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Sample records for kagome spin ice

  1. Kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Paula

    Spin ice in magnetic pyrochlore oxides is a peculiar magnetic state. Like ordinary water ice, these materials are in apparent violation with the third law of thermodynamics, which dictates that the entropy of a system in thermal equilibrium vanishes as its temperature approaches absolute zero. In ice, a "zero-point" entropy is retained down to low temperatures thanks to a high number of low-energy positions of hydrogen ions associated with the Bernal-Fowler ice-rules. Spins in pyrochlore oxides Ho2Ti 2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 exhibit a similar degeneracy of ground states and thus also have a sizable zero-point entropy. A recent discovery of excitations carrying magnetic charges in pyrochlore spin ice adds another interesting dimension to these magnets. This thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of a two-dimensional version of spin ice whose spins reside on kagome, a lattice of corner-sharing triangles. It covers two aspects of this frustrated classical spin system: the dynamics of artificial spin ice in a network of magnetic nanowires and the thermodynamics of crystalline spin ice. Magnetization dynamics in artificial spin ice is mediated by the emission, propagation and absorption of domain walls in magnetic nanowires. The dynamics shows signs of self-organized behavior such as avalanches. The theoretical model compares favorably to recent experiments. The thermodynamics of the microscopic version of spin ice on kagome is examined through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results show that, in addition to the high-temperature paramagnetic phase and the low-temperature phase with magnetic order, spin ice on kagome may have an intermediate phase with fluctuating spins and ordered magnetic charges. This work is concluded with a calculation of the entropy of kagome spin ice at zero temperature when one of the sublattices is pinned by an applied magnetic field and the system breaks up into independent spin chains, a case of dimensional reduction.

  2. Layered kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, James; Dutton, Sian; Mourigal, Martin; Mukherjee, Paromita; Paddison, Joseph; Ong, Harapan; Castelnovo, Claudio

    Spin ice materials provide a rare instance of emergent gauge symmetry and fractionalisation in three dimensions: the effective degrees of freedom of the system are emergent magnetic monopoles, and the extensively many `ice rule' ground states are those devoid of monopole excitations. Two-dimensional (kagome) analogues of spin ice have also been shown to display a similarly rich behaviour. In kagome ice however the ground-state `ice rule' condition implies the presence everywhere of magnetic charges. As temperature is lowered, an Ising transition occurs to a charge-ordered state, which can be mapped to a dimer covering of the dual honeycomb lattice. A second transition, of Kosterlitz-Thouless or three-state Potts type, occurs to a spin-ordered state at yet lower temperatures, due to small residual energy differences between charge-ordered states. Inspired by recent experimental capabilities in growing spin ice samples with selective (layered) substitution of non-magnetic ions, in this work we investigate the fate of the two ordering transitions when individual kagome layers are brought together to form a three-dimensional pyrochlore structure coupled by long range dipolar interactions. We also consider the response to substitutional disorder and applied magnetic fields.

  3. Artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets: a frozen dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemaille, N; Montaigne, F; Canals, B; Duluard, A; Lacour, D; Hehn, M; Belkhou, R; Fruchart, O; El Moussaoui, S; Bendounan, A; Maccherozzi, F

    2011-02-04

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.

  4. Artificial Kagome Arrays of Nanomagnets: A Frozen Dipolar Spin Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Rougemaille, N.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Duluard, A.; D. Lacour; Hehn, M.; Belkhou, R.; Fruchart, O.; Moussaoui, S. El; Bendounan, A.; Maccherozzi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.

  5. Confined spin wave spectra of Kagome artificial spin ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2017-01-01

    The spin wave modes of elongated magnetic islands arranged in Kagome artificial spin-ice arrays are micromagnetically simulated in the frequency regime between 3 and 16 GHz. The edge modes are more suitable in order to detect the signatures of various types of local order of the spin-ice lattice as they are much more sensitive to the magnetic configurations of neighboring elements. The spectra of arrays consisting up to 30 elements can be decomposed to those originating from local magnetic states of their vertices.

  6. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and √3 × √3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional √3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  7. Linear spin-wave study of a quantum kagome ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.; Burkov, A. A.; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a large-S study of a quantum spin ice Hamiltonian, introduced by Huang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 167203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.167203], on the kagome lattice. This model involves a competition between the frustrating Ising term of classical kagome ice, a Zeeman magnetic field h , and a nearest-neighbor transverse spin-flip term SixSjx-SiySjy . Recent quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations by Carrasquilla et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421], uncovered lobes of a disordered phase for large Ising interaction and h ≠0 —a putative quantum spin liquid phase. Here, we examine the nature of this model using large-S expansion. We show that the ground state properties generally have the same trends with those observed in QMC simulations. In particular, the large-S ground state phase diagram captures the existence of the disordered lobes.

  8. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  9. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  10. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  11. Rate of thermal transitions in kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liashko, S. Y.; Uzdin, V. M.; Jónsson, H.

    2016-08-01

    The rate of thermal transitions in a kagome spin ice element is calculated using harmonic transition state theory for magnetic systems. Each element consists of six prolate magnetic islands. Minimum energy paths on the multidimensional energy surface are found to estimate activation energy. Vibrational frequencies are also calculated to estimate the rate of the various transitions. An overall transition rate between equivalent ground states is calculated by using the stationary state approximation including all possible transition paths. The resulting transition rate is in a good agreement with experimentally measured lifetime.

  12. Magnetostatic bias in Kagome artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, I., E-mail: ipanagio@cc.uoi.gr

    2016-04-01

    The magnetostatic bias in elongated nanomagnetic elements arranged in artificial Kagome spin ice arrays is studied by micromagnetic simulations. Using the Nmag package the reversal of a given element has been simulated under the influence of its four nearest neighbors with their magnetic states fixed in all possible configurations, which amount to 2{sup 4}=16 states that can be classified under five distinct cases. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself. This presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation based on the assumption that the loop is shifted by a biasing field (equal to the local dipole field) but the loop width (and shape in general) does not change. Although coercive and biasing fields depend strongly on the dimensions their relative strength has only weak thickness dependence for a fixed length to width aspect ratio. Therefore the behavior of such arrays is expected to be to a large degree size invariant apart from an appropriate maximum external applied field scaling.

  13. Magnetization dynamics of topological defects and the spin solid in a kagome artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V. S.; Heimbach, F.; Stasinopoulos, I.; Grundler, D.

    2016-04-01

    We report broadband spin-wave spectroscopy on kagome artificial spin ice (ASI) made of large arrays of interconnected Ni80Fe20 nanobars. Spectra taken in saturated and disordered states exhibit a series of resonances with characteristic magnetic field dependencies. Making use of micromagnetic simulations, we identify resonances that reflect the spin-solid-state and monopole-antimonopole pairs on Dirac strings. The latter resonances allow for the generation of highly charged vertices in ASIs via microwave-assisted switching. Our findings open further perspectives for fundamental studies on ASIs and their usage in reprogrammable magnonics.

  14. Order and thermalized dynamics in Heisenberg-like square and Kagomé spin ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysin, G M; Pereira, A R; Moura-Melo, W A; de Araujo, C I L

    2015-02-25

    Thermodynamic properties of a spin ice model on a Kagomé lattice are obtained from dynamic simulations and compared with properties in square lattice spin ice. The model assumes three-component Heisenberg-like dipoles of an array of planar magnetic islands situated on a Kagomé lattice. Ising variables are avoided. The island dipoles interact via long-range dipolar interactions and are restricted in their motion due to local shape anisotropies. We define various order parameters and obtain them and thermodynamic properties from the dynamics of the system via a Langevin equation, solved by the Heun algorithm. Generally, a slow cooling from high to low temperature does not lead to a particular state of order, even for a set of coupling parameters that gives well thermalized states and dynamics. At very low temperature, however, square ice is more likely to reach states near the ground state than Kagomé ice, for the same island coupling parameters.

  15. Systematic Angular Study of Magnetoresistance in Permalloy Connected Kagome Artificial Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsik; Le, Brian; Watts, Justin; Leighton, Chris; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    Artificial spin ices are nanostructured two-dimensional arrays of ferromagnetic elements, where frustrated interactions lead to unusual collective magnetic behavior. Here we report a room-temperature magnetoresistance study of connected permalloy (Ni81Fe19) kagome artificial spin ice networks, wherein the direction of the applied in-plane magnetic field is systematically varied. We measure both the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance in these structures, and we find certain transport geometries of the network show strong angular sensitivity - even small variations in the applied field angle lead to dramatic changes of the magnetoresistance response. We also investigate the magnetization reversal of the networks using magnetic force microscopy (MFM), demonstrating avalanche behavior in the magnetization reversal. The magnetoresistance features are analyzed using an anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) model. Supported by the US Department of Energy. Work at the University of Minnesota was supported by Seagate Technology, NSF MRSEC, and a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme.

  16. Athermal exploration of Kagome artificial spin ice states by rotating field protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, I., E-mail: ipanagio@cc.uoi.gr

    2015-06-15

    Artificial Kagome spin ice arrays consisting of nanomagnets are model systems for the study of geometrical frustration, for which field demagnetization methods are insufficient to drive them in their ground states. Here the efficiency of different demagnetization protocols (involving rotation) is studied by micromagnetic simulations. The hysteresis loop of each element is greatly influenced by the magnetic state of the nearest neighbors, not only by the expected shift due to dipolar interaction bias, but as it regards the loop shape and width itself, which presents a correction to the usual macrospin calculation assumptions. It is shown that rotation in angular steps a little less than 180° is the most effective process in accessing the largest possible number states before ending up near the ground state even in the absence of any disorder which is shown to represent the most unfavorable case. - Highlights: • Optimized athermal demagnetization process for a two-dimensional artificial kagome spin ice. • States with flux closure in small groups of elements difficult to obtain athermally in systems with N·30. • The dipolar interaction field not only biases but also changes the loop width. • Interactions lead to array size dependent remanence enhancement.

  17. Low temperature and high field regimes of connected kagome artificial spin ice: the role of domain wall topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Lovell, Edmund; Cohen, Lesley F.; Branford, Will R.

    2016-07-01

    Artificial spin ices are frustrated magnetic nanostructures where single domain nanobars act as macrosized spins. In connected kagome artificial spin ice arrays, reversal occurs along one-dimensional chains by propagation of ferromagnetic domain walls through Y-shaped vertices. Both the vertices and the walls are complex chiral objects with well-defined topological edge-charges. At room temperature, it is established that the topological edge-charges determine the exact switching reversal path taken. However, magnetic reversal at low temperatures has received much less attention and how these chiral objects interact at reduced temperature is unknown. In this study we use magnetic force microscopy to image the magnetic reversal process at low temperatures revealing the formation of quite remarkable high energy remanence states and a change in the dynamics of the reversal process. The implication is the breakdown of the artificial spin ice regime in these connected structures at low temperatures.

  18. Artificial kagome spin ice: dimensional reduction, avalanche control and emergent magnetic monopoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügli, R V; Duff, G; O'Conchuir, B; Mengotti, E; Rodríguez, A Fraile; Nolting, F; Heyderman, L J; Braun, H B

    2012-12-28

    Artificial spin-ice systems consisting of nanolithographic arrays of isolated nanomagnets are model systems for the study of frustration-induced phenomena. We have recently demonstrated that monopoles and Dirac strings can be directly observed via synchrotron-based photoemission electron microscopy, where the magnetic state of individual nanoislands can be imaged in real space. These experimental results of Dirac string formation are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the hysteresis of an array of dipoles situated on a kagome lattice with randomized switching fields. This formation of one-dimensional avalanches in a two-dimensional system is in sharp contrast to disordered thin films, where avalanches associated with magnetization reversal are two-dimensional. The self-organized restriction of avalanches to one dimension provides an example of dimensional reduction due to frustration. We give simple explanations for the origin of this dimensional reduction and discuss the disorder dependence of these avalanches. We conclude with the explicit demonstration of how these avalanches can be controlled via locally modified anisotropies. Such a controlled start and stop of avalanches will have potential applications in data storage and information processing.

  19. Classical topological order in kagome ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Andrew J; Melko, Roger G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Holdsworth, Peter C W [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2011-04-27

    We examine the onset of classical topological order in a nearest neighbour kagome ice model. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we characterize the topological sectors of the ground state using a nonlocal cut measure which circumscribes the toroidal geometry of the simulation cell. We demonstrate that simulations which employ global loop updates that are allowed to wind around the periodic boundaries cause the topological sector to fluctuate, while restricted local loop updates freeze the simulation into one topological sector. The freezing into one topological sector can also be observed in the susceptibility of the real magnetic spin vectors projected onto the kagome plane. The ability of the susceptibility to distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating topological sectors should motivate its use as a local probe of topological order in a variety of related systems.

  20. Reducing disorder in artificial kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunheimer, Stephen A; Petrova, Olga; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Cumings, John

    2011-10-14

    Artificial spin ice has become a valuable tool for understanding magnetic interactions on a microscopic level. The strength in the approach lies in the ability of a synthetic array of nanoscale magnets to mimic crystalline materials, composed of atomic magnetic moments. Unfortunately, these nanoscale magnets, patterned from metal alloys, can show substantial variation in relevant quantities such as the coercive field, with deviations up to 16%. By carefully studying the reversal process of artificial kagome ice, we can directly measure the distribution of coercivities, and, by switching from disconnected islands to a connected structure, we find that the coercivity distribution can achieve a deviation of only 3.3%. These narrow deviations should allow the observation of behavior that mimics canonical spin-ice materials more closely.

  1. A spin-1 kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Mayra; Shtengel, Kirill; Refael, Gil

    2010-03-01

    We study a spin-1 antiferromagnet on the kagom'e lattice. We start by constructing a Klein-type SU(2) symmetric Hamiltonian which contains Heisenberg interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors as well as three-body terms. Our model Hamiltonian has an extensive degenerate ground state whose manifold is spanned by the AKLT-like valence bond states. We also perturb the parent Hamiltonian by introducing an enhancement to the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. By projecting this perturbation onto the basis spanned by the unperturbed ground states, we derive an effective Hamiltonian which is dual to that of the transverse field antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Based on the parameters of our model, we find it to be in the order-by-disorder phase. The ground state is a valence bond crystal stabilized by quantum fluctuations. We also discuss excitations, both magnetic and non-magnetic, and address their possible relevance to experiment.

  2. Theory of quantum kagome ice and vison zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Hermele, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We derive an effective Z2 gauge theory to describe the quantum kagome ice (QKI) state that has been observed by Carrasquilla et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421] in Monte Carlo studies of the S =1/2 kagome XYZ model in a Zeeman field. The numerical results on QKI are consistent with, but do not confirm or rule out, the hypothesis that it is a Z2 spin liquid. Our effective theory allows us to explore this hypothesis and make a striking prediction for future numerical studies, namely, that symmetry-protected vison zero modes arise at lattice disclination defects, leading to a Curie defect term in the spin susceptibility, and a characteristic (Ndis-1 )ln2 contribution to the entropy, where Ndis is the number of disclinations. Only the Z2 Ising symmetry is required to protect the vison zero modes. This is remarkable because a unitary Z2 symmetry cannot be responsible for symmetry-protected degeneracies of local degrees of freedom. We also discuss other signatures of symmetry fractionalization in the Z2 spin liquid, and phase transitions out of the Z2 spin liquid to nearby ordered phases.

  3. Fractionalized spin-wave continuum in kagome spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jia-Wei; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Motivated by spin-wave continuum (SWC) observed in recent neutron scattering experiments in Herbertsmithite, we use Gutzwiller-projected wave functions to study dynamic spin structure factor S (q , ω) of spin liquid states on the kagome lattice. Spin-1 excited states in spin liquids are represented by Gutzwiller-projected two-spinon excited wave functions. We investigate three different spin liquid candidates, spinon Fermi-surface spin liquid (FSL), Dirac spin liquid (DSL) and random-flux spin liquid (RSL). FSL and RSL have low energy peaks in S (q , ω) at K points in the extended magnetic Brillouin zone, in contrast to experiments where low energy peaks are found at M points. There is no obviuos contradiction between DSL and neutron scattering measurements. Besides a fractionalized spin (i.e. spin-1/2), spinons in DSL carry a fractionalized crystal momentum which is potentially detectable in SWC in the neutron scattering measurements.

  4. A Kagome Map of Spin Liquidsx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essafi, Karim; Benton, Owen; Jaubert, Ludovic D. C.

    Competing interactions in frustrated magnets prevent ordering down to very low temperatures and stabilize exotic highly degenerate phases where strong correlations coexist with fluctuations. We study a very general nearest-neighbour Heisenberg spin model Hamiltonian on the kagome lattice which consist of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions. We present a three-fold mapping which transforms the well-known Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) and XXZ model onto two lines of time-reversal Hamiltonians. The mapping is exact for both classical and quantum spins, i.e. preserves the energy spectrums of the HAF and XXZ model. As a consequence, our three-fold mapping gives rise to a connected network of quantum spin liquids centered around the Ising antiferromagnet. We show that this quantum disorder spreads over an extended region of the phase diagram at linear order in spin wave theory, which overlaps with the parameter region of Herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2. At the classical level, all the phases have an extensively degenerate ground-state which present a variety of properties such as ferromagnetically induced pinch points in the structure factor and spontaneous scalar chirality which was absent in the original HAF and XXZ models. This work was supported by the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University.

  5. Electron Doping a Kagome Spin Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Z. A.; Gallagher, M. J.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    Herbertsmithite, ZnCu3 (OH )6Cl2 , is a two-dimensional kagome lattice realization of a spin liquid, with evidence for fractionalized excitations and a gapped ground state. Such a quantum spin liquid has been proposed to underlie high-temperature superconductivity and is predicted to produce a wealth of new states, including a Dirac metal at 1 /3 electron doping. Here, we report the topochemical synthesis of electron-doped ZnLix Cu3 (OH )6Cl2 from x =0 to x =1.8 (3 /5 per Cu2 + ). Contrary to expectations, no metallicity or superconductivity is induced. Instead, we find a systematic suppression of magnetic behavior across the phase diagram. Our results demonstrate that significant theoretical work is needed to understand and predict the role of doping in magnetically frustrated narrow band insulators, particularly the interplay between local structural disorder and tendency toward electron localization, and pave the way for future studies of doped spin liquids.

  6. Domain-wall spin dynamics in kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotel, E; Simonet, V; Ortloff, J; Canals, B; Paulsen, C; Suard, E; Hansen, T; Price, D J; Wood, P T; Powell, A K; Ballou, R

    2011-12-16

    We report magnetization and neutron scattering measurements down to 60 mK on a new family of Fe based kagome antiferromagnets, in which a strong local spin anisotropy combined with a low exchange path network connectivity lead to domain walls intersecting the kagome planes through strings of free spins. These produce unfamiliar slow spin dynamics in the ordered phase, evolving from exchange-released spin flips towards a cooperative behavior on decreasing the temperature, probably due to the onset of long-range dipolar interaction. A domain structure of independent magnetic grains is obtained that could be generic to other frustrated magnets.

  7. Quantum spin liquid in a breathing kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert; Huh, Yejin; Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the vanadium oxyfluoride material DQVOF, we examine possible spin liquid phases on a breathing kagome lattice of S =1 /2 spins. By performing a projective symmetry group analysis, we determine the possible phases for both fermionic and bosonic Z2 spin liquids on this lattice, and establish the correspondence between the two. The nature of the ground state of the Heisenberg model on the isotropic kagome lattice is a hotly debated topic, with both Z2 and U(1) spin liquids argued to be plausible ground states. Using variational Monte Carlo techniques, we show that a gapped Z2 spin liquid emerges as the clear ground state in the presence of this breathing anisotropy. Our results suggest that the breathing anisotropy helps to stabilize this spin liquid ground state, which may aid us in understanding the results of experiments and help to direct future numerical studies on these systems.

  8. Elemental analysis and magnetism of hydronium jarosites-model kagome antiferromagnets and topological spin glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, A S; Bisson, W G, E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-27

    The jarosites are the most studied examples of kagome antiferromagnets. Research into them has inspired new directions in magnetism, such as the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in symmetry breaking, kagome spin ice, and whether spin glass-like phases can exist in the disorder-free limit. This last point is based around the observation of unconventional thermodynamic and kinetic responses in hydronium jarosite, H{sub 3}OFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, that have led to its classification as a 'topological' spin glass, reflecting the defining role that the underlying geometry of the kagome lattice plays in the formation of the spin glass state. In this paper we explore one of the fundamental questions concerning the frustrated magnetism in hydronium jarosite: whether the spin glass phase is the result of chemical disorder and concomitant randomness in the exchange interactions. Confirming previous crystallographic studies, we use elemental analysis to show that the nature of the low temperature magnetic state is not a simple function of chemical disorder and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that anisotropies drive the spin glass transition.

  9. Elemental analysis and magnetism of hydronium jarosites--model kagome antiferromagnets and topological spin glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A S; Bisson, W G

    2011-04-27

    The jarosites are the most studied examples of kagome antiferromagnets. Research into them has inspired new directions in magnetism, such as the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in symmetry breaking, kagome spin ice, and whether spin glass-like phases can exist in the disorder-free limit. This last point is based around the observation of unconventional thermodynamic and kinetic responses in hydronium jarosite, H(3)OFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6), that have led to its classification as a 'topological' spin glass, reflecting the defining role that the underlying geometry of the kagome lattice plays in the formation of the spin glass state. In this paper we explore one of the fundamental questions concerning the frustrated magnetism in hydronium jarosite: whether the spin glass phase is the result of chemical disorder and concomitant randomness in the exchange interactions. Confirming previous crystallographic studies, we use elemental analysis to show that the nature of the low temperature magnetic state is not a simple function of chemical disorder and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that anisotropies drive the spin glass transition.

  10. Gapless chiral spin liquid in a kagome Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Samuel; Messio, Laura; Bernu, Bernard; Lhuillier, Claire

    2015-08-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the Heisenberg S =1 /2 quantum spin liquid candidate material kapellasite, we classify all possible chiral (time-reversal symmetry breaking) spin liquids with fermionic spinons on the kagome lattice. We obtain the phase diagram for the physically relevant extended Heisenberg model, comparing the energies of a wide range of microscopic variational wave functions. We propose that, at low temperature, kapellasite exhibits a gapless chiral spin liquid phase with spinon Fermi surfaces. This two-dimensional state inherits many properties of the nearby one-dimensional phase of decoupled antiferromagnetic spin chains, but also shows some remarkable differences. We discuss the spin structure factors and other physical properties.

  11. Nature of chiral spin liquids on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietek, Alexander; Sterdyniak, Antoine; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the stability and the nature of the chiral spin liquids which were recently uncovered in extended Heisenberg models on the kagome lattice. Using a Gutzwiller projected wave function approach, i.e., a parton construction, we obtain large overlaps with ground states of these extended Heisenberg models. We further suggest that the appearance of the chiral spin liquid in the time-reversal invariant case is linked to a classical transition line between two magnetically ordered phases.

  12. Distinct spin liquids and their transitions in spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-23

    By using the density matrix renormalization group approach, we study spin-liquid phases of spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets. We find that the emergence of the spin-liquid phase is independent of the anisotropy of the XXZ interaction. In particular, the two extreme limits-the Ising (a strong S^{z} interaction) and the XY (zero S^{z} interaction)-host the same spin-liquid phases as the isotropic Heisenberg model. Both a time-reversal-invariant spin liquid and a chiral spin liquid with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking are obtained. We show that they evolve continuously into each other by tuning the second- and the third-neighbor interactions. And last, we discuss possible implications of our results for the nature of spin liquid in nearest-neighbor XXZ kagome antiferromagnets, including the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model.

  13. Magnetic Response of Itinerant Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Masafumi

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the magnetic response of itinerant spin ice, by applying the cluster dynamical mean field theory (CDMFT) to the Ising Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice. As a result, we found a characteristic interplay between magnetization curve and spin ice correlation developed at low temperatures. The magnetization develops a kink-like structure at the 2/3 of its saturation value, reminiscent of kagome ice plateau. Accompanied with the magnetization process, the monopole density shows nonmonotonic magnetic field dependence with a clear minimum, reflecting a subtle energetics of spin configurations. The spin ice correlation also affects the transport properties of the system, and brings about negative magnetoresistivity with its slope strongly dependent on the magnitude of spin ice correlation. We discuss these behaviors in comparison with the magnetic response observed in Pr2Ir2O7.

  14. Striped spin liquid crystal ground state instability of kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bryan K; Kinder, Jesse M; Neuscamman, Eric; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Lawler, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    The Dirac spin liquid ground state of the spin 1/2 Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet has potential instabilities. This has been suggested as the reason why it does not emerge as the ground state in large-scale numerical calculations. However, previous attempts to observe these instabilities have failed. We report on the discovery of a projected BCS state with lower energy than the projected Dirac spin liquid state which provides new insight into the stability of the ground state of the kagome antiferromagnet. The new state has three remarkable features. First, it breaks spatial symmetry in an unusual way that may leave spinons deconfined along one direction. Second, it breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry down to Z(2). Third, it has the spatial symmetry of a previously proposed "monopole" suggesting that it is an instability of the Dirac spin liquid. The state described herein also shares a remarkable similarity to the distortion of the kagome lattice observed at low Zn concentrations in Zn-paratacamite and in recently grown single crystals of volborthite suggesting it may already be realized in these materials.

  15. Thermal Hall Effect of Spin Excitations in a Kagome Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Max; Chisnell, Robin; Lee, Young S; Ong, N P

    2015-09-04

    At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect. However, in the kagome lattice, theory predicts that the Berry curvature leads to a thermal Hall conductivity κ(xy). Here we report observation of a large κ(xy) in the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed κ(xy) undergoes a remarkable sign reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. The close correlation between κ(xy) and κ(xx) firmly precludes a phonon origin for the thermal Hall effect.

  16. Exploring frustrated magnetism with artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ian; Ilic, B. Robert

    2016-10-01

    Nanomagnet arrays known as artificial spin ice provide insight into the microscopic details of frustrated magnetism because, unlike natural frustrated magnets, the individual moments can be experimentally resolved and the lattice geometry can be easily tuned. Most studies of artificial spin ice focus on two lattice geometries, the square and the kagome lattices, due to their direct correspondence to natural spin ice materials such as Dy2Ti2O7. In this work, we review experiments on these more unusual lattice geometries and introduce a new type of nanomagnet array, artificial spin glass. Artificial spin glass is a two-dimensional array of nanomagnets with random locations and orientations and is designed to elucidate the more complex frustration found in spin glass materials.

  17. Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takashi; Han, Tian-Heng; Lee, Young S

    2015-11-06

    The kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χ(kagome), deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with the magnetic field dependence of χ(kagome) that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap.

  18. Kapellasite: a kagome quantum spin liquid with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fåk, B; Kermarrec, E; Messio, L; Bernu, B; Lhuillier, C; Bert, F; Mendels, P; Koteswararao, B; Bouquet, F; Ollivier, J; Hillier, A D; Amato, A; Colman, R H; Wills, A S

    2012-07-20

    Magnetic susceptibility, NMR, muon spin relaxation, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements show that kapellasite, Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2, a geometrically frustrated spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnet polymorphic with herbertsmithite, is a gapless spin liquid showing unusual dynamic short-range correlations of noncoplanar cuboc2 type which persist down to 20 mK. The Hamiltonian is determined from a fit of a high-temperature series expansion to bulk susceptibility data and possesses competing exchange interactions. The magnetic specific heat calculated from these exchange couplings is in good agreement with experiment. The temperature dependence of the magnetic structure factor and the muon relaxation rate are calculated in a Schwinger-boson approach and compared to experimental results.

  19. Barlowite: A Spin-1/2 Antiferromagnet with a Geometrically Perfect Kagome Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian-Heng; Singleton, John; Schlueter, John A

    2014-11-28

    We present thermodynamic studies of a new spin-1/2 antiferromagnet containing undistorted kagome lattices-barlowite Cu_{4}(OH)_{6}FBr. Magnetic susceptibility gives θ_{CW}=-136  K, while long-range order does not happen until T_{N}=15  K with a weak ferromagnetic moment μkagome lattice makes charge doping promising.

  20. Chiral spin liquid in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Sheng, D N; Chen, Yan

    2014-04-04

    Kalmeyer-Laughlin (KL) chiral spin liquid (CSL) is a type of quantum spin liquid without time-reversal symmetry, and it is considered as the parent state of an exotic type of superconductor--anyon superconductor. Such an exotic state has been sought for more than twenty years; however, it remains unclear whether it can exist in a realistic system where time-reversal symmetry is breaking (T breaking) spontaneously. By using the density matrix renormalization group, we show that KL CSL exists in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model, which has spontaneous T breaking. We find that our model has two topological degenerate ground states, which exhibit nonvanishing scalar chirality order and are protected by finite excitation gap. Furthermore, we identify this state as KL CSL by the characteristic edge conformal field theory from the entanglement spectrum and the quasiparticles braiding statistics extracted from the modular matrix. We also study how this CSL phase evolves as the system approaches the nearest-neighbor kagome Heisenberg model.

  1. An intermediate state between the kagome-ice and the fully polarized state in Dy2Ti2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Grigera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dy2Ti2O7 is at present the cleanest example of a spin-ice material. Previous theoretical and experimental work on the first-order transition between the kagome-ice and the fully polarized state has been taken as a validation for the dipolar spin-ice model. Here we investigate in further depth this phase transition using ac-susceptibility and dc-magnetization, and compare this results with Monte-Carlo simulations and previous magnetization and specific heat measurements. We find signatures of an intermediate state between the kagome-ice and full polarization. This signatures are absent in current theoretical models used to describe spin-ice materials. Received: 17 May 2015, Accepted: 12 June 2015; Edited by: A. Vindigni; Reviewed by: M. Perfetti, Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá di Firenze, Italy; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070009 Cite as: S A Grigera, R A Borzi, D G Slobinsky, A S Gibbs, R Higashinaka, Y Maeno, T S Grigera, Papers in Physics 7, 070009 (2015

  2. Possible SU(3) chiral spin liquid on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Hai; Tu, Hong-Hao

    2016-11-01

    We propose an SU(3) symmetric Hamiltonian with short-range interactions on the kagome lattice and show that it hosts an Abelian chiral spin liquid (CSL) state. We provide numerical evidence based on exact diagonalization to show that this CSL state is stabilized in an extended region of the parameter space and can be viewed as a lattice version of the Halperin 221 fractional quantum Hall state of two-component bosons. We also construct a parton wave function for this CSL state and demonstrate that its variational energies are in good agreement with exact diagonalization results. The parton description further supports that the CSL is characterized by a chiral edge conformal field theory of the SU (3) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten type.

  3. Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson, E-mail: cjrx@lanl.gov; Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Libál, Andras [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babes-Bolyai University, RO-400591 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-05-07

    We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.

  4. A kagome map of spin liquids from XXZ to Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essafi, Karim; Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L.D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its deceptive simplicity, few concepts have more fundamental implications than chirality, from the therapeutic activity of drugs to the fundamental forces of nature. In magnetic materials, chirality gives rise to unconventional phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect and multiferroicity, taking an enhanced flavour in the so-called spin-liquid phases where magnetic disorder prevails. Kagome systems sit at the crossroad of these ideas. Motivated by the recent synthesis of rare-earth kagome materials and the progresses in optical-lattice experiments, we bring together an entire network of spin liquids with anisotropic and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. This network revolves around the Ising antiferromagnet and ends on (ferromagnetic) chiral spin liquids with spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry. As for the celebrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet, it now belongs to a triad of equivalently disordered phases. The present work provides a unifying theory of kagome spin liquids with time-reversal invariant nearest-neighbour Hamiltonians. PMID:26796866

  5. A kagome map of spin liquids from XXZ to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essafi, Karim; Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L D C

    2016-01-22

    Despite its deceptive simplicity, few concepts have more fundamental implications than chirality, from the therapeutic activity of drugs to the fundamental forces of nature. In magnetic materials, chirality gives rise to unconventional phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect and multiferroicity, taking an enhanced flavour in the so-called spin-liquid phases where magnetic disorder prevails. Kagome systems sit at the crossroad of these ideas. Motivated by the recent synthesis of rare-earth kagome materials and the progresses in optical-lattice experiments, we bring together an entire network of spin liquids with anisotropic and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. This network revolves around the Ising antiferromagnet and ends on (ferromagnetic) chiral spin liquids with spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry. As for the celebrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet, it now belongs to a triad of equivalently disordered phases. The present work provides a unifying theory of kagome spin liquids with time-reversal invariant nearest-neighbour Hamiltonians.

  6. A kagome map of spin liquids from XXZ to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essafi, Karim; Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its deceptive simplicity, few concepts have more fundamental implications than chirality, from the therapeutic activity of drugs to the fundamental forces of nature. In magnetic materials, chirality gives rise to unconventional phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect and multiferroicity, taking an enhanced flavour in the so-called spin-liquid phases where magnetic disorder prevails. Kagome systems sit at the crossroad of these ideas. Motivated by the recent synthesis of rare-earth kagome materials and the progresses in optical-lattice experiments, we bring together an entire network of spin liquids with anisotropic and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. This network revolves around the Ising antiferromagnet and ends on (ferromagnetic) chiral spin liquids with spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry. As for the celebrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet, it now belongs to a triad of equivalently disordered phases. The present work provides a unifying theory of kagome spin liquids with time-reversal invariant nearest-neighbour Hamiltonians.

  7. Spin structure factors of chiral quantum spin liquids on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Punk, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We calculate dynamical spin structure factors for gapped chiral spin liquid states in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice using Schwinger-boson mean-field theory. In contrast to static (equal-time) structure factors, the dynamical structure factor shows clear signatures of time-reversal symmetry breaking for chiral spin liquid states. In particular, momentum inversion k →-k symmetry as well as the sixfold rotation symmetry around the Γ point are lost. We highlight other interesting features, such as a relatively flat onset of the two-spinon continuum for the cuboc1 state. Our work is based on the projective symmetry group classification of time-reversal symmetry breaking Schwinger-boson mean-field states by Messio, Lhuillier, and Misguich.

  8. Quantum spin Hall effect and spin-charge separation in a kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhigang; Zhang Ping, E-mail: zhang_ping@iapcm.ac.c [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A two-dimensional kagome lattice is theoretically investigated within a simple tight-binding model, which includes the nearest-neighbor hopping term and the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction between the next nearest neighbors. By using the topological winding properties of the spin-edge states on the complex-energy Riemann surface, the spin Hall conductance is obtained to be quantized as -e/2{pi} (e/2{pi}) in insulating phases. This result is consistent with the numerical linear-response calculation and the Z{sub 2} topological invariance analysis. When the sample boundaries are connected in twist, by which two defects with {pi} flux are introduced, we obtain the spin-charge separated solitons at 1/3 (or 2/3) filling.

  9. Correlated impurities and intrinsic spin-liquid physics in the kagome material herbertsmithite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian-Heng; Norman, M. R.; Wen, J.-J.; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Helton, Joel S.; Broholm, Collin; Lee, Young S.

    2016-08-01

    Low energy inelastic neutron scattering on single crystals of the kagome spin-liquid compound ZnCu3(OD) 6Cl2 (herbertsmithite) reveals antiferromagnetic correlations between impurity spins for energy transfers ℏ ω kagome spins. The low energy fluctuations are characterized by diffuse scattering near wave vectors (100) and (00 3/2 ), which is consistent with antiferromagnetic correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor Cu impurities on adjacent triangular (Zn) interlayers. The corresponding impurity lattice resembles a simple cubic lattice in the dilute limit below the percolation threshold. Such an impurity model can describe prior neutron, NMR, and specific heat data. The low energy neutron data are consistent with the presence of a small spin gap (Δ ˜0.7 meV ) in the kagome layers, similar to that recently observed by NMR. The ability to distinguish the scattering due to Cu impurities from that of the planar kagome Cu spins provides an important avenue for probing intrinsic spin-liquid physics.

  10. Holon Wigner Crystal in a Lightly Doped Kagome Quantum Spin Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Chen; Devereaux, T.; Kivelson, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    We address the problem of a lightly doped spin liquid through a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group study of the t -J model on a kagome lattice with a small but nonzero concentration δ of doped holes. It is now widely accepted that the undoped (δ =0 ) spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state. Theoretical arguments have been presented that light doping of such a spin liquid could give rise to a high temperature superconductor or an exotic topological Fermi liquid metal. Instead, we infer that the doped holes form an insulating charge-density wave state with one doped hole per unit cell, i.e., a Wigner crystal. Spin correlations remain short ranged, as in the spin-liquid parent state, from which we infer that the state is a crystal of spinless holons, rather than of holes. Our results may be relevant to kagome lattice herbertsmithite upon doping.

  11. Spin-S kagome quantum antiferromagnets in a field with tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Thibaut; Ziegler, Marc; Orús, Román; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-02-01

    Spin-S Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnets on the kagome lattice offer, when placed in a magnetic field, a fantastic playground to observe exotic phases of matter with (magnetic analogs of) superfluid, charge, bond, or nematic orders, or a coexistence of several of the latter. In this context, we have obtained the (zero-temperature) phase diagrams up to S =2 directly in the thermodynamic limit owing to infinite projected entangled pair states, a tensor network numerical tool. We find incompressible phases characterized by a magnetization plateau versus field and stabilized by spontaneous breaking of point group or lattice translation symmetry(ies). The nature of such phases may be semiclassical, as the plateaus at the 1/3th ,(1-2/9S)th, and (1-1/9S)th of the saturated magnetization (the latter followed by a macroscopic magnetization jump), or fully quantum as the spin-1/2 1/9 plateau exhibiting a coexistence of charge and bond orders. Upon restoration of the spin rotation U (1 ) symmetry, a finite compressibility appears, although lattice symmetry breaking persists. For integer spin values we also identify spin gapped phases at low enough fields, such as the S =2 (topologically trivial) spin liquid with no symmetry breaking, neither spin nor lattice.

  12. Spin-liquid phase in a spin-1/2 quantum magnet on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Sergei; Kim, Yong Baek; Paramekanti, Arun

    2007-03-01

    We study a model of hard-core bosons with short-range repulsive interactions at half filling on the kagome lattice. This model is equivalent to an easy-axis spin-1/2 quantum model with no special conservation laws. Using quantum Monte Carlo numerics, we find that this model exhibits a continuous superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition, with exponents z=1 and ν=0.67(5). We show unambiguously that the insulator is a Z2 fractionalized spin liquid phase with short-ranged density and bond correlations, topological order, and exponentially decaying spatial vison correlations. In addition, we map out the finite temperature phase diagram. A Kosterlitz-Thouless finite temperature superfluid-insulator transition becomes strongly first order as the strength of the repulsive interactions increases. This is consistent with the zero temperature transition to the fractionalized phase.

  13. Chern-Simons theory for Heisenberg spins on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Sun, Kai; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    We study the problem of Heisenberg spins on the frustrated Kagome lattice using a 2D Jordan-Wigner transformation that maps the spins (hard-core bosons) onto a system of (interacting) fermions coupled to a Chern-Simons gauge field. This mapping requires us to define a discretized version of the Chern-Simons term on the lattice. Using a recently developed result on how to define Chern-Simons theories on a class of planar lattices, we can consistently study spin models beyond the mean-field level and include the effects of fluctuations, which are generally strong in frustrated systems. Here, we apply these results to study magnetization plateau type states on the Kagome lattice in the regime of XY anisotropy. We find that the 1/3 and 2/3 magnetization plateaus are chiral spin liquid states equivalent to a primary Laughlin fractional quantum Hall state of bosons with (spin) Hall conductivity 1/2 1/4 π and semionic excitations. The 5/9 plateau is a chiral spin liquid equivalent to the first Jain descendant. We also consider the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice with a chirality-breaking term on the triangular plaquettes. This situation also leads to a primary Laughlin bosonic fractional quantum Hall type state with filling fraction 1 / 2 .

  14. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  15. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  16. Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Spatially Anisotropic Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Andreas; Starykh, Oleg; Balents, Leon

    2008-03-01

    We study the quasi-one-dimensional limit of the Spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice, a model Hamiltonian that might be of relevance for the mineral volborthite [1,2]. The lattice is divided into antiferromagnetic spin-chains (exchange J) that are weakly coupled via intermediate ``dangling'' spins (exchange J'). Using bosonization, renormalization group methods, and current algebra techniques we determine the ground state as a function of J'/J. The case of a strictly one-dimensional Kagome strip is also discussed. [1] Z. Hiroi, M. Hanawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Nohara, Hidenori Takagi, Y. Kato, and M. Takigawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70, 3377 (2001). [2] F. Bert, D. Bono, P. Mendels, F. Ladieu, F. Duc, J.-C. Trumbe, and P. Millet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 087203 (2005).

  17. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665

  18. Spin-ordered ground state and thermodynamic behaviors of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Wei; Su, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Three different tensor network (TN) optimization algorithms are employed to accurately determine the ground state and thermodynamic properties of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We found that the √{3 }×√{3 } state (i.e., the state with 120° spin configuration within a unit cell containing 9 sites) is the ground state of this system, and such an ordered state is melted at any finite temperature, thereby clarifying the existing experimental controversies. Three magnetization plateaus (m /ms=1 /3 ,23 /27 , and 25/27) were obtained, where the 1/3-magnetization plateau has been observed experimentally. The absence of a zero-magnetization plateau indicates a gapless spin excitation that is further supported by the thermodynamic asymptotic behaviors of the susceptibility and specific heat. At low temperatures, the specific heat is shown to exhibit a T2 behavior, and the susceptibility approaches a finite constant as T →0 . Our TN results of thermodynamic properties are compared with those from high-temperature series expansion. In addition, we disclose a quantum phase transition between q =0 state (i.e., the state with 120° spin configuration within a unit cell containing three sites) and √{3 }×√{3 } state in a spin-3/2 kagome XXZ model at the critical point Δc=0.54 . This study provides reliable and useful information for further explorations on high-spin kagome physics.

  19. Modified kagome physics in the natural spin-1/2 kagome lattice systems - kapellasite Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2 and haydeeite Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, O.; Richter, J.; Rosner, H

    2008-01-01

    The recently discovered natural minerals Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2 and Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2 are spin 1/2 systems with an ideal kagome geometry. Based on electronic structure calculations, we develop a realistic model which includes couplings across the kagome hexagons beyond the original kagome model that are intrinsic in real kagome materials. Exact diagonalization studies for the derived model reveal a strong impact of these couplings on the magnetic ground state. Our predictions could be compared to and supp...

  20. Modified kagome physics in the natural spin-1/2 kagome lattice systems: kapellasite Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2 and haydeeite Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, O; Richter, J; Rosner, H

    2008-09-05

    The recently discovered natural minerals Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2 and Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2 are spin 1/2 systems with an ideal kagome geometry. Based on electronic structure calculations, we develop a realistic model which includes couplings across the kagome hexagons beyond the original kagome model that are intrinsic in real kagome materials. Exact diagonalization studies for the derived model reveal a strong impact of these couplings on the magnetic ground state. Our predictions could be compared to and supplied with neutron scattering, thermodynamic data, and NMR data.

  1. Spin clusters and low-energy excitations in rare earth kagome systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M. J. R.

    2017-01-01

    The rare earth kagome systems R3Ga5SiO14 (R = Nd or Pr), which are weakly frustrated antiferromagnets, do not exhibit long-range order at temperatures down to 40 mK as revealed by neutron scattering. The neutron experiments provide evidence for the emergence at low temperatures of correlated spins in nanoscale cluster regions with magnetic field-dependent correlation lengths. A variety of techniques have been used to determine the magnetic and thermal properties of these systems. In particular, high-field electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin resonance (μSR) experiments have established that dynamic correlation of spins remains significant at temperatures well above 1 K. ESR provides evidence for spin wave excitations in spin clusters and the spectra have been interpreted using a Heisenberg model approach. While Nd3+ (J = 9/2) is a Kramers ion Pr3+ (J = 4) is not. This difference leads to contrasts in the magnetic properties of the two systems. This review surveys the information that has been obtained on the properties of these kagome materials over the past decade.

  2. Chiral spin liquid in the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Shoushu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, Dongning; Donna Sheng Team

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. In particular, when both second- and third-neighbor super-exchanges are considered, we find that a gapped spin liquid described by non-trivial magnetic fluxes and long-range chiral-chiral correlations is energetically favored compared to the gapless U(1) Dirac state. Furthermore, the topological Chern number, obtained by integrating the Berry curvature, and the degeneracy of the ground state, by constructing linearly independent states, lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with C = 1 / 2 fractionalized Chern number.

  3. Chiral Spin Liquid on a Kagome Antiferromagnet Induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messio, Laura; Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Bernu, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The quantum spin liquid material herbertsmithite is described by an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with a non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). A well-established phase transition to the q =0 long-range order occurs in this model when the DMI strength increases, but the precise nature of a small-DMI phase remains controversial. Here, we describe a new phase obtained from Schwinger-boson mean-field theory that is stable at small DMI, and which can explain the dispersionless spectrum seen in the inelastic neutron scattering experiment by Han et al. [Nature (London) 492, 406 (2012), 10.1038/nature11659]. It is a time-reversal symmetry breaking Z2 spin liquid, with the unique property of a small and constant spin gap in an extended region of the Brillouin zone. The phase diagram as a function of DMI and spin size is given, and dynamical spin structure factors are presented.

  4. Refining the spin Hamiltonian in the spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 using single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianheng; Chu, Shaoyan; Lee, Young S

    2012-04-13

    We report thermodynamic measurements of the S=1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, a promising candidate system with a spin-liquid ground state. Using single crystal samples, the magnetic susceptibility both perpendicular and parallel to the kagome plane has been measured. A small, temperature-dependent anisotropy has been observed, where χ(z)/χ(p)>1 at high temperatures and χ(z)/χ(p)kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet model to the experiments on ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2.

  5. Half-metallicity of a kagome spin lattice: the case of a manganese bis-dithiolene monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingwen; Wang, Aizhu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2013-11-07

    The spin ordering in kagome lattices has long been studied in the search for real materials with a spin-liquid ground state. The synthesis of a nickel bis-dichiolene complex (Ni3C12S12) nanosheet (T. Kambe et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 2462) paved a way for realizing real two-dimensional kagome lattices. Using first-principles calculations, we predicted that a ferromagnetic kagome spin lattice with S = 3/2 on lattice vertices can be achieved in an Mn3C12S12 monolayer formed by substituting Ni with Mn atoms in nonmagnetic Ni3C12S12. Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of the Ising model suggest that it has a Curie temperature of about 212 K. A ferromagnetic Mn3C12S12 monolayer is half metallic with high carrier mobility in one spin channel and a band gap of 1.54 eV in another spin channel, which is quite promising for spintronic device applications. Additionally, a small band gap opens up at the Dirac point of the kagome bands due to the spin-orbital coupling effects, which may be implementable for achieving a quantum anomalous Hall effect.

  6. The spin dynamics in distorted kagome lattices: a comparative Raman study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulferding, D; Lemmens, P; Yoshida, H; Okamoto, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2012-05-01

    Despite the conceptional importance of realizing spin liquids in solid states only few compounds are known. On the other hand the effect of lattice distortions and anisotropies on the magnetic exchange topology and the fluctuation spectrum is an interesting problem. We compare the excitation spectra of the two s = 1/2 kagome lattice compounds, volborthite and vesignieite, using Raman scattering. We demonstrate that even small modifications of the crystal structure may have a huge effect on the phonon spectrum and low-temperature properties.

  7. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U(1) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R

    2015-12-31

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U(1) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U(1) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  8. Spin-fluctuation-mediated pairing symmetry on the metallic kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Jing; Yu Shunli; Li Jianxin [Department of Physics and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yao Zijian [Department of Physics and Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-04

    We study the magnetic properties and the superconducting pairing mediated by spin fluctuations on the metallic kagome lattice by using the Hubbard model and the fluctuation exchange approximation. It is found that the spin susceptibility is caused by the nesting of the renormalized Fermi surface. We point out that superconductivity will be favored in the spin-singlet channel and may be more easily realized around 25% hole doping. We find an evolution of the pairing state from a d-wave-like symmetry, described by the E{sub 2g} representation of the group D{sub 6h} at low dopings, to that described by the A{sub 2g} representation at heavy hole dopings.

  9. Chiral spin liquid and emergent anyons in a Kagome lattice Mott insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B; Cincio, L; Keller, B P; Dolfi, M; Vidal, G; Trebst, S; Ludwig, A W W

    2014-10-10

    Topological phases in frustrated quantum spin systems have fascinated researchers for decades. One of the earliest proposals for such a phase was the chiral spin liquid, a bosonic analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect, put forward by Kalmeyer and Laughlin in 1987. Elusive for many years, recent times have finally seen this phase realized in various models, which, however, remain somewhat artificial. Here we take an important step towards the goal of finding a chiral spin liquid in nature by examining a physically motivated model for a Mott insulator on the Kagome lattice with broken time-reversal symmetry. We discuss the emergent phase from a network model perspective and present an unambiguous numerical identification and characterization of its universal topological properties, including ground-state degeneracy, edge physics and anyonic bulk excitations, by using a variety of powerful numerical probes, including the entanglement spectrum and modular transformations.

  10. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U (1 ) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R.

    2015-12-01

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U (1 ) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U (1 ) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  11. Spin dynamics in the kagome compound YBaCo{sub 3}AlO{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iakovleva, M.; Vavilova, E. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan (Russian Federation); Grafe, H.J.; Kataev, V.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Valldor, M. [MPI CPfS, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    YBaCo{sub 3}AlO{sub 7} is a transition metal oxide compound with a magnetic kagome substructure where unconventional ground states such as a spin liquid can be expected. We have investigated the ground state and low energy spin dynamics of this material by {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The characteristic features of the spectral shape and of the relaxation rate temperature dependences show that short-range quasi static correlations occur in the system but not a long-range antiferromagnetic order. We compare our NMR results with AC and DC susceptibility measurements and discuss a possible realization of a spin glass state due to intrinsic structural disorder in this material.

  12. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2009-03-01

    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  13. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  14. Emergent chiral spin liquid: fractional quantum Hall effect in a kagome Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Sheng, D N

    2014-09-10

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) realized in two-dimensional electron systems under a magnetic field is one of the most remarkable discoveries in condensed matter physics. Interestingly, it has been proposed that FQHE can also emerge in time-reversal invariant spin systems, known as the chiral spin liquid (CSL) characterized by the topological order and the emerging of the fractionalized quasiparticles. A CSL can naturally lead to the exotic superconductivity originating from the condense of anyonic quasiparticles. Although CSL was highly sought after for more than twenty years, it had never been found in a spin isotropic Heisenberg model or related materials. By developing a density-matrix renormalization group based method for adiabatically inserting flux, we discover a FQHE in a spin-½ isotropic kagome Heisenberg model. We identify this FQHE state as the long-sought CSL with a uniform chiral order spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry, which is uniquely characterized by the half-integer quantized topological Chern number protected by a robust excitation gap. The CSL is found to be at the neighbor of the previously identified Z2 spin liquid, which may lead to an exotic quantum phase transition between two gapped topological spin liquids.

  15. Spin-1/2 Heisenberg J1-J2 antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Poilblanc, Didier; Becca, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We report variational Monte Carlo calculations for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice in the presence of both nearest-neighbor J1 and next-nearest-neighbor J2 antiferromagnetic superexchange couplings. Our approach is based upon Gutzwiller projected fermionic states that represent a flexible tool to describe quantum spin liquids with different properties (e.g., gapless and gapped). We show that, on finite clusters, a gapped Z2 spin liquid can be stabilized in the presence of a finite J2 superexchange, with a substantial energy gain with respect to the gapless U (1 ) Dirac spin liquid. However, this energy gain vanishes in the thermodynamic limit, implying that, at least within this approach, the U (1 ) Dirac spin liquid remains stable in a relatively large region of the phase diagram. For J2/J1≳0.3 , we find that a magnetically ordered state with q =0 overcomes the magnetically disordered wave functions, suggesting the end of the putative gapless spin-liquid phase.

  16. Chirality and Z2 vortices in a Heisenberg spin model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenge, J.-C.; Lhuillier, C.; Messio, L.; Pierre, L.; Viot, P.

    2008-05-01

    The phase diagram of the classical J1-J2 model on the kagome lattice is investigated by using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. In a realistic range of parameters, this model has a low-temperature chiral-ordered phase without long-range spin order. We show that the critical transition marking the destruction of the chiral order is preempted by the first-order proliferation of Z2 point defects. The core energy of these vortices appears to vanish when approaching the T=0 phase boundary, where both Z2 defects and gapless magnons contribute to disordering the system at very low temperatures. This situation might be typical of a large class of frustrated magnets. Possible relevance for real materials is also discussed.

  17. Emergence of nontrivial magnetic excitations in a spin-liquid state of kagomé volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Sugii, Kaori; Shimozawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Yajima, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Hiroi, Zenji; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    When quantum fluctuations destroy underlying long-range ordered states, novel quantum states emerge. Spin-liquid (SL) states of frustrated quantum antiferromagnets, in which highly correlated spins fluctuate down to very low temperatures, are prominent examples of such quantum states. SL states often exhibit exotic physical properties, but the precise nature of the elementary excitations behind such phenomena remains entirely elusive. Here, we use thermal Hall measurements that can capture the unexplored property of the elementary excitations in SL states, and report the observation of anomalous excitations that may unveil the unique features of the SL state. Our principal finding is a negative thermal Hall conductivity κxyκxy which the charge-neutral spin excitations in a gapless SL state of the 2D kagomé insulator volborthite Cu3V2O7(OH)2ṡṡ2H2O exhibit, in much the same way in which charged electrons show the conventional electric Hall effect. We find that κxyκxy is absent in the high-temperature paramagnetic state and develops upon entering the SL state in accordance with the growth of the short-range spin correlations, demonstrating that κxyκxy is a key signature of the elementary excitation formed in the SL state. These results suggest the emergence of nontrivial elementary excitations in the gapless SL state which feel the presence of fictitious magnetic flux, whose effective Lorentz force is found to be less than 1/100 of the force experienced by free electrons.

  18. Non-collinearity and spin frustration in the itinerant kagome ferromagnet Fe(3)Sn(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, L A; Dee, A A; Wills, A S

    2009-11-11

    Frustrated itinerant ferromagnets, with non-collinear static spin structures, are an exciting class of material as their spin chirality can introduce a Berry phase in the electronic scattering and lead to exotic electronic phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). This study presents a reexamination of the magnetic properties of Fe(3)Sn(2), a metallic ferromagnet, based on the two-dimensional kagome bilayer structure. Previously thought of as a conventional ferromagnet, we show using a combination of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) measurements, symmetry analysis and powder neutron diffraction that Fe(3)Sn(2) is a frustrated ferromagnet with a temperature-dependent non-collinear spin structure. The complexity of the magnetic interactions is further evidenced by a re-entrant spin glass transition ([Formula: see text] K) at temperatures far below the main ferromagnetic transition (T(C) = 640 K). Fe(3)Sn(2) therefore provides a rare example of a frustrated itinerant ferromagnet. Further, as well as being of great fundamental interest our studies highlight the potential of Fe(3)Sn(2) for practical application in spintronics technology, as the AHE arising from the ferromagnetism in this material is expected to be enhanced by the coupling between the conduction electrons and the non-trivial magnetic structure over an exceptionally wide temperature range.

  19. Spin dynamics of S = 1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets observed by high-field ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Wei-min [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, Susumu; Fujisawa, Masashi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Takahiro [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hiroi, Zenji [Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Due to the existence of strong spin frustration in a system, the spin dynamics of S = 1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet at low temperature has attracted much interest. High-field ESR has been measured on its model substances, Cu{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O (volborthite) and BaCu{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 2} (vesignieite), down to 1.8 K using pulsed magnetic fields up to 16 T. The measurements are performed for 160 and 315 GHz using polycrys-talline samples. Although both samples showed the g-shift and the change of linewidth at low temperature, volborthite showed a small gap excitation of the order of 40 GHz (1.9 K) while vesignieite showed a paramagnetic behavior down to 1.9 K. Observed difference will be discussed in connection with the crystal structure, and the possible spin liquid state in vesignieite will be discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Low-energy spin dynamics of the s = 1/2 kagome system herbertsmithite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, G J; de Vries, M A; Stewart, J R; Harrison, A; Rønnow, H M

    2013-03-13

    The low-energy (ε = ħω kagome candidate herbertsmithite are probed in the presence of magnetic fields up to 2.5 T. The zero-field spectra reveal a very weak continuum of scattering at T = 10 K and a broad inelastic peak centred at ε(max) = 0.2 meV at lower temperatures, T kagome planes and moments in the kagome layers.

  1. Angular-dependent magnetization reversal processes in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Chadha, M.; Branford, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in interconnected kagome artificial spin ice structures has been studied through experimental MOKE measurements and micromagnetic simulations. This reversal is mediated by the propagation of magnetic domain walls along the interconnecting bars, which either nucleate at the vertex or arrive following an interaction in a neighboring vertex. The physical differences in these processes show a distinct angular dependence allowing the different contributions to be identified. The configuration of the initial magnetization state, either locally or on a full sublattice of the system, controls the reversal characteristics of the array within a certain field window. This shows how the available magnetization reversal routes can be manipulated and the system can be trained.

  2. Functional renormalization group analysis of Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya and Heisenberg spin interactions on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Max; Reuther, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effects of Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interactions on the frustrated J1-J2 kagome-Heisenberg model using the pseudofermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG) technique. In order to treat the off-diagonal nature of DM interactions, we develop an extended PFFRG scheme. We benchmark this approach in parameter regimes that have previously been studied with other methods and find good agreement of the magnetic phase diagram. Particularly, finite DM interactions are found to stabilize all types of noncollinear magnetic orders of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model (q =0 , √{3 }×√{3 } , and cuboc orders) and shrink the extents of magnetically disordered phases. We discuss our results in the light of the mineral herbertsmithite which has been experimentally predicted to host a quantum spin liquid at low temperatures. Our PFFRG data indicate that this material lies in close proximity to a quantum critical point. In parts of the experimentally relevant parameter regime for herbertsmithite, the spin-correlation profile is found to be in good qualitative agreement with recent inelastic-neutron-scattering data.

  3. Magnetic monopoles in quantum spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji

    Typical spin ice materials can be modeled using classical Ising spins. The geometric frustration of the pyrochlore lattice causes the spins to satisfy ice rules, whereas a violation of the ice constraint constitutes an excitation. Flipping adjacent spins fractionalizes the excitation into two monopoles. Long range dipolar spin couplings result in Coulombic interactions between charges, while the leading effect of quantum fluctuations is to provide the monopoles with kinetic energy. We study the effect of adding quantum dynamics to spin ice, a well-known classical spin liquid, with a particular view of how to best detect its presence in experiment. For the weakly diluted quantum spin ice, we find a particularly crisp phenomenon, namely, the emergence of hydrogenic excited states in which a magnetic monopole is bound to a vacancy at various distances.

  4. Quantum-spin-liquid states in the two-dimensional kagome antiferromagnets ZnxCu4-x(OD)6Cl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-H; Kikuchi, H; Qiu, Y; Lake, B; Huang, Q; Habicht, K; Kiefer, K

    2007-11-01

    A three-dimensional system of interacting spins typically develops static long-range order when it is cooled. If the spins are quantum (S=1/2), however, novel quantum paramagnetic states may appear. The most highly sought state among them is the resonating-valence-bond state, in which every pair of neighbouring quantum spins forms an entangled spin singlet (valence bonds) and these singlets are quantum mechanically resonating among themselves. Here we provide an experimental indication for such quantum paramagnetic states existing in frustrated antiferromagnets, Zn(x)Cu(4-x)(OD)(6)Cl(2), where the S=1/2 magnetic Cu2+ moments form layers of a two-dimensional kagome lattice. We find that in Cu(4)(OD)(6)Cl(2), where distorted kagome planes are weakly coupled, a dispersionless excitation mode appears in the magnetic excitation spectrum below approximately 20 K, whose characteristics resemble those of quantum spin singlets in a solid state, known as a valence-bond solid, that breaks translational symmetry. Doping with non-magnetic Zn2+ ions reduces the distortion of the kagome lattice, and weakens the interplane coupling but also dilutes the magnetic occupancy of the kagome lattice. The valence-bond-solid state is suppressed, and for ZnCu(3)(OD)(6)Cl(2), where the kagome planes are undistorted and 90% occupied by the Cu2+ ions, the low-energy spin fluctuations become featureless.

  5. Variational Monte Carlo study of a chiral spin liquid in the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Shoushu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. In particular, when both second- and third-neighbor superexchanges are considered, we find that a gapped spin liquid described by nontrivial magnetic fluxes and long-range chiral-chiral correlations is energetically favored compared to the gapless U(1) Dirac state. Furthermore, the topological Chern number, obtained by integrating the Berry curvature, and the degeneracy of the ground state, by constructing linearly independent states, lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with a C =1 /2 fractionalized Chern number.

  6. Competing magnetic orders and spin liquids in two- and three-dimensional kagome systems: Pseudofermion functional renormalization group perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buessen, Finn Lasse; Trebst, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Quantum magnets on kagome lattice geometries in two and three spatial dimensions are archetypal examples of spin systems in which geometric frustration inhibits conventional magnetic ordering and instead benefits the emergence of long-range entangled spin liquids at low temperature. Here we employ a recently developed pseudofermion functional renormalization group (pf-FRG) approach to study the low-temperature quantum magnetism of kagome and hyperkagome spin systems with exchange interactions beyond the nearest-neighbor coupling. We find that next-nearest-neighbor couplings stabilize a variety of magnetic orders as well as induce additional spin liquid regimes, giving rise to rather rich phase diagrams, which we characterize in detail. On a technical level, we find that the pf-FRG approach is in excellent quantitative agreement with high-temperature series expansions over their range of validity and it exhibits a systematic finite-size convergence in the temperature regime below. We discuss notable advantages and some current limitations of the pf-FRG approach in the ongoing search for unconventional forms of quantum magnetism.

  7. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ising model--in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)--is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ~0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  8. Variational Monte Carlo study of a gapless spin liquid in the spin-1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic model on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, D. N.

    2015-11-01

    By using the variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic model (with easy-plane anisotropy) on the kagome lattice. A class of Gutzwiller projected fermionic states with a spin Jastrow factor is considered to describe either spin liquids [with U (1 ) or Z2 symmetry] or magnetically ordered phases [with q =(0 ,0 ) or q =(4 π /3 ,0 ) ]. We find that the magnetic states are not stable in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, there is no energy gain to break the gauge symmetry from U (1 ) to Z2 within the spin-liquid states, as previously found in the Heisenberg model. The best variational wave function is therefore the U (1 ) Dirac state, supplemented by the spin Jastrow factor. Furthermore, a vanishing S =2 spin gap is obtained at the variational level, in the whole regime from the X Y to the Heisenberg model.

  9. Quantum spin liquid and magnetic order in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice: Considering the distorted kagome lattice of volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Li Ern; Hwang, Kyusung; Mizoguchi, Tomonari; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-07-01

    The Kagome-lattice-based material, volborthite, Cu3V2O7(OH) 2.2 H2O , has been considered as a promising platform for discovery of unusual quantum ground states due to the frustrated nature of spin interaction. We explore possible quantum spin liquid and magnetically ordered phases in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice, which is described by the plane group p 2 g g , consistent with the spatial anisotropy of the spin model derived from density functional theory (DFT) for volborthite. Using the projective symmetry group (PSG) analysis and Schwinger boson mean field theory, we classify possible spin liquid phases with bosonic spinons and investigate magnetically ordered phases connected to such states. It is shown, in general, that only translationally invariant mean field spin liquid ansatzes are allowed in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattices. We study the mean field phase diagram of the DFT-derived spin model and find that possible quantum spin liquid phases are connected to two types of magnetically ordered phases, a coplanar incommensurate (q ,0 ) spiral order as the ground state and a closely competing coplanar commensurate (π ,π ) spin density wave order. In addition, periodicity enhancement of the two-spinon continuum, a consequence of symmetry fractionalization, is found in the spin liquid state connected to the (π ,π ) spin density wave order. We discuss relevance of these results to recent and future experiments on volborthite.

  10. Role of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ion in determining the frustration and low-temperature properties of kagome lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2005-12-15

    In view of the variety of low-temperature magnetic properties reported recently for kagome lattices with transition-metal ions in different oxidation states, we have investigated the low-energy spectrum and low-temperature thermodynamic properties of antiferromagnetic kagome lattices with varying magnitudes of site spins, employing quantum many-body Heisenberg models. The ground state and the low-lying excitation spectrum are found to depend strongly on the nature of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ions. The system remains highly frustrated if spins are half-odd-integer in magnitude, while the frustration is very weak or almost absent for integer spins or mixed-spin systems. In fact, for a mixed-spin kagome system with a certain magnitude, the whole system behaves as a classical magnet with a ferrimagnetic ground state without any frustration. These theoretical findings are consistent with a few experimental observations recently reported in the literature and would be of value in designing new kagome systems with unusual and interesting low-temperature magnetic properties.

  11. Thermodynamic and Neutron Scattering Study of the Spin-1/2 Kagome Antiferromagnet ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2: A Quantum Spin Liquid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianheng

    New physics, such as a quantum spin liquid, can emerge in systems where quantum fluctuations are enhanced due to reduced dimensionality and strong frustration . The realization of a quantum spin liquid in two-dimensions would represent a new state of matter. It is believed that spin liquid physics plays a role in the phenomenon of high-Tc superconductivity, and the topological properties of the spin liquid state may have applications in the field of quantum information. The Zn-paratacamite family, ZnxCu4-- x(OH)6Cl2 for x > 0.33, is an ideal system to look for such an exotic state in the form of antiferromagnetic Cu 2 + kagome planes. The x = 1 end member, named herbertsmithite, has shown promising spin liquid properties from prior studies on powder samples. Here we show a new synthesis by which high-quality centimeter-sized single crystals of Znparatacamite have been produced for the first time. Neutron and synchrotron xray diffraction experiments indicate no structural transition down to T = 2 K. The magnetic susceptibility both perpendicular and parallel to the kagome plane has been measured for the x = 1 sample. A small, temperature-dependent anisotropy has been observed, where chi z / chip > 1 at high temperatures and chiz / chip fingerprint of the quantum spin liquid state in herbertsmithite. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  12. The spin-1/2 Kagome XXZ model in a field: competition between lattice nematic and solid orders

    CERN Document Server

    Kshetrimayum, Augustine; Orus, Roman; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the spin-1/2 XXZ model in a field on an infinite Kagome lattice. We use different algorithms based on infinite Projected Entangled Pair States (iPEPS) for this, namely: (i) an approach with simplex tensors and 9-site unit cell, and (ii) an approach based on coarse-graining three spins in the Kagome lattice and mapping it to a square-lattice model with local and nearest-neighbor interactions, with usual PEPS tensors, 6- and 12-site unit cells. We observe the emergence of a plateau in the magnetization at $m_z = \\frac{1}{3}$ as a function of the magnetic field, and focus on characterizing it as a function of the anisotropy, including the XY, Heisenberg, and Ising points. We find that the 9-site simplex-method produces degenerate -- within our accuracy -- (lattice) nematic and $\\sqrt{3} \\times \\sqrt{3}$ VBC-Solid states up to the Ising point. The 6- and 12-site coarse-grained PEPS methods also produce (almost) degenerate nematic and $\\sqrt{2} \\times \\sqrt{2}$ VBC-Solid order, although with a...

  13. Spin-frustration in a new spin-1/2 oxyfluoride system (Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4) constructed by alternatively distorted kagome-like and triangular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Su-Yun; Guo, Wen-Bin; Tang, Ying-Ying; He, Zhang-Zhen

    2015-09-21

    A novel copper compound, Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4, featuring two types of two-dimensional extended kagome-like and triangular lattices, exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at ∼3 K, a strong spin-frustration effect with f = 21 and a spin-flop transition at 5 T.

  14. Gapless spin liquid ground state in the S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet [NH4]2[C7H14N][V7O6F18].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L; Orain, J C; Bert, F; De Vries, M A; Aidoudi, F H; Morris, R E; Lightfoot, P; Lord, J S; Telling, M T F; Bonville, P; Attfield, J P; Mendels, P; Harrison, A

    2013-05-17

    The vanadium oxyfluoride [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)] (DQVOF) is a geometrically frustrated magnetic bilayer material. The structure consists of S = 1/2 kagome planes of V(4+) d(1) ions with S = 1 V(3+) d(2) ions located between the kagome layers. Muon spin relaxation measurements demonstrate the absence of spin freezing down to 40 mK despite an energy scale of 60 K for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. From magnetization and heat capacity measurements we conclude that the S = 1 spins of the interplane V(3+) ions are weakly coupled to the kagome layers, such that DQVOF can be viewed as an experimental model for S = 1/2 kagome physics, and that it displays a gapless spin liquid ground state.

  15. Entropy balance and evidence for local spin singlets in a Kagome-like magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Hessen, B.; Winklemann, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the specific heat C(T) of the S = 3/2 Kagomé-lattice-containing compound SrCr9pGa12-9pO19. We find little field dependence of the low-temperature C(T), consistent with a low-energy spectrum dominated by many-body singlet excitations. At high temperatures, we recover only ~50% of the

  16. Spin-orbit coupling induced semi-metallic state in the 1/3 hole-doped hyper-kagome Na3Ir3O8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Yaresko, Alexander; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Nuss, Jürgen; Ishii, Kenji; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mizuki, Junichiro; Takagi, Hidenori

    2014-10-29

    The complex iridium oxide Na3Ir3O8 with a B-site ordered spinel structure was synthesized in single crystalline form, where the chiral hyper-kagome lattice of Ir ions, as observed in the spin-liquid candidate Na4Ir3O8, was identified. The average valence of Ir is 4.33+ and, therefore, Na3Ir3O8 can be viewed as a doped analogue of the hyper-kagome spin liquid with Ir(4+). The transport measurements, combined with the electronic structure calculations, indicate that the ground state of Na3Ir3O8 is a low carrier density semi-metal. We argue that the semi-metallic state is produced by a competition of the molecular orbital splitting of t2g orbitals on Ir3 triangles with strong spin-orbit coupling inherent to heavy Ir ions.

  17. Numerical evidence for a chiral spin liquid in the XXZ model on the kagome lattice in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changlani, Hitesh; Kumar, Krishna; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo

    Frustrated spin systems in two dimensions provide a fertile ground for discovering exotic states of matter, often with topologically non-trivial properties. In this work, we investigate the possible existence of a chiral spin liquid state in the spin 1/2 XXZ model on the frustrated kagome lattice in the presence of a magnetic field. This model is equivalent to a hard-core bosonic one with density-density interactions at finite filling fraction. Motivated by previous field theoretic predictions utilizing a Chern-Simons theory adapted for this lattice, we focus our attention to understanding the XY limit for the 2/3 magnetization plateau (equivalent to a system of hard-core bosons at 1/6 filling with weak nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions). Performing exact or accurate numerical computations, and based on energetics and construction of minimally entangled states and associated modular matrices, we provide evidence for such a spin liquid. We study the nature of this phase and examine its stability to additional interactions. We acknowledge support from the SciDAC program under Award Number DE-FG02-12ER46875.

  18. Non-collinearity and spin frustration in the itinerant kagome ferromagnet Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, L A; Dee, A A; Wills, A S, E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.u [Chemistry Department, UCL, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-11

    Frustrated itinerant ferromagnets, with non-collinear static spin structures, are an exciting class of material as their spin chirality can introduce a Berry phase in the electronic scattering and lead to exotic electronic phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). This study presents a reexamination of the magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}, a metallic ferromagnet, based on the two-dimensional kagome bilayer structure. Previously thought of as a conventional ferromagnet, we show using a combination of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) measurements, symmetry analysis and powder neutron diffraction that Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} is a frustrated ferromagnet with a temperature-dependent non-collinear spin structure. The complexity of the magnetic interactions is further evidenced by a re-entrant spin glass transition (T{sub f}approx =80 K) at temperatures far below the main ferromagnetic transition (T{sub C} = 640 K). Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} therefore provides a rare example of a frustrated itinerant ferromagnet. Further, as well as being of great fundamental interest our studies highlight the potential of Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} for practical application in spintronics technology, as the AHE arising from the ferromagnetism in this material is expected to be enhanced by the coupling between the conduction electrons and the non-trivial magnetic structure over an exceptionally wide temperature range. (fast track communication)

  19. Spin-1/2 kagome XXZ model in a field: Competition between lattice nematic and solid orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetrimayum, Augustine; Picot, Thibaut; Orús, Román; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-12-01

    We study numerically the spin-1/2 XXZ model in a field on an infinite kagome lattice. We use different algorithms based on infinite projected entangled pair states (iPEPSs) for this, namely, (i) an approach with simplex tensors and a 9-site unit cell, and (ii) an approach based on coarse-graining three spins in the kagome lattice and mapping it to a square-lattice model with local and nearest-neighbor interactions, with the usual PEPS tensors, 6- and 12-site unit cells. Similarly to our previous calculation at the SU(2)-symmetric point (Heisenberg Hamiltonian), for any anisotropy from the Ising limit to the XY limit, we also observe the emergence of magnetization plateaus as a function of the magnetic field, at mz=1/3 using 6-, 9-, and 12-site PEPS unit cells, and at mz=1/9 ,5/9 , and 7/9 using a 9-site PEPS unit cell, the latter setup being able to accommodate √{3 }×√{3 } solid order. We also find that, at mz=1/3 , (lattice) nematic and √{3 }×√{3 } VBC-order states are degenerate within the accuracy of the nine-site simplex method, for all anisotropy. The 6- and 12-site coarse-grained PEPS methods produce almost-degenerate nematic and 1 ×2 VBC-solid orders. We also find that, within our accuracy, the six-site coarse-grained PEPS method gives slightly lower energies, which can be explained by the larger amount of entanglement this approach can handle, even in cases where the PEPS unit cell is not commensurate with the expected ground-state unit cell. Furthermore, we do not observe chiral spin liquid behaviors at and close to the XY point, as has been recently proposed. Our results are the first tensor network investigations of the XXZ model in a field and reveal the subtle competition between nearby magnetic orders in numerical simulations of frustrated quantum antiferromagnets, as well as the delicate interplay between energy optimization and symmetry in tensor network numerical simulations.

  20. Topological frustration of artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, Jasper; Marsh, Thomas; Cumings, John

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated systems, typically characterized by competing interactions that cannot all be simultaneously satisfied, display rich behaviours not found elsewhere in nature. Artificial spin ice takes a materials-by-design approach to studying frustration, where lithographically patterned bar magnets mimic the frustrated interactions in real materials but are also amenable to direct characterization. Here, we introduce controlled topological defects into square artificial spin ice lattices in the form of lattice edge dislocations and directly observe the resulting spin configurations. We find the presence of a topological defect produces extended frustration within the system caused by a domain wall with indeterminate configuration. Away from the dislocation, the magnets are locally unfrustrated, but frustration of the lattice persists due to its topology. Our results demonstrate the non-trivial nature of topological defects in a new context, with implications for many real systems in which a typical density of dislocations could fully frustrate a canonically unfrustrated system.

  1. Static and dynamical spin correlations of the S =1/2 random-bond antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular and kagome lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Watanabe, Ken; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the recent theoretical suggestion that the random-bond S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular and the kagome lattices might exhibit a randomness-induced quantum spin liquid (QSL) behavior when the strength of the randomness exceeds a critical value, and that this "random-singlet state" might be relevant to the QSL behaviors experimentally observed in triangular organic salts κ -(ET) 2Cu2(CN) 3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd(dmit)2] 2 and in kagome herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 , we further investigate the nature of the static and the dynamical spin correlations of these models. We compute the static and the dynamical spin structure factors, S (q ) and S (q ,ω ) , by means of an exact diagonalization method. In both triangular and kagome models, the computed S (q ,ω ) in the random-singlet state depends on the wave vector q only weakly, robustly exhibiting gapless behaviors accompanied by the broad distribution extending to higher energy ω . Especially in the strongly random kagome model, S (q ,ω ) hardly depends on q , and exhibits an almost flat distribution for a wide range of ω , together with a ω =0 peak. These features agree semiquantitatively with the recent neutron-scattering data on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. Furthermore, the computed magnetization curve agrees almost quantitatively with the experimental one recently measured on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. These results suggest that the QSL state observed in herbertsmithite might indeed be the randomness-induced QSL state, i.e., the random-singlet state.

  2. Spin Frustration in an Organic Radical Ion Salt Based on a Kagome-Coupled Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postulka, Lars; Winter, Stephen M; Mihailov, Adam G; Mailman, Aaron; Assoud, Abdeljalil; Robertson, Craig M; Wolf, Bernd; Lang, Michael; Oakley, Richard T

    2016-08-31

    Electro-oxidation of the quinoidal bisdithiazole BT in dichloroethane in the presence of [Bu4N][GaBr4] affords the 1:1 radical ion salt [BT][GaBr4], crystals of which belong to the trigonal space group P3. The packing pattern of the radical cations provides a rare example of an organic kagome basket structure, with S = 1/2 radical ion chains located at the triangular corners of a trihexagonal lattice. Magnetic measurements over a wide temperature range from 30 mK to 300 K suggest strongly frustrated AFM interactions on the scale of J/kb ∼ 30 K, but reveal no anomalies that would be associated with magnetic order. These observations are discussed in terms of the symmetry allowed magnetic interactions within and between the frustrated layers.

  3. Plaquette-triplon analysis of magnetic disorder and order in a trimerized spin-1 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pratyay; Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    A spin-1 Heisenberg model on trimerized kagome lattice is studied by doing a low-energy bosonic theory in terms of plaquette triplons defined on its triangular unit cells. The model considered has an intratriangle antiferromagnetic exchange interaction J (set to 1) and two intertriangle couplings J'>0 (nearest neighbor) and J″ (next nearest neighbor; of both signs). The triplon analysis performed on this model investigates the stability of the trimerized singlet ground state (which is exact in the absence of intertriangle couplings) in the J'-J″ plane. It gives a quantum phase diagram that has two gapless antiferromagnetically ordered phases separated by the spin-gapped trimerized singlet phase. The trimerized singlet ground state is found to be stable on J″=0 line (the nearest-neighbor case), and on both sides of it for J″≠0 , in an extended region bounded by the critical lines of transition to the gapless antiferromagnetic phases. The gapless phase in the negative J″ region has a coplanar 120∘ antiferromagnetic order with √{3 }×√{3 } structure. In this phase, all the magnetic moments are of equal length, and the angle between any two of them on a triangle is exactly 120∘. The magnetic lattice in this case has a unit cell consisting of three triangles. The other gapless phase, in the positive J″ region, is found to exhibit a different coplanar antiferromagnetic order with ordering wave vector q =(0 ,0 ) . Here, two magnetic moments in a triangle are of the same magnitude, but shorter than the third. While the angle between two short moments is 120∘-2 δ , it is 120∘+δ between a short and the long one. Only when J″=J' , their magnitudes become equal and the relative angles 120∘. The magnetic lattice in this q =(0 ,0 ) phase has the translational symmetry of the kagome lattice with triangular unit cells of reduced (isosceles) symmetry. This reduction in the point-group symmetry is found to show up as a difference in the intensities of

  4. Simulations of magnetic reversal in continuously distorted artificial spin ice lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Barry; Bhat, Vinayak; Woods, Justin; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2014-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems consist of lithographically patterned ferromagnetic segments that behave as Ising spins. The honeycomb lattice is an ASI analogue of the Kagomé spin ice lattice found in bulk pyrochlore crystals. We have developed a method to continuously distort the honeycomb lattice such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence. The distortions break the rotational symmetry of the honeycomb lattice and alter the segment orientations and lengths such that all vertices retain three-fold coordination, but are no longer equivalent. We have performed micromagnetic simulations (OOMMF) of magnetization reversal for many samples having different strengths of distortion, and found the kinetics of magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed, and avalanches (sequential switching of neighboring segments) shortened by only small deviations from perfect honeycomb symmetry. The coercivity increases as the distortion is strengthened, which is consistent with the retarded reversal. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  5. Artificial Spin-Ice and Vertex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2017-01-01

    In classical and quantum frustrated magnets the interactions in combination with the lattice structure impede the spins to order in optimal configurations at zero temperature. The theoretical interest in their classical realisations has been boosted by the artificial manufacture of materials with these properties, that are of flexible design. This note summarises work on the use of vertex models to study bidimensional spin-ices samples, done in collaboration with R. A. Borzi, M. V. Ferreyra, L. Foini, G. Gonnella, S. A. Grigera, P. Guruciaga, D. Levis, A. Pelizzola and M. Tarzia, in recent years. It is an invited contribution to a J. Stat. Mech. special issue dedicated to the memory of Leo P. Kadanoff.

  6. Nanostructured complex oxides as a route towards thermal behavior in artificial spin ice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, R. V.; Li, B.; Wynn, T. A.; Lee, M. S.; Jia, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Biegalski, M. D.; Retterer, S. T.; Young, A. T.; Scholl, A.; Takamura, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy to image the magnetization of single-domain L a0.7S r0.3Mn O3 nanoislands arranged in geometrically frustrated configurations such as square ice and kagome ice geometries. Upon thermal randomization, ensembles of nanoislands with strong interisland magnetic coupling relax towards low-energy configurations. Statistical analysis shows that the likelihood of ensembles falling into low-energy configurations depends strongly on the annealing temperature. Annealing to just below the Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic film (TC=338 K ) allows for a much greater probability of achieving low-energy configurations as compared to annealing above the Curie temperature. At this thermally active temperature of 325 K, the ensemble of ferromagnetic nanoislands explore their energy landscape over time and eventually transition to lower energy states as compared to the frozen-in configurations obtained upon cooling from above the Curie temperature. Thus, this materials system allows for a facile method to systematically study thermal evolution of artificial spin ice arrays of nanoislands at temperatures modestly above room temperature.

  7. Spatially anisotropic Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, W.; Yavors'kii, T.; Everts, H.-U.

    2007-04-01

    In the search for spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets, the mineral volborthite has recently been the subject of experimental studies (Hiroi et al 2001 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70 3377; Fukaya et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 207603; Bert et al 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 S829; Bert et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 087203). It has been suggested that the magnetic properties of this material are described by a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with spatially anisotropic exchange couplings. We report on investigations of the {\\mathrm {Sp}}(\\mathcal {N}) symmetric generalization of this model in the large \\mathcal {N} limit. We obtain a detailed description of the dependence of possible ground states on the anisotropy and on the spin length S. A fairly rich phase diagram with a ferrimagnetic phase, incommensurate phases with and without long-range order and a decoupled chain phase emerges.

  8. Ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model on triangular-to-kagome lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins on triangular-to-kagome lattices by using a variational calculation. We identify the parameter regions where a four-sublattice noncoplanar order is stable with a finite spin scalar chirality while changing the lattice structure from triangular to kagome continuously. Although the noncoplanar spin states appear in a wide range of parameters, the spin configurations on the kagome network beco...

  9. Quantum spin ice: a search for gapless quantum spin liquids in pyrochlore magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, M J P; McClarty, P A

    2014-05-01

    The spin ice materials, including Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, are rare-earth pyrochlore magnets which, at low temperatures, enter a constrained paramagnetic state with an emergent gauge freedom. Spin ices provide one of very few experimentally realized examples of fractionalization because their elementary excitations can be regarded as magnetic monopoles and, over some temperature range, spin ice materials are best described as liquids of these emergent charges. In the presence of quantum fluctuations, one can obtain, in principle, a quantum spin liquid descended from the classical spin ice state characterized by emergent photon-like excitations. Whereas in classical spin ices the excitations are akin to electrostatic charges with a mutual Coulomb interaction, in the quantum spin liquid these charges interact through a dynamic and emergent electromagnetic field. In this review, we describe the latest developments in the study of such a quantum spin ice, focusing on the spin liquid phenomenology and the kinds of materials where such a phase might be found.

  10. How quantum are classical spin ices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Michel J. P.; Rau, Jeffrey G.

    The pyrochlore spin ice compounds Dy2TiO7 and Ho2Ti2O7 are well described by classical Ising models down to low temperatures. Given the empirical success of this description, the question of the importance of quantum effects in these materials has been mostly ignored. We argue that the common wisdom that the strictly Ising moments of non-interacting Dy3+ and Ho3+ ions imply Ising interactions is too naive and that a more complex argument is needed to explain the close agreement between the classical Ising model theory and experiments. By considering a microscopic picture of the interactions in rare-earth oxides, we show that the high-rank multipolar interactions needed to induce quantum effects in these two materials are generated only very weakly by superexchange. Using this framework, we formulate an estimate of the scale of quantum effects in Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7, finding it to be well below experimentally relevant temperatures. Published as: PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 144417 (2015).

  11. Symmetry Reduction in the Quantum Kagome Antiferromagnet Herbertsmithite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A.; Herak, M.; Gomilšek, M.; van Tol, J.; Velázquez, M.; Khuntia, P.; Bert, F.; Mendels, P.

    2017-01-01

    Employing complementary torque magnetometry and electron spin resonance on single crystals of herbertsmithite, the closest realization to date of a quantum kagome antiferromagnet featuring a spin-liquid ground state, we provide novel insight into different contributions to its magnetism. At low temperatures, two distinct types of defects with different magnetic couplings to the kagome spins are found. Surprisingly, their magnetic response contradicts the threefold symmetry of the ideal kagome lattice, suggesting the presence of a global structural distortion that may be related to the establishment of the spin-liquid ground state.

  12. Numerical evidence for a chiral spin liquid in the XXZ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice at m =2/3 magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Clark, Bryan K.; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    We perform an exact-diagonalization study of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice at finite magnetization m =2/3 with an emphasis on the X Y point (Jz=0 ) and in the presence of a small chiral term. Recent analytic work by Kumar et al. [K. Kumar, K. Sun, and E. Fradkin, Phys. Rev. B 90, 174409 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.174409] on the same model, using a newly developed flux attachment transformation, predicts a plateau at this value of the magnetization described by a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with a spin Hall conductance of σx y=1/2 . Such a state is topological in nature, has a ground-state degeneracy, and exhibits fractional excitations. We analyze the degeneracy structure in the low-energy manifold, identify the candidate topological states, and use them to compute the modular matrices and Chern numbers, all of which strongly agree with expected theoretical behavior for the σx y=1/2 CSL. In the limit of zero chirality, we find on most (not all) clusters that the topological invariants are still those of a CSL.

  13. Low-temperature properties of the S =1/2 spin system Yb3Ru4Al12 with a distorted kagome lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S.; Toyoshima, S.; Kabeya, N.; Katoh, K.; Nojima, T.; Ochiai, A.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized single crystals of ternary intermetallic Yb3Ru4Al12 with a distorted kagome lattice structure, and investigated the low-temperature resistivity, specific heat, magnetization, and magnetic phase transitions. Yb3Ru4Al12 is the first 4 f system that has a Gd3Ru4Al12 -type crystal structure where antiferromagnetic interaction acts on the spin. The crystal electric field (CEF) ground state of this compound is determined as a well isolated twofold degenerate state that is subjected to a strong easy-plane-type magnetic anisotropy. In the present study, the spin system of Yb3Ru4Al12 is regarded as an AFM X Y model of S =1 /2 . This compound undergoes successive magnetic phase transitions at 1.5 and 1.6 K, and the resistivity exhibits T2 behavior below 1 K. The ratio of the coefficient of the T2 term in the resistivity A , and that of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ0, deviates from the Kadowaki-Woods (KW) law. The successive phase transitions and low-temperature properties of Yb3Ru4Al12 where geometrical frustration and heavy fermion behavior occur are discussed.

  14. Magnetic Ground States of the Rare-Earth Tripod Kagome Lattice Mg2 RE3 Sb3 O14 (RE =Gd ,Dy ,Er )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Li, K.; Lee, M.; Chen, K. W.; Baumbach, R.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Choi, E. S.; Shastry, B. S.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2016-04-01

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of a new compound family, Mg2 RE3 Sb3 O14 (RE =Gd ,Dy ,Er ), with a hitherto unstudied frustrating lattice, the "tripod kagome" structure. Susceptibility (ac, dc) and specific heat exhibit features that are understood within a simple Luttinger-Tisza-type theory. For RE =Gd , we found long-ranged order (LRO) at 1.65 K, which is consistent with a 120° structure, demonstrating the importance of diople interactions for this 2D Heisenberg system. For RE =Dy , LRO at 0.37 K is related to the "kagome spin ice" physics for a 2D system. This result shows that the tripod kagome structure accelerates the transition to LRO predicted for the related pyrochlore systems. For RE =Er , two transitions, at 80 mK and 2.1 K are observed, suggesting the importance of quantum fluctuations for this putative X Y system.

  15. Spin-ordering and Magnetoelastic Coupling in the Extended Kagome System YBaCo4O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Khalyavin; P Manuel; B Ouladdiaf; A Huq; H Zheng; J Mitchell; L Chapon

    2011-12-31

    Low-temperature magnetic and structural behavior of the extended Kagome system YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} has been studied by single-crystal neutron diffraction and high-resolution powder x-ray diffraction. Long-range magnetic ordering associated with a structural transition from orthorhombic Pbn2{sub 1} to monoclinic P2{sub 1} symmetry has been found at T{sub 1}-100 K. The interplay between the structural and magnetic degrees of freedom indicates that the degeneracy of the magnetic ground state, present in the orthorhombic phase, is lifted through a strong magnetoelastic coupling, as observed in other frustrated systems. At T{sub 2}-60 K, an additional magnetic transition is observed, though isosymmetric. Models for the magnetic structures below T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} are presented, based on refinements using a large number of independent reflections. The results obtained are compared with previous single-crystal and powder-diffraction studies on this and related compositions.

  16. Quantum phase transition between disordered and ordered states in the spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet (Rb1-xCsx) 2Cu3SnF12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kazuya; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the variation of the exchange parameters and the ground state in the S =1/2 kagome-lattice antiferromagnet (Rb1 -xCsx )2Cu3SnF12 via magnetic measurements using single crystals. One of the parent compounds, Rb2Cu3SnF12 , which has a distorted kagome lattice accompanied by four sorts of nearest-neighbor exchange interaction, has a disordered ground state described by a pinwheel valence-bond-solid state. The other parent compound, Cs2Cu3SnF12 , which has a uniform kagome lattice at room temperature, has an ordered ground state with the q =0 spin structure. The analysis of magnetic susceptibilities shows that with increasing cesium concentration x , the exchange parameters increase with the tendency to be uniform. It was found that the ground state is disordered for x 0.53 . The pseudogap observed for x 0.53 approach zero at xc≃0.53 . This is indicative of the occurrence of a quantum phase transition at xc.

  17. Spin Hamiltonian of hyper-kagome Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklitz, T.; Norman, M. R.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the spin Hamiltonian for the quantum spin liquid Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and then estimate the direct and superexchange contributions between near neighbor iridium ions using a tight-binding parametrization of the electronic structure. We find a magnitude of the exchange interaction comparable to experiment for a reasonable value of the on-site Coulomb repulsion. For one of the two tight-binding parametrizations we have studied, the direct exchange term, which is isotropic, dominates the total exchange. This provides support for those theories proposed to describe this quantum spin liquid that assume an isotropic Heisenberg model.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation on demagnetization of artificial spin ice%蒙特卡罗模拟人工自旋冰的退磁过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞丽菊; 孟祥雨; 李俊琴; 曹杰峰; 王勇; 敬超; 吴衍青; 邰仁忠

    2016-01-01

    近年来,人工自旋冰(Artificial spin ice, ASI)因具有潜在的应用价值以及理论研究价值而倍受关注,成为磁学领域的研究热点之一。以往的研究集中在Square和Kagome两种晶格结构,由于能量势垒和阻挫的大量存在,实验上难以通过退磁等方法达到其内部相互作用决定的能量基态。本文基于Kagome晶格结构提出了一种新的人工自旋冰结构,并基于蒙特卡罗模拟了三种不同的退磁方法对体系能量的影响。结果表明,退磁过程中旋转磁场方向可更有效地降低体系能量,并诱导多种磁结构的出现。%Background: Recently, the artificial spin ice (ASI) draws a wide attention for its exotic phenomenon and potential applications. Previous works mainly studied the Square and Kagome lattice systems, and extensive researches concentrated upon how to achieve the ground state. It turned out to be experimentally difficult to get the absolute ground state of Kagome ASI because of the high frustration.Purpose: Here we propose a new structure based on Kagome lattice, which is just locally frustrated. In order to get good approximation of its ground state, we employed a Monte Carlo simulation on demagnetization process with three methods.Methods: The Monte Carlo simulation was carried on a system including 21×21 cells, and an extra field had been employed to drive the spins overturning.Results &Conclusion: It turned out that the rotating magnetic field was more effective to get to the ground state, and induced the emergence of various magnetic structures.

  19. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F.; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations.

  20. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F.; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations. PMID:27581972

  1. Spin correlations in Ho2Ti2O7: A dipolar spin ice system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramwell, S.T.; Harris, M.J.; Hertog, B.C. den

    2001-01-01

    described by a nearest neighbor spin ice model and very accurately described by a dipolar spin ice model. The heat capacity is well accounted for by the sum of a dipolar spin ice contribution and an expected nuclear spin contribution, known to exist in other Ho(3+) salts. These results settle the question...

  2. ESR/spin probe study of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Duncan G; Greenley, Katherine R; Sutcliffe, Leslie H

    2006-07-12

    Spin probes based on the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl structure have been used, in conjunction with electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), to study the physical changes occurring in ice cream during freezing and melting. The ESR measurements allowed the rotational correlation times, tau(B), of the spin probes to be determined. Two probes were used together in a given sample of ice cream, namely, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl (TMIO), which samples the fat phase, and the sodium salt of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl-5-sulfonate (NaTMIOS), which samples the aqueous phase. Data from the TMIO probe showed that when ice cream is cooled, the fat phase is a mixture of solid and liquid fat until a temperature of approximately -60 degrees C is reached. The water-soluble probe NaTMIOS showed that the aqueous phase changes completely from liquid to solid within 1 degrees C of -18 degrees C. On cooling further to -24.7 degrees C and then allowing it to warm to +25.0 degrees C, the rotational correlation times of the NaTMIOS were slow to recover to their previous values. For the lipid phase, tau(B)(298) was found to be 65.7 +/- 2.0 ps and the corresponding activation enthalpy, DeltaH, was 32.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol(-)(1): These values are typical of those expected to be found in the type of fat used to make ice cream. The water phase gave corresponding values of 32.2 +/- 0.5 ps and 24.5 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-)(1) values, which are those expected for a sucrose concentration of 24%.

  3. μ SR insight into the impurity problem in quantum kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomilšek, M.; Klanjšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Luetkens, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zorko, A.

    2016-07-01

    Impurities, which are unavoidable in real materials, may play an important role in the magnetism of frustrated spin systems with a spin-liquid ground state. We address the impurity issue in quantum kagome antiferromagnets by investigating ZnCu3(OH) 6SO4 (Zn-brochantite) by means of muon spin spectroscopy. We show that muons dominantly couple to impurities, originating from Cu-Zn intersite disorder, and that the impurity spins are highly correlated with the kagome spins, allowing us to probe the host kagome physics via a Kondo-like effect. The low-temperature plateau in the impurity susceptibility suggests that the kagome spin-liquid ground state is gapless. The corresponding spin fluctuations exhibit an unconventional spectral density and a nontrivial field dependence.

  4. Frustrated spin correlations in diluted spin ice Ho2-xLaxTi2O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Georg; Ehlers, G.; Mamontov, E.; Zamponi, M.; Faraone, A.; Qiu, Y.; Cornelius, A.L.; Booth, C.H.; Kam, K.C.; Le Toquin, R.; Cheetham, A.K.; Gardner, J.S.

    2008-04-30

    We have studied the evolution of the structural properties as well as the static and dynamic spin correlations of spin ice Ho2Ti2O7, where Ho was partially replaced by non-magnetic La. The crystal structure of diluted samples Ho2-xLaxTi2O7 was characterized by x-ray and neutron diffraction and by Ho L-III-edge and Ti K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. It is found that the pyrochlore structure remains intact until about x = 0.3, but a systematic increase in local disorder with increasing La concentration is observed in the EXAFS data, especially from the Ti K edge.Quasi-elastic neutron scattering and ac susceptibility measurements show that, in x<= 0.4 samples at temperatures above macroscopic freezing, the spin -spin correlations are short ranged and dynamic in nature. The main difference with pure spin ice in the dynamics is the appearance of a second, faster, relaxation process.

  5. Space Group Symmetry Fractionalization in a Chiral Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Michael P; Zhu, Zhenyue; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin; White, Steven R

    2016-05-13

    The anyonic excitations of a spin liquid can feature fractional quantum numbers under space group symmetries. Detecting these fractional quantum numbers, which are analogs of the fractional charge of Laughlin quasiparticles, may prove easier than the direct observation of anyonic braiding and statistics. Motivated by the recent numerical discovery of spin-liquid phases in the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we theoretically predict the pattern of space group symmetry fractionalization in the kagome lattice SO(3)-symmetric chiral spin liquid. We provide a method to detect these fractional quantum numbers in finite-size numerics which is simple to implement in the density matrix renormalization group. Applying these developments to the chiral spin liquid phase of a kagome Heisenberg model, we find perfect agreement between our theoretical prediction and numerical observations.

  6. Geometric frustration effects in the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Ising model on the kagome-like recursive lattice: exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2016-09-01

    The antiferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model is studied on the Husimi lattice constructed from elementary triangles with coordination number z  =  4. It is found that the model has a unique solution for arbitrary values of the magnetic field as well as for all temperatures. A detailed analysis of the magnetization is performed and it is shown that in addition to the standard plateau-like ground states, the model also contains well-defined single-point ground states related to definite values of the magnetic field. Exact values of the residual entropies for all ground states are found. The properties of the susceptibility and the specific heat of the model are also discussed. The existence of the Schottky-type behavior of the specific heat and the strong magnetocaloric effect for low enough temperatures and for the external magnetic field close to the values at which the single-point ground states exist are identified.

  7. The effect of the size of the system, aspect ratio and impurities concentration on the dynamic of emergent magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.leon@udp.cl

    2013-08-15

    In this work we study the dynamical properties of a finite array of nanomagnets in artificial kagome spin ice at room temperature. The dynamic response of the array of nanomagnets is studied by implementing a “frustrated celular autómata” (FCA), based in the charge model and dipolar model. The FCA simulations allow us to study in real-time and deterministic way, the dynamic of the system, with minimal computational resource. The update function is defined according to the coordination number of vertices in the system. Our results show that for a set geometric parameters of the array of nanomagnets, the system exhibits high density of Dirac strings and high density emergent magnetic monopoles. A study of the effect of disorder in the arrangement of nanomagnets is incorporated in this work. - Highlights: • The dynamics of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems strongly dependent on the size of the system. • Number of emerging magnetic monopoles, in the phase of magnetic reversal, depend of the aspect. • Different systems can be created based on this idea, for information technology.

  8. Nonstochastic magnetic reversal in artificial quasicrystalline spin ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Woods, J.; Teipel, E.; Smith, N.; De Long, L. E., E-mail: delong@pa.uky.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hastings, J. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We have measured the isothermal DC magnetization of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T) composed of wire segments of permalloy thin film. Micromagnetic simulations reproduce the coercive fields and “knee anomalies” observed in experimental data and show magnetic shape anisotropy constrains segments to be single-domain (Ising spins) at low fields, similar to artificial spin ice (ASI). Mirror symmetry controls the initial reversal of individual segments oriented parallel to the applied field, followed by complex switching of multiple adjacent segments (“avalanches”) of various orientations such that closed magnetization loops (“vortices”) are favored. Ferromagnetic P2T differ from previously studied ASI systems due to their aperiodic translational symmetry and numerous inequivalent pattern vertices, which drive nonstochastic switching of segment polarizations.

  9. Nonstochastic magnetic reversal in artificial quasicrystalline spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Sklenar, J.; Woods, J.; Teipel, E.; Smith, N.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

    2014-05-01

    We have measured the isothermal DC magnetization of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T) composed of wire segments of permalloy thin film. Micromagnetic simulations reproduce the coercive fields and "knee anomalies" observed in experimental data and show magnetic shape anisotropy constrains segments to be single-domain (Ising spins) at low fields, similar to artificial spin ice (ASI). Mirror symmetry controls the initial reversal of individual segments oriented parallel to the applied field, followed by complex switching of multiple adjacent segments ("avalanches") of various orientations such that closed magnetization loops ("vortices") are favored. Ferromagnetic P2T differ from previously studied ASI systems due to their aperiodic translational symmetry and numerous inequivalent pattern vertices, which drive nonstochastic switching of segment polarizations.

  10. Critical properties of a dilute O(n) model on the kagome lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, B.; Guo, W.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    A critical dilute O(n) model on the kagome lattice is investigated analytically and numerically. We employ a number of exact equivalences which, in a few steps, link the critical O(n) spin model on the kagome lattice to the exactly solvable critical q-state Potts model on the honeycomb lattice with

  11. Kagome-type isostructural 3D-transition metal fluorosulfates with spin 3/2 and 1: synthesis, structure and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Subba R; Kumar, Jitendra; Panyarat, Kitt; Horike, Satoshi; Behera, J N

    2016-11-28

    Two isostructural transition metal fluorosulfates based on Co and Ni metal ions with the molecular composition of [H3O][M(SO4)F] (where M = Co((II)) for 1 and Ni((II)) for 2) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The materials were further characterized by complementary techniques like TGA, FTIR and PXRD. The 3D-crystal lattice consists of a kagome-type entity where sulfate groups replaced one of the metal nodes when compared with true kagome structures. Magnetic studies of the complexes were also performed which showed that the interactions at the metal center are antiferromagnetic in nature. The proton conductivity increases with the increase in humidity and was found to be 7.9 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) for 2 at RH = 98%.

  12. Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.

  13. Magnetic and Crystallographic Studies of Mg-Herbertsmithite, γ-Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2-A New S = 1/2 Kagome Magnet and Candidate Spin Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R H; Sinclair, A; Wills, A S [UCL

    2011-09-06

    Studies are presented of the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new quantum kagome magnet Mg-herbertsmithite, γ-Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2. The material features strong antiferromagnetic exchange characterized by a Weiss temperature of θw ≃ -284 K and a gradual buildup of short-ranged antiferromagnetic correlations upon cooling. No magnetic transition is observed until TC ≃ 4-5 K when a small ferromagnetic component orders; susceptibility measurements indicate that this transition is due to an impurity and that there is no evidence of a magnetic transition in the herbertsmithite phase whose spins appear to remain dynamic down to the lowest temperatures studied.

  14. Spontaneous formation of kagome network and Dirac half-semimetal on a triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2015-04-01

    In spin-charge coupled systems, geometrical frustration of underlying lattice structures can give rise to nontrivial magnetic orders and electronic states. Here we explore such a possibility in the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins on a triangular lattice by using a variational calculation and simulated annealing. We find that the system exhibits a four-sublattice collinear ferrimagnetic phase at 5/8 filling for a large Hund's-rule coupling. In this state, the system spontaneously differentiates into the up-spin kagome network and the isolated down-spin sites, which we call the kagome network formation. In the kagome network state, the system becomes Dirac half-semimetallic: The electronic structure shows a massless Dirac node at the Fermi level, and the Dirac electrons are almost fully spin polarized due to the large Hund's-rule coupling. We also study the effect of off-site Coulomb repulsion in the kagome network phase where the system is effectively regarded as a 1/3-filling spinless fermion system on the kagome lattice. We find that, at the level of the mean-field approximation, a √{3 }×√{3 } -type charge order occurs in the kagome network state, implying the possibility of fractional charge excitations in this triangular lattice system. Moreover, we demonstrate that the kagome network formation with fully polarized Dirac electrons are controllable by an external magnetic field.

  15. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice – we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  16. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M S; Pappas, S D; Stopfel, H; Östman, E; Stein, A; Nordblad, P; Mathieu, R; Hjörvarsson, B; Kapaklis, V

    2016-11-24

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  17. DC Magnetization and FMR results of Fibonacci Distortions on the Honeycomb Artificial Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Justin; Farmer, Barry; Hastings, Todd; Visak, Justin; de Long, Lance

    Nanofabrication techniques allow magnetic thin films to be lithographically-patterned into arrays of interacting macro-spins that can be designed to study emergent physical properties. Here we discuss the effects of continuous symmetry breaking on the equilibrium and dynamic magnetic properties of frustrated magnetic metamaterials. We have pattered five Permalloy (Ni0.80Fe0.20) samples of distorted Kagome ASI arrays that are generated by repeated application of a substitution algorithm. This algorithm employs an aperiodic Fibonacci sequence of binary digits that can be mapped into short (d1) and long (d2) distances. This distorts film segment lengths while the width (nominally 70 nm) and thickness (25 nm) remain constant. Additionally, the coordination of each three-fold Kagome vertex is continuously modified via these distortions. Micromagnetic simulations predict the Fibonacci distortions causes jamming of Dirac String propagation. We report DC magnetization and FMR dispersion for different magnitudes of distortion, and compare these results to simulation. Research at University of Kentucky supported by U.S. Nationsal Science Foundation Grant No. DMR-1506979.

  18. Density matrix renormalization group numerical study of the kagome antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H C; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N

    2008-09-12

    We numerically study the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the ground state is a magnetically disordered spin liquid, characterized by an exponential decay of spin-spin correlation function in real space and a magnetic structure factor showing system-size independent peaks at commensurate magnetic wave vectors. We obtain a spin triplet excitation gap DeltaE(S=1)=0.055+/-0.005 by extrapolation based on the large size results, and confirm the presence of gapless singlet excitations. The physical nature of such an exotic spin liquid is also discussed.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the magnetization dynamics of an artificial square spin ice cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail: pohlit@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Stockem, Irina; Schröder, Christian [Bielefeld Institute for Applied Materials Research, FH Bielefeld-University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2016-10-14

    We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the magnetization dynamics of an artificial square spin ice cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Stockem, Irina; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Schröder, Christian; Müller, Jens

    2016-10-01

    We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.

  1. Low field domain wall dynamics in artificial spin-ice basis structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Goolaup, S.; Lim, G. J.; Kerk, I. S.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Chang, C. H., E-mail: echchang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Roy, K. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Artificial magnetic spin-ice nanostructures provide an ideal platform for the observation of magnetic monopoles. The formation of a magnetic monopole is governed by the motion of a magnetic charge carrier via the propagation of domain walls (DWs) in a lattice. To date, most experiments have been on the static visualization of DW propagation in the lattice. In this paper, we report on the low field dynamics of DW in a unit spin-ice structure measured by magnetoresistance changes. Our results show that reversible DW propagation can be initiated within the spin-ice basis. The initial magnetization configuration of the unit structure strongly influences the direction of DW motion in the branches. Single or multiple domain wall nucleation can be induced in the respective branches of the unit spin ice by the direction of the applied field.

  2. Frustration in a patterned array of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands: Artificial Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low temperature states including ``spin ice'', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water. Our group has performed extensive studies of spin ice materials, and we have developed and studied an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet which shares many of the properties of the spin ice materials. This artificial frustrated system is an array of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic islands. The islands are arranged such that the dipolar interactions between them are analogous to those in spin ice. Images of the magnetic moments of individual elements in this correlated system allow us to study the local accommodation of frustration. We see both ice-like short range correlations and an absence of long range correlations, behavior which is very similar to the low temperature state of spin ice. We have extended these studies to include theoretical analysis of the disordered state of moments. We have also used these arrays to analyze the process of demagnetization, which is necessary to access low energy collective states in our arrays and in many other magnetic systems. Our results shed light on the nature of frustration in patterned arrays and correspondingly demonstrate that artificial frustrated magnets can provide a rich new arena in which to study the physics of frustration. References: R. F. Wang et al. (Nature 2006 and Journal of Applied Physics 2007); C. Nisoli et al. (Physical Review Letters 2007).

  3. Kagome network compounds and their novel magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2008-10-21

    Compounds possessing the Kagome network are truly interesting because of their unusual low-energy properties. They exhibit magnetic frustration because of the triangular lattice inherent to the hexagonal bronze structure they possess, as indeed demonstrated by some of the Fe(3+) jarosites, but this is not the general case. Kagome compounds formed by transition metal ions with varying spins exhibit novel magnetic properties, some even showing evidence for magnetic order and absence of frustration. We describe the structure and magnetic properties of this interesting class of materials and attempt to provide an explanation for the variety of properties on the basis of theoretical considerations.

  4. Low-temperature Spin-Ice State of Quantum Heisenberg Magnets on Pyrochlore Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    We establish that the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on pyrochlore lattice enters a spin-ice state at low, but finite, temperature. Our conclusions are based on results of the bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate good convergence of the skeleton series down to temperature T = J/6. The ``smoking gun'' identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for static spin-spin correlation function between the quantum Heisenberg and classical Heisenberg/Ising models at all accessible temperatures. In particular, at T/J = 1/6, the momentum dependence shows a characteristic bow-tie pattern with pinch points. By numerical analytical continuation method, we also obtain the dynamic structure factor at real frequencies, showing a diffusive spinon dynamics at pinch points and spin wave continuum along the nodal lines.?

  5. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisoli, Cristiano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-23

    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. The frustration of the two models, one describing colloids and vortices, the other describing spin ice, differs essentially. However, their effective energetics is made identical by the contribution of an emergent field associated to a topological charge. This equivalence extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, yet breaks down in lattices of mixed coordination, because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices.

  6. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  7. Unconventional fermi surface instabilities in the kagome Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Maximilian L; Platt, Christian; Thomale, Ronny

    2013-03-22

    We investigate the competing Fermi surface instabilities in the kagome tight-binding model. Specifically, we consider on-site and short-range Hubbard interactions in the vicinity of van Hove filling of the dispersive kagome bands where the fermiology promotes the joint effect of enlarged density of states and nesting. The sublattice interference mechanism devised by Kiesel and Thomale [Phys. Rev. B 86, 121105 (2012)] allows us to explain the intricate interplay between ferromagnetic fluctuations and other ordering tendencies. On the basis of the functional renormalization group used to obtain an adequate low-energy theory description, we discover finite angular momentum spin and charge density wave order, a twofold degenerate d-wave Pomeranchuk instability, and f-wave superconductivity away from van Hove filling. Together, this makes the kagome Hubbard model the prototypical scenario for several unconventional Fermi surface instabilities.

  8. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  9. Magnetic properties of doped kagomé antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsune, Takashi; Ogata, Masao

    In order to clarify the carrier doping effect in the frustrated system, we study the t-J model on the kagomé lattice using high-temperature expansion method. As in the triangular lattice [T. Koretsune, M. Ogata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 116401], the sign of hopping integral t is important in the kagomé lattice. When tOgata, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72 (2003) 2437]. On the contrary, in the case of t>0, it is found that uniform spin susceptibility is strongly suppressed with hole doping. The peak of spin susceptibility, which is expected to be around T=J/20 in the Heisenberg model, goes to high temperature region. Furthermore, short-range magnetic correlation is enhanced with hole doping. This is interesting since nearest-neighbor spin correlation without hole doping itself is strongly enhanced by quantum fluctuation. These behavior are qualitatively similar to those of the triangular lattice. However, the difference from non-frustrated lattices as square lattice is more prominent in the kagomé lattice, which is related to the fact that frustration in the kagomé lattice is strong enough to destabilize the magnetic order in the Heisenberg model even at T=0.

  10. Magnetic Ground States of the Rare-Earth Tripod Kagome Lattice Mg_{2}RE_{3}Sb_{3}O_{14} (RE=Gd,Dy,Er).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z L; Trinh, J; Li, K; Lee, M; Chen, K W; Baumbach, R; Hu, Y F; Wang, Y X; Choi, E S; Shastry, B S; Ramirez, A P; Zhou, H D

    2016-04-15

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of a new compound family, Mg_{2}RE_{3}Sb_{3}O_{14} (RE=Gd,Dy,Er), with a hitherto unstudied frustrating lattice, the "tripod kagome" structure. Susceptibility (ac, dc) and specific heat exhibit features that are understood within a simple Luttinger-Tisza-type theory. For RE=Gd, we found long-ranged order (LRO) at 1.65 K, which is consistent with a 120° structure, demonstrating the importance of diople interactions for this 2D Heisenberg system. For RE=Dy, LRO at 0.37 K is related to the "kagome spin ice" physics for a 2D system. This result shows that the tripod kagome structure accelerates the transition to LRO predicted for the related pyrochlore systems. For RE=Er, two transitions, at 80 mK and 2.1 K are observed, suggesting the importance of quantum fluctuations for this putative XY system.

  11. Loop algorithm for classical Heisenberg models with spin-ice type degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaoka, Hiroshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2010-10-01

    In many frustrated Ising models, a single-spin flip dynamics is frozen out at low temperatures compared to the dominant interaction energy scale because of the discrete “multiple valley” structure of degenerate ground-state manifold. This makes it difficult to study low-temperature physics of these frustrated systems by using Monte Carlo simulation with the standard single-spin flip algorithm. A typical example is the so-called spin-ice model, frustrated ferromagnets on the pyrochlore lattice. The difficulty can be avoided by a global-flip algorithm, the loop algorithm, that enables to sample over the entire discrete manifold and to investigate low-temperature properties. We extend the loop algorithm to Heisenberg spin systems with strong easy-axis anisotropy in which the ground-state manifold is continuous but still retains the spin-ice type degeneracy. We examine different ways of loop flips and compare their efficiency. The extended loop algorithm is applied to two models, a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy along the z axis, and a Heisenberg spin-ice model with the local ⟨111⟩ easy-axis anisotropy. For both models, we demonstrate high efficiency of our loop algorithm by revealing the low-temperature properties which were hard to access by the standard single-spin flip algorithm. For the former model, we examine the possibility of order from disorder and critically check its absence. For the latter model, we elucidate a gas-liquid-solid transition, namely, crossover or phase transition among paramagnet, spin-ice liquid, and ferromagnetically ordered ice-rule state.

  12. Inhomogeneous magnetism in the doped kagome lattice of LaCuO2.66

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, M.-H. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magn´etiques Intenses; Simonet, V [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF; Canals, B. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Bordet, Pierre [Laboratoire of Cristallographie, Grenoble; Darie, Celine [Laboratoire of Cristallographie, Grenoble

    2013-01-01

    The hole-doped kagome lattice of Cu2+ ions in LaCuO2.66 was investigated by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), electron spin resonance (ESR), electrical resistivity, bulk magnetization and specific heat measurements. For temperatures above 180 K, the spin and charge properties show an activated behavior suggestive of a narrow-gap semiconductor. At lower temperatures, the results indicate an insulating ground state which may or may not be charge ordered. While the frustrated spins in remaining patches of the original kagome lattice might not be directly detected here, the observation of coexisting non-magnetic sites, free spins and frozen moments reveals an intrinsically inhomogeneous magnetism. Numerical simulations of a 1/3-diluted kagome lattice rationalize this magnetic state in terms of a heterogeneous distribution of cluster sizes and morphologies near the site-percolation threshold.

  13. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  14. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of an amine-templated Mn2+ (S = 5/2) sulfate with the Kagome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, J N; Rao, C N R

    2007-02-14

    In pursuit of a compound with the Kagome structure, formed by a non-Fe(3+) transitional metal ion with a spin of 5/2, we have synthesized an amine-templated Mn(2+) sulfate under solvothermal conditions. This compound with a perfect Kagome structure shows evidence for antiferromagnetic interactions with no long-range order.

  15. Effect of long- and short-range interactions on the thermodynamics of dipolar spin ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Yuriy, E-mail: shevchenko.ya@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Makarov, Aleksandr, E-mail: makarov.ag@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Nefedev, Konstantin, E-mail: nefedev.kv@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Mathematics of Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 7 Radio Str, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-05

    The thermodynamic properties of dipolar spin ice on square, honeycomb and shakti lattices in the long-range and short-range dipole interaction models are studied. Exact solutions for the density of states, temperature dependencies of heat capacity, and entropy are obtained for these lattices with a finite number of point dipoles by means of complete enumeration. The magnetic susceptibility and average size of the largest low-energy cluster are calculated for square spin ice by means of Wang–Landau and Metropolis methods. We show that the long-range interaction leads to a blurring of the energy spectrum for all considered lattices. The inclusion of the long-range interaction leads to a significant change in the thermodynamic behaviour. An additional peak of heat capacity appears in the case of the honeycomb lattice. The critical temperature shifts in the direction of low or high temperatures; the direction depends on the lattice geometry. The critical temperature of the phase transition of square spin ice in the long-range model with frustrated ground states is obtained with the Wang–Landau and Metropolis methods independently. - Highlights: • The long-range and short-range dipole interaction effects are compared. • Differences are showed for Honeycomb, Shakti and Square spin ice lattices. • The additional heat capacity peaks appear for long-range interaction. • The temperature of heat capacity peak shifts while changing the interaction range.

  16. Modal analysis of kagome-lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H.; Blakley, S.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The first few lowest order circularly symmetric electromagnetic eigenmodes of a full kagome lattice are compared to those of a kagome lattice with a hexagonal defect. This analysis offers important insights into the physics behind the waveguiding properties of hollow-core fibers with a kagome-lattice cladding.

  17. Spin-Ice State of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We study the low-temperature physics of the SU(2)-symmetric spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice and find "fingerprint" evidence for the thermal spin-ice state in this frustrated quantum magnet. Our conclusions are based on the results of bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations, with good convergence of the skeleton series down to the temperature T /J =1 /6 . The identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for the static structure factor between the quantum Heisenberg, classical Heisenberg, and Ising models at all accessible temperatures, and the characteristic bowtie pattern with pinch points observed at T /J =1 /6 . The dynamic structure factor at real frequencies (obtained by the analytic continuation of numerical data) is consistent with diffusive spinon dynamics at the pinch points.

  18. Numerical evidence of quantum melting of spin ice: quantum-classical crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Shigeki

    2015-03-01

    Unbiased quantum Monte-Carlo simulations are performed on the simplest case of the quantum spin ice model, namely, the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice with an antiferromagnetic longitudinal and a weak ferromagnetic transverse exchange couplings, J and J⊥. On cooling across TCSI ~ 0 . 2 J , the specific heat shows a broad peak associated with a crossover to a classical Coulomb liquid regime characterized by a remnant of the pinch-point singularity in longitudinal spin correlations as well as the Pauling ice entropy for | J⊥ | J⊥ c ~ - 0 . 104 J , as expected for bosonic quantum Coulomb liquids. With negatively increasing J⊥ across J⊥ c, a first-order transition occurs at a nonzero temperature from the quantum Coulomb liquid to an XY ferromagnet. Relevance to magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore oxides is discussed.

  19. Spin-Ice State of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-04-29

    We study the low-temperature physics of the SU(2)-symmetric spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice and find "fingerprint" evidence for the thermal spin-ice state in this frustrated quantum magnet. Our conclusions are based on the results of bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations, with good convergence of the skeleton series down to the temperature T/J=1/6. The identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for the static structure factor between the quantum Heisenberg, classical Heisenberg, and Ising models at all accessible temperatures, and the characteristic bowtie pattern with pinch points observed at T/J=1/6. The dynamic structure factor at real frequencies (obtained by the analytic continuation of numerical data) is consistent with diffusive spinon dynamics at the pinch points.

  20. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  1. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  2. Stable kagome lattices from group IV elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, O.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.

    2015-03-01

    A thorough investigation of three-dimensional kagome lattices of group IV elements is performed with first-principles calculations. The investigated kagome lattices of silicon and germanium are found to be of similar stability as the recently proposed carbon kagome lattice. Carbon and silicon kagome lattices are both direct-gap semiconductors but they have qualitatively different electronic band structures. While direct optical transitions between the valence and conduction bands are allowed in the carbon case, no such transitions can be observed for silicon. The kagome lattice of germanium exhibits semimetallic behavior but can be transformed into a semiconductor after compression.

  3. Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.

  4. Low-energy electrodynamics of novel spin excitations in the quantum spin ice Yb₂Ti₂O₇.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, LiDong; Kim, Se Kwon; Ghosh, A; Morris, Christopher M; Ross, Kate A; Kermarrec, Edwin; Gaulin, Bruce D; Koohpayeh, S M; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Armitage, N P

    2014-09-18

    In condensed matter systems, formation of long-range order (LRO) is often accompanied by new excitations. However, in many geometrically frustrated magnetic systems, conventional LRO is suppressed, while non-trivial spin correlations are still observed. A natural question to ask is then what is the nature of the excitations in this highly correlated state without broken symmetry? Frequently, applying a symmetry breaking field stabilizes excitations whose properties reflect certain aspects of the anomalous state without LRO. Here we report a THz spectroscopy study of novel excitations in quantum spin ice Yb2Ti2O7 under a directed magnetic field. At large positive fields, both right- and left-handed magnon and two-magnon-like excitations are observed. The g-factors of these excitations are dramatically enhanced in the low-field limit, showing a crossover of these states into features consistent with the quantum string-like excitations proposed to exist in quantum spin ice in small fields.

  5. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-07-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  6. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-06-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  7. Topological thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    In frustrated magnets the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling can induce a magnetic long-range order. Here, we report a theoretical prediction of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as KCr3(OH) 6(SO4) 2 and KFe3(OH) 6(SO4)2 . The thermal Hall effects in these materials are induced by scalar spin chirality as opposed to DMI in previous studies. The scalar spin chirality originates from the magnetic-field-induced chiral spin configuration due to noncoplanar spin textures, but in general it can be spontaneously developed as a macroscopic order parameter in chiral quantum spin liquids. Therefore, we infer that there is a possibility of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 and the chromium compound Ca10Cr7O28 , although they also show evidence of magnetic long-range order in the presence of applied magnetic field or pressure.

  8. Localized structures in Kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Avadh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Law, K J H [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS; Kevrekidis, P G [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.

  9. Propagation and ghosts in the classical kagome antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, J; Canals, B; Simonet, V; Ballou, R

    2008-09-12

    We investigate the classical spin dynamics of the kagome antiferromagnet by combining Monte Carlo and spin dynamics simulations. We show that this model has two distinct low temperature dynamical regimes, both sustaining propagative modes. The expected gauge invariance type of the low energy, low temperature, out-of-plane excitations is also evidenced in the nonlinear regime. A detailed analysis of the excitations allows us to identify ghosts in the dynamical structure factor, i.e., propagating excitations with a strongly reduced spectral weight. We argue that these dynamical extinction rules are of geometrical origin.

  10. Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V. S.; Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.

  11. Topological Magnon Bands in a Kagome Lattice Ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, R; Helton, J S; Freedman, D E; Singh, D K; Bewley, R I; Nocera, D G; Lee, Y S

    2015-10-02

    There is great interest in finding materials possessing quasiparticles with topological properties. Such materials may have novel excitations that exist on their boundaries which are protected against disorder. We report experimental evidence that magnons in an insulating kagome ferromagnet can have a topological band structure. Our neutron scattering measurements further reveal that one of the bands is flat due to the unique geometry of the kagome lattice. Spin wave calculations show that the measured band structure follows from a simple Heisenberg Hamiltonian with a Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction. This serves as the first realization of an effectively two-dimensional topological magnon insulator--a new class of magnetic material that should display both a magnon Hall effect and protected chiral edge modes.

  12. Topological Magnon Bands in a Kagome Lattice Ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, R.; Helton, J. S.; Freedman, D. E.; Singh, D. K.; Bewley, R. I.; Nocera, D. G.; Lee, Y. S.

    2015-10-01

    There is great interest in finding materials possessing quasiparticles with topological properties. Such materials may have novel excitations that exist on their boundaries which are protected against disorder. We report experimental evidence that magnons in an insulating kagome ferromagnet can have a topological band structure. Our neutron scattering measurements further reveal that one of the bands is flat due to the unique geometry of the kagome lattice. Spin wave calculations show that the measured band structure follows from a simple Heisenberg Hamiltonian with a Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction. This serves as the first realization of an effectively two-dimensional topological magnon insulator—a new class of magnetic material that should display both a magnon Hall effect and protected chiral edge modes.

  13. Effect of long- and short-range interactions on the thermodynamics of dipolar spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yuriy; Makarov, Aleksandr; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamic properties of dipolar spin ice on square, honeycomb and shakti lattices in the long-range and short-range dipole interaction models are studied. Exact solutions for the density of states, temperature dependencies of heat capacity, and entropy are obtained for these lattices with a finite number of point dipoles by means of complete enumeration. The magnetic susceptibility and average size of the largest low-energy cluster are calculated for square spin ice by means of Wang-Landau and Metropolis methods. We show that the long-range interaction leads to a blurring of the energy spectrum for all considered lattices. The inclusion of the long-range interaction leads to a significant change in the thermodynamic behaviour. An additional peak of heat capacity appears in the case of the honeycomb lattice. The critical temperature shifts in the direction of low or high temperatures; the direction depends on the lattice geometry. The critical temperature of the phase transition of square spin ice in the long-range model with frustrated ground states is obtained with the Wang-Landau and Metropolis methods independently.

  14. Dynamics of Bound Monopoles in Artificial Spin Ice: How to Store Energy in Dirac Strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedmedenko, E Y

    2016-02-19

    Dirac strings in spin ices are lines of reversed dipoles joining two quasiparticle excitations. These excitations behave as unbound emergent monopoles if the tension of Dirac strings vanishes. In this Letter, analytical and numerical analysis are used to study the dynamics of two-dimensional dipolar spin ices, artificially created analogs of bulk spin ice, in the regime of bound monopoles. It is shown that, in this regime, strings, rather than monopoles, are effective degrees of freedom explaining the finite-width band of Pauling states. A measurable prediction of path-time dependence of endpoints of a stretched and, then, released Dirac string is made and verified via simulations. It is shown that string dynamics is defined by the characteristic tension-to-mass ratio, which is determined by the fine structure constant and lattice dependent parameter. It is proposed to use string tension to achieve spontaneous magnetic currents. A concept of an energy storing device on the basis of this principle is proposed and illustrated by an experimental demonstration. A scheme of independent measurement at the nanoscale is proposed.

  15. Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, V.S., E-mail: vinayak.bhat@uky.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3112 (United States); Hastings, J.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); De Long, L.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We studied magnetic reversal in a fivefold rotational symmetric artificial quasicrystal spin ice. • Our experiments and simulations suggest the presence of non-stochastic switching in the quasicrystal. • Simulations reveal a strong connection between FM reversal and formation of vortex loops in the quasicrystal. • Our study shows that the magnetic reversal in the artificial quasicrystal is a collective phenomenon. - Abstract: Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.

  16. Nanocluster building blocks of artificial square spin ice: Stray-field studies of thermal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail: pohlit@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present measurements of the thermal dynamics of a Co-based single building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition. We employ micro-Hall magnetometry, an ultra-sensitive tool to study the stray field emanating from magnetic nanostructures, as a new technique to access the dynamical properties during the magnetization reversal of the spin-ice nanocluster. The obtained hysteresis loop exhibits distinct steps, displaying a reduction of their “coercive field” with increasing temperature. Therefore, thermally unstable states could be repetitively prepared by relatively simple temperature and field protocols allowing one to investigate the statistics of their switching behavior within experimentally accessible timescales. For a selected switching event, we find a strong reduction of the so-prepared states' “survival time” with increasing temperature and magnetic field. Besides the possibility to control the lifetime of selected switching events at will, we find evidence for a more complex behavior caused by the special spin ice arrangement of the macrospins, i.e., that the magnetic reversal statistically follows distinct “paths” most likely driven by thermal perturbation.

  17. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.

    2017-04-01

    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole–antipole pairs, possibly having Bose–Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  18. Magnetic properties in kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the kagomé lattice have been studied with Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions in a spin-7/2 Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. The RKKY interaction between the two magnetic layers is considered for different distances. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities of this lattice are given for different triquadratic interactions around each triangular face. The critical temperature is obtained for a fixed size. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of kagomé lattice with RKKY interactions is obtained for different temperatures and for different crystal field with a fixed size of nonmagnetic layer.

  19. Archimedean Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Eloranta, Kari

    2009-01-01

    The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

  20. Magnetic spin structure of geometrically frustrated Co{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokita, Masahiko; Zenmyo, Kazuko, E-mail: tokita@fit.ac.j, E-mail: zenmyo@fit.ac.j [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Wajirohigashi, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic structure of a geometrically frustrated system Co{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} is determined by comparing the observed proton NMR spectrum with many magnetic models. The best fit model is obtained as that the magnetic moments of Co{sup 2+} ions in the triangular plane are parallel to the principal axis of local crystal field and those of Co{sup 2+} ions in the kagome lattice plane are randomly disordered in the a-b plane. Furthermore, the Co{sup 2+} ions in the triangular plane have a smaller magnitude of magnetic moment than those in the kagome plane. Our result suggests that the compound Co{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} is different from the 'spin ice' in magnetic structure, although the crystal structure is similar to rare earth pyrochlores.

  1. A measure of monopole inertia in the quantum spin ice Yb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lidong; Laurita, N. J.; Ross, Kate A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Armitage, N. P.

    2016-04-01

    An important and continuing theme of modern solid state physics is the realization of exotic excitations in materials, known as quasiparticles, that have no analogy in the actual physical vacuum of free space. Although they are not fundamental, such quasiparticles do constitute the most basic description of the excited states of the `vacuum' in which they reside. In this regard the magnetic textures of the excited states of spin ices, magnetic pyrochlore oxides with dominant Ising interactions, have been proposed to behave as effective magnetic charge monopoles. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have established the pyrochlore material Yb2Ti2O7 (YbTO) as a quantum spin ice, where, in addition to the Ising interactions, there are substantial transverse terms that may induce quantum dynamics and--in principle--coherent monopole motion. Here we report a combined time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) and microwave cavity study of YbTO to probe its complex dynamic magnetic susceptibility. We find that the form of the susceptibility is consistent with that of a monopole gas, and a magnetic monopole conductivity can be defined and measured. Using the phase sensitive capabilities of these techniques, we observe a sign change in the reactive part of the magnetic response. In generic models of magnetic excitations this is possible only by introducing inertial effects, such as a mass-dependent term, to the equations of motion. Analogous to conventional electric charge systems, measurement of the conductivity's spectral weight allows us to derive a value for the magnetic monopole mass. Our results support the idea of magnetic monopoles of quantum spin ice as the true coherently propagating quasiparticles of this system.

  2. The Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square-kagomé lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the ground state, the low-lying excitations as well as high-field thermodynamics of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the two-dimensional square-kagomé lattice. This magnetic system belongs to the class of highly frustrated spin systems with an infinite non-trivial degeneracy of the classical ground state as it is also known for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagomé and on the star lattice. The quantum ground state of the spin-half system is a quantum paramagnet with a finite spin gap and with a large number of non-magnetic excitations within this gap. We also discuss the magnetization versus field curve that shows a plateaux as well as a macroscopic magnetization jump to saturation due to independent localized magnon states. These localized states are highly degenerate and lead to interesting features in the low-temperature thermodynamics at high magnetic fields such as an additional low-temperature peak in the specific heat and an enhanced magnetocaloric effect.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerzhakov, H V; Plumer, M L; Whitehead, J P

    2016-05-18

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerzhakov, H. V.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  5. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Júnior, D. S., E-mail: damiao.vieira@ifsudestemg.edu.br [Departamento Acadêmico de Matemática, Física e Estatística, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais - Câmpus Rio Pomba, Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais 36180-000 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Leonel, S. A., E-mail: sidiney@fisica.ufjf.br; Dias, R. A., E-mail: radias@fisica.ufjf.br; Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br; Coura, P. Z., E-mail: pablo@fisica.ufjf.br; Sato, F., E-mail: sjfsato@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  6. Experimental signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative magnetic monopoles in spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, C.; Giblin, S. R.; Lhotel, E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Matsuhira, K.; Bramwell, S. T.

    2016-07-01

    A non-Ohmic current that grows exponentially with the square root of applied electric field is well known from thermionic field emission (the Schottky effect), electrolytes (the second Wien effect) and semiconductors (the Poole-Frenkel effect). It is a universal signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative electrical charges, which is revealed as the charges are driven in opposite directions by the force of an applied electric field. Here we apply thermal quenches to spin ice to prepare metastable populations of bound pairs of positive and negative emergent magnetic monopoles at millikelvin temperatures. We find that the application of a magnetic field results in a universal exponential-root field growth of magnetic current, thus confirming the microscopic Coulomb force between the magnetic monopole quasiparticles and establishing a magnetic analogue of the Poole-Frenkel effect. At temperatures above 300 mK, gradual restoration of kinetic monopole equilibria causes the non-Ohmic current to smoothly evolve into the high-field Wien effect for magnetic monopoles, as confirmed by comparison to a recent and rigorous theory of the Wien effect in spin ice. Our results extend the universality of the exponential-root field form into magnetism and illustrate the power of emergent particle kinetics to describe far-from-equilibrium response in complex systems.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Nuclear Spin Conversion in Interstellar Pre-Cometary Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    1992-07-01

    High resolution infrared spectroscopy of the H2O upsilon(sub)3 band in Comets P/Halley and Wilson has permitted measurement of individual rotational line intensities (Larson et al. 1989). Mumma et al. (1988) suggested that cosmogonic information is preserved in the relative abundances of the nuclear spin species. The H2O molecule is organized into ortho and para species. In order that the total wave function remain symmetric with respect to H atom exchange, o-species have only asymmetric rotational levels, while p-species have only symmetric levels. The lowest ortho level lies 24 cm^-1 (34 degrees K) above the lowest para level, so the ortho/para ratio will be temperature dependent. Above 60 degrees K, o/p achieves the constant statistical equilibrium value of 3/1. Spin species conversion is prohibited by collisional and radiative processes, and requires a strong nonuniform magnetic field. It is hypothesized that cometary water began as a thin layer of ice condensed on grains in cold interstellar molecular clouds. This ice was subject to UV radiation Wilson, might be expected to show a statistically equilibrated o/p, whereas a short-period comet, such as P/Halley, might show o/p characteristic of its formation. It also appears that D/H in cometary ice was established in interstellar cloud cores, and did not later equilibrate with nebular gas. D/H for Comet P/Halley lies in the range 6-48 x 10^-5 (Eberhardt et al. 1987), much higher than the diffuse ISM, protosolar, Jupiter, and Saturn values (0.5-3.6 x 10^-5). The cometary range is comparable to D/H for Earth (16 x 10^-5) as well as Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, indicating that these bodies acquired their hydrogen in the form of ices as opposed to nebular H2. Similarly, the D/H range for carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites is high (8-105 x 10^-5), and is thought to reflect incorporation of insterstellar material into meteorites (Zinner, 1988). We have developed a novel experimental apparatus to study nuclear spin

  8. Artificial spin ice: from scientific toy to material by design (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter; Gilbert, Ian

    2015-09-01

    Frustration, the presence of constraints/interactions that cannot be completely satisfied, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences as well as in life and a source of degeneracy and disorder which gives rise to new and interesting physical phenomena. In the past years a new perspective has opened in the study of frustration through the creation of artificial frustrated magnetic systems, consisting of arrays of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic nanostructures that behave like giant Ising spins. The interactions can be controlled through their geometric properties and arrangement: The degrees of freedom of the material can be directly tuned, but also individually observed. Experimental studies have unearthed intriguing connections to the out-of-equilibrium physics of disordered systems and non-thermal "granular" materials, while revealing strong analogies to spin ice materials and their fractionalized magnetic monopole excitations, lending the enterprise a distinctly interdisciplinary flavor. In this talk we outline the more recent developments and future vistas for progress in this rapidly expanding field. We show how recent results have opened paths to new territories. Higher control, inclusive of genuine thermal ensembles have replaced the earlier and coarser methods based on magnetic agitation. Dynamical versions are now being realized, characterized in real time via PEEM, revealing statistical mechanics in action. This has lead us to afford implementation of new geometries, not found in nature, for dedicated bottom up design of desired emergent properties. Born as a scientific toy to investigate frustration-by-design, artificial spin ice might now be used to open "a path into an uncharted territory, a landscape of advanced functional materials in which topological effects on physical properties can be explored and harnessed."

  9. Dirac strings and magnetic monopoles in the spin ice, Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, David Jonathan Pryce; Czternasty, Clemens; Meissner, Michael; Rule, Kirrily; Hoffmann, Jens-Uwe; Kiefer, Klaus [Helmholtz Center for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Tennant, Alan; Klemke, Bastian [Helmholtz Center for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Grigera, Santiago [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos, La Plata (Argentina); Castelnovo, Claudio [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Moessner, Roderich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden (Germany); Slobinsky, Damien [St. Andrews University (United Kingdom); Perry, Robin [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Recent proposals in condensed matter physics that magnetic monopoles can appear as emergent quasiparticles have attracted wide levels of interest. Dirac's original picture of magnetic monopoles had them connected to strings through which magnetic flux flowed. Here we report studies into a system called Spin Ice, where spins obey ''ice rules'' of 2 spins into and 2 spins out of their tetrahedron. In these materials it has been predicted that strings of spins form via a 3D Kasteleyn transition. The geometry of spin-ice allows for net magnetic charge (magnetic monopoles) to form where ''ice rules'' are broken at the tips of the strings. Here we present three experimental pieces of evidence for these strings and magnetic monopoles.

  10. Observation of flat band for terahertz coupled plasmon in metallic kagom\\'e lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2012-01-01

    We study the dispersion relation of a metamaterial composed of metallic discs and bars arranged to have kagom\\'{e} symmetry and find that a plasmonic flat band is formed by the topological nature of the kagom\\'{e} lattice. To confirm the flat band formation, we fabricate the metamaterial and make transmission measurements in the terahertz regime. Two bands formed by transmission minima that depend on the polarization of the incident terahertz beams are observed. One of the bands corresponds to the flat band as confirmed by the fact that the resonant frequency is almost independent of the incident angle.

  11. Pulsed field magnetization in rare-earth kagome systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M. J. R.; Zhou, H. D.; Mun, E.; Harrison, N.

    2016-02-01

    The rare-earth kagome systems R 3Ga5SiO14 (R  =  Nd or Pr) exhibit cooperative paramagnetism at low temperatures. Evidence for correlated spin clusters in these weakly frustrated systems has previously been obtained from neutron scattering and from ESR and NMR results. The present pulsed field (0-60 T, 25 ms) magnetization measurements made on single crystals of Nd3Ga5SiO14 (NGS) and Pr3Ga5SiO14 (PGS) at temperatures down to 450 mK have revealed striking differences in the magnetic responses of the two materials. For NGS the magnetization shows a low field plateau, saturation in high transient fields, and significant hysteresis while the PGS magnetization does not saturate in transient fields up to 60 T and shows no hysteresis or plateaus. Nd3+ is a Kramers ion while Pr3+ is a non-Kramers ion and the crystal field effects are quite different in the two systems. For the conditions used in the experiments the magnetization behavior is not in agreement with Heisenberg model predictions for kagome systems in which easy-axis anisotropy is much larger than the exchange coupling. The extremely slow spin dynamics found below 4 K in NGS is, however, consistent with the model for Kramers ions and provides a basis for explaining the pulsed field magnetization features.

  12. Pulsed field magnetization in rare-earth kagome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M J R; Zhou, H D; Mun, E; Harrison, N

    2016-02-03

    The rare-earth kagome systems R 3Ga5SiO14 (R  =  Nd or Pr) exhibit cooperative paramagnetism at low temperatures. Evidence for correlated spin clusters in these weakly frustrated systems has previously been obtained from neutron scattering and from ESR and NMR results. The present pulsed field (0-60 T, 25 ms) magnetization measurements made on single crystals of Nd3Ga5SiO14 (NGS) and Pr3Ga5SiO14 (PGS) at temperatures down to 450 mK have revealed striking differences in the magnetic responses of the two materials. For NGS the magnetization shows a low field plateau, saturation in high transient fields, and significant hysteresis while the PGS magnetization does not saturate in transient fields up to 60 T and shows no hysteresis or plateaus. Nd(3+) is a Kramers ion while Pr(3+) is a non-Kramers ion and the crystal field effects are quite different in the two systems. For the conditions used in the experiments the magnetization behavior is not in agreement with Heisenberg model predictions for kagome systems in which easy-axis anisotropy is much larger than the exchange coupling. The extremely slow spin dynamics found below 4 K in NGS is, however, consistent with the model for Kramers ions and provides a basis for explaining the pulsed field magnetization features.

  13. Kagome lattice from an exciton-polariton perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, D. R.; Yudin, D.; Iorsh, I. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study a system of microcavity pillars arranged into a kagome lattice. We show that polarization-dependent tunnel coupling of microcavity pillars leads to the emergence of the effective spin-orbit interaction consisting of the Dresselhaus and Rashba terms, similar to the case of polaritonic graphene studied earlier. The appearance of the effective spin-orbit interaction combined with the time-reversal symmetry breaking resulting from the application of the magnetic field leads to the nontrivial topological properties of the Bloch bundles of polaritonic wave function. These are manifested in the opening of the gap in the band structure and topological edge states localized on the boundary. Such states are analogs of the edge states arising in topological insulators. Our study of polarization properties of the edge states clearly demonstrates that opening of the gap is associated with the band inversion in the region of the Dirac points of the Brillouin zone where the two bands corresponding to polaritons of opposite polarizations meet. For one particular type of boundary we observe a highly nonlinear energy dispersion of the edge state which makes a polaritonic kagome lattice a promising system for observation of edge state solitons.

  14. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team

    The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.

  15. Suppression of Pauling's residual entropy in the dilute spin ice (Dy1-xYx) 2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharffe, S.; Breunig, O.; Cho, V.; Laschitzky, P.; Valldor, M.; Welter, J. F.; Lorenz, T.

    2015-11-01

    Around 0.5 K, the entropy of the spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 has a plateau like feature close to Pauling's residual entropy derived originally for water ice, but an unambiguous quantification towards lower temperature is prevented by ultraslow thermal equilibration. Based on the specific-heat data of (Dy1-xYx)2Ti2O7 we analyze the influence of nonmagnetic dilution on the low-temperature entropy. With increasing x , the ultraslow thermal equilibration rapidly vanishes, the low-temperature entropy systematically decreases, and its temperature dependence strongly increases. These data suggest that a nondegenerate ground state is realized in (Dy1-xYx)2Ti2O7 for intermediate dilution. This contradicts the expected zero-temperature residual entropy obtained from a generalization of Pauling's theory for dilute spin ice, but is supported by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Frustrated spin correlations in diluted spin ice Ho{sub 2-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, G; Mamontov, E; Zamponi, M [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 8600, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6475 (United States); Faraone, A; Qiu, Y [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Cornelius, A L [Physics Department, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Booth, C H [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kam, K C; Toquin, R Le; Cheetham, A K [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gardner, J S [NIST Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States)], E-mail: ehlersg@ornl.gov

    2008-06-11

    We have studied the evolution of the structural properties as well as the static and dynamic spin correlations of spin ice Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where Ho was partially replaced by non-magnetic La. The crystal structure of diluted samples Ho{sub 2-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was characterized by x-ray and neutron diffraction and by Ho L{sub III}-edge and Ti K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. It is found that the pyrochlore structure remains intact until about x = 0.3, but a systematic increase in local disorder with increasing La concentration is observed in the EXAFS data, especially from the Ti K edge. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering and ac susceptibility measurements show that, in x{<=}0.4 samples at temperatures above macroscopic freezing, the spin-spin correlations are short ranged and dynamic in nature. The main difference with pure spin ice in the dynamics is the appearance of a second, faster, relaxation process.

  17. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  18. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Murase, Kohta; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 1018 eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  19. Spin Chirality and Hall-Like Transport Phenomena of Spin Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of Hall-type transport of spins in magnetic insulators are reviewed. A general formalism for linear response theory of thermal Hall transport in the spin model is developed, which is general enough to be applicable to both the magnon and the paramagnetic, spin-liquid regimes. The expression of the energy current operator in the spin language is shown to be closely related to the spin chirality operator. Recent experiments on magnon-mediated thermal Hall transport in the two-dimensional kagome, and three-dimensional pyrochlore ferromagnetic insulators are reviewed in light of the multi-band magnon theory of Hall transport, and compared to the more mysterious thermal Hall transport found in the putative quantum spin ice material. As realizations of spin-chirality driven magnon transport in the real space, we review the general theory of emergent gauge fields governing the magnon dynamics in the textured magnet, and discuss its application to the magnon-Skyrmion scattering problem. Topological magnon Hall effect driven by the Skyrmion texture is discussed.

  20. Unveiling the physics of the doped phase of the t - J model on the kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Siegfried; Monien, Hartmut

    2013-08-30

    We investigate the ground state properties of the kagome lattice t - J model at low doping by variational Monte Carlo calculations. The resulting state possesses an interesting balance of spin exchange and kinetic exchange through the building blocks of stars which are linked by triangles and their internal hexagons. While the spin exchange is taking place mainly on the stars, hopping is favored on the hexagons. There is a density modulation, resulting in the holes having an effective static contribution. From this observation, how holes lead to dimerization in this model and why a particular valence bond crystal pattern is formed can be understood. Furthermore, we argue the optimal doping for this state. We discuss our result in connection with static impurities, and show the likely relevance to the diluted kagome lattice Heisenberg model, describing actual compounds.

  1. The 3D Kasteleyn transition in dipolar spin ice: a numerical study with the conserved monopoles algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, M. L.; Borzi, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We study the three-dimensional Kasteleyn transition in both nearest neighbours and dipolar spin ice models using an algorithm that conserves the number of excitations. We first limit the interactions range to nearest neighbours to test the method in the presence of a field applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] , and then focus on the dipolar spin ice model. The effect of dipolar interactions, which is known to be greatly self screened at zero field, is particularly strong near full polarization. It shifts the Kasteleyn transition to lower temperatures, which decreases  ≈0.4 K for the parameters corresponding to the best known spin ice materials, \\text{D}{{\\text{y}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} and \\text{H}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} . This shift implies effective dipolar fields as big as 0.05 T opposing the applied field, and thus favouring the creation of ‘strings’ of reversed spins. We compare the reduction in the transition temperature with results in previous experiments, and study the phenomenon quantitatively using a simple molecular field approach. Finally, we relate the presence of the effective residual field to the appearance of string-ordered phases at low fields and temperatures, and we check numerically that for fields applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] there are only three different stable phases at zero temperature.

  2. Supersymmetry protected topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological isostatic lattice state. Since ground states of magnetic systems also satisfy local constraint conditions (such as the vanishing of the total spin on a triangle), I identify a similar SUSY structure for many common models of antiferromagnets including the square, triangluar, kagome, pyrochlore nearest-neighbor antiferromagnets, and the J2=J1/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet. Remarkably, the kagome family of antiferromagnets is the analog of topological isostatic lattices among this collection of models. Thus, a solid-state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in frustrated magnetic materials.

  3. Weak ferromagnetic order breaking the threefold rotational symmetry of the underlying kagome lattice in CdC u3(OH) 6(NO3)2.H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Ryutaro; Yajima, Takeshi; Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-03-01

    Novel magnetic phases are expected to occur in highly frustrated spin systems. Here, we study the structurally perfect kagome antiferromagnet CdC u3(OH) 6(NO3)2.H2O by magnetization, magnetic torque, and heat capacity measurements using single crystals. An antiferromagnetic order accompanied by a small spontaneous magnetization that surprisingly is confined in the kagome plane sets in at TN˜4 K , well below the nearest-neighbor exchange interaction J /kB=45 K . This suggests that a unique "q =0 " type 120∘ spin structure with "negative" (downward) vector chirality, which breaks the underlying threefold rotational symmetry of the kagome lattice and thus allows a spin canting within the plane, is exceptionally realized in this compound rather than a common one with "positive" (upward) vector chirality. The origin is discussed in terms of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  4. Brillouin light scattering study of magnetic-element normal modes in a square artificial spin ice geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gubbiotti, G.; Casoli, F.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; Morley, S. A.; Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H.; Marrows, C. H.; McVitie, S.; Stamps, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    We report the results, from experimental and micromagnetic studies, of the magnetic normal modes in artificial square spin ice systems consisting of ferromagnetic-monodomain islands. Spin-wave properties are measured by Brillouin light scattering. The mode spectra contain several branches whose frequencies are sensitive to the magnitude and in-plane orientation of an applied magnetic field. We also identify soft modes that exhibit different behaviours depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The obtained results are well described with micromagnetic simulations of independent magnetic elements arranged along two sublattices.

  5. Color ice states, weathervane modes, and order by disorder in the bilinear-biquadratic pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Gingras, Michel J. P.

    2016-11-01

    We study the pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet with additional positive biquadratic interaction in the semiclassical limit. The classical ground-state manifold of the model contains an extensively large family of noncoplanar spin states known as "color ice states." Starting from a color ice state, a subset of spins may rotate collectively at no energy cost. Such excitation may be viewed in this three-dimensional system as a "membranelike" analog of the well-known weathervane modes in the classical kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We investigate the weathervane modes in detail and elucidate their physical properties. Furthermore, we study the order by disorder phenomenon in this model, focusing on the role of harmonic fluctuations. Our computationally limited phase space search suggests that quantum fluctuations select three different states as the magnitude of the biquadratic interaction increases relative to the bilinear interaction, implying a sequence of phase transitions solely driven by fluctuations.

  6. The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagomé lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2011-09-14

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagomé lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the Γ point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effe

  7. Magnetic Properties and Thermal Entanglement on a Triangulated Kagome Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikian, N S; Chakhmakhchyan, L A; Kocharian, A N

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic and entanglement thermal (equilibrium) properties in spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a triangulated Kagome lattice are analyzed by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. Because of the separable character of Ising-type exchange interactions between the Heisenberg trimers the calculation of quantum entanglement in a self-consistent field can be performed for each of the trimers individually. The concurrence in terms of three qubit isotropic Heisenberg model in effective Ising field is non-zero even in the absence of a magnetic field. The magnetic and entanglement properties exhibit common (plateau and peak) features observable via (antferromagnetic) coupling constant and external magnetic field. The critical temperature for the phase transition and threshold temperature for concurrence coincide in the case of antiferromagnetic coupling between qubits. The existence of entangled and disentangled phases in saturated and frustrated phases is establishe...

  8. The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-09-14

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagome lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the {Gamma} point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number c = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, c = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effect. (paper)

  9. Quantum selection of order in an XXZ antiferromagnet on a Kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, A L; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2014-12-05

    Selection of the ground state of the kagome-lattice XXZ antiferromagnet by quantum fluctuations is investigated by combining nonlinear spin-wave and real-space perturbation theories. The two methods unanimously favor q=0 over sqrt[3]×sqrt[3] magnetic order in a wide range of the anisotropy parameter 0≤Δ≲0.72. Both approaches are also in accord on the magnitude of the quantum order-by-disorder effect generated by topologically nontrivial, looplike spin-flip processes. A tentative S-Δ phase diagram of the model is proposed.

  10. Controlling frustrated liquids and solids with an applied field in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Shibata, Naokazu; Hotta, Chisa

    2013-01-01

    Quantum spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is the representative frustrated system possibly hosting a spin liquid. Clarifying the nature of this elusive topological phase is a key challenge in condensed matter; however, even identifying it still remains unsettled. Here we apply a magnetic field and discover a series of spin-gapped phases appearing at five different fractions of magnetization by means of a grand canonical density matrix renormalization group, an unbiased state-of-the-art numerical technique. The magnetic field dopes magnons and first gives rise to a possible Z₃ spin liquid plateau at 1/9 magnetization. Higher field induces a self-organized super-lattice unit, a six-membered ring of quantum spins, resembling an atomic orbital structure. Putting magnons into this unit one by one yields three quantum solid plateaus. We thus find that the magnetic field could control the transition between various emergent phases by continuously releasing the frustration.

  11. Signatures of Dirac Cones in a DMRG Study of the Kagome Heisenberg Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Chen He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice is one of the most paradigmatic models in the context of spin liquids, yet the precise nature of its ground state is not understood. We use large-scale density matrix renormalization group simulations (DMRG on infinitely long cylinders and find indications for the formation of a gapless Dirac spin liquid. First, we use adiabatic flux insertion to demonstrate that the spin gap is much smaller than estimated from previous DMRG simulation. Second, we find that the momentum-dependent excitation spectrum, as extracted from the DMRG transfer matrix, exhibits Dirac cones that match those of a π-flux free-fermion model [the parton mean-field ansatz of a U(1 Dirac spin liquid].

  12. Electronic and spin-orbit properties of the kagome MOF family M3(1,2,5,6,9, 10-triphenylenehexathiol)2 (M  =  Ni, Pt, Cu and Au).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Orlando J; Chacham, Helio

    2017-03-08

    We investigate, through first-principles calculations, the electronic band structure-including the spin-orbit coupling-of single-layer M3(THT)2 metal-organic frameworks, where M  =  Ni, Pt, Cu and Au, and THT is the 1,2,5,6,9,10-triphenylenehexathiol molecule. This MOF family contains, in its electronic structure, spin-orbit gaps that could allow their use in quantum spin Hall effect devices. We find that the partial inclusion of exact exchange in the calculations (beyond a semi-local exchange-correlation level) leads to quantitative, and even qualitative, modifications of the electronic structure of Ni3(THT)2 and Pt3(THT)2 relative to calculations at semi-local exchange-correlation level: upon inclusion of exact exchange, the predicted fundamental band gap of these semiconductor materials increases to more than twice, and the predicted spin-orbit gaps change by as much as 44%. Even the qualitative description of the valence bands of these materials changes upon inclusion of exact exchange. We also find that the magnitudes of the spin-orbit gaps are not monotonic with the atomic number of the metal atom.

  13. PT-symmetric phase in kagome photonic lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-01-01

    Kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles and is often associated with geometrical frustration. In particular, the frustrated coupling between waveguide modes in a kagome array leads to a dispersionless flat band consisting of spatially localized modes. Here we propose a complex photonic lattice by placing $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimers at the kagome lattice points. Each dimer corresponds to a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. With balanced arrangement of gai...

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance and resonance modes in kagome lattices: From an open to a closed kagome structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowik, J.; Kuświk, P.; Matczak, M.; Bednarski, W.; Stobiecki, F.; Aleshkevych, P.; Szymczak, H.; Kisielewski, M.; Kisielewski, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) investigations of 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) elements (width W =200 nm, length L =470 nm, period a =500 nm) arranged in open and closed artificial kagome lattices. The measurements were done at 9.4 and 34 GHz to ensure a saturated or near-saturated magnetic state of the kagome structures. The FMR data are analyzed in the framework of an analytical macrospin model which grasps the essential features of the bulk and edge modes at these microwave frequencies and is in agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. Polar plots of the resonance fields versus the field angle made by the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the main symmetry directions of the kagome lattice are compared with the results of the analytical model. The measured FMR spectra with a sixfold rotational symmetry qualitatively reproduce the structure expected from the theory. Magnetic dipolar interactions between the elements of the kagome lattices result in the mixing of edge and bulklike excitations at 9.4 GHz and in a systematic deviation from the model, especially for the closed kagome lattice.

  15. Bond formation effects on the metal-insulator transition in the half-filled kagome Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ryota; Asano, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    We study the metal-insulator transition in the half-filled Hubbard model on a Kagome lattice using the variational cluster approximation. The strong coupling limit of the model corresponds to the S =1 /2 Kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which is known to have a singlet ground state, although its detail is still debated. As the results of the cluster methods generally depend much on the choice of the unit cluster, we have chosen the clusters that are compatible with these singlet ground states in the strong coupling case found so far, which basically consist of even number of sites. It is found that the correlated electrons on the Kagome lattice have a strong tendency to form valence-bond structures, which are the resonation of electrons on a single bond or several bonds forming loops. The zero-temperature metal-insulator transition at some interaction strength is possibly driven by the formation of such short range valence bonds and shows a second order character, which is distinctive from the Brinkman-Rice scenario. The electrons on these valence bonds further localizes onto each site as the interaction increases, and the valence bonds of electrons finally turn into magnetic singlet bonds between localized S =1 /2 spins, which are consistent with the ground states of the Kagome antiferromagnet.

  16. Electronic structure of hyper-kagome Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, M. R.; Micklitz, T.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of the frustrated magnet Na{sub 4}Ir{sub 3}O{sub 8} using density-functional theory. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling, the hyper-kagome lattice is characterized by a half-filled complex of d states, making it a cubic iridium analog of the high-temperature superconducting cuprates. The implications of our results for this unique material are discussed.

  17. Thermal relaxation and heat transport in spin ice Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemke, Bastian; Meissner, M.; Tennant, D.A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Strehlow, P. [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Institut Berlin (Germany); Kiefer, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Grigera, S.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos, CONICET, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal properties of single crystalline Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been studied at temperature below 30 K and magnetic fields applied along [110] direction up to 1.5 T. Based on a thermodynamic field theory (TFT) various heat relaxation and thermal transport measurements were analysed. So we were able to present not only the heat capacity of Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, but also for the first time the different contributions of the magnetic excitations and their corresponding relaxation times in the spin ice phase. In addition, the thermal conductivity and the shortest relaxation time were determined by thermodynamic analysis of steady state heat transport measurements. Finally, we were able to reproduce the temperature profiles recorded in heat pulse experiments on the basis of TFT using the previously determined heat capacity and thermal conductivity data without additional parameters. Thus, TFT has been proved to be thermodynamically consistent in describing three thermal transport experiments on different time scales. The observed temperature and field dependencies of heat capacity contributions and relaxation times indicate the magnetic excitations in the spin ice Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} as thermally activated monopole-antimonopole defects.

  18. Localized modes in nonlinear binary kagome ribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Belicev, P. P.; Gligoric, G.; Radosavljevic, A; Maluckov, A.; Stepic, M.; Vicencio, R. A.; Johansson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The localized mode propagation in binary nonlinear kagome ribbons is investigated with the premise to ensure controlled light propagation through photonic lattice media. Particularity of the linear system characterized by the dispersionless flat band in the spectrum is the opening of new minigaps due to the "binarism." Together with the presence of nonlinearity, this determines the guiding mode types and properties. Nonlinearity destabilizes the staggered rings found to be nondiffracting in t...

  19. On the origin of the two thermally driven relaxations in diluted spin ice Dy(1.6)Y(0.4)Ti2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hui; Guo, Hanjie; Feng, Chunmu; Xu, Zhu-An; Zeng, Hao

    2013-01-30

    We report quantitative analysis of the ac susceptibility of the diluted spin ice compound Dy(1.6)Y(0.4)Ti(2)O(7), by fitting the frequency spectra of the two observed relaxation modes with a double Cole-Cole formula. Our results suggest that both modes are thermally activated, with the same intrinsic frequency, but different activation barriers. We propose that these thermally activated relaxation modes can be attributed to correlated spin clusters.

  20. PT-symmetric phase in kagome photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Gia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles and is often associated with geometrical frustration. In particular, the frustrated coupling between waveguide modes in a kagome array leads to a dispersionless flat band consisting of spatially localized modes. Here we propose a complex photonic lattice by placing $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimers at the kagome lattice points. Each dimer corresponds to a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. With balanced arrangement of gain and loss on individual dimers, the system exhibits a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric phase for finite gain/loss parameter up to a critical value. The beam evolution in this complex kagome waveguide array exhibits a novel oscillatory rotation of optical power along the propagation distance. Long-lived local chiral structures originating from the nearly flat bands of the kagome structure are observed when the lattice is subject to a narrow beam excitation.

  1. PT-symmetric phase in kagome-based photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-12-15

    The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles and is often associated with geometrical frustration. In particular, the frustrated coupling between waveguide modes in a kagome array leads to a dispersionless flat band consisting of spatially localized modes. Here we propose a complex photonic lattice by placing PT-symmetric dimers at the kagome lattice points. Each dimer corresponds to a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. With balanced arrangement of gain and loss on individual dimers, the system exhibits a PT-symmetric phase for finite gain/loss parameter up to a critical value. The beam evolution in this complex kagome waveguide array exhibits a novel oscillatory rotation of optical power along the propagation distance. Long-lived local chiral structures originating from the nearly flat bands of the kagome structure are observed when the lattice is subject to a narrow beam excitation.

  2. Ferromagnetic ordered phase of quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 under [001] magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hamachi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of magnetization (M and specific heat (C under a [001] magnetic field were carried out on a single crystal of a quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 in order to investigate a feature of the transition occurred at TC ∼ 0.2 K. As a result of applying the magnetic field μ0H < 0.1 T, the C/T − T curve structure and transition temperature barely changed. On the other hand, applying the more than 0.1 T magnetic field, the C/T − T curve structure drastically change from sharp peak structure to broad peak one, and the broad peak temperature of C/T − T curves linearly increases with increasing magnetic field (H. In the magnetic field μ0H < 0.1 T, the magnetization drastically increases around TC ∼ 0.2 K with decreasing T, and a thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curve is observed. With increasing H, the thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curves disappears above μ0HC = 0.1 T. We can understand these results, where Yb2Ti2O7 exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition associated with the latent heat corresponding to the energy of μ0HC = 0.1 T. Basis of the H − T phase diagram along [001] magnetic field, the feature of the transition occurred at TC ∼ 0.2 K in quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 is discussed.

  3. Structure and magnetism of S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-sheng; Zhang, Qing-ming

    2013-01-16

    We have successfully synthesized S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets MCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) (M = Ni and Co) by a hydrothermal method with a rotating pressure vessel. Structural characterization shows that both compounds have similar crystal structure to ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) with R3m symmetry. As with ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2), the compounds show no obvious hysteresis at 2 K. A spin-glass transition is found in both NiCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) and CoCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) at low temperatures (6.0 and 3.5 K respectively) by AC susceptibility measurements. This indicates no long-range magnetic order and a strong spin frustration. The substitution of Zn(2+) by magnetic ions Ni(2+) or Co(2+) effectively enhances the interlayer exchange coupling and changes the ground state of the kagome spin system.

  4. Structure and magnetism of S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-sheng; Zhang, Qing-ming

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets MCu3(OH)6Cl2 (M = Ni and Co) by a hydrothermal method with a rotating pressure vessel. Structural characterization shows that both compounds have similar crystal structure to ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 with R\\bar {3}m symmetry. As with ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, the compounds show no obvious hysteresis at 2 K. A spin-glass transition is found in both NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2 at low temperatures (6.0 and 3.5 K respectively) by AC susceptibility measurements. This indicates no long-range magnetic order and a strong spin frustration. The substitution of Zn2+ by magnetic ions Ni2+ or Co2+ effectively enhances the interlayer exchange coupling and changes the ground state of the kagome spin system.

  5. Intrinsic Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in the Kagome Lattice Cs_{2}LiMn_{3}F_{12}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-10-30

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs_{2}Mn_{3}F_{12} kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs_{2}LiMn_{3}F_{12} single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Moreover, a simplified tight binding model based on the in-plane ddσ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

  6. Intrinsic Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in the Kagome Lattice Cs2 LiMn3 F12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Zhang's Group Team

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from the ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs2Mn3F12 kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs2LiMn3F12 single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Moreover, a simplified tight binding model based on the inplane dd σ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

  7. Localized modes in nonlinear photonic kagome nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Mario I., E-mail: mmolina@uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, and Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We examine localization of light in nonlinear (Kerr) kagome lattices in the shape of narrow strips of varying width. For the narrowest ribbon, the band structure features a flat band leading to linear dynamical trapping of an initially localized excitation. We also find a geometry-induced bistability of the nonlinear modes as the width of the strip is changed. A crossover from one to two dimensions localization behavior is observed as the width is increased, attaining two-dimensional behavior for relatively narrow ribbons.

  8. Z2 gauge theory for valence bond solids on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    We present an effective Z2 gauge theory that captures various competing phases in spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets: the topological Z2 spin liquid (SL) phase, and the 12-site and 36- site valence bond solid (VBS) phases. Our effective theory is a generalization of the recent Z2 gauge theory proposed for SL phases by Wan and Tchernyshyov. In particular, we investigate possible VBS phases that arise from vison condensations in the SL. In addition to the 12-site and 36-site VBS phases, there exists 6-site VBS that is closely related to the symmetry-breaking valence bond modulation patterns observed in the recent density matrix renormalization group simulations. We find that our results have remarkable consistency with a previous study using a different Z2 gauge theory. Motivated by the lattice geometry in the recently reported vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet, our gauge theory is extended to incorporate lowered symmetry by inequivalent up- and down-triangles. We investigate effects of this anisotropy on the 12-site, 36-site, and 6-site VBS phases. Particularly, interesting dimer melting effects are found in the 36-site VBS. We discuss the implications of our findings and also compare the results with a different type of Z2 gauge theory used in previous studies.

  9. Order and excitations in large-S kagome-lattice antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, A. L.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    We systematically investigate the ground-state and the spectral properties of antiferromagnets on a kagomé lattice with several common types of the planar anisotropy: X X Z , single-ion, and out-of-plane Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya. Our main focus is on the role of nonlinear, anharmonic terms, which are responsible for the quantum order-by-disorder effect and for the corresponding selection of the ground-state spin structure in many of these models. The X X Z and the single-ion anisotropy models exhibit a quantum phase transition between the q =0 and the √{3 }×√{3 } states as a function of the anisotropy parameter, offering a rare example of the quantum order-by-disorder fluctuations favoring a ground state which is different from the one selected by thermal fluctuations. The nonlinear terms are also shown to be crucial for a very strong near-resonant decay phenomenon leading to the quasiparticle breakdown in the kagomé-lattice antiferromagnets whose spectra are featuring flat or weakly dispersive modes. The effect is shown to persist even in the limit of large spin values and should be common to other frustrated magnets with flat branches of excitations. Model calculations of the spectrum of the S =5 /2 Fe-jarosite with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya anisotropy provide a convincing and detailed characterization of the proposed scenario.

  10. Topological excitations in a kagome magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, Manuel; Yudin, Dmitry; Chico, Jonathan; Etz, Corina; Eriksson, Olle; Bergman, Anders

    2014-09-08

    Chirality--that is, left or right handedness--is present in many scientific areas, and particularly in condensed matter physics. Inversion symmetry breaking relates chirality with skyrmions, which are protected field configurations with particle-like and topological properties. Here we show that a kagome magnet, with Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, causes non-trivial topological and chiral magnetic properties. We also find that under special circumstances, skyrmions emerge as excitations, having stability even at room temperature. Chiral magnonic edge states of a kagome magnet offer, in addition, a promising way to create, control and manipulate skyrmions. This has potential for applications in spintronics, that is, for information storage or as logic devices. Collisions between these particle-like excitations are found to be elastic at very low temperature in the skyrmion-skyrmion channel, albeit without mass-conservation. Skyrmion-antiskyrmion collisions are found to be more complex, where annihilation and creation of these objects have a distinct non-local nature.

  11. Topologically non-trivial electronic and magnetic states in doped copper Kagome lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser

    We present a theoretical investigation of doped copper kagome materials based on natural minerals Herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2] and Barlowite[Cu4(OH)6FBr]. Using ab-initio density functional theory calculations we estimate the stability of the hypothetical compounds against structural distortions and analyze their electronic and magnetic properties. We find that materials based on Herbertsmithite present an ideal playground for investigating the interplay of non-trivial band-topology and strong electronic correlation effects. In particular, we propose candidates for the Quantum Spin Hall effect at filling 4/3 and the Quantum Anomalous Hall effect at filling 2/3. For the Barlowite system we point out a route to realize a Quantum Spin Liquid. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SFB/TR 49 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY11-25915.

  12. Possible quantum diffusion of polaronic muons in Dy(2)Ti(2)O(7) spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémerais, P; McClarty, P; Moessner, R

    2012-09-21

    We interpret recent measurements of the zero field muon relaxation rate in the magnetic pyrochlore Dy(2)Ti(2)O(7) as resulting from the quantum diffusion of muons in the material. In this scenario, the plateau observed at low temperature (muons through a spatially disordered spin state and not to any magnetic fluctuations persisting at low temperature. Two further regimes either side of a maximum relaxation rate at T* = 50 K correspond to a crossover between tunneling and incoherent activated hopping motion of the muon. Our fit of the experimental data is compared with the case of muonium diffusion in KCl.

  13. Generalising spin-ice: the magnetic ground-state of gadolinium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammall, M. I.; Briffa, A. K. R.; Long, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the complex low-temperature magnetic ordering of the antiferro-magnetic pyrochlore Gd2Ti2O7. Mössbauer experiments indicate that the spins have equal-magnitude magnetic moments, which are restricted to lie in planes perpendicular to the local crystallographic directions. In addition neutron diffraction experiments show a magnetic scattering vector of (1/2,1/2,1/2) which is consistent with thirty-two atoms per magnetic unit cell. These restrictions are compatible with only two distinct magnetically ordered states.

  14. Emergent quasi-one-dimensionality in a kagome magnet: A simple route to complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Kun; Starykh, Oleg A.; Sheng, D. N.; Balents, Leon

    2016-07-01

    We study the ground-state phase diagram of the quantum spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with first- (J10 ) by means of analytical low-energy field theory and numerical density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies. The results offer a consistent picture of the Jd-dominant regime in terms of three sets of spin chains weakly coupled by the ferromagnetic interchain interactions J1 ,2. When either J1 or J2 is much stronger than the other one, the model is found to support one of two cuboctohedral phases, cuboc1, and cuboc2. These cuboc states host noncoplanar long-ranged magnetic order and possess finite scalar spin chirality. However, in the compensated regime J1≃J2 , a valence bond crystal phase emerges between the two cuboc phases. We find excellent agreement between an analytical theory based on coupled spin chains and unbiased DMRG calculations, including at a very detailed level of comparison of the structure of the valence bond crystal state. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive understanding of a highly frustrated two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet. We find no evidence of either the one-dimensional gapless spin liquid or the chiral spin liquids, which were previously suggested by parton mean-field theories.

  15. Magnetic stray-field studies of a single Cobalt nanoelement as a component of the building blocks of artificial square spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo; Müller, Jens

    2016-02-01

    We use Focused Electron Beam Deposition (FEBID) to directly write Cobalt magnetic nanoelements onto a micro-Hall magnetometer, which allows for high-sensitivity measurements of the magnetic stray field emanating from the samples. In a previous study [M. Pohlit et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117 (2015) 17C746] [21] we investigated thermal dynamics of an individual building block (nanocluster) of artificial square spin ice. In this work, we compare the results of this structure with interacting elements to the switching of a single nanoisland. By analyzing the survival function of the repeatedly prepared state in a given temperature range, we find thermally activated switching dynamics. A detailed analysis of the hysteresis loop reveals a metastable microstate preceding the overall magnetization reversal of the single nanoelement, also found in micromagnetic simulations. Such internal degrees of freedom may need to be considered, when analyzing the thermal dynamics of larger spin ice configurations on different lattice types.

  16. Thermodynamics of spin ice in staggered and direct (along the [111] axis) fields in the cluster approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinenko, V. I., E-mail: zvi@iph.krasn.ru; Pavlovskii, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    We have analyzed the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of spin ice in the staggered and direct (acting along the [111] axis) fields for rare-earth oxides with the chalcolamprite structure and general formula Re{sub 2}{sup 3+}Me{sub 2}{sup 4+}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}. Calculations have been performed in the cluster approximation. The results have been compared with experimental temperature dependences of heat capacity and entropy for Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} compound for different values of the external field in the [111] direction. The experimental data and calculated results have also been compared for the Pr{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} compound with the antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments of ruthenium ions, which gives rise to the staggered field acting on the system of rare-earth ions. The calculated temperature dependences of heat capacity and entropy are in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. The giant anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet Fe3Sn2--a frustrated kagome metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, T; Fenner, L A; Dee, A A; Terasaki, I; Hagiwara, M; Wills, A S

    2011-03-23

    The kagome-bilayer material Fe(3)Sn(2) has recently been shown to be an example of a rare class of magnet-a frustrated ferromagnetic metal. While the magnetism of Fe(3)Sn(2) appears to be relatively simple at high temperature, with localized moments parallel to the c-axis (T(C) = 640 K), upon cooling the competing exchange interactions and spin frustration become apparent as they cause the moments to become non-collinear and to rotate towards the kagome plane, forming firstly a canted ferromagnetic structure and then a re-entrant spin glass (T(f) approximately equal 80 K). In this work we show that Fe(3)Sn(2) possesses an unusual anomalous Hall effect. The saturated Hall resistivity of Fe(3)Sn(2) is 3.2 µΩ cm at 300 K, almost 20 times higher than that of typical itinerant ferromagnets such as Fe and Ni. The anomalous Hall coefficient R(s) is 6.7 × 10(-9) Ω cm G(-1) at 300 K, which is three orders of magnitude larger than that of pure Fe, and obeys an unconventional scaling with the longitudinal resistivity, ρ(xx), of R(s) is proportional to ρ(xx)(3.15). Such a relationship cannot be explained by either the conventional skew or side-jump mechanisms, indicating that the anomalous Hall effect in Fe(3)Sn(2) has an extraordinary origin that is presumed to be related to the underlying frustration of the magnetism. These findings demonstrate that frustrated ferromagnets, whether based on bulk materials or on artificial nanoscale structures, can provide new routes to room temperature spin-dependent electron transport properties suited to application in spintronics.

  18. Dynamic properties of three-dimensional piezoelectric Kagome grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jing; Li, Feng-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectric Kagome grids can be considered as a kind of functional material because they have vibration isolation performance and can transform mechanical energy to electric energy. In this study, the dynamic properties of three-dimensional (3D) piezoelectric Kagome grids without and with material defects are studied based on the frequency-domain responses. The spectral element method (SEM) is adopted to solve a 3D piezoelectric beam which contains bending components in two planes, tensional components, and torsional components. The dynamic stiffness matrix of a spectral piezoelectric beam is derived. Highly accurate solutions in the frequency-domain are obtained by solving the equation of motion of the whole structure. Compared with the results from the FEM and those in the existing literature, it can be seen that the SEM can be effectively used to study the 3D piezoelectric Kagome grids. The band-gap properties of Kagome grid and defect state properties of Kagome grid with material defects are analyzed. The effect of the piezoelectric parameter on the band-gap property is investigated further.

  19. Dipolar order by disorder in the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Moessner, R

    2013-02-15

    Ever since the experiments which founded the field of highly frustrated magnetism, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has been the archetypical setting for the study of fluctuation induced exotic ordering. To this day the nature of its classical low-temperature state has remained a mystery: the nonlinear nature of the fluctuations around the exponentially numerous harmonically degenerate ground states has not permitted a controlled theory, while its complex energy landscape has precluded numerical simulations at low temperature, T. Here we present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm which removes the latter obstacle. Our simulations detect a low-temperature regime in which correlations asymptote to a remarkably small value as T→0. Feeding these results into an effective model and analyzing the results in the framework of an appropriate field theory implies the presence of long-range dipolar spin order with a tripled unit cell.

  20. Interaction-Driven Spontaneous Quantum Hall Effect on a Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Gong, Shou-Shu; Zeng, Tian-Sheng; Fu, Liang; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    Topological states of matter have been widely studied as being driven by an external magnetic field, intrinsic spin-orbital coupling, or magnetic doping. Here, we unveil an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum Hall effect (a Chern insulator) emerging in an extended fermion-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, based on a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group on cylinder geometry and an exact diagonalization in torus geometry. We first demonstrate that the proposed model exhibits an incompressible liquid phase with doublet degenerate ground states as time-reversal partners. The explicit spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is determined by emergent uniform circulating loop currents between nearest neighbors. Importantly, the fingerprint topological nature of the ground state is characterized by quantized Hall conductance. Thus, we identify the liquid phase as a quantum Hall phase, which provides a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of the interaction-driven topological phase in a topologically trivial noninteracting band.

  1. Thermal Entanglement and Critical Behavior of Magnetic Properties on a Triangulated Kagomé Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ananikian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium magnetic and entanglement properties in a spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a triangulated Kagomé lattice are analyzed by means of the effective field for the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The calculation is reduced to decoupled individual (clusters trimers due to the separable character of the Ising-type exchange interactions between the Heisenberg trimers. The concurrence in terms of the three qubit isotropic Heisenberg model in the effective Ising field in the absence of a magnetic field is non-zero. The magnetic and entanglement properties exhibit common (plateau, peak features driven by a magnetic field and (antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. The (quantum entangled and non-entangled phases can be exploited as a useful tool for signalling the quantum phase transitions and crossovers at finite temperatures. The critical temperature of order-disorder coincides with the threshold temperature of thermal entanglement.

  2. Microscopic properties of the pinwheel kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbić, M S; Krämer, S; Berthier, C; Trousselet, F; Cépas, O; Tanaka, H; Horvatić, M

    2013-06-14

    Using (63,65)Cu nuclear magnetic resonance in magnetic fields up to 30 T, we study the microscopic properties of the 12-site valence-bond-solid ground state in the "pinwheel" kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12). We find that the ground state is characterized by a strong transverse staggered spin polarization whose temperature and field dependence points to a mixing of the singlet and triplet states. This is further corroborated by the field dependence of the gap Δ(H), which has a level anticrossing with a large minimum gap value of ≈ Δ(0)/2, with no evidence of a phase transition down to 1.5 K. By the exact diagonalization of small clusters, we show that the observed anticrossing is mainly due to staggered tilts of the g tensors defined by the crystal structure and reveal symmetry properties of the low-energy excitation spectrum compatible with the absence of level crossing.

  3. Interaction-Driven Spontaneous Quantum Hall Effect on a Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Gong, Shou-Shu; Zeng, Tian-Sheng; Fu, Liang; Sheng, D N

    2016-08-26

    Topological states of matter have been widely studied as being driven by an external magnetic field, intrinsic spin-orbital coupling, or magnetic doping. Here, we unveil an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum Hall effect (a Chern insulator) emerging in an extended fermion-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, based on a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group on cylinder geometry and an exact diagonalization in torus geometry. We first demonstrate that the proposed model exhibits an incompressible liquid phase with doublet degenerate ground states as time-reversal partners. The explicit spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is determined by emergent uniform circulating loop currents between nearest neighbors. Importantly, the fingerprint topological nature of the ground state is characterized by quantized Hall conductance. Thus, we identify the liquid phase as a quantum Hall phase, which provides a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of the interaction-driven topological phase in a topologically trivial noninteracting band.

  4. Small-Pitch Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jia; HOU Lan-Tian; ZHOU Gui-Yao; WANG Kang; CHEN Chao

    2008-01-01

    @@ A hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF) based on small-pitch kagome lattice cladding is designed and fabricated. The pitch of the fibre is only 2.45 μm and it corresponds to a region of low normalized frequency which has never been investigated before. Both experiments and calculations show that this kagome HC-PCF has a broad optical transmission band from 400 nm to 900 nm, covering the whole visible and near infrared region of the spectrum. Additionally, the loss curve of the fibre is fiat in the visible region and the minimum of the loss achieves 0.16d B/m, which is lower than the loss of the kagome HC-PCFs reported before. Furthermore, this fibre can well confine the modes in the air core. No surface modes can be detected in the surrounding silica of the hollow core.

  5. Design of a Kagome lattice from soft anisotropic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejer, Szilard N; Wales, David J

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple model of triblock Janus particles based on discoidal building blocks, which can form energetically stabilized Kagome structures. We find 'magic number' global minima in small clusters whenever particle numbers are compatible with a perfect Kagome structure, without constraining the accessible three-dimensional configuration space. The preference for planar structures with two bonds per patch among all other possible minima on the landscape is enhanced when sedimentation forces are included. For the building blocks in question, structures containing three bonds per patch become progressively higher in energy compared to Kagome structures as sedimentation forces increase. Rearrangements between competing structures, as well as ring formation mechanisms are characterised and found to be highly cooperative.

  6. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  7. Single mode propagation through a terahertz kagome microstructured fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jessienta; Leonhardt, Rainer; Argyros, Alexander; Leon-Saval, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    We report measurements for hollow core kagome microstructured Terahertz (THz) fiber characterized with the THz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To achieve good mode overlap between the input beam and the fiber mode distribution, we incorporate specially designed THz lenses in our experimental setup. The experimental observations show that only the fundamental mode is guided in the fiber core. The time domain scans and their spectral information show air-guidance over a large frequency range from 0.6 to at least 1.1 THz. Within this frequency bandwidth, low transmission amplitudes at certain frequencies are identified as the frequency cut-offs for the kagome structure is observed. The measured transmission of the kagome fibers shows the characteristics of the inhibited coupling mechanism. We estimate high coupling efficiencies, as high as 60%, have been achieved in our experiments.

  8. A new class of aperiodic, long-range ordered artificial spin ices based upon Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Justin; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Sklenar, Joseph; Teipel, Eric; Ketterson, John; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic segments whose shape anisotropy dictates they behave as mesoscopic Ising spins. Most ASI have segments patterned on periodic lattices and a single vertex topology. We have continuously distorted 2D honeycomb and square lattices such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence along primitive lattice directions. The Fibonacci distortion is related to the aperiodic translational symmetry of 2D artificial quasicrystals1 that cannot be viewed as continuous distortions of periodic lattices due to their forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In contrast, Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices can be ``turned on'' by control of the ratio of two lattice parameters d1 and d2. Distortions alter film segments such that pattern vertices are no longer equivalent and traditional spin ice rules are no longer strictly valid. We have performed OOMMF simulations of magnetization reversal for samples having different levels of distortion, and found the magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed by small distortions (d1/d2 ~ 1). Research at Kentucky is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  9. Various disordered ground states and 1/3 magnetization-plateau-like behavior in the S =1/2 Ti3 + kagome lattice antiferromagnets Rb2NaTi3F12 , Cs2NaTi3F12 , and Cs2KTi3F12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masato; Ueda, Hiroaki; Michioka, Chishiro; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure and magnetic properties of three kagome lattice antiferromagnets, Rb2Na Ti3F12 , Cs2Na Ti3F12 , and Cs2K Ti3F12 , using single crystals. These compounds represent a S =1 /2 kagome system consisting of magnetic Ti3 + ions, which is expected to have negligibly small Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. The structural analyses revealed that each of the three compounds has a slightly distorted kagome lattice. The distortion of the kagome lattice becomes small as the ionic radii of constituent alkali metals increase. All three compounds have nearly the same Weiss temperature of -45 K, and the ground states are disordered and strongly depend on the distortion. The ground states of Rb2Na Ti3F12 , Cs2Na Ti3F12 , and Cs2K Ti3F12 are found to be a two-component state including approximately 1/3 nearly free spins, a gapless disordered state, and a gapped disordered state, respectively. Our experimental results suggest that the ground state of the ideal S =1 /2 Heisenberg kagome lattice antiferromagnet is gapped. In addition, the magnetization curves of Cs2Na Ti3F12 and Cs2K Ti3F12 show anomalies at approximately 1/3 of the full magnetic moment of Ti3 +, which are a notable observation of signs of the theoretically proposed 1/3 magnetization plateau in S =1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets.

  10. Cluster Mott insulators and two Curie-Weiss regimes on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the quantum-spin-liquid candidate material LiZn2Mo3O8 , we study a single-band extended Hubbard model on an anisotropic kagome lattice with the 1/6 electron filling. Due to the partial filling of the lattice, the intersite repulsive interaction is necessary to generate Mott insulators, where electrons are localized in clusters rather than at lattice sites. It is shown that these cluster Mott insulators are generally U(1) quantum spin liquids with spinon Fermi surfaces. The nature of charge excitations in cluster Mott insulators can be quite different from conventional Mott insulator and we show that there exists a cluster Mott insulator where charge fluctuations around the hexagonal cluster induce a plaquette charge order (PCO). The spinon excitation spectrum in this spin-liquid cluster Mott insulator is reconstructed due to the PCO so that only 1/3 of the total spinon excitations are magnetically active. Based on these results, we propose that the two Curie-Weiss regimes of the spin susceptibility in LiZn2Mo3O8 may be explained by finite-temperature properties of the cluster Mott insulator with the PCO as well as fractionalized spinon excitations. Existing and possible future experiments on LiZn2Mo3O8 , and other Mo-based cluster magnets are discussed in light of these theoretical predictions.

  11. Localized modes in nonlinear binary kagome ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beličev, P P; Gligorić, G; Radosavljević, A; Maluckov, A; Stepić, M; Vicencio, R A; Johansson, M

    2015-11-01

    The localized mode propagation in binary nonlinear kagome ribbons is investigated with the premise to ensure controlled light propagation through photonic lattice media. Particularity of the linear system characterized by the dispersionless flat band in the spectrum is the opening of new minigaps due to the "binarism." Together with the presence of nonlinearity, this determines the guiding mode types and properties. Nonlinearity destabilizes the staggered rings found to be nondiffracting in the linear system, but can give rise to dynamically stable ringlike solutions of several types: unstaggered rings, low-power staggered rings, hour-glass-like solutions, and vortex rings with high power. The type of solutions, i.e., the energy and angular momentum circulation through the nonlinear lattice, can be controlled by suitable initial excitation of the ribbon. In addition, by controlling the system "binarism" various localized modes can be generated and guided through the system, owing to the opening of the minigaps in the spectrum. All these findings offer diverse technical possibilities, especially with respect to the high-speed optical communications and high-power lasers.

  12. An sd(2) hybridized transition-metal monolayer with a hexagonal lattice: reconstruction between the Dirac and kagome bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baozeng; Dong, Shengjie; Wang, Xiaocha; Zhang, Kailiang; Mi, Wenbo

    2017-03-07

    Graphene-like two-dimensional materials have garnered tremendous interest as emerging device materials due to their remarkable properties. However, their applications in spintronics have been limited by the lack of intrinsic magnetism. Here, we perform an ab initio simulation on the structural and electronic properties of several transition-metal (TM) monolayers (TM = Cr, Mo and W) with a honeycomb lattice on a 1/3 monolayer Cl-covered Si(111) surface. Due to the template effect from the halogenated Si substrate, the TM-layers will be maintained in an expanded lattice which is nearly 60% larger than that of the freestanding case. All these isolated TM-layers exhibit ferromagnetic coupling with kagome band structures related to sd(2) hybridization and a strong interfacial interaction may destroy the topological bands. Interestingly, the W-monolayer on the Cl-covered Si substrate shows a half-metallic behavior. A Dirac point formed at the K point in the spin-down channel is located exactly at the Fermi level which is crucial for the realization of a quantum spin Hall state. Moreover, the reconstruction process between the Dirac and kagome bands is discussed in detail, providing an interesting platform to study the interplay between massless Dirac fermions and heavy fermions.

  13. Projective symmetry group classification of chiral spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Messio, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We present a general review of the projective symmetry group classification of fermionic quantum spin liquids for lattice models of spin S =1 /2 . We then introduce a systematic generalization of the approach for symmetric Z2 quantum spin liquids to the one of chiral phases (i.e., singlet states that break time reversal and lattice reflection, but conserve their product). We apply this framework to classify and discuss possible chiral spin liquids on triangular and kagome lattices. We give a detailed prescription on how to construct quadratic spinon Hamiltonians and microscopic wave functions for each representation class on these lattices. Among the chiral Z2 states, we study the subset of U(1) phases variationally in the antiferromagnetic J1-J2-Jd Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. We discuss static spin structure factors and symmetry constraints on the bulk spectra of these phases.

  14. No crystallization to honeycomb or Kagome in free space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivopoulos, Symeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5070 (United States)

    2009-03-20

    It is intuitive that if an infinite system of particles that interact through an isotropic potential has a crystalline ground state at zero chemical potential, it is of high symmetry. Here, we present an argument why a honeycomb or a Kagome structure cannot be the ground state at zero chemical potential, for a large class of potentials in R{sup 2}.

  15. Two-Dimensional Lattice Gravity as a Spin System

    CERN Document Server

    Beirl, W; Riedler, J

    1994-01-01

    Quantum gravity is studied in the path integral formulation applying the Regge calculus. Restricting the quadratic link lengths of the originally triangular lattice the path integral can be transformed to the partition function of a spin system with higher couplings on a Kagome lattice. Various measures acting as external field are considered. Extensions to matter fields and higher dimensions are discussed.

  16. Dynamically induced frustration as a route to a quantum spin ice state in Tb2Ti2O7 via virtual crystal field excitations and quantum many-body effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavian, Hamid R; Gingras, Michel J P; Canals, Benjamin

    2007-04-13

    The Tb2Ti2O7 pyrochlore magnetic material is attracting much attention for its spin liquid state, failing to develop long-range order down to 50 mK despite a Curie-Weiss temperature thetaCW approximately -14 K. In this Letter we reinvestigate the theoretical description of this material by considering a quantum model of independent tetrahedra to describe its low-temperature properties. The naturally tuned proximity of this system near a Néel to spin ice phase boundary allows for a resurgence of quantum fluctuation effects that lead to an important renormalization of its effective low-energy spin Hamiltonian. As a result, Tb2Ti2O7 is argued to be a quantum spin ice. We put forward an experimental test of this proposal using neutron scattering on a single crystal.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic Fe3Sn2 single crystal with a geometrically frustrated Fe bilayer kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiao; Pang, Fei; Lei, Hechang

    2016-08-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is investigated for a ferromagnetic Fe3Sn2 single crystal with a geometrically frustrated kagome bilayer of Fe. The scaling behavior between anomalous Hall resistivity ρxy A and longitudinal resistivity ρx x is quadratic and further analysis implies that the AHE in the Fe3Sn2 single crystal should be dominated by the intrinsic Karplus-Luttinger mechanism rather than extrinsic skew-scattering or side-jump mechanisms. Moreover, there is a sudden jump of anomalous Hall conductivity σxy A appearing at about 100 K where the spin-reorientation transition from the c axis to the a b plane is completed. This change of σxy A might be related to the evolution of the Fermi surface induced by the spin-reorientation transition.

  18. Exotic phase diagram of a cluster charging model of bosons on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Sergei V.; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Yong Baek

    2007-12-01

    We study a model of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice with short-range hopping (t) and repulsive interactions (V) . This model directly maps onto an easy-axis S=1/2 XXZ model on the kagome lattice and is also related, at large V/t , to a quantum dimer model on the triangular lattice. Using quantum Monte Carlo numerics, we map out the phase diagram of this model at half-filling. At T=0 , we show that this model exhibits a superfluid phase at small V/t and an insulating phase at large V/t , separated by a continuous quantum phase transition at Vc/t≈19.8 . The insulating phase at T=0 appears to have no conventional broken symmetries, and is thus a uniform Mott insulator (a “spin liquid” in magnetic language). We characterize this insulating phase as a uniform Z2 fractionalized insulator from the topological order in the ground state and estimate its vison gap. Consistent with this identification, there is no apparent thermal phase transition upon heating the insulator. The insulating phase instead smoothly crosses over into the high temperature paramagnet via an intermediate cooperative paramagnetic regime. We also study the superfluid-to-normal thermal transition for V

  19. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng-Jen Chen; Horng-Tay Jeng

    2016-01-01

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications ...

  20. Site Specific X-ray Anomalous Dispersion of the Geometrically Frustrated Kagome´ Magnet Herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Freedman; T Han; A Prodi; P Muller; Q Huang; Y Chen; S Webb; Y Lee; T McQueen; D Nocera

    2011-12-31

    Structural characterization, exploiting X-ray scattering differences at elemental absorption edges, is developed to quantitatively determine crystallographic site-specific metal disorder. We apply this technique to the problem of Zn-Cu chemical disorder in ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}. This geometrically frustrated kagome antiferromagnet is one of the best candidates for a spin-liquid ground state, but chemical disorder has been suggested as a mundane explanation for its magnetic properties. Using anomalous scattering at the Zn and Cu edges, we determine that there is no Zn occupation of the intralayer Cu sites within the kagome layer; however there is Cu present on the Zn intersite, leading to a structural formula of (Zn{sub 0.85}Cu{sub 0.15})Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}. The lack of Zn mixing onto the kagome lattice sites lends support to the idea that the electronic ground state in ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} and its relatives is nontrivial.

  1. Site specific X-ray anomalous dispersion of the geometrically frustrated kagomé magnet, herbertsmithite, ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Danna E; Han, Tianheng H; Prodi, Andrea; Müller, Peter; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Webb, Samuel M; Lee, Young S; McQueen, Tyrel M; Nocera, Daniel G

    2010-11-17

    Structural characterization, exploiting X-ray scattering differences at elemental absorption edges, is developed to quantitatively determine crystallographic site-specific metal disorder. We apply this technique to the problem of Zn-Cu chemical disorder in ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2). This geometrically frustrated kagomé antiferromagnet is one of the best candidates for a spin-liquid ground state, but chemical disorder has been suggested as a mundane explanation for its magnetic properties. Using anomalous scattering at the Zn and Cu edges, we determine that there is no Zn occupation of the intralayer Cu sites within the kagomé layer; however there is Cu present on the Zn intersite, leading to a structural formula of (Zn(0.85)Cu(0.15))Cu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2). The lack of Zn mixing onto the kagomé lattice sites lends support to the idea that the electronic ground state in ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) and its relatives is nontrivial.

  2. Polarized neutron scattering studies of the kagome lattice antiferromagnet KFe{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matan, K., E-mail: kmatan@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Helton, J.S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grohol, D. [The Dow Chemical Company, Core R and D, Midland, MI 48674 (United States); Nocera, D.G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wakimoto, S.; Kakurai, K. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Lee, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    We report polarized neutron scattering studies of spin-wave excitations and spin fluctuations in the S=5/2 kagome{sup '} lattice antiferromagnet KFe{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (jarosite). Inelastic polarized neutron scattering measurements at 10 K on a single crystal sample reveal two spin gaps, associated with in-plane and out-of-plane excitations. The polarization analysis of quasi-elastic scattering at 67 K shows in-plane spin fluctuations with XY symmetry, consistent with the disappearance of the in-plane gap above the Neel temperature T{sub N}=65K. Our results suggest that jarosite is a promising candidate for studying the 2D XY universality class in magnetic systems.

  3. Defect guidance in kagome-clad fibers: the role of photonic band gaps and self-similarity of the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the influence of the structural self-similarity of the kagome lattice on the defect modes and waveguiding properties of hollow-core kagome-cladding fibers. We show that the guidance of such fibers is influenced by photonic band gaps (PBGs) which appear for a subset of the kagome lattice. Using these insights, we provide design considerations to further decrease loss in kagome-clad fibers.

  4. Wannier permanent wave functions for featureless bosonic mott insulators on the 1/3-filled kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S A; Kimchi, Itamar; Turner, Ari M; Stamper-Kurn, D M; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2013-03-22

    We study Bose-Hubbard models on tight-binding, non-Bravais lattices, with a filling of one boson per unit cell--and thus fractional site filling. We discuss situations where no classical bosonic insulator, which is a product state of particles on independent sites, is admitted. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct a quantum Mott insulator of bosons if a trivial band insulator of fermions is possible at the same filling. The ground state wave function is simply a permanent of exponentially localized Wannier orbitals. Such a Wannier permanent wave function is featureless in that it respects all lattice symmetries and is the unique ground state of a parent Hamiltonian that we construct. Motivated by the recent experimental demonstration of a kagome optical lattice of bosons, we study this lattice at 1/3 site filling. Previous approaches to this problem have invariably produced either broken-symmetry states or topological order. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that a featureless insulator is a possible alternative and is the exact ground state of a local Hamiltonian. We briefly comment on the experimental relevance of our results to ultracold atoms as well as to 1/3 magnetization plateaus for kagome spin models in an applied field.

  5. Nuclear relaxation rates in the herbertsmithite kagome antiferromagnets ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Nicholas E.; Imai, Takashi; Singh, Rajiv R. P.

    2016-10-01

    Local spectral functions and nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR) rates, 1 /T1 , for the spin-half Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice are calculated using the Moriyas Gaussian approximation, as well as through an extrapolation of multiple frequency moments. The temperature dependence of the calculated rates is compared with the oxygen 1 /T1 NMR data in Herbertsmithite. We find that the Gaussian approximation for 1 /T1 shows behavior qualitatively similar to experiments with a sharp drop in rates at low temperatures, consistent with a spin-gapped behavior. However, this approximation significantly underestimates the magnitude of 1 /T1 even at room temperature. Rates obtained from extrapolation of multiple frequency moments give very good agreement with the room temperature NMR data with J =195 ±20 K and hyperfine couplings determined independently from other measurements. The use of multiple frequency moments also leads to additional low-frequency weight in the local structure factors. The convergence of our calculations with higher-frequency moments breaks down at low temperatures, suggesting the existence of longer-range dynamic correlations in the system despite the very short range static correlations.

  6. Magnetization plateaus of an easy-axis kagome antiferromagnet with extended interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, X.; Alet, F.; Capponi, S.; Totsuka, K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the properties in finite magnetic field of an extended anisotropic X X Z spin-1/2 model on the kagome lattice, originally introduced by Balents, Fisher, and Girvin [Phys. Rev. B 65, 224412 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.224412]. The magnetization curve displays plateaus at magnetization m =1 /6 and 1 /3 when the anisotropy is large. Using low-energy effective constrained models (quantum loop and quantum dimer models), we discuss the nature of the plateau phases, found to be crystals that break discrete rotation and/or translation symmetries. Large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations were carried out in particular for the m =1 /6 plateau. We first map out the phase diagram of the effective quantum loop model with an additional loop-loop interaction to find stripe order around the point relevant for the original model as well as a topological Z2 spin liquid. The existence of a stripe crystalline phase is further evidenced by measuring both standard structure factor and entanglement entropy of the original microscopic model.

  7. Damped Topological Magnons in the Kagome-Lattice Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, A. L.; Maksimov, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that interactions can substantially undermine the free-particle description of magnons in ferromagnets on geometrically frustrated lattices. The anharmonic coupling, facilitated by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and a highly degenerate two-magnon continuum yield a strong, nonperturbative damping of the high-energy magnon modes. We provide a detailed account of the effect for the S =1 /2 ferromagnet on the kagome lattice and propose further experiments.

  8. The giant anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}-a frustrated kagome metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, T; Hagiwara, M [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Fenner, L A; Dee, A A; Wills, A S [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Terasaki, I, E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-03-23

    The kagome-bilayer material Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} has recently been shown to be an example of a rare class of magnet-a frustrated ferromagnetic metal. While the magnetism of Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} appears to be relatively simple at high temperature, with localized moments parallel to the c-axis (T{sub C} = 640 K), upon cooling the competing exchange interactions and spin frustration become apparent as they cause the moments to become non-collinear and to rotate towards the kagome plane, forming firstly a canted ferromagnetic structure and then a re-entrant spin glass (T{sub f{approx_equal}}80 K). In this work we show that Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} possesses an unusual anomalous Hall effect. The saturated Hall resistivity of Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} is 3.2 {mu}{Omega} cm at 300 K, almost 20 times higher than that of typical itinerant ferromagnets such as Fe and Ni. The anomalous Hall coefficient R{sub s} is 6.7 x 10{sup -9} {Omega} cm G{sup -1} at 300 K, which is three orders of magnitude larger than that of pure Fe, and obeys an unconventional scaling with the longitudinal resistivity, {rho}{sub xx}, of R{sub s{proportional_to}{rho}xx}{sup 3.15}. Such a relationship cannot be explained by either the conventional skew or side-jump mechanisms, indicating that the anomalous Hall effect in Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2} has an extraordinary origin that is presumed to be related to the underlying frustration of the magnetism. These findings demonstrate that frustrated ferromagnets, whether based on bulk materials or on artificial nanoscale structures, can provide new routes to room temperature spin-dependent electron transport properties suited to application in spintronics. (fast track communication)

  9. Observation of Various and Spontaneous Magnetic Skyrmionic Bubbles at Room Temperature in a Frustrated Kagome Magnet with Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2017-06-07

    The quest for materials hosting topologically protected skyrmionic spin textures continues to be fueled by the promise of novel devices. Although many materials have demonstrated the existence of such spin textures, major challenges remain to be addressed before devices based on magnetic skyrmions can be realized. For example, being able to create and manipulate skyrmionic spin textures at room temperature is of great importance for further technological applications because they can adapt to various external stimuli acting as information carriers in spintronic devices. Here, the first observation of skyrmionic magnetic bubbles with variable topological spin textures formed at room temperature in a frustrated kagome Fe3 Sn2 magnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is reported. The magnetization dynamics are investigated using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, revealing that the transformation between different magnetic bubbles and domains is via the motion of Bloch lines driven by an applied external magnetic field. These results demonstrate that Fe3 Sn2 facilitates a unique magnetic control of topological spin textures at room temperature, making it a promising candidate for further skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  10. Ferromagnetic ordered phase of quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} under [001] magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamachi, Noriaki, E-mail: ce46414@meiji.ac.jp; Yasui, Yukio [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki, 214-8571 (Japan); Araki, Koji [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8581 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, 239-8686 (Japan); Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8581 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Measurements of magnetization (M) and specific heat (C) under a [001] magnetic field were carried out on a single crystal of a quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} in order to investigate a feature of the transition occurred at T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K. As a result of applying the magnetic field μ{sub 0}H < 0.1 T, the C/T − T curve structure and transition temperature barely changed. On the other hand, applying the more than 0.1 T magnetic field, the C/T − T curve structure drastically change from sharp peak structure to broad peak one, and the broad peak temperature of C/T − T curves linearly increases with increasing magnetic field (H). In the magnetic field μ{sub 0}H < 0.1 T, the magnetization drastically increases around T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K with decreasing T, and a thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curve is observed. With increasing H, the thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curves disappears above μ{sub 0}H{sub C} = 0.1 T. We can understand these results, where Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition associated with the latent heat corresponding to the energy of μ{sub 0}H{sub C} = 0.1 T. Basis of the H − T phase diagram along [001] magnetic field, the feature of the transition occurred at T{sub C} ∼ 0.2 K in quantum spin ice system Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} is discussed.

  11. Low Loss Single-Mode Porous-Core Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber for THz Wave Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M.; Habib, Selim; Abdur Razzak, S. M.;

    2015-01-01

    A novel porous-core kagome lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is designed and analyzed in this paper for terahertz (THz) wave guidance. Using finite element method (FEM), properties of the proposed kagome lattice PCF are simulated in details including the effective material loss (EML...

  12. Antiferromagnetic resonance modes for the S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}SnF{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharmin, S; Umegaki, I; Tanaka, H; Ono, T [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Tanaka, G; Nojiri, H [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fujisawa, M [Development of Frontier Research and Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Matsumi, N; Tomoo, M [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, S; Ohta, H [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, T, E-mail: sharmin@lee.phys.titech.ac.jp [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2011-07-20

    We have investigated the antiferromagnetic resonance modes of the kagome antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}SnF{sub 12} both theoretically and experimentally. High-field electron spin resonance experiments on single crystals were conducted in the ordered phase at different frequencies and temperatures with the external magnetic field parallel to the c axis. Considering three sublattices, we calculated the resonance modes for the motions of the sublattice magnetizations within the framework of the mean field approximation. It was found that the frequency-field diagram is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Generalized hard-core dimer model approach to low-energy Heisenberg frustrated antiferromagnets: General properties and application to the kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, David; Mambrini, Matthieu; Poilblanc, Didier

    2010-06-01

    We propose a general nonperturbative scheme that quantitatively maps the low-energy sector of spin-1/2 frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnets to effective generalized quantum dimer models. We develop the formal lattice-independent frame and establish some important results on (i) the locality of the generated Hamiltonians, (ii) how full resummations can be performed in this renormalization scheme. The method is then applied to the much debated kagome antiferromagnet for which a fully resummed effective Hamiltonian—shown to capture the essential properties and provide deep insights on the microscopic model [D. Poilblanc, M. Mambrini, and D. Schwandt, Phys. Rev. B 81, 180402(R) (2010)]—is derived.

  14. Generation of a VUV-to-visible Raman frequency comb in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e photonic crystal fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Mridha, M. K.; Novoa, D.; Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the fiber-gas system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-...

  15. Structure and physical properties of SrNiR u5O11 single crystals: An R -type ferrite based on ordered kagome nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyk, L.; De Long, L. E.; Niewa, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of the R -type ferrite SrNiR u5O11 were grown from a chloride flux. The hexagonal crystal structure contains ruthenium located on distorted kagome nets. The low-temperature dc magnetic susceptibilities (χ⊥ and χ∥, perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, respectively) diverge as T-0.3, and do not exhibit any indication of long-range magnetic order down to 4.5 K. The electrical resistivity varies as T1.6 below 40 K, which is typical of non-Fermi liquids, and may originate from a competition between residual magnetic interactions among N i2 + (S =1 ) spins and geometrical frustration on the two-dimensional kagome lattice of R u3 + (S =½ ) spins. The transverse magnetoresistivity ρx y at constant temperature T =5 K for current (J ) -magnetic field (H ) configurations, J ⊥ H ∥c axis and J ∥H ⊥ c axis, reveals no anomalous contribution, which is consistent with the absence of magnetic order. Fits of the specific heat data below 10 K require a dominant, but unusual electronic term of the form Ce l=γ T1.2 , which is expected for massless Dirac fermion states in topological insulators, or spin-liquid phases.

  16. Finite-Temperature Crossover Phenomenon in the S = 1/2 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Thermal properties of the S = 1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet at low temperatures are investigated by means of the Hams-de Raedt method for clusters of up to 36 sites possessing a full symmetry of the lattice. The specific heat exhibits, in addition to the double peaks, the third and the fourth peaks at lower temperatures. With decreasing the temperature, the type of the magnetic short-range order (SRO) changes around the third-peak temperature from the √{3} × √{3} to the q = 0 states, suggesting that the third peak of the specific heat is associated with a crossover phenomenon between the spin-liquid states with distinct magnetic SRO. Experimental implications are discussed.

  17. Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya Interaction and the Ground State in S = 3/2 Perfect Kagome Lattice Antiferromagnet KCr3(OH)6(SO4)2 (Cr-Jarosite) Studied by X-Band and High-Frequency ESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Susumu; Nakata, Ryohei; Ikeda, Shohei; Takahashi, Naoki; Sakurai, Takahiro; Zhang, Wei-Min; Ohta, Hitoshi; Shimokawa, Tokuro; Sakai, Tôru; Okuta, Koji; Hara, Shigeo; Sato, Hirohiko

    2017-02-01

    A single-crystal S = 3/2 perfect kagome lattice antiferromagnet, KCr3(OH)6(SO4)2 (Cr-jarosite), has been studied by X-band and high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR). The g-values perpendicular to the kagome plane (c-axis) and in the plane were determined to be gc = 1.9704 ± 0.0002 and gξ = 1.9720 ± 0.0003, respectively, by high-frequency ESR observed at 265 K. Antiferromagnetic resonances (AFMRs) with an antiferromagnetic gap of 120 GHz were observed at 1.9 K, which is below TN = 4.5 K. The analysis of AFMR modes using the conventional molecular field theory gave dp = 0.27 K and dz = 0.07 K, where dp and dz are in-plane and out-of-plane components of d vector of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction, respectively. On the basis of these results and the exchange interaction of J = 6.15 K estimated by Okuta et al., the ground state of Cr-jarosite was discussed in connection with the Monte Carlo simulation results with classical Heisenberg spins on the kagome lattice by Elhajal et al. Finally, the angular dependence of the linewidth and lineshape observed at 296 K by X-band ESR showed the typical behavior of a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, suggesting the good two-dimensionality of Cr-jarosite.

  18. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-03-16

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity.

  19. Staircase of crystal phases of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Daniel; Capponi, Sylvain; Dukelsky, Jorge; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum phase diagram of a system of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice with nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, for arbitrary densities, by means of the hierarchical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization techniques. This system is isomorphic to the spin S =1 /2 XXZ model in presence of an external magnetic field, a paradigmatic example of frustrated quantum magnetism. In the nonfrustrated regime, we find two crystal phases at densities 1/3 and 2/3 that melt into a superfluid phase when increasing the hopping amplitude, in semiquantitative agreement with quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the frustrated regime and away from half-filling, we find a series of plateaux with densities commensurate with powers of 1/3. The broader density plateaux (at densities 1/3 and 2/3) are remnants of the classical degeneracy in the Ising limit. For densities near half-filling, this staircase of crystal phases melts into a superfluid, which displays finite chiral currents when computed with clusters having an odd number of sites. Both the staircase of crystal phases and the superfluid phase prevail in the noninteracting limit, suggesting that the lowest dispersionless single-particle band may be at the root of this phenomenon.

  20. Extending the Family of V(4+) S=(1/2) Kagome Antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lucy; Aidoudi, Farida H; Black, Cameron; Arachchige, Kasun S A; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2015-12-14

    The ionothermal synthesis, structure, and magnetic susceptibility of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid material, imidazolium vanadium(III,IV) oxyfluoride [C3 H5 N2 ][V9 O6 F24 (H2 O)2 ] (ImVOF) are presented. The structure consists of inorganic vanadium oxyfluoride slabs with kagome layers of V(4+) S=${{ 1/2 }}$ ions separated by a mixed valence layer. These inorganic slabs are intercalated with imidazolium cations. Quinuclidinium (Q) and pyrazinium (Pyz) cations can also be incorporated into the hybrid structure type to give QVOF and PyzVOF analogues, respectively. The highly frustrated topology of the inorganic slabs, along with the quantum nature of the magnetism associated with V(4+) , means that these materials are excellent candidates to host exotic magnetic ground states, such as the highly sought quantum spin liquid. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of all samples suggest an absence of conventional long-range magnetic order down to 2 K despite considerable antiferromagnetic exchange.

  1. Melting of Three-Sublattice Order in Easy-Axis Antiferromagnets on Triangular and Kagome Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Kedar

    2015-09-18

    When the constituent spins have an energetic preference to lie along an easy axis, triangular and kagome lattice antiferromagnets often develop long-range order that distinguishes the three sublattices of the underlying triangular Bravais lattice. In zero magnetic field, this three-sublattice order melts either in a two-step manner, i.e., via an intermediate phase with power-law three-sublattice order controlled by a temperature-dependent exponent η(T)∈(1/9,1/4), or via a transition in the three-state Potts universality class. Here, I predict that the uniform susceptibility to a small easy-axis field B diverges as χ(B)∼|B|^{-[(4-18η)/(4-9η)]} in a large part of the intermediate power-law ordered phase [corresponding to η(T)∈(1/9,2/9)], providing an easy-to-measure thermodynamic signature of two-step melting. I also show that these two melting scenarios can be generically connected via an intervening multicritical point and obtain numerical estimates of multicritical exponents.

  2. Discrete flat-band solitons in the Kagome lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Vicencio, Rodrigo A

    2013-01-01

    We consider a model for a two-dimensional Kagome-lattice with defocusing nonlinearity, and show that families of localized discrete solitons may bifurcate from localized linear modes of the flat band with zero power threshold. Such fundamental nonlinear modes exist for arbitrarily strong nonlinearity, and correspond to unique configurations in the limit of zero inter-site coupling. We analyze their linear stability, and show that by choosing dynamical perturbations close to soft internal modes, a switching between solitons of different families may be obtained. In a window of small values of norm, a symmetry-broken localized state is found as the lowest-energy state.

  3. Wave propagation in reconfigurable magneto-elastic kagome lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Marshall; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    The paper discusses the wave propagation characteristics of two-dimensional magneto-elastic kagome lattices. Mechanical instabilities caused by magnetic interactions are exploited in combination with particle contact to bring about changes in the topology and stiffness of the lattices. The analysis uses a lumped mass system of particles, which interact through axial and torsional elastic forces as well as magnetic forces. The propagation of in-plane waves is predicted by applying Bloch theorem to lattice unit cells with linearized interactions. Elastic wave dispersion in these lattices before and after topological changes is compared, and large differences are highlighted.

  4. Topologically nontrivial magnons at an interface of two kagome ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Magnon band structures of topological magnon insulators exhibit a nontrivial topology due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which manifests itself by topologically protected edge magnons. Bringing two topological magnon insulators into contact can lead to nontrivial unidirectional magnons located at their common interface. We study theoretically interfaces of semi-infinite kagome ferromagnets in various topological phases, with a focus on the formation and the confinement of nontrivial interface magnons. We analyze generic magnon dispersions with respect to the number of band gaps and the respective winding numbers. Eventually, we prove that interfaces of topologically identical phases can host nontrivial interface magnons as well.

  5. Generation of a VUV-to-visible Raman frequency comb in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Mridha, M K; Bauerschmidt, S T; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J

    2016-01-01

    We report the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the fiber-gas system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way towards tunable fiber-based sources of deep- and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine.

  6. First-principles study of the magnetic ground state and magnetization process of the kagome francisites Cu3Bi (SeO3)2 O2X (X =Cl ,Br )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, S. A.; Mazurenko, V. V.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Mazurenko, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the magnetic behavior of the kagome francisites Cu3Bi (SeO3)2 O2X (X =Cl ,Br ) by using first-principles electronic structure calculations. To this end, we propose an approach based on the effective Hubbard model in the Wannier functions basis constructed on the level of local-density approximation. The ground-state spin configuration is determined by a mean-field Hartree-Fock solution of the Hubbard model both in zero magnetic field and in applied magnetic fields. Additionally, parameters of an effective spin Hamiltonian are obtained by taking into account hybridization effects and spin-orbit coupling. We show that only the former approach based on the Hartree-Fock approximation allows for a complete description of the anisotropic magnetization process. While our calculations confirm that the canted zero-field ground state arises from a competition between ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor couplings in the kagome planes, weaker anisotropic terms are crucial for fixing spin directions and for the strong anisotropy of the magnetization. We show that the Hartree-Fock solution of an electronic Hamiltonian is a viable alternative to the analysis of effective spin Hamiltonians when magnetic ground states and their evolution in external field are concerned.

  7. Superfluidity of bosons in kagome lattices with frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Chen, Zhu; Sun, Xiao-Qi; Zhai, Hui

    2012-12-28

    In this Letter we consider spinless bosons in a kagome lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping and on-site interaction, and the sign of hopping is inverted by insetting a π flux in each triangle of the kagome lattice so that the lowest single particle band is perfectly flat. We show that in the high-density limit, despite the infinite degeneracy of the single particle ground states, interaction will select out the Bloch state at the K point of the Brillouin zone for boson condensation at the lowest temperature. As the temperature increases, the single-boson superfluid order can be easily destroyed, while an exotic triple-boson paired superfluid order will remain. We establish that this trion superfluid exists in a broad temperature regime until the temperature is increased to the same order of hopping and then the system turns into normal phases. Finally, we show that time-of-flight measurement of the momentum distribution and its noise correlation can be used to distinguish these three phases.

  8. Topological Phases of Interacting Bosons on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Krishanu; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We consider an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons including nearest-neighbour hopping and long range repulsive interactions on a kagome lattice. The system is an insulator at commensurate fillings of 1/6, 1/3 and 1/2 and can be mapped to different dimer models on the triangular lattice (depending on the filling). We focus on the filling of 1/3, which transforms to a fully packed loop (FPL) model, and derive the full phase diagram in the low-energy subspace. Similar to the quantum dimer model and easy-axis kagome antiferromagnetic model studied before, we find an extended region of a gapped Z2 liquid with vison excitations. The gauge fluctuations, responsible for the vison modes, are dictated by the action of an even Ising gauge theory. In the ordered phase, where the vison gap closes, we observe a 3-fold rotationally symmetric loop ordering and present the critical theory for the amplitude fluctuations of the condensed modes. We also speculate the phase diagram for the fermionic counterpart of the model at all the above mentioned fractional fillings.

  9. Guiding properties of kagome-lattice hollow-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscelli, E.; Poli, F.; Passaro, D.; Cucinotta, A.; Selleri, S.

    2010-04-01

    Photonic crystal fibers with kagome lattice are a particular kind of micostructured hollow-core fibers whose cross-section is characterized by a web of thin silica struts intersecting in a Star-of-David pattern. Such fibers show unusual properties, such as light confinement in the air-core in absence of a full photonic bandgap. The primary design parameter for such fibers is the strut thickness, which is responsible for the position and the width of the transmission bands. In this paper the guiding properties of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with kagome lattice are investigated by means of a full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method. The fundamental mode effective index and confinement loss have been evaluated in a wide wavelength range, spanning from 300 nm to 1600 nm, accounting for the influence of the silica strut width on the transmission window. Moreover, the effects of selective alteration of the width and the shape of the silica struts surrounding the core have been analyzed. Simulation results show that the core-surrounding silica ring has the strongest effect on the transmission band, the loss level and the resonance wavelength position and, consequently, it should be carefully controlled during the fiber fabrication.

  10. Coherent potential approximation of random nearly isostatic kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T C

    2011-01-01

    The kagome lattice has coordination number 4, and it is mechanically isostatic when nearest-neighbor sites are connected by central-force springs. A lattice of N sites has O(√N) zero-frequency floppy modes that convert to finite-frequency anomalous modes when next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) springs are added. We use the coherent potential approximation to study the mode structure and mechanical properties of the kagome lattice in which NNN springs with spring constant κ are added with probability P=Δz/4, where Δz=z-4 and z is the average coordination number. The effective medium static NNN spring constant κ(m) scales as P(2) for P≪κ and as P for P≫κ, yielding a frequency scale ω*~Δz and a length scale l*~(Δz)(-1). To a very good approximation at small nonzero frequency, κ(m)(P,ω)/κ(m)(P,0) is a scaling function of ω/ω*. The Ioffe-Regel limit beyond which plane-wave states become ill-defined is reached at a frequency of order ω*.

  11. Directed self-assembly of a colloidal kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve

    2011-01-20

    A challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics is spontaneously to form intended superstructures from designed building blocks. In fields such as crystal engineering and the design of porous materials, this typically involves building blocks of organic molecules, sometimes operating together with metallic ions or clusters. The translation of such ideas to nanoparticles and colloidal-sized building blocks would potentially open doors to new materials and new properties, but the pathways to achieve this goal are still undetermined. Here we show how colloidal spheres can be induced to self-assemble into a complex predetermined colloidal crystal-in this case a colloidal kagome lattice-through decoration of their surfaces with a simple pattern of hydrophobic domains. The building blocks are simple micrometre-sized spheres with interactions (electrostatic repulsion in the middle, hydrophobic attraction at the poles, which we call 'triblock Janus') that are also simple, but the self-assembly of the spheres into an open kagome structure contrasts with previously known close-packed periodic arrangements of spheres. This open network is of interest for several theoretical reasons. With a view to possible enhanced functionality, the resulting lattice structure possesses two families of pores, one that is hydrophobic on the rims of the pores and another that is hydrophilic. This strategy of 'convergent' self-assembly from easily fabricated colloidal building blocks encodes the target supracolloidal architecture, not in localized attractive spots but instead in large redundantly attractive regions, and can be extended to form other supracolloidal networks.

  12. Antiferromagnetism, f -wave, and chiral p -wave superconductivity in a kagome lattice with possible application to s d2 graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Chun; Xiang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Qiang-Hua

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the electronic instabilities in a kagome lattice with Rashba spin-orbital coupling by the unbiased singular-mode functional renormalization group. At the parent 1 /3 filling, the normal state is a quantum spin Hall system. Since the bottom of the conduction band is near the van Hove singularity, the electron-doped system is highly susceptible to competing orders upon electron interactions. The topological nature of the parent system enriches the complexity and novelty of such orders. We find 120∘-type intra-unit-cell antiferromagnetic order, f -wave superconductivity, and chiral p -wave superconductivity with increasing electron doping above the van Hove point. In both types of superconducting phases, there is a mixture of comparable spin singlet and triplet components because of the Rashba coupling. The chiral p -wave superconducting state is characterized by a Chern number Z =1 , supporting a branch of Weyl fermion states on each edge. The model bares close relevance to the so-called s d2 graphenes proposed recently.

  13. New Kagome metal Sc₃Mn₃Al₇Si₅ and its gallium-doped analogues: synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Miiller, Wojciech; Aronson, Meigan C

    2014-09-01

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, and basic properties of the new intermetallic compound Sc3Mn3Al7Si5. The structure of the compound was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and it crystallizes with a hexagonal structure (Sc3Ni11Si4 type) with Mn atoms forming the Kagome nets. The dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a Curie-Weiss moment of ~0.51 μ(B)/Mn; however, no magnetic order is found for temperatures as low as 1.8 K. Electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements show that this compound is definitively metallic, with a relatively large specific heat Sommerfeld coefficient, indicating strong electronic correlations. Intriguingly, these features have revealed Sc3Mn3Al7Si5 as a possible quantum spin liquid. With chemical and lattice disorder introduced by doping, a spin liquid to spin glass transition is observed in the highest Ga-doped compounds. The roles of the geometrically frustrated structure and Mn-ligand hybridization in the magnetism of the title compounds are also discussed.

  14. Fluorescence anisotropy excitation by polarization-shaped laser pulses after transmission through a kagome fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, J.; Patas, A.; Althoff, J.; Lindinger, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report improved fluorescence contrast between dyes by two-photon excitation with polarization-shaped laser pulses after transmission through a kagome fiber utilizing the anisotropy of the dye molecules. Particularly phase- and polarization-tailored pulse shapes are employed for two-photon excited fluorescence of dyes in a liquid environment at the distal end of the kagome fiber. The distortions due to the optical fiber properties are precompensated in order to receive predefined polarization-shaped laser pulses after the kagome fiber. This enables to optimally excite one dye in one polarization direction and simultaneously the other dye in the other polarization direction. The presented method has a high potential for endoscopic applications due to the unique properties of kagome fibers for guiding ultrashort laser pulses.

  15. A test resonator for Kagome Hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fibers for resonant rotation sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Feugnet, Gilles; Ravaille, Alexia; Debord, Benoït; Gérôme, Frédéric; Baz, Assaad; Humbert, Georges; Benabid, Fetah; Schwartz, Sylvain; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    We build ring resonators to assess the potentialities of Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers for future applications to resonant rotation sensing. The large mode diameter of Kagome fibers permits to reduce the free space fiber-to-fiber coupling losses, leading to cavities with finesses of about 30 for a diameter equal to 15 cm. Resonance linewidths of 3.2 MHz with contrasts as large as 89% are obtained. Comparison with 7-cell photonic band gap (PBG) fiber leads to better finesse and contrast with Kagome fiber. Resonators based on such fibers are compatible with the angular random walk required for medium to high performance rotation sensing. The small amount of light propagating in silica should also permit to further reduce the Kerr-induced non-reciprocity by at least three orders of magnitudes in 7-cell Kagome fiber compared with 7-cell PBG fiber.

  16. Vibration band-gap properties of three-dimensional Kagome lattices using the spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jing; Li, Feng-Ming; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-04-01

    The spectral element method (SEM) is extended to investigate the vibration band-gap properties of three-dimensional (3D) Kagome lattices. The dynamic stiffness matrix of the 3D element which contains bending, tensional and torsional components is derived. The spectral equations of motion of the whole 3D Kagome lattice are then established. Comparing with frequency-domain solutions calculated by the finite element method (FEM), the accuracy and the feasibility of the SEM solutions are verified. It can be shown that the SEM is suitable for analyzing the vibration band-gap properties. Due to the band-gap characteristics, the periodic 3D Kagome lattice has the performance of vibration isolation. The influences of the structural and material parameters on the vibration band-gaps are discussed and a new type of 3D Kagome lattice is designed to obtain the improved vibration isolation capability.

  17. Spin-controlled plasmonics via optical Rashba effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitrit, Nir; Yulevich, Igor; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez, E-mail: mehasman@technion.ac.il [Micro and Nanooptics Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-11-18

    Observation of the optical Rashba effect in plasmonics is reported. Polarization helicity degeneracy removal, associated with the inversion symmetry violation, is attributed to the surface symmetry design via anisotropic nanoantennas with space-variant orientations. By utilizing the Rashba-induced momentum in a nanoscale kagome metastructure, we demonstrated a spin-based surface plasmon multidirectional excitation under a normal-incidence illumination. The spin-controlled plasmonics via spinoptical metasurfaces provides a route for spin-based surface-integrated photonic nanodevices and light-matter interaction control, extending the light manipulation capabilities.

  18. Finite-temperature transition of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2012-08-03

    Motivated by the recent experiment on kagome-lattice antiferromagnets, we study the zero-field ordering behavior of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a uniaxially distorted kagome lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. A first-order transition, which has no counterpart in the corresponding undistorted model, takes place at a very low temperature. The origin of the transition is ascribed to a cooperative proliferation of topological excitations inherent to the model.

  19. Extremely Low Loss THz Guidance Using Kagome Lattice Porous Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Anwar; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.; Habib, Selim;

    2015-01-01

    A novel porous core Kagome lattice photonic crystal fiber is proposed for extremely low loss THz waves guiding. It has been reported that 82.5% of bulk effective material loss of Topas can be reduced......A novel porous core Kagome lattice photonic crystal fiber is proposed for extremely low loss THz waves guiding. It has been reported that 82.5% of bulk effective material loss of Topas can be reduced...

  20. Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, G J; Wiederhecker, G S; Poulton, C G; Burger, S; St J Russell, P

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the general features of the loss spectrum of photonic crystal fibres (PCF) with a kagome structure can be explained by simple models consisting of thin concentric hexagons or rings of glass in air. These easily analysed models provide increased understanding of the mechanism of guidance in kagome PCF, and suggest ways in which the high-loss resonances in the loss spectrum may be shifted.

  1. Magnetic behavior of metallic kagome lattices, Tb3Ru4Al12 and Er3Ru4Al12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Iyer, Kartik K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    We report the magnetic behavior of two intermetallic-based kagome lattices, Tb3Ru4Al12 and Er3Ru4Al12, crystallizing in the Gd3Ru4Al2-type hexagonal crystal structure, by measurements in the range 1.8-300 K with bulk experimental techniques (ac and dc magnetization, heat capacity, and magnetoresistance). The main finding is that the Tb compound, known to order antiferromagnetically below (T N =) 22 K, shows glassy characteristics at lower temperatures (\\ll 15 K), thus characterizing this compound as a re-entrant spin-glass. The data reveal that the glassy phase is quite complex and is of a cluster type. Since glassy behavior was not seen for the Gd analog in the past literature, this finding on the Tb compound emphasizes that this kagome family could provide an opportunity to explore the role of higher-order interactions (such as quadrupole) in bringing out magnetic frustration. Additional findings reported here for this compound are: (i) The plots of temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity data in the range 12-20 K, just below T N , are found to be hysteretic leading to a magnetic phase in this intermediate temperature range, mimicking disorder-broadened first-order magnetic phase transitions; (ii) features attributable to an interesting magnetic phase co-existence phenomenon in the isothermal magnetoresistance in zero field, after travelling across metamagnetic transition fields, are observed. With respect to the Er compound, we do not find any evidence for long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K, but this compound appears to be on the verge of magnetic order at 2 K.

  2. Patterning Graphitic C-N Sheets into a Kagome Lattice for Magnetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yushiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2013-01-17

    We propose porous C-N-based structures for biocompatible magnetic materials that do not contain even a single metal ion. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we show that when patterned in the form of a kagome lattice, nonmagnetic g-C3N4 not only becomes ferromagnetic but also its magnetic properties can be further enhanced by applying external strain. Similarly, the magnetic moment per atom in ferromagnetic g-C4N3 is increased three fold when patterned into a kagome lattice. The Curie temperature of g-C3N4 kagome lattice is 100 K, while that of g-C4N3 kagome lattice is much higher, namely, 520 K. To date, all of the synthesized two- and three-dimensional magnetic kagome structures contain metal ions and are toxic. The objective of our work is to stimulate an experimental effort to develop nanopatterning techniques for the synthesis of g-C3N4- and g-C4N3-based kagome lattices.

  3. Infrared phonons as a probe of spin-liquid states in herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, A. B.; Jenkins, G. S.; Han, Tian-Heng; Lee, Young S.; Drew, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We report on temperature dependence of the infrared reflectivity spectra of a single crystalline herbertsmithite in two polarizations—parallel and perpendicular to the kagome plane of Cu atoms. We observe anomalous broadening of the low frequency phonons possibly caused by fluctuations in the exotic dynamical magnetic order of the spin liquid.

  4. Colloquium: Herbertsmithite and the search for the quantum spin liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum spin liquids form a novel class of matter where, despite the existence of strong exchange interactions, spins do not order down to the lowest measured temperature. Typically, these occur in lattices that act to frustrate the appearance of magnetism. In two dimensions, the classic example is the kagome lattice composed of corner sharing triangles. There are a variety of minerals whose transition metal ions form such a lattice. Hence, a number of them have been studied and were then subsequently synthesized in order to obtain more pristine samples. Of particular note was the report in 2005 by Dan Nocera's group of the synthesis of herbertsmithite, composed of a lattice of copper ions sitting on a kagome lattice, which indeed does not order down to the lowest measured temperature despite the existence of a large exchange interaction of 17 meV. Over the past decade, this material has been extensively studied, yielding a number of intriguing surprises that have in turn motivated a resurgence of interest in the theoretical study of the spin 1 /2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice. This Colloquium reviews these developments and then discusses potential future directions, both experimental and theoretical, as well as the challenge of doping these materials with the hope that this could lead to the discovery of novel topological and superconducting phases.

  5. PT-symmetry and kagome lattices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Avadh; Chern, Gia-Wei

    2016-09-01

    We consider a complex photonic lattice by placing PT-symmetric dimers at the Kagome lattice points. This lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles. Each dimer represents a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. The frustrated coupling between waveguide modes results in a dispersionless flat band comprising spatially localized modes. For a balanced arrangement of gain and loss on each dimer, up to a critical value of the gain/loss parameter the system exhibits a PT-symmetric phase. The beam evolution in the waveguide array leads to an oscillatory rotation of the optical power. We observe local chiral structures with a narrow beam excitation. We also study nonlinearity and disorder in this set up.

  6. Quantum Hall effect in kagome lattices under staggered magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-26

    The interplay of staggered magnetic field (SMF) and uniform magnetic field (UMF) on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in kagome lattices is investigated in the weak UMF limit. The topological band gaps coming from SMF are robust against UMF although the extended bands split into a series of Landau levels. With SMF applied, in the unconventional QHE region, one plateau of Hall conductance becomes wider and the others are compressed. Meanwhile, one of the two series of integer Hall plateaus splits and the resulting two series of Hall plateaus still exhibit the integer behavior. The Hall conductance varies with SMF step by step with the step height being e{sup 2}/h or 2e{sup 2}/h according to the QHE being conventional or unconventional. In the transitional regions, redistribution of Chern numbers happens even in the weak UMF limit. (paper)

  7. Strongly interacting particles on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Chisa; Pollmann, Frank, E-mail: chisa@cc.kyoto-su.ac.j [Kyoto Sangyo University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of strongly interacting spinless fermions and hard-core bosons on an anisotropic kagome lattice near 2/3-filling. Our main focus lies on the strongly anisotropic case in which the nearest-neighbor repulsions V and V' are large compared to the hopping amplitudes |t| and |t'|. When t = t' = 0, the system has a charge ordered insulating ground state where the charges align in striped configurations. Doping one electron or hole into the ground state yields an anisotropic metal at V' > V, where the particle fractionalizes along the V'-bonds while propagates along the V-bonds in a one-body like manner. The sixth order ring exchange processes around the hexagonal unit of the lattice play a crucial role in forming a bound state of fractional charges.

  8. Strongly interacting particles on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Chisa; Pollmann, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of strongly interacting spinless fermions and hard-core bosons on an anisotropic kagome lattice near 2/3-filling. Our main focus lies on the strongly anisotropic case in which the nearest-neighbor repulsions V and V' are large compared to the hopping amplitudes |t| and |t'|. When t = t' = 0, the system has a charge ordered insulating ground state where the charges align in striped configurations. Doping one electron or hole into the ground state yields an anisotropic metal at V' > V, where the particle fractionalizes along the V'-bonds while propagates along the V-bonds in a one-body like manner. The sixth order ring exchange processes around the hexagonal unit of the lattice play a crucial role in forming a bound state of fractional charges.

  9. Tunable anisotropic superfluidity in an optical kagome superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Tao; Eggert, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel

    2015-07-01

    We study the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on the kagome lattice with a broken sublattice symmetry. Such a superlattice structure can naturally be created and tuned by changing the potential offset of one sublattice in the optical generation of the frustrated lattice. The superstructure gives rise to a rich quantum phase diagram, which is analyzed by combining quantum Monte Carlo simulations with the generalized effective potential Landau theory. Mott phases with noninteger filling and a characteristic order along stripes are found, which show a transition to a superfluid phase with an anisotropic superfluid density. Surprisingly, the direction of the superfluid anisotropy can be tuned by changing the particle number, the hopping strength, or the interaction. Finally, we discuss characteristic signatures of anisotropic phases in time-of-flight absorption measurements.

  10. Antiferroelectric instability in the kagome francisites Cu3Bi (SeO3)2O2X (X =Cl ,Br )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchenko, Danil A.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Jesche, Anton; Mazurenko, Vladimir G.

    2017-02-01

    Density-functional calculations of lattice dynamics and high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction uncover antiferroelectric distortion in the kagome francisite Cu3Bi (SeO3)2O2Cl below 115 K. Its Br-containing analog is stable in the room-temperature crystal structure down to at least 10 K, although the Br compound is on the verge of a similar antiferroelectric instability and reveals local displacements of Cu and Br atoms. The I-containing compound is stable in its room-temperature structure according to density-functional calculations. We show that the distortion involves cooperative displacements of Cu and Cl atoms, and originates from the optimization of interatomic distances for weakly bonded halogen atoms. The distortion introduces a tangible deformation of the kagome spin lattice and may be responsible for the reduced net magnetization of the Cl compound compared to the Br one. The polar structure of Cu3Bi (SeO3)2O2Cl is only slightly higher in energy than the nonpolar antiferroelectric structure, but no convincing evidence of its formation could be obtained.

  11. Structure and Physical Properties of SrNiRu5O11 Single Crystals: A New Frustrated R-type Ferrite Based on Ordered Kagome Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Long, Lance; Shlyk, Larysa; Niewa, Rainer

    Single crystals of the R-type ferrite SrNiRu5O11 were grown from a chloride flux. The hexagonal crystal structure contains ruthenium located on Kagome nets, distorted due to formation of Ru-Ru dumbbells via metal-metal bonding. SrNiRu5O11 does not show long-range magnetic order down to 4.5 K. The low-temperature magnetic susceptibilities, χ⊥ and χ/ / c-axis, diverge as T-0.3, and the electric resistivity varies as T1.6 below 40 K, which is typical of non-Fermi liquid materials. This anomalous behavior might originate from the competition between residual magnetic interactions among Ni2+ (S = 1) spins and geometrical frustration on the two-dimensional Kagome lattice of Ru3+ (S = 1/2) spins. The transverse magnetoresistivity ρxy, of a SrNiRu5OSUB11 single crystal at constant temperature T = 5 K for current-magnetic-field configurations, J ⊥H || c-axis and J || H ⊥ c-axis, reveals no anomalous contribution, which is typical for non-magnetic materials. Fits of the heat capacity data below 10 K require a dominant, but unusual electronic term of the form Cel = γT1.2, which is expected for massless Dirac fermion states in topological insulators or spin liquid phases. Research at University of Kentucky supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER-45653.

  12. Topological honeycomb magnon Hall effect: A calculation of thermal Hall conductivity of magnetic spin excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κxy changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κxy changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κxy has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T2 law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.

  13. Magnetic transitions in the chiral armchair-kagome system Mn2Sb2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Darren C.; Sim, Hasung; Choi, Seongil; Avdeev, Maxim; Lee, Seongsu; Kim, Su Jae; Kang, Hoju; Ahn, Docheon; Park, Je-Geun

    2017-01-01

    The competition between interactions in frustrated magnets allows a wide variety of new ground states, often exhibiting emergent physics and unique excitations. Expanding the suite of lattices available for study enhances our chances of finding exotic physics. Mn2Sb2O7forms in a chiral, kagome-based structure in which a fourth member is added to the kagome-plane triangles to form an armchair unit and link adjacent kagome planes. This structural motif may be viewed as intermediate between the triangles of the kagome network and the tetrahedra in the pyrochlore lattice. Mn2Sb2O7exhibits two distinct magnetic phase transitions, at 11.1 and 14.2 K, at least one of which has a weak ferromagnetic component. The magnetic propagation vector does not change through the lower transition, suggesting a metamagnetic transition or a transition involving a multicomponent order parameter. Although previously reported in the P 3121 space group, Mn2Sb2O7actually crystallizes in P 2 , which allows ferroelectricity, and we show clear evidence of magnetoelectric coupling indicative of multiferroic order. The quasi-two-dimensional "armchair-kagome" lattice presents a promising platform for probing chiral magnetism and the effect of dimensionality in highly frustrated systems.

  14. First-principles design of a half-filled flat band of the kagome lattice in two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Soejima, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Naoto; Hirai, Daisuke; Dincǎ, Mircea; Aoki, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We design from first principles a type of two-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) using phenalenyl-based ligands to exhibit a half-filled flat band of the kagome lattice, which is one of a family of lattices that show Lieb-Mielke-Tasaki's flat-band ferromagnetism. Among various MOFs, we find that trans-Au-THTAP (THTAP=trihydroxytriaminophenalenyl) has such an ideal band structure, where the Fermi energy is adjusted right at the flat band due to unpaired electrons of radical phenalenyl. The spin-orbit coupling opens a band gap giving a nonzero Chern number to the nearly flat band, as confirmed by the presence of the edge states in first-principles calculations and by fitting to the tight-binding model. This is a novel and realistic example of a system in which a nearly flat band is both ferromagnetic and topologically nontrivial.

  15. {sup 51}V-NMR study of the Kagome staircase compound Co{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblichev, V; Kumagai, K; Yakubovsky, A; Furukawa, Y [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Mikhalev, K; Verkhovskii, S; Gerashenko, A; Korolev, A [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Barilo, S; Bychkov, G; Shiryaev, S, E-mail: thanks@spa.att.ne.j [Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2009-03-01

    Kagome staircase compound Co{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} (S = 3/2) has a structure very similar to multiferroic compound Ni{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub g} (S = 1), but their magnetic phase diagrams differ noticeably. We present the results of the first NMR study in Co{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystal. From {sup 51}V-NMR spectra, the components of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor and of magnetic shifts tensor, K{sub i}, are obtained. The temperature dependences of NMR shifts {sup 51}K{sub i} for each main crystal axis direction are well described by a spin contributions in the paramagnetic phase. In ferromagnetic phase the zero field {sup 51}V-NMR spectrum is observed in the temperature range of 1.5-6.3 K.

  16. PLASTIC ZONE OF SEMI-INFINITE CRACK INPLANAR KAGOME AND TRIANGULAR LATTICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinming Qiu; Lianghong He; Yueqiang Qian; Xiong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture investigations of the planar lattices made of ductile cell walls are cur-rently limited to bending-dominated hexagonal honeycomb. In this paper, the plastic zones of stretching-dominated lattices, including Kagome and triangular lattices, are estimated by ana-lyzing their effective yield loci. The normalized in-plane yield loci of these two lattices are almost identical convex curves enclosed by 4 straight lines, which is almost independent of the relative density but is highly sensitive to the principal stress directions. Therefore, the plastic zones around the crack tip of Kagome and triangular are estimated to be quite different to those of the con-tinuum solid and also hexagonal lattice. The plastic zones predictions by convex yield surfaces of both lattices are validated by FE calculations, although the shear lag region caused by non-local bending effect in the Kagome lattice enlarges the plastic zone in cases of small ratio of Tp/l.

  17. Floquet topological phase transitions and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chaocheng; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-09-05

    The Floquet topological phases and chiral edge states in a kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field are studied. In the off-resonant case, the system exhibits the similar character as the kagome lattice model with staggered magnetic fluxes, but the total band width is damped in oscillation. In the on-resonant case, the degeneracy splitting at the Γ point does not always result in a gap. The positions of the other two gaps are influenced by the flat band. With the field intensity increased, these two gaps undergo closing-then-reopening processes, accompanied with the changing of the winding numbers. - Highlights: • A kagome lattice under a circularly-polarized driving field is studied. • The band structures and chiral edge states are studied via exact Floquet method. • Various modifications of the Floquet band structure are found. • Floquet topological phase transitions appear in both off- and on-resonant cases.

  18. Magnetic properties and concurrence for fluid {sup 3}He on kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananikian, N. S., E-mail: ananik@yerphi.am; Ananikian, L. N. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Armenia); Lazaryan, H. A. [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

    2012-10-15

    We present the results of magnetic properties and entanglement for kagome lattice using Heisenberg model with two- and three-site exchange interactions in strong magnetic field. Kagome lattice correspond to the third layer of fluid {sup 3}He absorbed on the surface of graphite. The magnetic properties and concurrence as a measure of pairwise thermal entanglement are studied by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The system exhibits different magnetic behaviors depending on the values of the exchange parameters (J{sub 2}, J{sub 3}). We have obtained the magnetization plateaus at low temperatures. The central theme of the paper is comparing the entanglement and magnetic behavior for kagome lattice. We have found that in the antiferromagnetic region behavior of the concurrence coincides with the magnetic susceptibility one.

  19. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Small-Pitch Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Hou, Lan-Tian; Zhou, Gui-Yao; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao

    2008-08-01

    A hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF) based on small-pitch kagome lattice cladding is designed and fabricated. The pitch of the fibre is only 2.45μm and it corresponds to a region of low normalized frequency which has never been investigated before. Both experiments and calculations show that this kagome HC-PCF has a broad optical transmission band from 400 nm to 900 nm, covering the whole visible and near infrared region of the spectrum. Additionally, the loss curve of the fibre is flat in the visible region and the minimum of the loss achieves 0.16dB/m, which is lower than the loss of the kagome HC-PCFs reported before. Furthermore, this fibre can well confine the modes in the air core. No surface modes can be detected in the surrounding silica of the hollow core.

  20. DMRG studies of the frustrated kagome antiferromagnets and the application to volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.; Yang, Kun

    Motivated by the recent magnetization measurements on the high-quality single crystals of the kagome antiferromagnet volborthite, we study the ground state and magnetization properties of two kagome models proposed from the electronic structure simulations, which treat the volborthite as either the coupled trimers or the coupled frustrated chains on the kagome lattice. We study the models using density-matrix renormalization group on the cylinder geometry with the system width up to 4 legs. We find a quantum phase diagram of the models with changing couplings, and identify the magnetic properties of each phase. In the antiferromagnetic phases, we also study the magnetization curve and the different phases in the magnetic field. Finally, we compare the magetization properties of the models with the experimental observations of volborthite. NSF DMR-1157490, DMR-1408560, and the State of Florida.

  1. sd(2) Graphene: Kagome band in a hexagonal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miao; Liu, Zheng; Ming, Wenmei; Wang, Zhengfei; Liu, Feng

    2014-12-05

    Graphene, made of sp^{2} hybridized carbon, is characterized with a Dirac band, representative of its underlying 2D hexagonal lattice. The fundamental understanding of graphene has recently spurred a surge in the search for 2D topological quantum phases in solid-state materials. Here, we propose a new form of 2D material, consisting of sd^{2} hybridized transition metal atoms in hexagonal lattice, called sd^{2} "graphene." The sd^{2} graphene is characterized by bond-centered electronic hopping, which transforms the apparent atomic hexagonal lattice into the physics of a kagome lattice that may exhibit a wide range of topological quantum phases. Based on first-principles calculations, room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall states with an energy gap of ∼0.1  eV are demonstrated for one such lattice made of W, which can be epitaxially grown on a semiconductor surface of 1/3 monolayer Cl-covered Si(111), with high thermodynamic and kinetic stability.

  2. Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Resonator for Rotation Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Debord, Benoît; Gérôme, Frédéric; Baz, Assaad; Humbert, Georges; Benabid, Fetah; Schwartz, Sylvain; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the performances of a Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber resonator for rotation sensing applications. The use of a large mode field diameter Kagome fiber permits to reduce the free space fiber-to-fiber coupling losses, allowing the realization of cavities with finesses compatible with the angular random walk required for medium to high performance rotation sensing, while minimizing the Kerr effect induced non reciprocities. Experiments show encouraging results that could lead to a compact, low cost, and robust medium for high performance gyroscope.

  3. Quantum phase transition induced by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in the kagome antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Cepas, Olivier; Fong, C. M.; Leung, P. W.; Lhuillier, C.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the S=1/2 kagome antiferromagnet undergoes a quantum phase transition when the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling is increased. For $DD_c$ the system develops antiferromagnetic long-range order. The quantum critical point is found to be $D_c \\simeq 0.1J$ using exact diagonalizations and finite-size scaling. This suggests that the kagome compound ZnCu$_3(OH)$_6$Cl$_3$ may be in a quantum critical region controlled by this fixed point.

  4. Observation of localized flat-band states in Kagome photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yuanyuan; Xia, Shiqiang; Tang, Liqin; Song, Daohong; Hu, Yi; Pei, Yumiao; Su, Jing; Li, Yigang; Chen, Zhigang

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of localized flat-band states in optically induced Kagome photonic lattices. Such lattices exhibit a unique band structure with the lowest band being completely flat (diffractionless) in the tight-binding approximation. By taking the advantage of linear superposition of the flat-band eigenmodes of the Kagome lattices, we demonstrate a high-fidelity transmission of complex patterns in such two-dimensional pyrochlore-like photonic structures. Our numerical simulations find good agreement with experimental observations, upholding the belief that flat-band lattices can support distortion-free image transmission.

  5. Fusion splice between tapered inhibited coupling hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber and SMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ximeng; Debord, Benoît; Vincetti, Luca; Beaudou, Benoît; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah

    2016-06-27

    We report for the first time on tapering inhibited coupling (IC) hypocycloid-core shape Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers whilst maintaining their delicate core-contour negative curvature with a down-ratio as large as 2.4. The transmission loss of down-tapered sections reaches a figure as low as 0.07 dB at 1550 nm. The tapered IC fibers are also spliced to standard SMF with a total insertion loss of 0.48 dB. These results show that all-fiber photonic microcells with the ultra-low loss hypocycloid core-contour Kagome fibers is now possible.

  6. Ultraviolet Light Generation in Gas-Filled Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sílvia M. G.; Facão, Margarida; Ferreira, Mário F. S.

    2015-03-01

    Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers were found to be ideal for the occurrence of ultrafast non-linear optics. This article reports the optimal conditions for the generation of ultraviolet light using a gas filled kagome hollow-core-photonic crystal fiber. It is shown that by changing the pressure of the gas and the input pulse characteristics, the efficiency of conversion and quality of ultraviolet light can be improved, as well as tuning its central frequency. Results suggest that a highly coherent and tunable ultraviolet light source can be constructed, which can find numerous applications.

  7. Ground State and Elementary Excitations of the S=1 Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Hida, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Low energy spectrum of the S=1 kagom\\'e Heisenberg antiferromagnet (KHAF) is studied by means of exact diagonalization and the cluster expansion. The magnitude of the energy gap of the magnetic excitation is consistent with the recent experimental observation for \\mpynn. In contrast to the $S=1/2$ KHAF, the non-magnetic excitations have finite energy gap comparable to the magnetic excitation. As a physical picture of the ground state, the hexagon singlet solid state is proposed and verified b...

  8. Rotating ice blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  9. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  10. Magnetic phases in the Kagomé staircase compound Co3V2O8 studied using powder neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N. R.; Petrenko, O. A.; Chapon, L. C.

    2007-03-01

    The low temperature properties of the Kagomé-type system Co3V2O8 have been studied by powder neutron diffraction both in zero field and in applied magnetic fields of up to 8T . Below 6K , the zero-field ground state is ferromagnetic with the magnetic moments aligned along the a axis. The size of the moment on one of the two Co sites, the so-called cross-tie site, is considerably reduced compared to the fully polarized state. The application of a magnetic field in this phase is found to rapidly enhance the cross-tie site magnetic moment, which reaches the expected value of ˜3μB by the maximum applied field of 8T . Different reorientation behaviors are found for the Co cross-tie and spine sites, suggesting a more pronounced easy-axis anisotropy for moments on the spine sites. Rietveld refinements reveal that a simple model, where the spins on both cross-tie and spine sites rotate in the ac plane in a magnetic field, reproduces the experimental diffraction patterns well. In addition, it is found that at higher temperatures and moderate magnetic fields, the incommensurate antiferromagnetic order, corresponding to a transverse sinusoidal modulation above 8K , is suppressed to be replaced by ferromagnetic order.

  11. Fluorite and mixed-metal Kagome-related topologies in metal-organic framework compounds: synthesis, structure, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Partha; Raghunathan, Rajamani; Banerjee, Debamalya; Sen, Diptiman; Ramasesha, S; Bhat, S V; Natarajan, S

    2009-06-01

    Two new three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Mn(2)(mu(3)-OH)(H(2)O)(2)(BTC)] x 2 H(2)O, I, and [NaMn(BTC)], II (BTC = 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate = trimellitate) were synthesized and their structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). In I, the Mn(4) cluster, [Mn(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)O(12)], is connected with eight trimellitate anions and each trimellitate anion connects to four different Mn(4) clusters, resulting in a fluorite-like structure. In II, the Mn(2)O(8) dimer is connected with two Na(+) ions through carboxylate oxygen to form mixed-metal distorted Kagome-related two-dimensional -M-O-M- layers, which are pillared by the trimellitate anions forming the three-dimensional structure. The extra-framework water molecules in I are reversibly adsorbed and are also corroborated by powder XRD studies. The formation of octameric water clusters involving free and coordinated water molecules appears to be new. Interesting magnetic behavior has been observed for both compounds. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies indicate a broadening of the signal below the ordering temperature and appear to support the findings of the magnetic studies.

  12. Unusual Magnetic State with Dual Magnetic Excitations in the Single Crystal of S = 1/2 Kagome Lattice Antiferromagnet CaCu3(OH)6Cl2 • 0.6H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Naoya; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Yuto; Ihara, Yoshihiko; Oda, Migaku; Okabe, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Takata, Atsushi; Kida, Takanori; Narumi, Yasuo; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    We have succeeded in preparing single crystals of CaCu3(OH)6Cl2 • 0.6H2O, a candidate for the S = 1/2 Kagome lattice antiferromagnet. Magnetic properties of the compound are dominated by the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction J1, and the next nearest neighbor ferromagnetic J2 and an antiferromagnetic Jd across a hexagon, which is different from related compounds Kapellasite and Haydeeite with ferromagnetic J1. Magnetic susceptibility exhibits a sudden increase below 13 K and a cusp anomaly at T* = 7.2 K in the ab-plane, whereas only a moderate enhancement is observed below T* along the c-axis. A tiny peak detected in heat capacity at T* indicates the occurrence of a magnetic phase transition. The low temperature magnetic heat capacity was reproduced by assuming a two-dimensional spin-wave component and a temperature-linear term. The spin-wave contribution suggests a magnon excitation in a short-range ordered region, whereas the relatively large T-linear term 5.9 mJ/(Cu-mol·K2) at H = 0 T of this insulating compound suggests the existence of an unusual quasi-particle excitation below T*. They apparently reveal the unconventionality of the ground state of this S = 1/2 Kagome lattice antiferromagnet.

  13. Magnetic phase diagram of the coupled triangular spin tubes for CsCrF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kouichi; Okunishi, Kouichi

    2015-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the magnetic phase diagram of triangular spin tubes coupled with a ferromagnetic intertube interaction for CsCrF4. The planar structure of the coupled tubes is topologically equivalent to the kagome-triangular lattice, which induces nontrivial frustration effects in the system. We particularly find that, depending on the intertube coupling, various ordered phases are actually realized, such as incommensurate order, ferromagnetic order, and cuboc order, which is characterized by the noncoplanar spin structure of the 12 sublattices accompanying the spin chirality breaking. We also discuss the relevance of the results to recent experiments on CsCrF4.

  14. Magnetic properties of two dimensional silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes-based kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Zhou Jian [Peking University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Qian, E-mail: qianwang2@pku.edu.cn [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic kagome lattices are constructed using silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes (SiC-TNFs). Two types of structures with alternating Si and C atoms are studied: the first one is constructed using the C-edged SiC-TNFs as the building blocks and C atoms as the linkers of kagome sites (TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N}) while the second one is composed of the Si-edged SiC-TNFs with Si atoms as linkers (TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N}). Using density functional theory-based calculations, we show that the fully relaxed TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N} retains the morphology of regular kagome lattice and is ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure is deformed and antiferromagnetic. However, the ground state of TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure can be transformed from the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state by applying tensile strain. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SiC-TNFs-based kagome lattices can be ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  15. Light source design using Kagome-lattice hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Namihira, Yoshinori

    2014-09-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) light source is designed using high pressure Xe-filled hollow core Kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber. Using finite element method with perfectly matched layer, SC spectra in normal chromatic dispersion region have been generated using picosecond optical pulses from relatively less expensive laser sources.

  16. Discovery, synthesis, and characterization of an isomeric coordination polymer with pillared kagome net topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hyungphil; Moon, Jumi

    2007-05-28

    A topological isomer based on Zn2 paddlewheel, dicarboxylate, and diamine ligands is synthesized by solvothermal methods after careful modulation of the reaction conditions. The new framework is characterized by a pillared Kagome net topology and possesses a sustainable pore structure with high surface area (approximately 2400 m2/g) and large hexagonal channels (approximately 15 A).

  17. Anisotropy: Spin order and magnetization of single-crystalline Cu4(OH)6FBr barlowite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tian-Heng; Isaacs, Eric D.; Schlueter, John A.; Singleton, John

    2016-06-15

    Despite decades-long fascination, the difficulty of maintaining high lattice symmetry in frustrated nonbipartite S = 1/2 materials that can also be made into high-quality single crystals has been a persistent challenge. Here we report magnetization studies of a single-crystal sample of barlowite, Cu-4(OH)6FBr, which has a geometrically perfect kagome motif. At T ≤ 4.2 K and 35 ≤ mu H-0 ≤ 65 T, the interlayer spins are fully polarized, and the kagome-intrinsic magnetization is consistent with a Heisenberg model having J/kB = -180 K. Several field-driven anomalies are observed, having varied scalings with temperature. At an applied field, kagome disorder caused by the interlayer spins is smaller than that in herbertsmithite. At T ≤ 15 K, the bulk magnetic moment comes from the interlayer spins. An almost coplanar spin order suggests that the magnitude of in-plane Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is smaller than 0.006(6) J. On the other hand, the possibility of a spin-liquid state in the kagome lattice coexisting with ordered interlayer spins is left open.

  18. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  19. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  20. Independent modal space vibration control of cantilever Kagome sandwich plate%悬臂 Kagome 夹心板独立模态空间振动控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭空明; 江俊

    2015-01-01

    Active vibration of a kind of cantilever Kagome sandwich plate was studied.A finite element model of the cantilever structure with piezoelectric actuator was established.An active control strategy for cantilever Kagome sandwich plate was proposed by combining the independent modal space control with a modal observer.Aiming at one kind of gust load,the independent modal space control of Kagome sandwich plate was simulated,while the influence of observer poles on the control effect was focused on.The results show that the control method can significantly improve the damping properties,and a greater attenuation factor of the observer can get better control effect.Therefore,Kagome sandwich panel has obvious advantages over traditional board structure in vibration control aspect.%针对悬臂板挠度大、低频振动突出问题,对悬臂 Kagome 夹心板的振动主动控制进行研究。建立结构及压电作动器有限元模型;将独立模态空间控制与模态观测器相结合,提出悬臂 Kagome 夹心板的主动控制策略;针对突风载荷作用下夹心板基于独立模态空间的振动控制进行仿真,重点研究观测器极点对控制效果影响。结果表明,所提控制方法能显著提高悬臂 Kagome 夹心板结构的阻尼特性,观测器衰减系数越大控制效果越好;该夹心板在振动控制方面较传统板结构优势明显。

  1. Glassy Behavior and Isolated Spin Dimers in a New Frustrated Magnet BaCr9pGa12-9pO19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana M.; Hong, Kyun Woo; Copley, John R. D.; Huang, Qingzhen; Tennant, Alan; Sato, Taku J.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-09-01

    Using bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering techniques, we have studied a new frustrated magnet, BaCr9pGa12-9pO19 [BCGO(p)], with 0.4 ≲ p ≲ 0.9. This system is isostructural to SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], in which the magnetic Cr3+ (3d3, s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of bi-pyramids or kagome-triangle-kagome trilayers. Our bulk susceptibility data exhibit glassy behavior at temperatures much lower than the absolute values of the Curie-Weiss temperature ΘCW ≈ -695(1) K for BCGO(p = 0.902(8)). The frustration index |ΘCW|/Tf is as high as 190 for BCGO(p = 0.902(8)) indicating strong frustration. Our inelastic neutron scattering data on BCGO(p = 0.902(8)) reveal a dispersionless magnetic excitation centered at ħω = 16.5(1) meV, due to a singlet to triplet excitation of spin s = 3/2 dimers. The spin dimers are formed by Cr3+ ions in two 4fvi layers that lie between 12k-2a-12k (kagome-triangle-kagome) trilayers. These results indicate that BCGO(p) is another good candidate system for a strongly frustrated quasi-two-dimensional magnet.

  2. A THEORETICAL STUDY OF PHYSICAL PROPERTY OF HEISENBERG ANTIFERROMAGNET ON A KAGOM(E) LATTICE%二维反铁磁Kagomé晶格系统物理性质的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮伟; 梁颖; 冯世平

    2004-01-01

    利用自洽的格林函数理论,在Heisenberg模型下讨论了二维反铁磁Kagomé晶格的基态能、静态磁化率和摩尔热容等物理性质,得到每个格点的自旋液体基态能Eg/NsJ=-0.859 2,仅仅比最好的数值模拟结果大3%.在温度稍低的区域内,静态磁化率的倒数随温度升高而增大,并且在较高温度时呈线性增加.在较低温度时,摩尔热容随温度增加而增加,但在某一温度时,它将达到最大值,此后随着温度的增加而减小.这与实验结果符合得很好,支持了二维反铁磁Kagomé晶格Heisenberg模型的基态是没有长程序的结论.

  3. Effective thermal conductivity of wire-woven bulk Kagome sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transport in a highly porous metallic wire-woven bulk Kagome (WBK is numerically and analytically modeled. Based on topology similarity and upon introducing an elongation parameter in thermal tortuosity, an idealized Kagome with non-twisted struts is employed. Special focus is placed upon quantifying the effect of topological anisotropy of WBK upon its effective conductivity. It is demonstrated that the effective conductivity reduces linearly as the porosity increases, and the extent of the reduction is significantly dependent on the orientation of WBK. The governing physical mechanism of anisotropic thermal transport in WBK is found to be the anisotropic thermal tortuosity caused by the intrinsic anisotropic topology of WBK.

  4. High Power Spark Delivery System Using Hollow Core Kagome Lattice Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dumitrache

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the recently developed hollow core kagome lattice fibers for delivery of high power laser pulses. Compared to other photonic crystal fibers (PCFs, the hollow core kagome fibers have larger core diameter (~50 µm, which allows for higher energy coupling in the fiber while also maintaining high beam quality at the output (M2 = 1.25. We have conducted a study of the maximum deliverable energy versus laser pulse duration using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pulse energies as high as 30 mJ were transmitted for 30 ns pulse durations. This represents, to our knowledge; the highest laser pulse energy delivered using PCFs. Two fiber damage mechanisms were identified as damage at the fiber input and damage within the bulk of the fiber. Finally, we have demonstrated fiber delivered laser ignition on a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine.

  5. Flow-induced charge modulation in superfluid atomic fermions loaded into an optical kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Chika; Nikuni, Tetsuro; Tsuchiya, Shunji

    2013-04-05

    We study the superfluid state of atomic fermions in a tunable optical kagome lattice motivated by recent experiments. We show that the imposed superflow induces spatial modulations in the density and order parameter of the pair condensate and leads to a charge modulated superfluid state analogous to a supersolid state. The spatial modulations in the superfluid emerge due to the geometric effect of the kagome lattice that introduces anisotropy in hopping amplitudes of fermion pairs in the presence of superflow. We also study superflow instabilities and find that the critical current limited by the dynamical instability is quite enhanced due to the large density of states associated with the flatband. The charge modulated superfluid state can sustain high temperatures close to the transition temperature that is also enhanced due to the flatband and is therefore realizable in experiments.

  6. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  7. Progressive Fracture Analysis of Planar Lattices and Shape-Morphing Kagome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserpes, Konstantinos I.

    The fracture behaviors of three defected planar lattices loaded in axial tension and the 3D shape-morphing Kagome structure loaded as a cantilever beam are explored by using finite element-based progressive fracture analysis. The assumed defects are in the form of symmetrical notches introduced in the lattices by removing the struts in single rows. Numerical results reveal that the presence of the notches significantly reduces the tensile strength of the lattices. On the other hand, with increasing the load in the Kagome structure, yielding and buckling of the struts in the core and yielding of the face-sheet appear consecutively inducing degradation of structure’s bending stiffness and large dips of the loaded end.

  8. Hard-Core Bosons on the Kagome Lattice: Valence-Bond Solids and Their Quantum Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, S. V.; Wessel, S.; Melko, R. G.; Sengupta, K.; Kim, Yong Baek

    2006-10-01

    Using large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations and dual vortex theory, we analyze the ground state phase diagram of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice with nearest-neighbor repulsion. In contrast with the case of a triangular lattice, no supersolid emerges for strong interactions. While a uniform superfluid prevails at half filling, two novel solid phases emerge at densities ρ=1/3 and ρ=2/3. These solids exhibit an only partial ordering of the bosonic density, allowing for local resonances on a subset of hexagons of the kagome lattice. We provide evidence for a weakly first-order phase transition at the quantum melting point between these solid phases and the superfluid.

  9. Study of the Antiferromagnetic Blume-Capel Model on kagomé Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Park, Sojeong; Kwak, Wooseop

    2016-09-01

    We study the anti-ferromagnetic (AF) Ising model and the AF Blume-Capel (BC) model on the kagomé lattice. Using the Wang-Landau sampling method, we estimate the joint density functions for both models on the lattice, and we obtain the exact critical magnetic fields at zero temperature by using the micro-canonical analysis. We also show the patterns of critical lines for the models from micro-canonical analysis.

  10. The mean field study of phase transitions in two dimensional Kagome lattice under local anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mortezapour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this work we investigated the critical properties of the anti-ferromagnetic XY model on a two dimensional Kagome lattice under single-ion easy-axes anisotropy. Employing the mean field theory, we found that this model shows a second order phase transition from disordered to all-in all-out state for any value of anisotropy.

  11. Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum of Ultracold Atoms on the Two-Dimensional Kagome Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing-Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagome optical lattice under an effective magnetic field,which can be realized with laser beams.We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schr(o)dinger equation.The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations.We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability.

  12. Quantum Phase Transitions of Hard-Core Bosons on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, S. V.; Melko, R. G.; Sengupta, K.; Wessel, S.; Kim, Yong Baek

    2006-03-01

    We study hard-core bosons with nearest-neighbor repulsion on the kagome lattice at different filling factors using quantum Monte Carlo simulations and a dual vortex theory. At half-filling, the ground state of the system is always a uniform superfluid in contrast to the case of the triangular lattice. There exists a quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a valence bond solid phase away from half-filling. The possibility of unusual quantum criticality is investigated.

  13. The boson-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice with a sextic ring-exchange term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Valery; Tam, Ka-Ming; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2012-02-01

    We present exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations of hard-core bosons in a two-dimensional Kagome lattice with a sextic ring-exchange term. We study how the superfluid density evolves as the ring-exchange interactions are increased. We show that the system becomes unstable in the limit of large interactions at all fillings and undergoes a phase separation, except at 13 and 23 fillings for which the superfluid density vanishes and a solid state forms.

  14. A hybrid vanadium fluoride with structurally isolated S = 1 kagome layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Downie, Lewis J; Morris, Russell E; A de Vries, Mark; Lightfoot, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A new organically-templated vanadium(III) fluoride, (NH4)2(C2H8N)[V3F12], has been prepared using an ionothermal approach. This compound has a unique layered structure featuring distorted S = 1 kagome planes separated by the cationic species. The compound exhibits magnetic frustration, with a canted antiferromagnetic ground state. On further cooling in the ground state a pronounced change in magnetisation kinetics is observed.

  15. (EDT-TTF-CONH2)6[Re6Se8(CN)6], a metallic Kagome-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound: electronic instability, molecular motion, and charge localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Stéphane A; Batail, Patrick; Coulon, Claude; Clérac, Rodolphe; Canadell, Enric; Laukhin, Vladimir; Melzi, Roberto; Wzietek, Pawel; Jérome, Denis; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Ravy, Sylvain

    2005-08-24

    (EDT-TTF-CONH2)6[Re6Se8(CN)6], space group R, was prepared by electrocrystallization from the primary amide-functionalized ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene, EDT-TTF-CONH2 (E(1/2)1 = 0.49 V vs SCE in CH3CN), and the molecular cluster tetraanion, [Re6Se8(CN)6]4- (E(1/2) = 0.33 V vs SCE in CH3CN), equipped with hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor functionalities, respectively. Its Kagome topology is unprecedented for any TTF-based materials. The metallic state observed at room temperature has a strong two-dimensional character, in coherence with the Kagome lattice symmetry, and the presence of minute amounts of [Re6Se8(CN)6](3-)* identified by electron spin spectroscopy. A structural instability toward a distorted form of the Kagome topology of lesser symmetry is observed at ca. 180 K. The low-temperature structure is associated with a localized, electrically insulating electronic ground state and its magnetic susceptibility accounted for by a model of uniform chains of localized S = 1/2 spins in agreement with the 100 K triclinic crystal structure and band structure calculations. A sliding motion, within one out of the three (EDT-TTF-CONH2)2 dimers coupled to the [Re6Se8(CN6)(3-)*]/[Re6Se8(CN6)4-] proportion at any temperature, and the electronic ground state of the organic-inorganic hybrid material are analyzed on the basis of ESR, dc conductivity, 1H spin-lattice relaxation, and static susceptibility data which qualify a Mott localization in [EDT-TTF-CONH2]6[Re6Se8(CN)6]. The coupling between the metal-insulator transition and a structural transition allows for the lifting of a degeneracy due to the ternary axis in the high temperature, strongly correlated metallic phase which, in turn, leads to Heisenberg chains at low temperature.

  16. Spin foams without spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnybida, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. In doing so the sums over spins have been carried out. The boundary data of each n-valent node is explicitly reduced with respect to the local gauge invariance and has a manifest geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.

  17. Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, S.; Farzaneh, M. [CIGELE/INGIVRE, Department of Applied Sciences, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 University blvd., Saguenay, PQ, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kulinich, S.A., E-mail: skulinic@uqac.ca [CIGELE/INGIVRE, Department of Applied Sciences, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 University blvd., Saguenay, PQ, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2011-05-01

    This article studies the anti-ice performance of several micro/nano-rough hydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography. The coatings were prepared by spin-coating or dip coating and used organosilane, fluoropolymer or silicone rubber as a top layer. Artificially created glaze ice, similar to the naturally accreted one, was deposited on the nanostructured surfaces by spraying supercooled water microdroplets (average size {approx}80 {mu}m) in a wind tunnel at subzero temperature (-10 deg. C). The ice adhesion strength was evaluated by spinning the samples in a centrifuge at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. The results show that the anti-icing properties of the tested materials deteriorate, as their surface asperities seem to be gradually broken during icing/de-icing cycles. Therefore, the durability of anti-icing properties appears to be an important point for further research. It is also shown that the anti-icing efficiency of the tested superhydrophobic surfaces is significantly lower in a humid atmosphere, as water condensation both on top and between surface asperities takes place, leading to high values of ice adhesion strength. This implies that superhydrophobic surfaces may not always be ice-phobic in the presence of humidity, which can limit their wide use as anti-icing materials.

  18. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  19. Knot spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This is an introduction to the construction of higher-dimensional knots by spinning methods. Simple spinning of classical knots was introduced by E. Artin in 1926, and several generalizations have followed. These include twist spinning, superspinning or p-spinning, frame spinning, roll spinning, and deform spinning. We survey these constructions and some of their most important applications, as well as some newer hybrids due to the author. The exposition, meant to be accessible to a broad aud...

  20. Band gap character analysis of hexagonal and kagome latticé two- dimensional photonic crystal%蜂窝晶格和Kagomé晶格二维光子晶体带隙特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩艳华; 赵娜; 李小妍

    2008-01-01

    应用平面波展开方法(PWM)计算了蜂窝晶格和Kagomé晶格二维介质柱光子晶体带隙结构.结果表明蜂窝晶格和Kagomé晶格二维介质柱光子晶体存在对应TE、TM模的带隙,并且在某些条件下存在完全带隙.比较而言,蜂窝晶格结构光子晶体存在更大的完全带隙.

  1. Unique atom hyper-kagome order in Na4Ir3O8 and in low-symmetry spinel modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanov, V M; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, M V

    2015-05-01

    Group-theoretical and thermodynamic methods of the Landau theory of phase transitions are used to investigate the hyper-kagome atomic order in structures of ordered spinels and a spinel-like Na4Ir3O8 crystal. The formation of an atom hyper-kagome sublattice in Na4Ir3O8 is described theoretically on the basis of the archetype (hypothetical parent structure/phase) concept. The archetype structure of Na4Ir3O8 has a spinel-like structure (space group Fd\\bar 3m) and composition [Na1/2Ir3/2](16d)[Na3/2](16c)O(32e)4. The critical order parameter which induces hypothetical phase transition has been stated. It is shown that the derived structure of Na4Ir3O8 is formed as a result of the displacements of Na, Ir and O atoms, and ordering of Na, Ir and O atoms, ordering dxy, dxz, dyz orbitals as well. Ordering of all atoms takes place according to the type 1:3. Ir and Na atoms form an intriguing atom order: a network of corner-shared Ir triangles called a hyper-kagome lattice. The Ir atoms form nanoclusters which are named decagons. The existence of hyper-kagome lattices in six types of ordered spinel structures is predicted theoretically. The structure mechanisms of the formation of the predicted hyper-kagome atom order in some ordered spinel phases are established. For a number of cases typical diagrams of possible crystal phase states are built in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. Thermodynamical conditions of hyper-kagome order formation are discussed by means of these diagrams. The proposed theory is in accordance with experimental data.

  2. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  3. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  4. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  5. Spin Foams Without Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Hnybida, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. Thus the sums over spins have been carried out. We focus on the character expansion of Yang-Mills theory which is an approximate heat kernel regularization of BF theory. The boundary data of each $n$-valent node is an element of the Grassmannian Gr(2,$n$) which carries a coherent representation of U($n$) and a geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.

  6. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  7. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which res

  8. Magnetoelastic properties of the quantum-spin-ice candidate Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeter, T.; Wang, Z.S.; Wosnitza, J. [SFB 1143 (Germany); TUD/IFP, Dresden (Germany); HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, M.; Granovsky, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); TUD/IFP, Dresden (Germany); Erfanifam, S.; Green, E. [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Zherlitsyn, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Maljuk, A.; Wurmehl, S. [SFB 1143 (Germany); IFW, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Intriguing phenomena such as the occurrence of magnetic monopoles and a wide variety of ground states are associated to magnetic frustration. In a number of cases, elastic effects, e.g. lattice distortions, may result in the lifting of degeneracies or the appearance of new magnetic states. The rare-earth titanate Yb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where the magnetic Yb{sup 3+} ions form a pyrochlore spin network, is a prime example of a geometrically frustrated material, with numerous field-induced phases and strong ferromagnetic correlations below 170 mK. In order to characterize the magneto-elastic coupling in this material, we have investigated the thermal expansion, magnetostriction, and sound propagation in different dilution refrigerators between 60 mK and 1.5 K and large applied magnetic fields. At around 170 mK we find distinct anomalies in the expansion coefficient, acoustic properties, as well as the specific heat. Lattice anomalies in field hint to additional low temperature phases.

  9. Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couny, F.; Benabid, F.; Light, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a new type of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based on large-pitch (˜12μm) kagome lattice cladding. The optical characteristics of the 19-cell, 7-cell, and single-cell core defect fibers include broad optical transmission bands covering the visible and near-IR parts of the spectrum with relatively low loss and low chromatic dispersion, no detectable surface modes and high confinement of light in the core. Various applications of such a novel fiber are also discussed, including gas sensing, quantum optics, and high harmonic generation.

  10. Fractional charge separation in the hard-core Bose Hubbard Model on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue Feng; Eggert, Sebastian

    2013-03-01

    We consider the hard core Bose Hubbard Model on a Kagome lattice with fixed (open) boundary conditions on two edges. We find that the fixed boundary conditions lift the degeneracy and freeze the system at 1/3 and 2/3 filling at small hopping. At larger hopping strengths, fractional charges spontaneously separate and are free to move to the edges of the system, which leads to a novel compressible phase with solid order. The compressibility is due to excitations on the edge which display a chrial symmetry breaking that is reminiscent of the quantum Hall effect. Large scale Monte Carlo simulations confirm the analytical calculations.

  11. Development of Application Technology of a Kagome Truss for a Fuel rod Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Ju; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Pan Su [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to design a Wire-woven Bulk Kagome (WBK) cellular metal for a fuel rod support structure of a dual cooled fuel and to fabricate test samples. Design of WBK-based support - To analyze dynamic characteristics of a support structure with WBK core under side impact. - To specify strength of WBK to be used for the support. - To design strut length and diameter of WBK. Fabrication of the test samples - To assemble WBK samples from helically formed wires. - To braze WBK samples with side straps

  12. Metal-insulator transition of fermions on a kagome lattice at 1/3 filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaaki; O'Brien, Aroon; Fulde, Peter

    2010-05-14

    We discuss the metal-insulator transition of the spinless fermion model on a kagome lattice at 1/3 filling. The system is analyzed by using exact diagonalization, density-matrix renormalization group methods, and random-phase approximation. In the strong-coupling region, the charge-ordered ground state is consistent with the predictions of an effective model, i.e., plaquette order. We find that the qualitative properties of the metal-insulator transition are totally different depending on the sign of the hopping matrix elements, reflecting the difference in the band structure near the Fermi level.

  13. Spin dynamics simulations of topological magnon insulators: From transverse current correlation functions to the family of magnon Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that atomistic spin dynamics simulations of topological magnon insulators (TMIs) provide access to the magnon-mediated transport of both spin and heat. The TMIs, modeled by kagome ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, exhibit nonzero transverse-current correlation functions from which conductivities are derived for the entire family of magnon Hall effects. Both longitudinal and transverse conductivities are studied in dependence on temperature and on an external magnetic field. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results for Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate), a recently discovered TMI, is drawn.

  14. Ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces: Effects of atmospheric icing conditions and surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, roughness and icing condition has been discussed. • This study is the first to deal with the effect of icing parameters on the ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. • Two fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces with similar wettability behaviour showed different icephobic behaviour. • Superhydrophobic surfaces are not always icephobic and ice repellency is governed by icing condition parameters like liquid water content and water droplet size. • Lower liquid water content and smaller water droplet size promote ice-repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, surface roughness and icing condition. Ice repellency performance of two superhydrophobic silicone rubber nanocomposite surfaces prepared via spin coating and spray coating methods were investigated. High contact angle (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<6°) and roll-off property were found for both spin and spray coated samples. The results showed a significant reduction of ice adhesion strength on the spin-coated sample while ice adhesion strength on the spray-coated sample was found to be unexpectedly similar to that of the uncoated sample. Indeed, this research study showed that the icephobic properties of a surface are not directly correlated to its superhydrphobicity and that further investigations, like taking icing condition effect into account, are required. It was found that icephobic behaviour of the spray coated sample improved at lower levels of liquid water content (LWC) and under icing conditions characterized by smaller water droplet size.

  15. Classical Spin Liquid on the Maximally Frustrated Honeycomb Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, J.; Sen, Arnab; Damle, Kedar; Moessner, R.

    2016-10-01

    We show that the honeycomb Heisenberg antiferromagnet with J1/2 =J2=J3, where J1 , J2 , and J3 are first-, second-, and third-neighbor couplings, respectively, forms a classical spin liquid with pinch-point singularities in the structure factor at the Brillouin zone corners. Upon dilution with nonmagnetic ions, fractionalized degrees of freedom carrying 1 /3 of the free moment emerge. Their effective description in the limit of low temperature is that of spins randomly located on a triangular lattice, with a frustrated sublattice-sensitive interaction of long-ranged logarithmic form. The X Y version of this magnet exhibits nematic thermal order by disorder. This comes with a clear experimental diagnostic in neutron scattering, which turns out to apply also to the case of the celebrated planar order by disorder of the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  16. Self-assembly of kagome lattices, entangled webs and linear fibers with vibrating patchy particles in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapela, Gustavo A; Guzmán, Orlando; Martínez-González, José Adrián; Díaz-Leyva, Pedro; Quintana-H, Jacqueline

    2014-12-07

    A vibrating version of patchy particles in two dimensions is introduced to study self-assembly of kagome lattices, disordered networks of looping structures, and linear arrays. Discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble are used to characterize the molecular architectures and thermodynamic conditions that result in each of those morphologies, as well as the time evolution of lattice formation. Several versions of the new model are tested and analysed in terms of their ability to produce kagome lattices. Due to molecular flexibility, particles with just attractive sites adopt a polarized-like configuration and assemble into linear arrays. Particles with additional repulsive sites are able to form kagome lattices, but at low temperature connect as entangled webs. Abundance of hexagonal motifs, required for the kagome lattice, is promoted even for very small repulsive sites but hindered when the attractive range is large. Differences in behavior between the new flexible model and previous ones based on rigid bodies offer opportunities to test and develop theories about the relative stability, kinetics of formation and mechanical response of the observed morphologies.

  17. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  18. Perturbative scanning probe microscopy on a Kagome lattice of superconducting microwave resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Devin; Shanks, Will; Li, Andy C. Y.; Koch, Jens; Houck, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Microwave photons confined to a lattice of coupled resonators, each coupled to its own superconducting qubit have been predicted to exhibit matter like quantum phases. Realizing such a lattice-based quantum simulator presents a daunting experimental challenge; as such, new tools and measurement techniques are a necessary precursor. Here, we present measurements of the internal mode structure of microwave photons on a 49-site Kagome lattice of capacitively coupled coplanar waveguide resonators without qubits. By scanning a probe with a sapphire tip over the surface of a single lattice site, the resonant frequency was detuned, thus forming a local defect in the lattice. This perturbation resulted in measurable shifts in the lattice spectrum, which were used to extract the mode weights at the perturbed site. By perturbing each lattice site it was possible to reconstruct a complete map of different normal mode weights within the entire lattice. Additionally we present experimental evidence of a frustrated flat band that arises from the Kagome lattice geometry.

  19. Carbon kagome lattice and orbital-frustration-induced metal-insulator transition for optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanping; Sun, Y Y; Wang, H; West, D; Xie, Yuee; Zhong, J; Meunier, V; Cohen, Marvin L; Zhang, S B

    2014-08-22

    A three-dimensional elemental carbon kagome lattice, made of only fourfold-coordinated carbon atoms, is proposed based on first-principles calculations. Despite the existence of 60° bond angles in the triangle rings, widely perceived to be energetically unfavorable, the carbon kagome lattice is found to display exceptional stability comparable to that of C(60). The system allows us to study the effects of triangular frustration on the electronic properties of realistic solids, and it demonstrates a metal-insulator transition from that of graphene to a direct gap semiconductor in the visible blue region. By minimizing s-p orbital hybridization, which is an intrinsic property of carbon, not only the band edge states become nearly purely frustrated p states, but also the band structure is qualitatively different from any known bulk elemental semiconductors. For example, the optical properties are similar to those of direct-gap semiconductors GaN and ZnO, whereas the effective masses are comparable to or smaller than those of Si.

  20. Surface phonons, elastic response, and conformal invariance in twisted kagome lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Souslov, Anton; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T C

    2012-07-31

    Model lattices consisting of balls connected by central-force springs provide much of our understanding of mechanical response and phonon structure of real materials. Their stability depends critically on their coordination number z. d-dimensional lattices with z = 2d are at the threshold of mechanical stability and are isostatic. Lattices with z kagome lattice. We show that the phonon structure of these lattices, characterized by vanishing bulk moduli and thus negative Poisson ratios (equivalently, auxetic elasticity), depends sensitively on boundary conditions and on the nature of the kagome distortions. We construct lattices that under free boundary conditions exhibit surface floppy modes only or a combination of both surface and bulk floppy modes; and we show that bulk floppy modes present under free boundary conditions are also present under periodic boundary conditions but that surface modes are not. In the long-wavelength limit, the elastic theory of all these lattices is a conformally invariant field theory with holographic properties (characteristics of the bulk are encoded on the sample boundary), and the surface waves are Rayleigh waves. We discuss our results in relation to recent work on jammed systems. Our results highlight the importance of network architecture in determining floppy-mode structure.

  1. Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice with sextic ring-exchange terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Valéry G.; Tam, Ka-Ming; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana

    2013-02-01

    High-order ring-exchange interactions are crucial for the study of quantum fluctuations on many highly frustrated systems. A versatile and efficient quantum Monte Carlo method, which can handle finite and essentially zero temperature and canonical and grand-canonical ensembles, has long been sought. In this paper, we present an exact quantum Monte Carlo study of a model of hard-core bosons with sixth-order ring-exchange interactions on a two-dimensional kagome lattice. By using the stochastic Green function algorithm with global space-time update, we show that the system becomes unstable in the limit of large ring-exchange interactions. It undergoes a phase separation at all fillings, except at (1)/(3) and (2)/(3) fillings for which the superfluid density vanishes and an unusual mixed valence bond and charge density ordered solid is formed. This explains the universal features seen in previous studies on various different models, such as the transverse-field Ising models, on a kagome lattice near the classical limit.

  2. Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Wheeler, N V; Couny, F; Roberts, P J; Benabid, F

    2011-03-01

    We report on the fabrication of a seven-cell-core and three-ring-cladding large-pitch Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) with a hypocycloid-shaped core structure. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the design of this core shape enhances the coupling inhibition between the core and cladding modes and offers optical attenuation with a baseline of ∼180 dB/km over a transmission bandwidth larger than 200 THz. This loss figure rivals the state-of-the-art photonic bandgap HC-PCF while offering an approximately three times larger bandwidth and larger mode areas. Also, it beats the conventional circular-core-shaped Kagome HC-PCF in terms of the loss. The development of this novel (to our knowledge) HC-PCF has potential for a number of applications in which the combination of a large optical bandwidth and a low loss is a prerequisite.

  3. GdPtPb: A noncollinear antiferromagnet with distorted kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2017-08-01

    In the spirit of searching for Gd-based, frustrated, rare earth magnets, we have found antiferomagnetism (AF) in GdPtPb, which crystallizes in the ZrNiAl-type structure that has a distorted kagome lattice of Gd triangles. Single crystals were grown and investigated using structural, magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic measurements. GdPtPb orders antiferromagnetically at 15.5 K, arguably with a planar, noncollinear structure. The high temperature magnetic susceptibility data reveal an "anti-frustration" behavior having a frustration parameter, |f | =|Θ | /TN=0.25 , which can be explained by mean field theory within a two-sublattice model. Study of the magnetic phase diagram down to T =1.8 K reveals a change of magnetic structure through a metamagnetic transition at around 20 kOe and the disappearance of the AF ordering near 140 kOe. In total, our work indicates that GdPtPb can serve as an example of a planar, noncollinear AF with a distorted kagome magnetic sublattice.

  4. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  5. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  6. Critical parameters and universal amplitude ratios of two-dimensional spin-S Ising models using high- and low-temperature expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2003-01-01

    For the study of Ising models of general spin S on the square lattice, we have combined our recently extended high-temperature expansions with the low-temperature expansions derived some time ago by Enting, Guttmann and Jensen. We have computed for the first time various critical parameters and improved the estimates of others. Moreover the properties of hyperscaling and of universality (spin S independence) of exponents and of various dimensionless amplitude combinations have been verified accurately. Assuming the validity of the lattice-lattice scaling, from our estimates of critical amplitudes for the square lattice we have also obtained estimates of the corresponding amplitudes for the spin S Ising model on the triangular, honeycomb, and kagome` lattices.

  7. Interstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, A C A

    2003-01-01

    Currently ~36 different absorption bands have been detected in the infrared spectra of cold, dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. These are attributed to the vibrational transitions of ~17 different molecules frozen on dust grains. We review identification issues and summarize the techniques required to extract information on the physical and chemical evolution of these ices. Both laboratory simulations and line of sight studies are essential. Examples are given for ice bands observed toward high mass protostars, fields stars and recent work on ices in disks surrounding low mass protostars. A number of clear trends have emerged in recent years. One prominent ice component consists of an intimate mixture between H2O, CH3OH and CO2 molecules. Apparently a stable balance exists between low temperature hydrogenation and oxidation reactions on grain surfaces. In contrast, an equally prominent ice component, consisting almost entirely of CO, must have accreted directly from the gas phase. Thermal proc...

  8. Large-scale simulations of spin-density-wave order in frustrated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kipton; Batista, Cristian; Chern, Gia-Wei

    We investigate spin-density-wave (SDW) phases within a generalized mean-field approximation. This approach incorporates the thermal fluctuations of SDW order and the development of short-range order above magnetic ordering temperatures Tc. Using a new Langevin dynamics method, we study mesoscale structures associated with triple- Q SDW states that are induced by Fermi surface nesting in triangular and kagome lattice Hubbard models. The core of our linear-scaling Langevin dynamics simulations is an efficient stochastic kernel polynomial method for computing the electron density matrix. We also investigate exotic phases above Tc arising from preformed magnetic moments.

  9. Coexisting Honeycomb and Kagome Characteristics in the Electronic Band Structure of Molecular Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Sami; Ropo, Matti; Nieminen, Jouko; Akola, Jaakko; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-06-08

    We uncover the electronic structure of molecular graphene produced by adsorbed CO molecules on a copper (111) surface by means of first-principles calculations. Our results show that the band structure is fundamentally different from that of conventional graphene, and the unique features of the electronic states arise from coexisting honeycomb and Kagome symmetries. Furthermore, the Dirac cone does not appear at the K-point but at the Γ-point in the reciprocal space and is accompanied by a third, almost flat band. Calculations of the surface structure with Kekulé distortion show a gap opening at the Dirac point in agreement with experiments. Simple tight-binding models are used to support the first-principles results and to explain the physical characteristics behind the electronic band structures.

  10. Thermodynamic geometry of a kagome Ising model in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, B., E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talaei, Z., E-mail: zs_talaie@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    We derived the thermodynamic curvature of the Ising model on a kagome lattice under the presence of an external magnetic field. The curvature was found to have a singularity at the critical point. We focused on the zero field case to derive thermodynamic curvature and its components near the criticality. According to standard scaling, scalar curvature R behaves as |β−β{sub c}|{sup α−2} for α>0 where β is the inverse temperature and α is the critical exponent of specific heat. In the model considered here in which α is zero, we found that R behaves as |β−β{sub c}|{sup α−1}.

  11. Short wavelength (UV + VIS) guidance in kagomé lattice hollow core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Février, Sébastien; Beaudou, Benoît

    2010-04-01

    Hollow-core microstructured fibres are designed for the short wavelength domains, either visible or ultra-violet ones. The experimental results confirm that kagomé-lattice antiresonant fibres are good candidate for this purpose. Thorough numerical modelling is carried out in order to determine the physical causes responsible for the loss level observed. From these computations the following conclusions are drawn: (i) the sole antiresonant core surround dictates the location of the transmission windows and (ii) the cladding bridges are sources of extra leakage from the core to the surrounding solid cladding. A straightforward model is therefore devised to determine accurately the loss level in this kind of structure by quasi-analytical calculus.

  12. Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyros, Alexander; Pla, Jarryd

    2007-06-01

    Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fibres with a kagome lattice cladding are reported. These fibres do not have photonic bandgaps, instead, leakage from the core is suppressed by a low density of states in the cladding, a low overlap of the core mode and the cladding modes and a reduced susceptibility to perturbations. The latter two are the result of a low overlap between the core mode and the solid parts of the microstructure, which also reduces the absorption by the polymer. Losses two orders of magnitude below the material loss were observed and the potential of hollow-core polymer fibres to guide light in the infrared, where the material absorption is high, will be discussed.

  13. Finite-temperature twisted-untwisted transition of the kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Deshpreet; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming

    Mechanical instability governs many fascinating phenomena in nature, including jamming, glass transitions, and structural phase transitions. Although mechanical instability in athermal systems is well understood, how thermal fluctuations modify such transitions remains largely unexplored. Recent studies reveal that, due to the large number of floppy modes that emerge at mechanical instability, intriguing new phenomena occur, such as fluctuation-driven first-order transitions and order-by-disorder. In this talk, we present an analytic study of the finite-temperature rigidity transition for the kagome lattice. Our model exhibits a zero-temperature continuous twisted-untwisted transition as the sign of the next-nearest-neighbor spring constant changes. At finite temperature, we show that the divergent contribution of floppy modes to the vibrational entropy renormalizes this spring constant, resulting in a first-order transition. We also propose an experimental manifestation of this transition in the system of self-assembling triblock Janus particles.

  14. Kagome fiber based ultrafast laser microsurgery probe delivering micro-Joule pulse energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kaushik; Gabay, Ilan; Ferhanoğlu, Onur; Shadfan, Adam; Pawlowski, Michal; Wang, Ye; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-11-01

    We present the development of a 5 mm, piezo-actuated, ultrafast laser scalpel for fast tissue microsurgery. Delivery of micro-Joules level energies to the tissue was made possible by a large, 31 μm, air-cored inhibited-coupling Kagome fiber. We overcome the fiber's low NA by using lenses made of high refractive index ZnS, which produced an optimal focusing condition with 0.23 NA objective. The optical design achieved a focused laser spot size of 4.5 μm diameter covering a 75 × 75 μm(2) scan area in a miniaturized setting. The probe could deliver the maximum available laser power, achieving an average fluence of 7.8 J/cm(2) on the tissue surface at 62% transmission efficiency. Such fluences could produce uninterrupted, 40 μm deep cuts at translational speeds of up to 5 mm/s along the tissue. We predicted that the best combination of speed and coverage exists at 8 mm/s for our conditions. The onset of nonlinear absorption in ZnS, however, limited the probe's energy delivery capabilities to 1.4 μJ for linear operation at 1.5 picosecond pulse-widths of our fiber laser. Alternatives like broadband CaF2 crystals should mitigate such nonlinear limiting behavior. Improved opto-mechanical design and appropriate material selection should allow substantially higher fluence delivery and propel such Kagome fiber-based scalpels towards clinical translation.

  15. Kagome fiber based ultrafast laser microsurgery probe delivering micro-Joule pulse energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kaushik; Gabay, Ilan; Ferhanoğlu, Onur; Shadfan, Adam; Pawlowski, Michal; Wang, Ye; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-01-01

    We present the development of a 5 mm, piezo-actuated, ultrafast laser scalpel for fast tissue microsurgery. Delivery of micro-Joules level energies to the tissue was made possible by a large, 31 μm, air-cored inhibited-coupling Kagome fiber. We overcome the fiber’s low NA by using lenses made of high refractive index ZnS, which produced an optimal focusing condition with 0.23 NA objective. The optical design achieved a focused laser spot size of 4.5 μm diameter covering a 75 × 75 μm2 scan area in a miniaturized setting. The probe could deliver the maximum available laser power, achieving an average fluence of 7.8 J/cm2 on the tissue surface at 62% transmission efficiency. Such fluences could produce uninterrupted, 40 μm deep cuts at translational speeds of up to 5 mm/s along the tissue. We predicted that the best combination of speed and coverage exists at 8 mm/s for our conditions. The onset of nonlinear absorption in ZnS, however, limited the probe’s energy delivery capabilities to 1.4 μJ for linear operation at 1.5 picosecond pulse-widths of our fiber laser. Alternatives like broadband CaF2 crystals should mitigate such nonlinear limiting behavior. Improved opto-mechanical design and appropriate material selection should allow substantially higher fluence delivery and propel such Kagome fiber-based scalpels towards clinical translation. PMID:27896003

  16. Nonlinear compression of ultrafast industrial lasers in hypocyloid-core Kagome hollow-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giree, A.; Guichard, F.; Machinet, G.; Zaouter, Y.; Hagen, Y.; Debords, B.; Dupriez, P.; Gérôme, F.; Hanna, M.; Benabid, F.; Hönninger, C.; Georges, P.; Mottay, E.

    2015-03-01

    The duration of energetic ultrashort pulses is usually limited by the available gain bandwidth of ultrashort amplifiers used to amplify nJ or pJ level seed to hundreds of μμJ or even several mJ. In the case of Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers, the available bandwidth is of the order of 40 nm, typically limiting the pulse duration of high-energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers to durations above 300 fs. In the case of solid-state amplifier based on Yb:YAG crystals, the host matrix order restricts the amplification bandwidth even more leading to pulses in the low picosecond range. Both architecture would greatly benefit from pulse durations well-below what is allowed by their respective gain bandwidth e.g. sub-100 fs for fiber amplifier and sub-300 fs for solid-state Yb:YAG amplifier. In this contribution, we report on the post-compression of two high energy industrial ultrashort fiber and thin-disk amplifiers using an innovative and efficient hollow core fiber structure, namely the hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. This fiber exhibits remarkably low propagation losses due to the unique inhibited guidance mechanism that minimize that amount of light propagating in the silica cladding surrounding the hollow core. Spectral broadening is realized in a short piece of Kagome fiber filled with air at 1 atmosphere pressure. For both amplifiers, we were able to demonstrate more than 200 μJ of energy per pulse with duration <100 fs in the case of the fiber amplifier and <300 fs in the case of the thin disk amplifier. Limitations and further energy scaling will also be discussed.

  17. Possibility of a two-dimensional spin liquid in CePdAl induced by partial geometric frustration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, V. [Universitaet Augsburg, Institut fuer Physik, Experimentalphysik VI (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Grube, K.; Kittler, W.; Taubenheim, C.; Loehneysen, H. von [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huesges, Z.; Lucas, S.; Stockert, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Green, E. [Hochfeldzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    CePdAl crystallizes in the hexagonal ZrNiAl structure, where the magnetic ions form a distorted kagome lattice. At T{sub N} = 2.7 K the onset of antiferromagnetic (AF) order is observed. Neutron scattering experiments revealed a partial frustration in the distorted kagome planes of this structure: two-thirds of the Ce moments form ferromagnetic chains, which are antiferromagnetically coupled, the remaining third do not participate in any long-range order. Along the c-axis the magnetic moments exhibit an amplitude modulation. Accordingly, the kagome planes are stacked on top of each other, resulting in corrugated AF planes parallel to the c-axis formed by the ordered magnetic moments, which are separated by the frustrated moments. It is an intriguing and yet unresolved question if this third of frustrated moments forms a spin liquid state in CePdAl. Based on measurements of specific heat, thermal expansion, magnetization and electrical resistivity we want to discuss this possibility.

  18. Nonlinear compression of high energy fiber amplifier pulses in air-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Florent; Giree, Achut; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Machinet, Guillaume; Debord, Benoît; Gérôme, Frédéric; Dupriez, Pascal; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Benabid, Fetah; Georges, Patrick

    2015-03-23

    We report on the generation of 34 fs and 50 µJ pulses from a high energy fiber amplifier system with nonlinear compression in an air-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. The unique properties of such fibers allow bridging the gap between solid core fibers-based and hollow capillary-based post-compression setups, thereby operating with pulse energies obtained with current state-of-the-art fiber systems. The overall transmission of the compression setup is over 70%. Together with Yb-doped fiber amplifier technologies, Kagome fibers therefore appear as a promising tool for efficient generation of pulses with durations below 50 fs, energies ranging from 10 to several hundreds of µJ, and high average powers.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of an amine-templated Fe2+ (s = 2) sulfate with a distorted Kagome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, J N; Rao, C N R

    2006-11-13

    An organically templated iron(II) sulfate of the composition [H3N(CH2)2NH2(CH2)2(NH3]4[Fe(II)9F18(SO4)6].9H2O with a distorted Kagome structure has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions in the presence of diethylenetriamine. The distortion of the hexagonal bronze structure comes from the presence of two different types of connectivity between the FeF4O2 octahedra and the sulfate tetrahedra. This compound exhibits magnetic properties different from those of an Fe(II) compound with a perfect Kagome structure and is a canted antiferromagnet at low temperatures.

  20. Spin-lattice coupling in iron jarosite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buurma, A.J.C.; Handayani, I.P. [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Mufti, N. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Blake, G.R.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Palstra, T.T.M., E-mail: t.t.m.palstra@rug.nl [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    We have studied the magnetoelectric coupling of the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet iron jarosite using Raman spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and specific heat. Temperature dependent capacitance measurements show an anomaly in the dielectric constant at T{sub N}. Specific heat data indicate the presence of a low frequency Einstein mode at low temperature. Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a new mode below T{sub N} that can be attributed to folding of the Brillouin zone. This mode shifts and sharpens below T{sub N}. We evaluate the strength of the magnetoelectric coupling using the symmetry unrestricted biquadratic magnetoelectric terms in the free energy. - Graphical abstract: Sketch of two connected triangles formed by Fe{sup 3+} spins (red arrows) in the hexagonal basal plane of potassium iron jarosite. An applied magnetic field (H) below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature induces shifts of the hydroxy ligands, giving rise to local electrical dipole moments (blue arrows). These electric displacements cancel out in pairwise fashion by symmetry. Ligand shifts are confined to the plane and shown by shadowing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence has been found for spin-lattice coupling in iron jarosite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new optical Raman mode appears below T{sub N} and shifts with temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetodielectric coupling is mediated by superexchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Symmetry of Kagome magnetic lattice causes local electrical dipole moments to cancel.

  1. Multifunctional MOFs through CO2 fixation: a metamagnetic kagome lattice with uniaxial zero thermal expansion and reversible guest sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Tony D; Murphy, Michael J; Price, Jason R; Sciortino, Natasha F; Southon, Peter D; Kepert, Cameron J

    2014-10-21

    The properties of atmospheric CO2 fixation, metamagnetism, reversible guest adsorption and zero thermal expansion have been combined in a single robust MOF, [Cu3(bpac)3(CO3)2](ClO4)2·H2O (·H2O). This compound is a ditopically-bridged copper carbonate kagome lattice where desolvation of the MOF allows subtle tuning of the metamagnetic and uniaxial ZTE behaviour.

  2. Critical frontier of the Potts and percolation models on triangular-type and kagome-type lattices. II. Numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan; Wu, F Y

    2010-06-01

    In the preceding paper, one of us (F. Y. Wu) considered the Potts model and bond and site percolation on two general classes of two-dimensional lattices, the triangular-type and kagome-type lattices, and obtained closed-form expressions for the critical frontier with applications to various lattice models. For the triangular-type lattices Wu's result is exact, and for the kagome-type lattices Wu's expression is under a homogeneity assumption. The purpose of the present paper is twofold: First, an essential step in Wu's analysis is the derivation of lattice-dependent constants A,B,C for various lattice models, a process which can be tedious. We present here a derivation of these constants for subnet networks using a computer algorithm. Second, by means of a finite-size scaling analysis based on numerical transfer matrix calculations, we deduce critical properties and critical thresholds of various models and assess the accuracy of the homogeneity assumption. Specifically, we analyze the q -state Potts model and the bond percolation on the 3-12 and kagome-type subnet lattices (n×n):(n×n) , n≤4 , for which the exact solution is not known. Our numerical determination of critical properties such as conformal anomaly and magnetic correlation length verifies that the universality principle holds. To calibrate the accuracy of the finite-size procedure, we apply the same numerical analysis to models for which the exact critical frontiers are known. The comparison of numerical and exact results shows that our numerical values are correct within errors of our finite-size analysis, which correspond to 7 or 8 significant digits. This in turn infers that the homogeneity assumption determines critical frontiers with an accuracy of 5 decimal places or higher. Finally, we also obtained the exact percolation thresholds for site percolation on kagome-type subnet lattices (1×1):(n×n) for 1≤n≤6 .

  3. Soliton delivery of few-cycle optical gigawatt pulses in Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Song-Jin; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We study the delivery of few-cycle soliton-like pulses at 800 nm with gigawatt power or microjoule energy through a hollow-core kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber over 1 m with preserved temporal and spectral shape. We show that with optimized pressure of the argon filling, 5 fs input pulses are compressed up to 2.5 fs after 20 cm and restore their shape after 1 m propagation.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the tripod-kagome-lattice family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Li, K.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Blanc, N.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the rare-earth tripod-kagome-lattice (TKL) family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb; here, we use abbreviation A-R, as in MgPr for Mg2Pr3Sb3O14 ), which complements our previously reported work on MgDy, MgGd, and MgEr [Z. L. Dun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 157201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.157201]. The present susceptibility (χdc, χac) and specific-heat measurements reveal various magnetic ground states, including the nonmagnetic singlet state for MgPr, ZnPr; long-range orderings (LROs) for MgGd, ZnGd, MgNd, ZnNd, and MgYb; a long-range magnetic charge ordered state for MgDy, ZnDy, and potentially for MgHo; possible spin-glass states for ZnEr, ZnHo; the absence of spin ordering down to 80 mK for MgEr, MgTb, ZnTb, and ZnYb compounds. The ground states observed here bear both similarities as well as striking differences from the states found in the parent pyrochlore systems. In particular, while the TKLs display a greater tendency towards LRO, the lack of LRO in MgHo, MgTb, and ZnTb can be viewed from the standpoint of a balance among spin-spin interactions, anisotropies, and non-Kramers nature of single-ion state. While substituting Zn for Mg changes the chemical pressure, and subtly modifies the interaction energies for compounds with larger R ions, this substitution introduces structural disorder and modifies the ground states for compounds with smaller R ions (Ho, Er, Yb).

  5. A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Shengbai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-14

    Based on first-principles calculations, we designed for the first time a boron-kagome-based two-dimensional MgB6 crystal, in which two boron kagome layers sandwich a triangular magnesium layer. The two-dimensional lattice is metallic with several bands across the Fermi level, and among them a Dirac point appears at the K point of the first Brillouin zone. This metal-stabilized boron kagome system displays electron-phonon coupling, with a superconductivity critical transition temperature of 4.7 K, and thus it is another possible superconducting Mg-B compound besides MgB2. Furthermore, the proposed 2D MgB6 can also be used for hydrogen storage after decoration with Ca. Up to five H2 molecules can be attracted by one Ca with an average binding energy of 0.225 eV. The unique properties of 2D MgB6 will spur broad interest in nanoscience and technology.

  6. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Bai Junqiang; Hua Jun; Wang Kun; Zhang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when enter-ing clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes:rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  7. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  8. Spin multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtright, T.L., E-mail: curtright@miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: vankortryk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: zachos@anl.gov [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)

    2017-02-05

    The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.

  9. Seismic Strengthening Effects Based on Pseudodynamic Testing of a Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with a Wire-Woven Bulk Kagome Truss Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A passive damper with a wire-woven bulk Kagome truss design was recently developed; its applicability as a passive damper to improve the seismic performance of building systems, including shear hysteresis behavior, energy dissipation capacity, and fatigue, was confirmed by material tests. The Kagome truss, a periodic cellular metal type, is composed of evenly distributed helical wires with a constant pitch and helical radius in six directions. The purpose of this study was to develop a new passive damper system for seismic strengthening of existing reinforced concrete (RC frames. The proposed external connection methodology uses a wire-woven bulk Kagome truss (i.e., a Kagome damper external connection (KDEC system, to dissipate earthquake energy using the dynamic interaction among an existing building, a support structure, and the Kagome damper installed between them. Four test specimens were designed and then strengthened with the KDEC system. Cyclic loading and pseudodynamic tests were conducted; lateral load-carrying capacity, deformation, and hysteresis characteristics were investigated, as well as the maximum response strength, response ductility, and earthquake damage degree, and compared to a control sample. Test results revealed that the KDEC system effectively dissipated the earthquake energy, showing considerable resilience under large-scale earthquake conditions.

  10. Self-Consistent Spin-Wave Analysis of the 1/3 Magnetization Plateau in the Kagome Antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-Chao, Wei; Hai-Jun, Liao; Jing, Chen; Hai-Dong, Xie; Zhi-Yuan, Liu; Zhi-Yuan, Xie; Wei, Li; Normand, B.; Tao, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 10934008, 10874215 and 11174365, and the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant Nos 2012CB921704 and 2011CB309703.

  11. Spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The spin foam framework provides a way to define the dynamics of canonical loop quantum gravity in a spacetime covariant way, by using a path integral over histories of quantum states which can be interpreted as `quantum space-times'. This chapter provides a basic introduction to spin foams aimed principally at beginning graduate students and, where possible, at broader audiences.

  12. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  13. Flat electronic bands in fractal-kagomé network and the effect of perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Atanu, E-mail: atanunandy1989@gmail.com; Chakrabarti, Arunava, E-mail: arunava-chakrabarti@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal - 741235 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We demonstrate an analytical prescription of demonstrating the flat band [FB] states in a fractal incorporated kagomé type network that can give rise to a countable infinity of flat non-dispersive eigenstates with a multitude of localization area. The onset of localization can, in principle, be delayed in space by an appropriate choice of energy regime. The length scale, at which the onset of localization for each mode occurs, can be tuned at will following the formalism developed within the framework of real space renormalization group. This scheme leads to an exact determination of energy eigenvalue for which one can have dispersionless flat electronic bands. Furthermore, we have shown the effect ofuniform magnetic field for the same non-translationally invariant network model that has ultimately led to an‘apparent invisibility’ of such staggered localized states and to generate absolutely continuous sub-bands in the energy spectrum and again an interesting re-entrant behavior of those FB states.

  14. Chemical doping effect in the LaRu3Si2 superconductor with a kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoxuan; Li, Sheng; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2016-09-01

    LaRu3Si2 is a superconductor with a kagome lattice and transition temperature of 7 K. By doping different rare-earth and transition-metal elements on the La and Ru sites, the evolution of superconductivity has been extensively investigated. It is found that, except for doping Fe to Ru sites, all other dopants with rare-earth (Y, Lu, and Ce) or transition metals (Ni, Cr, and Cu) seem to suppress superconducting transition temperature in LaRu3Si2 very slowly. The quick suppression of superconductivity by Fe doping can be described by the Abrikosov-Gorkov relation. By fitting and analyzing the magnetic susceptibility data under a high magnetic field with the Curie-Weiss law, we find that the effective magnetic moments for Ni and Cr doped samples are very small, indicating that these ions actually do not behave like strong magnetic scattering centers as Fe ions do in the present environment. Our experiments on systematically doped samples and related analysis indicate that the superconducting gap in LaRu3Si2 has no sign change.

  15. Turbulent boundary layer control through spanwise wall oscillation using Kagome lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Santer, Matthew; Morrison, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that a reduction in skin-friction and turbulence intensity can be achieved by applying in-plane spanwise forcing to a surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer. It has also been shown in DNS (M. Quadrio, P. Ricco, & C. Viotti; J. Fluid Mech; 627, 161, 2009), that this phenomenon is significantly enhanced when the forcing takes the form of a streamwise travelling wave of spanwise perturbation. In the present work, this type of forcing is generated by an active surface comprising a compliant structure, based on a Kagome lattice geometry, supporting a membrane skin. The structural design ensures negligible wall normal displacement while facilitating large in-plane velocities. The surface is driven pneumatically, achieving displacements of 3 mm approximately, at frequencies in excess of 70 Hz for a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ~ 1000 . As the influence of this forcing on boundary layer is highly dependent on the wavenumber and frequency of the travelling wave, a flat surface was designed and optimised to allow these forcing parameters to be varied, without reconfiguration of the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the fluid and surface motion are presented, and notable skin-friction drag reduction is demonstrated. Airbus support agreement IW202838 is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Strong anisotropic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect in the chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X =Ge , Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh, and Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.

  17. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    edge in the field of ice engineering expands. For example, ice concentration and freezeup stage are not considered by the survey respondents to...im- pacts both freezeup and breakup jam formation Table 2. Ice parameters currently monitored, by Divisions (as of 1995). Ice parameters currently...V V V V Date of ice in V V V V Ice concentration V V V V Freezeup stage V V V V V Note: Southwestern Division does not currently monitor ice

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Designing artificial two dimensional electron lattice on metal surface: a Kagome-like lattice as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua

    2016-07-07

    Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.

  1. High-magnetic-field phase transitions and H–T phase diagram of the Kagome-staircase compound Ni{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Yang, M.; Wang, H.W.; Guo, Q.; Liu, Y.J. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, X.T., E-mail: xthan@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Y.B. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, J.F., E-mail: jfwang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); He, Z.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Kindo, K. [The Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    High-field magnetization and specific heat of the Kagome staircase compound Ni{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} have been measured in magnetic fields H applied along the b and the c axes. The magnetization data shows magnetic transitions above 10 T for H//b; while no additional transition is probed for H//c. The resulting H–T phase diagram for H//b is extended to magnetic fields higher than previously reported and explores a different high-field phase. The experimental data of the magnetization and the specific heat also suggest the existence of multiple phases inside this high-field phase. These results indicate that this compound is a more complex spin system than previously studied. - Highlights: • Magnetic phase boundaries of Ni{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} are extended to magnetic fields higher than previously reported. • A complete H–T phase diagram for H//b is constructed. • A novel high-field phase is explored.

  2. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  3. Ultra low-loss hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for green spectral-range applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Benoît, A; Ghosh, D; Dontabactouny, M; Vincetti, L; Blondy, J-M; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2014-11-01

    We report on the development of a hypocycloidal-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber guiding, with low transmission loss in the 450-650 nm visible spectral range. Transmission loss records have been achieved with 70  dB/km at 600 nm, and 130  dB/km at 532 nm. As a demonstration of the fiber potential applications, we report on a compact 600 THz wide Raman comb generator, centered around 532 nm, and on a 10 W average power frequency-doubled Yb-fiber picosecond laser beam delivery, along with its use for organic material laser micro-processing.

  4. High temperature series expansions for the susceptibility of Ising model on the Kagome lattice with nearest neighber interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jalali mola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Ising model is one of the simplest models describing the interacting particles. In this work, we calculate the high temperature series expansions of zero field susceptibility of ising model with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interactions on two dimensional kagome lattice. Using the Pade´ approximation, we calculate the susceptibility of critical exponent of ferromagnetic ising model γ ≈ 1.75, which is consistent with universality hypothesis. However, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interaction ising model doesn’t show any transition at finite temperature because of the effect of magnetic frustration.

  5. Generation of a vacuum ultraviolet to visible Raman frequency comb in H2-filled kagomé photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, M K; Novoa, D; Bauerschmidt, S T; Abdolvand, A; St J Russell, P

    2016-06-15

    We report on the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the "fiber + gas" system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way toward tunable fiber-based sources of deep and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine.

  6. New cellular metals with enhanced energy absorption: Wire-woven bulk kagome (WBK)-metal hollow sphere (MHS) hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming-Zhen; Kang, Ki-Ju [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Stephani, Guenter [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Two types of new cellular metals are fabricated by assembling layer by layer helically-formed wires with metal hollow sphere (MHS) arrays. In the finished configuration, the MHSs are located in small tetrahedrons or octahedrons of the inner space of a wire-woven bulk Kagome (WBK) structure. Compression tests reveal excellent energy absorption, which is attributed to combination of suppression of strut buckling in the WBK and moving plastic hinge occurring in the MHSs. The WBK-MHS hybrids outperform competitors in deformation energy absorption. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Reversible supra-channel effects: 3D kagome structure and catalysis via a molecular array of 1D coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeri; Noh, Tae Hwan; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2013-10-14

    Self-assembly of CuX2 (X(-) = ClO4(-) and BF4(-)) with 2,3-bis(nicotinoyloxy)naphthalene yields a 1D loop-chain skeleton. The loop-chains form an ensemble constituting a unique 3D kagome-type structure with both hexagonal and trigonal supra-channels. The unprecedented supra-channel effects on the catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone were investigated.

  8. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  9. Nonlinear endoscopy with Kagomé lattice hollow-core fibers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, Alberto; Sivankutty, Siddharth; Chen, Xueqin; Wenger, Jérôme; Habert, Rémi; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Andresen, Esben R.; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    The development of nonlinear fiber-endoscopes capable of imaging deeper in tissues and accessing internal organs represents a very attractive perspective for application of nonlinear optical microscopes to in-vivo research and diagnostics. The transmission of ultra-short laser pulses within a fiber is a critical issue in the development of such endoscopes. For instance, self-phase modulation (SPM), four-wave mixing (FWM) and Raman scattering occurring in conventional fibers severely affect transmitted pulses profiles in the time and frequency domains. Hollow-core (HC) fibers bring a solution to the problem, since propagation of the pulses in the air core limits nonlinear interactions. We employ here a novel double clad Kagomé-lattice HC fiber for the delivery of ultrafast pulses across a large spectral window (~400nm) with no pulse distortion. The epi-collection of the signal generated at the sample is efficiently performed with a specially designed outer multimode cladding. The fiber is incorporated in a prototype endoscope using a four-quartered piezo-electric tube to scan the laser beam on the sample. The low numerical aperture of the hollow-core (0.02) is efficiently increased by means of a dielectric microsphere attached to the fiber face. This results in tight focusing (~1 micron) of the beam at the HC fiber output. Resonant scanning of the fiber tip allows imaging over a field of 300 microns using low driving voltages. High-resolution images with different contrast mechanisms, such as SHG and TPEF, acquired with the prototype endoscope illustrate the potential of these fibers for nonlinear imaging in regions otherwise inaccessible to conventional optical microscopes.

  10. Classical gravitational spin-spin interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnor, W. B.

    2002-01-01

    I obtain an exact, axially symmetric, stationary solution of Einstein's equations for two massless spinning particles. The term representing the spin-spin interaction agrees with recently published approximate work. The spin-spin force appears to be proportional to the inverse fourth power of the coordinate distance between the particles.

  11. Spin-Orbit induced semiconductor spin guides

    OpenAIRE

    Valin-Rodriguez, Manuel; Puente, Antonio; Serra, Llorens

    2002-01-01

    The tunability of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling allows to build semiconductor heterostructures with space modulated coupling intensities. We show that a wire-shaped spin-orbit modulation in a quantum well can support propagating electronic states inside the wire only for a certain spin orientation and, therefore, it acts as an effective spin transmission guide for this particular spin orientation.

  12. Solutions for correlations along the coexistence curve and at the critical point of a kagomé lattice gas with three-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (d=2) kagomé lattice gas model with attractive three-particle interactions around each triangular face of the kagomé lattice. Exact solutions are obtained for multiparticle correlations along the liquid and vapor branches of the coexistence curve and at criticality. The correlation solutions are also determined along the continuation of the curvilinear diameter of the coexistence region into the disordered fluid region. The method generates a linear algebraic system of correlation identities with coefficients dependent only upon the interaction parameter. Using a priori knowledge of pertinent solutions for the density and elementary triplet correlation, one finds a closed and linearly independent set of correlation identities defined upon a spatially compact nine-site cluster of the kagomé lattice. Resulting exact solution curves of the correlations are plotted and discussed as functions of the temperature and are compared with corresponding results in a traditional kagomé lattice gas having nearest-neighbor pair interactions. An example of application for the multiparticle correlations is demonstrated in cavitation theory.

  13. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  14. First-principles study of the organometallic S =1/2 kagome compound Cu(1,3-bdc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Mei, Jia-Wei; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) [Cu(1,3-bdc)] contains structurally perfect kagome planes formed by Cu2 + ions without the presence of diamagnetic defects. This organometallic compound should serve as a precious platform to explore quantum frustrated magnetism, yet the experimental results so far are mysterious, leading to questions such as, "Is Cu(1,3-bdc) just a trivial weak ferromagnet?" Using the density functional theory, we have systematically studied the electronic and magnetic properties of Cu(1,3-bdc), putting forth a theoretical basis to clarify this novel material. We present numerical evidence of a dominating antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange between nearest-neighbor (NN) Cu2 + as experimentally extracted from the high-temperature susceptibility data. We further show that beyond the NN AFM exchange, the additional interactions in Cu(1,3-bdc) have similar strength as those in the well-studied kagome antiferromagnet, herbertsmithite, by designing a comparative study. In the end, we discuss our understanding of the phase transition and FM signals observed under low temperature.

  15. A spin cell for spin current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-feng; Guo, Hong; Wang, Jian

    2003-06-27

    We propose and investigate a spin-cell device which provides the necessary spin-motive force to drive a spin current for future spintronic circuits. Our spin cell has four basic characteristics: (i) it has two poles so that a spin current flows in from one pole and out from the other pole, and in this way a complete spin circuit can be established; (ii) it has a source of energy to drive the spin current; (iii) it maintains spin coherence so that a sizable spin current can be delivered; (iv) it drives a spin current without a charge current. The proposed spin cell for spin current should be realizable using technologies presently available.

  16. Selectively doping barlowite for quantum spin liquid: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zou, Xiaolong; Mei, Jia-Wei; Liu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Barlowite Cu4(OH) 6FBr is a newly found mineral containing Cu2 + kagome planes. Despite similarities in many aspects to herbertsmithite Cu3Zn (OH) 6Cl2 , the well-known quantum spin liquid (QSL) candidate, intrinsic barlowite turns out not to be a QSL, possibly due to the presence of Cu2 + ions in between kagome planes that induce interkagome magnetic interaction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 227203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.227203]. Using first-principles calculation, we systematically study the feasibility of selective substitution of the interkagome Cu ions with isovalent nonmagnetic ions as a function of ion concentration up to the stoichiometric limit. Unlike previous speculation of using larger dopants, such as Cd2 + and Ca2 +, we identify the most ideal stoichiometric doping elements to be Mg and Zn in forming Cu3Mg (OH) 6FBr and Cu3Zn (OH) 6FBr with the highest site selectivity and smallest lattice distortion. The equilibirium antisite disorder in Mg/Zn-doped barlowite is estimated to be one order of magnitude lower than that in herbertsmithite. The single-electron band structure and orbital component analysis show that the proposed selective doping effectively mitigates the difference between barlowite and herbertsmithite.

  17. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  18. Spin squeezing in nonlinear spin coherent states

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoguang

    2001-01-01

    We introduce the nonlinear spin coherent state via its ladder operator formalism and propose a type of nonlinear spin coherent state by the nonlinear time evolution of spin coherent states. By a new version of spectroscopic squeezing criteria we study the spin squeezing in both the spin coherent state and nonlinear spin coherent state. The results show that the spin coherent state is not squeezed in the x, y, and z directions, and the nonlinear spin coherent state may be squeezed in the x and...

  19. Cavity spin optodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brahms, N

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a large quantum spin coupled parametrically to an optical resonator is treated in analogy with the motion of a cantilever in cavity optomechanics. New spin optodynamic phenonmena are predicted, such as cavity-spin bistability, optodynamic spin-precession frequency shifts, coherent amplification and damping of spin, and the spin optodynamic squeezing of light.

  20. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  1. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  2. Wave-Ice interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈奚海莉

    2001-01-01

    The growth and movement of sea ice cover are influenced by the presence of wave field. Inturn, the wave field is influenced by the presence of ice cover. Their interaction is not fully understood.In this paper, we discuss some current understanding on wave attenuation when it propagates through frag-mented ice cover, ice drift due to the wave motion, and the growth characteristics of ice cover in wave field.

  3. The PHOCUS Project: Mesospheric Ice Particle Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaplanov, M.; Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, intostrong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the ice particlesand present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements.Ice particle properties were probed with a set of three NLC photometers from Stockholm University. NLC photometry is currently the best technique available for determining altitude ranges of NLC in situ. At the same time, UV photometry allows a study of particle properties like size and shape by analysing the spectral dependence (colour ratio), angle dependence (phase function), and polarisation of the scattering. The set of NLC photometer flown on PHOCUS was a unique photometer package that for the first time investigated all three parameters simultaneously. Two forward-viewing photometers measured at different wavelengths (one in the UV at 220 nm and the other in the visible at 440 nm) and were both equipped with fixed linear polarisers. The payload spin was utilised to scan through the polarisation direction, thus providing us with the Stokes vectors I, Q and U at both wavelengths. The third photometer (also measured in the UV at 220 nm)was mounted sideways, viewing the overhead sky at an angle of 40°from the rocket spin axis. Due to the payload spin, the NLC was observed under varying scattering geometries as the payload approached the cloud layer. Thus, this set of NLC photometers provided a complete optical characterization of the

  4. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  5. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Ultrahigh and persistent optical depths of cesium in Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Saunders, Dylan J; Sprague, Michael R; Kolthammer, W Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Walmsley, Ian A; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibers are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD). However, until now these large optical depths could only be generated for seconds, at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of the highest observed transient (>10(5) for up to a minute) and highest observed persistent (>2000 for hours) optical depths of alkali vapors in a light-guiding geometry to date, using a cesium-filled Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as generation of single-photon-level nonlinearities and development of single photon quantum memories.

  7. Ultra-high and persistent optical depths of caesium in Kagom\\'e-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Sprague, Michael R; Kolthammer, W Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Abdolvand, Amir; Russell, Philip St J; Walmsley, Ian A; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibres are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption. However, until now these large alkali vapour densities could only be generated for seconds at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of highest observed transient ($>10^5$ for minutes) and highest observed persistent (>2000 for hours) optical depths of alkali vapours in hollow-core fibres to date, using a caesium-filled Kagom\\'e-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as single-photon-level light-matter interaction experiments and fundamental investigations of hot dense atomic gases.

  8. Ground-state atomic polarization relaxation-time measurement of Rb filled hypocycloidal core-shaped Kagome HC-PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, T. D.; Ilinova, E.; McFerran, J. J.; Jouin, J.; Debord, B.; Alharbi, M.; Thomas, P.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the measurement of ground-state atomic polarization relaxation time of Rb vapor confined in five different hypocycloidal core-shape Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers made with uncoated silica glass. We are able to distinguish between wall-collision and transit-time effects in an optical waveguide and deduce the contribution of the atom’s dwell time at the core wall surface. In contrast with conventional macroscopic atomic cell configuration, and in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, the measured relaxation times were found to be at least one order of magnitude longer than the limit set by atom-wall collisional from thermal atoms. This extended relaxation time is explained by the combination of a stronger contribution of the slow atoms in the atomic polarization build-up, and of the relatively significant contribution of dwell time to the relaxation process of the ground state polarization.

  9. Ground-state atomic polarization relaxation-time measurement of Rb filled hypocycloidal core-shaped Kagome HC-PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, T D; McFerran, J J; Jouin, J; Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Thomas, P; Gerome, F; Benabid, F

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of ground state atomic polarization relaxation tile of Rb vapor confined in five different hypocycloidal core shape Kagome hollow core photonic crystal fibers made with uncoated silica glass. We are able to distinguish between wall-collision and transit-time effects in optical waveguide and deduce the contribution of the atom's dwell time at the core wall surface. In contrast with convetional macroscopic atomic cell configuration, and in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, the measured relaxation times were found to be at least one order of magnitude longer than the limit set by the atom-wall collisional relaxation from thermal atoms. This extended relaxation time is explained by the combination of a stronger contribution of the slow atoms in the atomic polarization build-up, and of the relatively significant contribution of dwell time to the relaxation process of the ground state polarization.

  10. A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balciunas, T; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Fan, G; Witting, T; Voronin, A A; Zheltikov, A M; Gerome, F; Paulus, G G; Baltuska, A; Benabid, F

    2015-01-27

    Over the past decade intense laser fields with a single-cycle duration and even shorter, subcycle multicolour field transients have been generated and applied to drive attosecond phenomena in strong-field physics. Because of their extensive bandwidth, single-cycle fields cannot be emitted or amplified by laser sources directly and, as a rule, are produced by external pulse compression-a combination of nonlinear optical spectral broadening followed up by dispersion compensation. Here we demonstrate a simple robust driver for high-field applications based on this Kagome fibre approach that ensures pulse self-compression down to the ultimate single-cycle limit and provides phase-controlled pulses with up to a 100 μJ energy level, depending on the filling gas, pressure and the waveguide length.

  11. Chiral Edge States and Fractional Charge Separation in a System of Interacting Bosons on a Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Eggert, Sebastian

    2013-10-01

    We consider the extended hard-core Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice with boundary conditions on two edges. We find that the sharp edges lift the degeneracy and freeze the system into a striped order at 1/3 and 2/3 filling for zero hopping. At small hopping strengths, holes spontaneously appear and separate into fractional charges which move to the edges of the system. This leads to a novel edge liquid phase, which is characterized by fractional charges near the edges and a finite edge compressibility but no superfluid density. The compressibility is due to excitations on the edge which display a chiral symmetry breaking that is reminiscent of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. Large scale Monte Carlo simulations confirm the analytical considerations.

  12. Z2 topological liquid of hard-core bosons on a kagome lattice at 1 /3 filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Krishanu; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-08-01

    We consider hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice in the presence of short-range repulsive interactions and focus particularly on the filling factor 1 /3 . In the strongly interacting limit, the low-energy excitations can be described by the quantum fully packed loop coverings on the triangular lattice. Using a combination of tensor product state based methods and exact diagonalization techniques, we show that the system has an extended Z2 topological liquid phase as well as a latti ce nematic phase. The latter breaks lattice rotational symmetry. By tuning appropriate parameters in the model, we study the quantum phase transition between the topological and the symmetry broken phases. We construct the critical theory for this transition using a mapping to an Ising gauge theory that predicts the transition to belong to the O (3 ) universality class.

  13. Ultrahigh and persistent optical depths of cesium in Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Sprague, Michael R.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M.; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Walmsley, Ian A.; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibres are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption. However, until now these large optical depths could only be generated for seconds at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of highest observed transient ($>10^5$ for up to a minute) and highest observed persistent ($>2000$ for hours) optical depths of alkali vapours in a light-guiding geometry to date, using a caesium-filled Kagom\\'e-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as generation of single-photon-level nonlinearities and development of single photon quantum memories.

  14. Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: yfwang_nju@hotmail.com [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2011-04-20

    We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.

  15. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  16. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  17. Spin currents, spin torques, and the concept of spin superfluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In magnets with noncollinear spin configuration the expectation value of the conventionally defined spin current operator contains a contribution which renormalizes an external magnetic field and hence affects only the precessional motion of the spin polarization. This term, which has been named angular spin current by Sun and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 72, 245305 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.245305, does not describe the translational motion of magnetic moments. We give a prescription for how to separate these two types of spin transport and show that the translational movement of the spin is always polarized along the direction of the local magnetization. We also show that at vanishing temperature the classical magnetic order parameter in magnetic insulators cannot carry a translational spin current and elucidate how this affects the interpretation of spin supercurrents.

  18. Novel S = 1/2 Kagome Lattice Materials: Cs2TiCu3F12 and Rb2TiCu3F12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis J. Downie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the A2B′Cu3F12 family of kagome-related materials have been prepared, in order to further understand the crystal-chemical relationships, phase transitions and magnetic behaviour within this family of potentially frustrated S = ½ two-dimensional quantum magnets. Cs2TiCu3F12 adopts a crystal structure with the ideal kagome lattice topology (space group R m at ambient temperature. Diffraction studies reveal different symmetry-lowering structural phase transitions in single crystal and polycrystalline forms at sub-ambient temperatures, with the single crystal form retaining rhombohedral symmetry and the powder form being monoclinic. In both cases, long-range antiferromagnetic order occurs in the region 16–20 K. Rb2TiCu3F12 adopts a distorted triclinic structure even at ambient temperatures.

  19. The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and correlations in the XY kagome antiferromagnet

    CERN Document Server

    Cherepanov, V B; Podivilov, E V

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the highly frustrated XY antiferromagnetic is solved. The transition temperature is found. It is shown that the spin correlation function exponentially decays with distance even in the low-temperature phase, in contrast to the order parameter correlation function, which decays algebraically with distance

  20. PbCu3TeO7: an S = 1/2 staircase kagome lattice with significant intra-plane and inter-plane couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswararao, B; Kumar, R; Chakraborty, Jayita; Jeon, Byung-Gu; Mahajan, A V; Dasgupta, I; Kim, Kee Hoon; Chou, F C

    2013-08-21

    We have synthesized polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of PbCu3TeO7 and studied its properties via magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and heat-capacity, Cp(T), measurements and also electronic structure calculations. Whereas the crystal structure is suggestive of the presence of a quasi-2D network of Cu(2+) (S = 1/2) buckled staircase kagome layers, the χ(T) data show magnetic anisotropy and three magnetic anomalies at temperatures TN1 ∼ 36 K, TN2 ∼ 25 K, and TN3 ∼ 17 K. The χ(T) data follow the Curie-Weiss law above 200 K and a Curie-Weiss temperature θCW ∼- 150 K is obtained. The data deviate from the simple Curie-Weiss law below 200 K, which is well above TN1, suggesting the presence of competing magnetic interactions. The magnetic anomaly at TN3 appears to be of first order from magnetization measurements, although our Cp(T) results do not display any anomaly at TN3. The hopping integrals obtained from our electronic structure calculations suggest the presence of significant intra-kagome (next-nearest neighbor and diagonal) and inter-kagome couplings. These couplings take the PbCu3TeO7 system away from a disordered ground state and lead to long-range order, in contrast to what might be expected for an ideal (isotropic) 2D kagome system.

  1. Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust - Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Nikolic, Jugoslav

    2016-09-01

    Dust aerosols are very efficient ice nuclei, important for heterogeneous cloud glaciation even in regions distant from desert sources. A new generation of ice nucleation parameterizations, including dust as an ice nucleation agent, opens the way towards a more accurate treatment of cold cloud formation in atmospheric models. Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation. We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively. The model results were compared against satellite and ground-based cloud-ice-related measurements, provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) in Potenza, southern Italy. The predicted ice nuclei concentration showed a reasonable level of agreement when compared against the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cloud ice water. The developed methodology permits the use of ice nuclei as input into the cloud microphysics schemes of atmospheric models, assuming that this approach could improve the predictions of cloud formation and associated precipitation.

  2. Amine-templated one-dimensional metal sulfates including a mixed-valent Fe compound with a half-kagome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, J N; Rao, C N R

    2006-11-20

    Organically templated metal sulfates are relatively new. Six amine-templated transition-metal sulfates with different types of chain structures, including a novel iron sulfate with a chain structure corresponding to one half of the kagome structure, were synthesized by hydro/solvothermal methods. Amongst the one-dimensional metal sulfates, [C10N2H10][Zn(SO4)Cl2] (1) is the simplest, being formed by corner-linked ZnO2Cl2 and SO4 tetrahedra. [C6N2H18][Mn(SO4)2(H2O)2] (2) and [C2N2H10][Ni(SO4)2(H2O)2] (3) have ladder structures comprising four-membered rings formed by SO4 tetrahedra and metal-oxygen octahedra, just as in the mineral kröhnkite. [C4N2H12][V(III)(OH)(SO4)2]H2O (4) and [C4N2H12][VF3(SO4)] (5) exhibit chain topologies of the minerals tancoite and butlerite, respectively. The structure of [C4N2H12][H3O][Fe(III)Fe(II) F6(SO4)] (6) is noteworthy in that it corresponds to half of the hexagonal kagome structure. It exhibits ferrimagnetic properties at low temperatures and the absence of frustration, unlike the mixed-valent iron sulfate with the full kagome structure.

  3. Canted antiferromagnetism in KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 with a stair-case Kagomé lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Chen; Ren, Wei-Jian; Huang, Ya-Xi; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    A new nickel phosphate KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 has been synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. Structural characterizations show that it adopts a 3D framework structure with 2D layers of Ni octahedra in a stair-case Kagomé lattice. The Ni2 octahedron at the inversion center shares two trans-faces with Ni1 octahedra to form a linear trimer (Ni3O8F6) as the basic structural unit. The Ni-trimers are linked between themselves by sharing F-corners and to [PO3(F,OH)] tetrahedral groups by sharing O-corners to form 2D stair-case Kagomé layers, which are parallel to the (100) plane and are stacked along the a-axis. Successive Kagomé layers are combined together by [PO2(OH)2] tetrahedral groups and interstice cations K+. Magnetic measurements reveal that KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic ordering with a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures.

  4. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  5. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  6. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  7. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  8. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  9. Ice Adhesion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Uses Evaluate and compare the relative performance of materials and surfcae coating based on their ability to aid in ice removal Test the effectiveness of de-icing...

  10. Vertex micromagnetic energy in artificial square ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Artificial arrays of interacting magnetic elements provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of magnetic frustration and magnetic monopoles can be observed in real space and in real time. These systems offer the formidable opportunity to investigate a wide range of collective magnetic phenomena with a lab-on-chip approach and to explore various theoretical predictions from spin models. Here, we study artificial square ice systems numerically and use micromagnetic simulations to understand how the geometrical parameters of the individual magnetic elements affect the energy levels of an isolated square vertex. More specifically, we address the question of whether the celebrated square ice model could be made relevant for artificial square ice systems. Our work reveals that tuning the geometry alone should not allow the experimental realization of the square ice model when using nanomagnets coupled through the magnetostatic interaction. However, low-aspect ratios combined with small gaps separating neighboring magnetic elements of moderated thickness might permit approaching the ideal case where the degeneracy of the ice rule states is recovered.

  11. Relativistic Spin Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-Fei; RUAN Tu-Nan

    2001-01-01

    A systematic theory on the appropriate spin operators for the relativistic states is developed. For a massive relativistic particle with arbitrary nonzero spin, the spin operator should be replaced with the relativistic one, which is called in this paper as moving spin. Further the concept of moving spin is discussed in the quantum field theory. A new is constructed. It is shown that, in virtue of the two operators, problems in quantum field concerned spin can be neatly settled.

  12. Ice Cream Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ice cream headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Ice cream headaches are brief, stabbing headaches that can happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold. Digging into an ice cream cone is a common trigger, but eating or ...

  13. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  14. Extensive degeneracy, Coulomb phase and magnetic monopoles in artificial square ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Artificial spin-ice systems are lithographically patterned arrangements of interacting magnetic nanostructures that were introduced as way of investigating the effects of geometric frustration in a controlled manner. This approach has enabled unconventional states of matter to be visualized directly in real space, and has triggered research at the frontier between nanomagnetism, statistical thermodynamics and condensed matter physics. Despite efforts to create an artificial realization of the square-ice model—a two-dimensional geometrically frustrated spin-ice system defined on a square lattice—no simple geometry based on arrays of nanomagnets has successfully captured the macroscopically degenerate ground-state manifold of the model. Instead, square lattices of nanomagnets are characterized by a magnetically ordered ground state that consists of local loop configurations with alternating chirality. Here we show that all of the characteristics of the square-ice model are observed in an artificial square-ice system that consists of two sublattices of nanomagnets that are vertically separated by a small distance. The spin configurations we image after demagnetizing our arrays reveal unambiguous signatures of a Coulomb phase and algebraic spin-spin correlations, which are characterized by the presence of ‘pinch’ points in the associated magnetic structure factor. Local excitations—the classical analogues of magnetic monopoles—are free to evolve in an extensively degenerate, divergence-free vacuum. We thus provide a protocol that could be used to investigate collective magnetic phenomena, including Coulomb phases and the physics of ice-like materials.

  15. Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun

    When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:

  16. Arctic ice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  17. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  18. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  19. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    is not shut down for its protection. We also found that there is a a large spread across the various turbines within a wind park, in the amount of icing. This is currently not taken into account by our model. Evaluating and adding these small scale differences to the model will be undertaken as future work....... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine......In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...

  20. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  1. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  2. Icing Operations - De-Icing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of ice, frost and snow on aircraft surfaces can drastically reduce the climb and maneuvering capabilities of an aircraft. The removal of such contamination prior to take off MUST be strictly adhered to in accordance with regulations and standards. The policy with respect to aircraft icing contamination should be “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN”. All personnel associated with the dispatch and/or operation of aircraft share the responsibility for ensuring that no aircraft is dispatched unless it is clear of ice, snow or frost.

  3. Amazonian mid- to high-latitude glaciation on Mars: Supply-limited ice sources, ice accumulation patterns, and concentric crater fill glacial flow and ice sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    Concentric crater fill (CCF) occurs in the interior of impact craters in mid- to high latitudes on Mars and is interpreted to have formed by glacial ice flow and debris covering. We use the characteristics and orientation of deposits comprising CCF, the thickness of pedestal deposits in mid- to high-latitude pedestal craters (Pd), the volumes of the current polar caps, and information about regional slopes and ice rheology to address questions about (1) the maximum thickness of regional ice deposits during the Late Amazonian, (2) the likelihood that these deposits flowed regionally, (3) the geological regions and features most likely to induce ice-flow, and (4) the locations and environments in which ice is likely to have been sequestered up to the present. We find that regional ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions requires ice thicknesses exceeding many hundreds of meters for slopes typical of the vast majority of the surface of Mars, a thickness for the mid-latitudes that is well in excess of the total volume available from polar ice reservoirs. This indicates that although conditions for mid- to high-latitude glaciation may have persisted for tens to hundreds of millions of years, the process is “supply limited”, with a steady state reached when the polar ice cap water ice supply becomes exhausted. Impact craters are by far the most abundant landform with associated slopes (interior wall and exterior rim) sufficiently high to induce glacial ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions, and topographic slope data show that Amazonian impact craters have been clearly modified, undergoing crater interior slope reduction and floor shallowing. We show that these trends are the predictable response of ice deposition and preferential accumulation and retention in mid- to high-latitude crater interiors during episodes of enhanced spin-axis obliquity. We demonstrate that flow from a single episode of an inter-crater terrain layer comparable to Pedestal

  4. Ionothermal synthesis of open-framework metal phosphates with a Kagome lattice network exhibiting canted anti-ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangmei [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Valldor, Martin [Max Plank Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden, Germany; Mallick, Bert [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory

    2014-01-01

    Four open-framework transition-metal phosphates; (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4 (1), (NH4)Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (2), KCo3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (3), and KFe3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (4); are prepared by ionothermal synthesis using pyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the ionic liquid. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the four compounds contain cobalt/iron–oxygen/fluoride layers with Kagomé topology composed of interlinked face-sharing MO3F3/MO4F2 octahedra. PO3OH pseudo-tetrahedral groups augment the [M3O6F4] (1)/[M3O8F2] layers on both sides to give M3(HPO4)2F4 (1) and M3(HPO4)2F2 (2–4) layers. These layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AA…, resulting in the formation of a layer structure for (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4(1). In NH4Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 and KM3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2, the M3(HPO4)2F2 layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AAi… and are connected by [PO3(OH)] tetrahedra, giving rise to a 3-D open framework structure with 10-ring channels along the [001] direction. The negative charges of the inorganic framework are balanced by K+/NH4+ ions located within the channels. The magnetic transition metal cations themselves form layers with stair-case Kagomé topology. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements reveal that all four compounds exhibit a canted anti-ferromagnetic ground state (Tc = 10 or 13 K for Co and Tc = 27 K for Fe) with different canting angles. The full orbital moment is observed for both Co2+ and Fe2+.

  5. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  6. Ice Jams in Alaska. Ice Engineering. Number 16, February 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    An ice jam is an accumulation of ice in rivers that restricts flow and can cause destructive floods costly to riv- erine communities. Freezeup jams...and reliable data on past ice jam events. The CRREL Ice Jam Database is such a com- pilation of freezeup and breakup ice jam events in the United

  7. Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian free-induct

  8. Decoherence dynamics of a single spin versus spin ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Awschalom, D.D.; Hanson, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study decoherence of central spins by a spin bath, focusing on the difference between measurement of a single central spin and measurement of a large number of central spins (as found in typical spin-resonance experiments). For a dilute spin bath, the single spin demonstrates Gaussian

  9. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J, E-mail: lothseb@us.ibm.com, E-mail: heinrich@almaden.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu{sub 2}N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  10. Magnons, Spin Current and Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2012-02-01

    When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention recently as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy. [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are magnons, spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films such as Pt, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-5]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect. Here, we present the linear-response theory of spin Seebeck effect based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem [6-8] and discuss a variety of the devices. [4pt] [1] S. Maekawa et al, Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [0pt] [2] S. Maekawa: Nature Materials 8, 777 (2009). [0pt] [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008). [0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9, 894 (2010) [0pt] [6] H. Adachi et al., APL 97, 252506 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 83, 094410 (2011). [0pt] [7] J. Ohe et al., Phys. Rev. B (2011) [0pt] [8] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 104419 (2010).

  11. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    CERN Document Server

    Jatkar, Dileep P

    2016-01-01

    We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in arXiv:1602.06505 [hep-th] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves), the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the gho...

  12. Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness

  13. Interaction-driven fractional quantum Hall state of hard-core bosons on kagome lattice at one-third filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in realizing topologically nontrivial states of matter in band insulators, where a quantum Hall effect can appear as an intrinsic property of the band structure. While ongoing progress is under way with a number of directions, the possibility of realizing novel interaction-generated topological phases, without the requirement of a nontrivial invariant encoded in single-particle wave function or band structure, can significantly extend the class of topological materials and is thus of great importance. Here, we show an interaction-driven topological phase emerging in an extended Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, where the noninteracting band structure is topological trivial with zero Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone. By means of an unbiased state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group technique, we identify that the ground state in a broad parameter region is equivalent to a bosonic fractional quantum Hall Laughlin state, based on the characterization of universal properties including ground-state degeneracy, edge excitations, and anyonic quasiparticle statistics. Our work paves a way to finding an interaction-induced topological phase at the phase boundary of conventionally ordered solid phases.

  14. A family of porous lonsdaleite-e networks obtained through pillaring of decorated kagomé lattice sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    A new and versatile class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) with augmented lonsdaleite-e (lon-e-a) topology is presented herein. This family of lon-e nets are built by pillaring of hexagonal two-dimensional kagomé (kag) lattices constructed from well-known [Zn2(CO2R)4] paddlewheel molecular building blocks (MBBs) connected by 1,3- benzenedicarboxylate (bdc2-) linkers. The pillars are [Cr 3(μ3-O)(RCO2)]6 trigonal prismatic primary MBBs decorated by six pyridyl moieties (tp-PMBB-1). The three-fold symmetry (D3h) of tp-PMBB-1 is complementary with the alternating orientation of the axial sites of the paddlewheel MBBs and enables triple cross-linking of the kag layers by each pillar. These MOMs represent the first examples of axial-to-axial pillared undulating kag layers, and they are readily fine-tuned because the bdc2- moieties can be varied at their 5-position without changing the overall structure. This lon-e platform possesses functionalized hexagonal channels since the kag lattices are necessarily eclipsed. The effects of the substituent at the 5-positions of the bdc 2- linkers upon gas adsorption, particularly the heats of adsorption of carbon dioxide and methane, were studied. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  16. Spin Rotation of Formalism for Spin Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio,A.

    2008-02-01

    The problem of which coefficients are adequate to correctly represent the spin rotation in vector spin tracking for polarized proton and deuteron beams in synchrotrons is here re-examined in the light of recent discussions. The main aim of this note is to show where some previous erroneous results originated and how to code spin rotation in a tracking code. Some analysis of a recent experiment is presented that confirm the correctness of the assumptions.

  17. Engineering of frustration in colloidal artificial ice (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-09-01

    Artificial spin-ice systems have been used to date as microscopic models of frustration induced by lattice topology, as they allow for the direct visualization of spin arrangements and textures. However, the engineering of frustrated ice states in which individual spins can be manipulated in situ and the real-time observation of their collective dynamics remain both challenging tasks. Recently, an analogue system has been proposed theoretically, where an optical landscape confined colloidal particles that interacted electrostatically. Here we realize experimentally another version of a colloidal artificial ice system using interacting magnetically polarizable particles confined to lattices of bistable gravitational traps. We show quantitatively that ice-selection rules emerge in this frustrated soft matter system by tuning the strength of the pair-interactions between the microscopic units. By using optical tweezers, we can control particle positioning and dipolar coupling, we introduce monopole-like defects and strings and use loops with defined chirality as an elementary unit to store binary information.

  18. The Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): An overview of ice nucleation measurements observed with four on-line ice nucleation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, André; Stratmann, Frank; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are found to be the most relevant cloud type leading to precipitation in mid-latitudes. The formation of ice crystals in MPCs is not completely understood. To estimate the effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds and to describe ice nucleation in models, the specific properties of aerosol particles acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) still need to be identified. A number of devices are able to measure INPs in the lab and in the field. However, methods can be very different and need to be tested under controlled conditions with respect to aerosol generation and properties in order to standardize measurement and data analysis approaches for subsequent ambient measurements. Here, we present an overview of the LINC campaign hosted at TROPOS in September 2015. We compare four ice nucleation devices: PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) and SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) are operated in deposition nucleation and condensation freezing mode. LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011) and PIMCA (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chamber) measure in the immersion freezing mode. PIMCA is used as a vertical extension to PINC and allows activation and droplet growth prior to exposure to the investigated ice nucleation temperature. Size-resolved measurements of multiple aerosol types were performed including pure mineral dust (K-feldspar, kaolinite) and biological particles (Birch pollen washing waters) as well as some of them after treatment with sulfuric or nitric acid prior to experiments. LACIS and PIMCA-PINC operated in the immersion freezing mode showed very good agreement in the measured frozen fraction (FF). For the comparison between PINC and SPIN, which were scanning relative humidity from below to above water vapor saturation, an agreement was found for the obtained INP concentration. However, some differences were observed, which may result from ice

  19. Amery ice shelf DEM and its marine ice distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. A new DEM was generated for this ice shelf, using kriging to interpolate the data from ICESat altimetry and the AIS-DEM. The ice thickness distribution map is converted from the new DEM, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The Amery Ice Shelf marine ice, up to 230 m thick, is concentrated in the northwest of the ice shelf. The volume of the marine ice is 2.38×103 km3 and accounts for about 5.6% of the shelf volume.

  20. Ice Tank Experiments Highlight Changes in Sea Ice Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; DeCarolis, Giacomo; Ehlert, Iris; Notz, Dirk; Evers, Karl-Ulrich; Jochmann, Peter; Gerland, Sebastian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Hughes, Nick; Kern, Stefan; de la Rosa, Sara; Smedsrud, Lars; Sakai, Shigeki; Shen, Hayley; Wadhams, Peter

    2009-03-01

    With the current and likely continuing reduction of summer sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean, the predominant mechanism of sea ice formation in the Arctic is likely to change in the future. Although substantial new ice formation occurred under preexisting ice in the past, the fraction of sea ice formation in open water likely will increase significantly. In open water, sea ice formation starts with the development of small ice crystals, called frazil ice, which are suspended in the water column [World Meteorological Organization, 1985]. Under quiescent conditions, these crystals accumulate at the surface to form an unbroken ice sheet known in its early stage as nilas. Under turbulent conditions, caused by wind and waves, frazil ice continues to grow and forms into a thick, soupy mixture called grease ice. Eventually the frazil ice will coalesce into small, rounded pieces known as pancake ice, which finally consolidate into an ice sheet with the return of calm conditions. This frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle is currently frequently observed in the Antarctic [Lange et al., 1989]. The cycle normally occurs in regions that have a significant stretch of open water, because this allows for the formation of larger waves and hence increased turbulence. Given the increase of such open water in the Arctic Ocean caused by retreating summer sea ice, the frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle may also become the dominant ice formation process during freezeup in the Arctic.