drugs. Synovial cells were isolated from synovial membrane or joint fluid. Cells were cultivated and exposed to no or TNF-α stimulation without, or in the presence of, betamethasone, ibuprofen, or a standardized ginger extract. Concentrations of a panel of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines were mapped for each culture and condition. Our cells secreted an increased amount of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in response to TNF-α stimulation in all conditions. OA cells showed a higher IL-6 and IL-8 and a lower IL-1β production, when not stimulated, than RA and HC cells, which were similar. TNF-α stimulation caused similar IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in all groups. Ibuprofen showed no effect on cytokine production, while ginger extract was similar to betamethasone. Ginger extract was as effective an anti-inflammatory agent as betamethasone in this in vitro model. Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes from OA and RA subjects promise to be a useful pharmacological disease model, but further studies, to support results from such a model are needed.

  16. Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.

  17. Effect Of Using Ginger And / Or Cinnamon, As An Irradiated Supplement, On Lipid Profiles And Antioxidant Activities Of Dietary-Induced Hypercholesterolemia In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Osman, N.N.; Yonies, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Combating hypercholesterolemia is one of the modern nutrition directions. Towards this goal, hypercholesterolemia diet (HCD) containing cholesterol (1% w/w) and sodium cholate (0.2% w/w) was investigated on male Wister rats. Ginger and/or cinnamon (1% w/w) irradiated with 10 KGy were added to the HCD as a decontaminated supplement to evaluate the efficacy of these spices in reducing hypercholesterolemia. Their effects on serum and hepatic lipid, atherogenic index, blood and liver lipid peroxidation and antioxidant properties were determined. It was found that, the use of either ginger or cinnamon or both reduced TG, TC and LDL-C and increased HDL-C. Also, these spices suppressed lipid peroxidation via enhancement of antioxidant activities. The mixture of the two spices was more effective on the studied parameters in HCD fed rats. Thus, it could be concluded that intake of ginger and cinnamon may minimize the risk of atherosclerosis associated with a high cholesterol diet. These overall results support the future use of these spices and that continuous spices intake may be recommended in human

  18. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of the binding modes with important human cytochrome P450 enzymes, drug interaction potential, pharmacokinetics, and hepatotoxicity of ginger components using molecular docking, computational, and pharmacokinetic modeling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu JX

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jia-Xuan Qiu,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,3 Zhi-Xu He,4 Xueji Zhang,5 Shu-Feng Zhou,3 Shengrong Zhu11Department of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for the treatment of numerous ailments and improvement of body functions. It may be used in combination with prescribed drugs. The coadministration of ginger with therapeutic drugs raises a concern of potential deleterious drug interactions via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, resulting in unfavorable therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to determine the molecular interactions between 12 main active ginger components (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, ar-curcumene, ß-bisabolene, ß-sesquiphelandrene, 6-gingerdione, (--zingiberene, and methyl-6-isogingerol and human cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET of the 12 ginger components using computational approaches and comprehensive literature search. Docking studies showed that ginger components interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP1A

  1. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli; McInnis, Donald; Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo; Goncalves, Nilmara; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio; Nascimento, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  2. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  3. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC(50 of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30-40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC(50 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml. Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20-40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53(neg SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  4. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar mice

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    P. I. Kobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mice were randomly allocated into five groups of five animals each. Group I and II were given Tween 80 (1 ml/kg and diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg to serve as untreated and treated controls, respectively. Groups III-V received the extract at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All treatments were given for 6 consecutive days and through the oral route. The mean body weight, mean survival period and daily level of parasitaemia were evaluated. Results: Acute toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe. There was an insignificant increase in body weight and survival rate of mice treated with the extract. The level of parasitaemia in the extract treated groups was decreased. Conclusion: This study shows the in vivo potential of methanolic extract of Z. officinale in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  5. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  7. Characterization of ginger essential oil/palygorskite composite (GEO-PGS) and its anti-bacteria activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Wei, Qiaonian; Wang, Qing; Su, Anxiang; Xue, Mei; Liu, Qin; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-04-01

    To explore a novel kind of anti-bacterial composite material having the excellent antibacterial ability, stability and specific-targeting capability, palygorskite (PGS) was used as the carrier of ginger essential oil (GEO) and a novel kind of composite GEO-PGS was prepared by ion exchange process. The characterization and the antibacterial activity of GEO-PGS was investigated in this study. Results of FTIR, XPS, XRD,TG analysis and SEM observation demonstrated the combination of GEO and PGS, GEO was absorbed on the surface of PGS, and the content of GEO in the composite was estimated to be 18.66%. Results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, growth curve and Gram staining analysis of Staphylococci aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to GEO-PGS showed that GEO-PGS had much higher antibacterial activity than GEO, and GEO-PGS had the specific-targeting antibacterial capability. Moreover, GEO-PGS showed the characteristics of thermo-stability, acidity and alkalinity-resistance in exerting its anti-bacteria activity. In conclusion, the novel composite GEO-PGS combined the bacteria-absorbent activity of PGS and the antibacterial activity of GEO, suggesting the great potential application of GEO-PGS as the novel composite substance with high antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris, 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. PMID:28546803

  9. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  10. Effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taavoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  11. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale , 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum , while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Oselys Rodriguez; Simioni, Patricia Ucelli; Gabriel, Dirce Lima; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Rosa, Paulo de Tarso Vieira; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Numerous plants from have been investigated due to their anti-inflammatory activity and, among then, extracts or components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sources of polyphenolic compounds. 6-gingerol from ginger rhizome and carnosic acid and carnosol from rosemary leaves present anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of these and other plant extracts is limited due to their high hydrophobicity. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a vehicle of liposoluble materials to mammalian cells in vitro, presenting enhanced cell penetration. Liposomes are also able to efficiently deliver agents to mammalian cells, being capable to incorporate in their structure not only hydrophobic molecules, but also hydrophilic and amphiphilic compounds. Another strategy is based on the use of Pluronic F-68, a biocompatible low-foaming, non-ionic surfactant, to disperse hydrophobic components. Here, these three delivery approaches were compared to analyze their influence on the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ginger and rosemary extracts, at different concentrations, on primary mammalian cells and on a tumor cell line. Ginger and rosemary extracts free of organic solvents were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and dispersed in DMSO, Pluronic F-68 or liposomes, in variable concentrations. Cell viability, production of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in vitro on J774 cell line and murine macrophages primary culture stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ after being exposed or not to these extracts. Ginger and rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of NO by peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells. The delivery vehicles influenced the anti-inflammatory effects. Comparatively, the ginger extract showed the

  13. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. ► 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. ► 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-κB-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. ► MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-β gene and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  14. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  15. Evaluation of point plaster therapy with ginger powder in preventing nausea and vomiting occurred after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haiyan; Yang Yang; Meng Zhiqiang; Chen Leihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the point plaster therapy with ginger powder combined with ondansetron hydrochloride in preventing nausea and vomiting usually occurred after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer, and to compared its effectiveness with that by using ondansetron hydrochloride only. Method: Sixty-two patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer, who were scheduled to receive platinum-based interventional chemotherapy, were randomly and equally divided into two groups with 31 cases in each group. The patients in the study group (n = 31) were given point plaster therapy, i.e. externally applying ginger powder (20 g) to the point of Shenque, for four days together with arterial infusion of ondansetron hydrochloride (8 mg) during interventional procedure,while the patients in the control group (n = 31) were given point plaster therapy with placebo (potato powder) together with arterial infusion of ondansetron hydrochloride (8 mg) during interventional procedure. The questionnaire of INVR (index form for evaluating nausea and vomiting) was used to assess the effectiveness, and the results were compared between two groups. Results: The incidence of nausea and vomiting in study group was significantly lower than that in control group at all observed points of time during the period of 0 -72 hours after the treatment (P 0.05). After the treatment the scores of nausea, vomiting and retching in the study group were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.19 respectively, while these in the control group were 2.77, 0.87 and 0.97 respectively, the differences between two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The external application of ginger powder to points of Shenque can markedly decrease the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer. (authors)

  16. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-01-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  17. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  18. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Faizul Azam,1,2 Abdualrahman M Amer,1 Abdullah R Abulifa,1 Mustafa M Elzwawi1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Misurata University, Misurata, Libya; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nims Institute of Pharmacy, Nims University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale, despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931 between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated

  19. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara

  20. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  1. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50%. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp.

  2. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  3. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  4. Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Zohreh FAKHRIEH-KASHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole is a chosen drug for the treatment. This study evaluated the anti trichomonal activity of alcoholic extracts of combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale.Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Parasitology Laboratory, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2015, on 23 women with suspected trichomoniasis referring to Kashan clinical centers. Medium TYI-S-33 was used for culture of three T. vaginalis isolates. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml of V. thapsus and G. officinale ethanol extract added to Trichomonas trophozoites in 48-well plates and metronidazole considered as positive control and the negative control was TYI-S33 containing Trichomonas trophozoites without any drug. In all of mentioned groups, trophozoites number counted 12, 24, 48 h after culture. Results were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test, to evaluate the toxicity of extract, measured by MTT assay. Induced apoptosis of T. vaginalis after treatment with different concentrations of extract was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results: IC50 of alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale and metronidazole after 24h was 73.80 µg/ml and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. The toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of this combination were between 0.2-1.98. In different concentrations of extract (25,50,100,200 and 400 µg/ml apoptosis percent after 48h was 18.97 to 77.19 and necrosis percent was calculated 1.35, 3.18, 3.10, 1.16 and 4.09, respectively.Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. Due to no toxicity on macrophages, it can be examined in vivo studies.

  5. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...... produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  6. Shelf-life enhancement of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures by combination of gamma-irradiation, biocontrol and closed polyethylene bag storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.; Thomas, P.; Raghu, K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of a combination process involving gamma-irradiation, packing in closed polyethylene bags and biological control of fungi causing storage rot was evaluated as a means of extending the shelf-life of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures (25–30°C). Storage in closed polyethylene bags reduced weight loss but increased sprouting and rooting, which could be prevented by gamma irradiation to 60 Gy. Rotting caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was, however, a major cause of spoilage during extended storage. Four isolates of Trichoderma sp. isolated from sclerotia of S. rolfsii infecting ginger rhizomes, one of Gliocfadium uirens, and four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were tested, out of which, one isolate of Trichoderma was found to be highly effective in suppressing the growth of S. rolfsii. The efficacy of the antagonist was demonstrated under simulated market conditions using artificially inoculated rhizomes. The recommended procedure consists of dipping washed, air dried rhizomes in Trichoderma suspension (10 8 spores ml -1 ), air-drying, packing in 250 gauge LDPE bags followed by irradiation to 60 Gy. Rhizomes thus treated remained in good marketable condition for up to 2 months at ambient temperature without sprouting or significant loss of quality and less than 5% weight loss. An in vitro bioassay system was developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the antagonist to protect the cut surface of sliced rhizomes inoculated with the pathogen. The method could be used for rapid screening of antagonists

  7. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  8. Efficacy of ginger for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin-cyclophosphamide regimen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamlikitkul, Lucksamon; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Akewanlop, Charuwan; Ithimakin, Suthinee; Techawathanawanna, Sirisopa; Korphaisarn, Krittiya; Chantharasamee, Jomjit; Danchaivijitr, Pongwut; Soparattanapaisarn, Nopadol

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of ginger for reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC) regimens. We enrolled breast cancer patients receiving AC who experienced moderate to severe nausea or vomiting during the first chemotherapy cycle. Subjects were randomized to receive a 500-mg ginger capsule or placebo twice a day for 5 days starting on the first day of the second AC cycle and were switched to the other treatment in the third cycle. All participants also received ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis. Nausea severity was recorded once a day during the first 5 days of each cycle. The primary outcome was reduction in nausea score. Thirty-four subjects (68 cycles of AC) were enrolled. Mean (range) maximum nausea score in the first AC cycle was 58 (40-90). Thirty-three subjects (97 %) received the same AC doses in the second as in the third cycle. Mean (±standard error) maximum nausea scores in patients receiving ginger and placebo were 35.36 (±4.43) and 32.17 (±3.71), respectively. The difference in mean maximum nausea scores was 3 (95 % confidence interval, -3 to 9; P = 0.3). There were no significant differences between ginger and placebo in terms of vomiting incidence and severity, rescue medication use, chemotherapy compliance, and adverse events. Ginger (500 mg) twice daily was safe, but conferred no additional benefit in terms of reducing nausea severity in breast cancer patients receiving AC and ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis.

  9. The effect of the ginger on the apoptosis of hippochampal cells according to the expression of BAX and Cyclin D1 genes and histological characteristics of brain in streptozotocin male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molahosseini, A; Taghavi, M M; Taghipour, Z; Shabanizadeh, A; Fatehi, F; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Eftekhar Vaghefe, S H

    2016-10-31

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in humans with multiple complications including nervous system damages. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ginger extract on apoptosis of the neurons of hippocampus, via evaluation of BAX and Cyclin D1 and also histological analysis, in male diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats (220 ± 30gr) were conducted in 5 groups as follow: diabetic group treated with saline (group 1), normal group treated with saline (group 2), diabetic group treated with ginger (group 3), diabetic group treated with ginger-insulin (group 4), diabetic group treated with insulin (group 5). STZ (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally used to induce the diabetes. Expression levels of BAX and Cyclin D1 were examined using Real-Time PCR technique and the normality of neurons was evaluated using H&E staining method. The results showed that blood glucose level significantly decreased in group 4 when compared to group 1. In molecular analysis, there was no significant difference between groups regarding the expression of BAX gens, while, the expression of Cyclin D1 were significantly decreased in group 4 compared with group 1. Histological analysis revealed that pathological symptoms were lower in group 4 than the other diabetic groups. The results of present study showed that the ginger in addition to lowering blood sugar level, changes the expression of Cyclin D1 gene and histological characteristics in a positive manner. This means that the ginger may protects neurons of the hippocampus from apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  10. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  11. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10−5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10−3 M to 10−5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL−1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%–72.90% with the 10−5 M SA treatment followed by the 10−3 M SA (52.14%–63.66% treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%–46.7%. These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10−5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of

  12. EFFECTS OF GINGER CROPPING ON BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN PURPLE SOILS IN DIFFERENT CROPPING BACKGROUND%不同种植模式背景下栽植生姜对紫色土细菌多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭熙; 吴福忠; 杨万勤; 罗艺; 王奥

    2012-01-01

    Ginger cropping could regulate composition of soil microbial community, but its previous cropping might alleviate or aggregate the effect. To understand the effects of ginger cropping on soil microbial community as affected by its preceding cropping, variations of soil bacterial diversity were studied by analyzing PCR-DGGE fingerprints and DNA sequence in purple soil area of the Minjiang River. Four typical cropping modes ( interplanting of com + sweet potato, mono-cropping of soybean, continuous cropping of ginger, and rice-milk vetch rotation cropping) in this region were selected for the study. PCR-DGGE fingerprints clearly show that cultivation of ginger caused changes in number, position and brightness of DGGE bands, regardless of cropping background of the soil, e. G. Reducing richness and Shannon-Wiener index of soil bacteria, and altering structure of the bacterial community. Among the four cropping patterns, the effects were the most significant in the one of continuous cropping of ginger, and the least in the one of interplanting of corn and sweet potato. However, cultivation of gingers made the soils under four different cropping patterns tend to be similar in structure of bacterial community. Sequencing of DGGE bands demonstrates that cultivation of ginger brought about disappearance of Chloroflexi group, and Nitrospira group as well, except for in the soil under the pattern of intercropping of rice-milk vetch, and appearance of bacteria of Brevundimonas in the soil under the pattern of interplanting of com + sweet potato. The findings help understand the effects of ginger cultivation on soil environment, and provide some scientific basis for optimizing the mode of ginger cultivation.%为了解栽植生姜对岷江下游紫色丘陵区不同种植模式背景下典型紫色土微生物多样性的影响,采用PCR-DGGE与DNA序列分析方法,研究了紫色丘陵区玉米+红薯间作、大豆单作、生姜连作、水稻-紫云英轮作等4种典型

  13. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

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    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  14. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

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    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  15. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

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    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  16. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

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    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  17. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1 were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale. TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01 with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  18. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  19. Red Eggs and Ginger.

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    Lew, Gordon

    This illustrated children's book concerns traditional Chinese family activities centered around the birth of a baby. It is one of a series written primarily to provide Chinese-American youngsters with reading materials of their own. Teachers and parents outside the Chinese community who are interested in giving children a healthy and positive…

  20. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

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    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  1. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-06-17

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.

  2. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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    Chien-Kei Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice.

  4. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol dan Destilat Jahe dan Sirih terhadap Mycoplasma gallisepticum dan Escherichia coli (ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT AND DESTILAT OF GINGERS AND PIPER BETLES AGAINST MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM AND ESCHERICHIA CO

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    Min Rahminiwati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betle and ginger juice extracts have been reported to have antibacterial activity against E. coliand M. gallisepticum. However, fractionation analysis showed the have differences in their antibacterialpotency which appeared to be associated with the nature of the solvent polarity. This study wasconducted to obtain information about antibacterial activity of Piper betles and gingers extract againstE. coli and M. gallisepticum. Three types of betle, P. betle, P. betle var nigra, P. crocatum, wereexamined for their antibacterial activity using disc method and three types of ginger, Zingiber officinale,Z. officinale Linn var rubrum, and Z. majus rumph which were extracted by soxhletation using ethanol30%, 60% and 90% as well as distestillation for three and five hours. Piper betle and P. crocatumconsistently have antibacterial effect against E. coli whereas Z. officinale consistently has antibacterialeffect against M. gallisepticum, either extracted by distillation or soxhletation. Piper betle is potentialyield of distillate and extract that has the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli, and M.gallisepticum with inhibitory zone were 9.76 mm and 22 mm respectively.

  5. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

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    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  6. The Effect of a Standardized Ginger Extract on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

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    Marx, Wolfgang; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Ried, Karin; McKavanagh, Dan; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; Lohning, Anna; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2017-08-12

    Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included acute and delayed nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as cancer-related fatigue, nutritional status, and CIN and vomiting-specific prognostic factors. Over three consecutive chemotherapy cycles, nausea was more prevalent than vomiting (47% vs. 12%). In chemotherapy Cycle 1, intervention participants reported significantly better QoL related to CIN ( p = 0.029), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related QoL ( p = 0.043), global QoL ( p = 0.015) and less fatigue ( p = 0.006) than placebo participants. There were no significant results in Cycle 2. In Cycle 3, global QoL ( p = 0.040) and fatigue ( p = 0.013) were significantly better in the intervention group compared to placebo. This trial suggests adjuvant ginger supplementation is associated with better chemotherapy-induced nausea-related quality of life and less cancer-related fatigue, with no difference in adverse effects compared to placebo.

  7. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

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    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  8. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. A. S. R.; Avanço, G. B.; Nerilo, S. B.; Marcelino, R. I. A.; Janeiro, V.; Valadares, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. PMID:28042599

  9. Sonodynamic therapy combined with novel anti-cancer agents, sanguinarine and ginger root extract: Synergistic increase in toxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Matthew; Mitchell, James; Totti, Stella; Lee, Judy; Velliou, Eirini; Bussemaker, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    The presence of ultrasound-induced cavitation in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) treatments has previously enhanced the activity and delivery of certain sonosensitisers in biological systems. The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential for two novel anti-cancer agents from natural derivatives, sanguinarine and ginger root extract (GRE), as sonosensitisers in an SDT treatment with in vitro PANC-1 cells. Both anti-cancer compounds had a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells. A range of six discreet ultrasound power-frequency configurations were tested and it was found that the cell death caused directly by ultrasound was likely due to the sonomechanical effects of cavitation. Combined treatment used dosages of 100μM sanguinarine or 1mM of GRE with 15s sonication at 500kHz and 10W. The sanguinarine-SDT and GRE-SDT treatments showed a 6% and 17% synergistic increase in observed cell death, respectively. Therefore both sanguinarine and GRE were found to be effective sonosensitisers and warrant further development for SDT, with a view to maximising the magnitude of synergistic increase in toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R. Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. S. R. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L., turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L., and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R. essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs, and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  11. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS: GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM. I-IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; EL-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidisis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells causing a major health problem for man and animals. Experimentally the immunologic mediated elimination of C. parvum requires CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma. But, the innate immune responses also have a significant protective role in both man and animals. the mucosal immune response to C. parvum in C57BL/6 neonatal and GKO mice shows a concomitant Thl and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, with a crucial role for IFN-gamma in the resolution of the infection. NK cells and IFN-gamma have been shown to be important components in immunity in T and B cell-deficient mice, but IFN-gamma-dependent resistance is demonstrated in alymphocytic mice. Epithelial cells may play a vital role in immunity as once infected these cells have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines and demonstrate anti-infection killing mechanisms. C. parvum immunological response was used to evaluate the efficacy of anti-cryptosporidisis agents of Garlic, Ginger, Mirazid and Metronidazole in experimentally infected mice.

  12. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P A S R; Avanço, G B; Nerilo, S B; Marcelino, R I A; Janeiro, V; Valadares, M C; Machinski, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro , using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC 50 obtained was 36.6  μ g/mL for CEO and 129.9  μ g/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81  μ g/mL of CEO and 32.12  μ g/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  13. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  14. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

  15. Characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Siri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching (QQ activities. Here we sought to discover novel N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere of ginger (Zingiber officinale growing in the Malaysian rainforest. Results By using a basal growth medium containing N-(3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the ginger rhizosphere associated bacteria were enriched for strains with AHL-degrading capabilities. Three isolates belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (GG2, Burkholderia (GG4 and Klebsiella (Se14 were identified and selected for further study. Strains GG2 and Se14 exhibited the broadest spectrum of AHL-degrading activities via lactonolysis while GG4 reduced 3-oxo-AHLs to the corresponding 3-hydroxy compounds. In GG2 and GG4, QQ was found to co-exist with AHL-dependent QS and GG2 was shown to inactivate both self-generated and exogenously supplied AHLs. GG2, GG4 and Se14 were each able to attenuate virulence factor production in both human and plant pathogens. Conclusions Collectively our data show that ginger rhizosphere bacteria which make and degrade a wide range of AHLs are likely to play a collective role in determining the QS-dependent phenotype of a polymicrobial community.